Managing work groups and teams Understanding group Managers should understand group behavior As It is necessary to understand individual

behavior Because Behavior of the members of the group is not the sum total of behavior of individuals in a group. Because Individuals act differently in a group than they work alone What is a group? “Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve some specific goals.” Types of the group Groups are mainly of two types 1. Formal Groups “Formal groups are work groups defined by organizational structure and have designated wok assignments and specific tasks.” Example: Command group:  “Groups that are defined by the organizational chart and composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager.” Task Group  “Groups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific task.” Cross-Functional Teams  “The groups which brings together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas(members are trained to do each other’s job.” Self-Managed Teams

 “Groups essentially independent in addition to their task, take on the responsibilities of hiring, planning, scheduling and performance evaluation.” Informal Groups Informal groups are social, these groups occur naturally in the workplace in response to the need for social contact. For example: Employees together for lunch……. These groups are found around friendship and common interests.

Stages of Group Development Group development is a dynamic process because groups are always in continual state of change and never reach complete stability…… Five Stages of Group Development Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning……..

Forming Forming is a stage in which people  In the first stage join the group  In the second stage define the groups purpose, structure and leadership Storming Second stage characterized by  Intragroup conflict  People start resisting Norming Third stage which is characterized by  Close relationship  Cohesiveness

Performing In this stage group is fully functional Adjourning Is the last stage where groups prepare to  Disband  Wrap up the activities rather than performing Group Behavioral Model

External conditions imposed on group

•group structure

group member resources

group task group processes
•performance and satisfaction

External Conditions Imposed on Group A work group is influenced by the external conditions imposed on group: Conditions Imposed         Organizational strategy Authority relationship Formal rules and regulations Availability of organizational resources Employee selection criteria Organizational performance management system Culture General physical layout of group’s work space

For example Some groups are modern, have high quality tools and equipment while others are not that fortunate. If organizations are trying to lower the cost and improve quality these conditions can have deep impact on the performance of the groups associated with the organization. Group member resources

Group performance potential depends upon individual resources Individuals Resources Include: Knowledge, abilities, skills and personality characteristics For example:  Intel R & D Lab  Mediocre team performs brilliantly with excellent coaching, determination (Harry Redknapp, was the manager of pourtmouth, Birmingham and now Tettenham, did transform these teams from mediocre to top class teams with a great intellect and better coaching)

Group Structure Work groups are not unorganized crowds, they have internal structure that shapes their members behavior. Structure defines member’s        Roles Norms Conformity Status system Group size Group cohesiveness Formal leadership positions

Now we will explain these terms one by one Roles A role refers to behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.

There are two types of roles in a group  One is oriented towards task accomplishment  The other is oriented towards group member satisfaction One important thing is that an individual has to play sometimes multiple roles for the adjustment of work, then individual faces: Role Conflict

For example a university wants to set its standards by showing that it has strict rules and regulations by giving lower GPAs to the students, on the other hand, the students will resist and teacher will have to play more than one role to satisfy both of the parties. Norms Standards or expectations that are accepted or shared by group members. Norms dictates factors such as     Workers output levels Absenteeism Promptness Amount of socializing allowed on the job\

For example: The workers at “Coleman Trust Company” had an “arrival ritual” that every worker did come on the job 10 minutes before the work started, put their bags on the table and coats in the cloak room and left for the coffee break, then they used to come back after 30 minutes and started work 20 minutes late……if somebody broke the ritual, they will be penalized by the members in the organizations…..(for example started work at the exact time). Types of Norms 1. Effort Norms 2. Dress Norms 3. Loyalty Norms Conformity Group pressure on an individual to conform (because individuals want to be accepted by the group).

Groupthink Pressure on an individual to align his/her opinion to conform to others opinion. Status System Status is a prestige, grading, position or rank within a group. Status is……  Significant motivator  Important factor for understanding behavior Types of status 1. Perceived Status (Self) 2. Given status (Organization) Group Size

At Amazon, teams have considerable anatomy to innovate and to investigate their ideas. Amazon boss says that teams should not be bigger than “Who can be fed with two-pizzas.”  Smaller groups have the advantage that they are fast, give complete result and finish the task quickly  Larger groups have the advantage that if problem is big, then they can be effective to solve it and they also provide diverse input Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend (put) less effort collectively then working individually.  The good thing about social loafing is that responsibilities are dispersed  The bad thing is that individuals become “free riders” and depend upon group efforts Group Cohesiveness The degree to which group members are attracted towards each other and share the group goals.

 Group Cohesiveness is low, then group members have internal disagreements and lack of cooperation  Is Group Cohesiveness is high, then group members generally agree, cooperate and like each other Group processes Process includes communication patterns used by members to  Exchange information 

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful