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Information Systems Development and Planning

Chapter 6 - Lecture Notes (Chapter 12 of text book)

An Overview of IS Development and Planning Project Management ? Participants in Systems Development ? Reasons to Initiate a Systems Development project ? IS Planning ? Establishing Objectives for Systems Development System Development Methodology Traditional SDLC Prototyping Rapid Application Development (RAD) End-User Systems Development Life Cycle Factors affecting systems development success

? Understanding systems development is important to all professionals, not just those in the field of Information Systems (IS). ? In todays businesses, employees in all functional areas work together and use business information systems. As a result, users of all types are helping with the development. ? Systems development can mean the success or failure of the entire organization. Successful systems development has resulted in huge increases in revenues and profits; those unsuccessful can lose millions.

Project Management
? What is Project Management?
is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements.

? Who are the participants in the project / systems development?


users who will interact with the system regularly system analyst a professional who specialize in analyzing & developing business systems. programmer a specialist responsible for writing programs. supplier a person who supply materials sponsor a person who sponsor the entire system development / project (i.e. boss)

Development Team ? consists of: users, systems analysts, programmers

? Team Leader / Project Manager

a person who is in charged of the entire development or project, i.e responsible to meet the specific scope, time, cost and quality goals of projects.

Typical reasons to Initiate a Systems Development project

Problems with existing system Desire to exploit new opportunities Increasing competition Make effective use of information Organizational growth Merger or acquisition Change in external environment New laws or regulations Perception of a problem by individual capable of initiating change Systems development process initiated

Information Systems Planning

Strategic Plan

IS Planning

Systems development initiatives

. Cont ? refers to the translation of strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives. ? Strategic plan
provides direction to the functional areas within an organization, including marketing, production, finance, accounting & HR. These directions are encompassed in the IS plan. E.g A strategic plan may identify as organizational goals i.e.
? double of sales revenue within 5 years, ? 20% reduction of administrative expenses over 3 years ? acquisition of at least two competing companies within a year, or ? capture of market leadership in a product category.

Steps of IS Planning
Strategic Plan Previously unplanned systems projects Identify IS projects Set priorities and select projects Analyze resource requirements Set schedules and deadlines Develop IS planning document

Develop overall objectives

A sample of Gantt Chart page 477

Developing a Competitive Advantage ? Many companies seek systems development projects that will provide a competitive advantage. ? E.g a company may want to achieve a competitive advantage by improving the customer relationship. As such, the company needs a software that can download & analyze customer feedback data from the Internet

? Thinking competitively requires creative and critical analysis. ? Creative analysis

the investigation of new approaches to existing problems, i.e.
? by looking at problems in different ways, and ? by introducing innovative methods to solve them.

? Critical analysis
requires unbiased and careful questioning of whether system elements are related in the most effective and efficient ways. i.e.
? considering the establishment of different relationships among system element, or ? introducing new elements into the system.

Establishing Objectives for Systems Development

? 2 main objectives: Performance objectives

? Systems performance can be measured by factors such as: Quality or usefulness of the output i.e. is the system generating the right information? Quality or usefulness of the format of the output is the output generated in a form that is usable and easily understood? Speed at which output is generated i.e is the system generating output in time to meet organizational goals such as the customer response time.

............. Cont Cost objectives

? Development costs ? Costs related to the uniqueness of the system application. i.e. an expensive but reusable system may be preferable to a less costly system with limited use. ? Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment ? Ongoing operating costs of the system

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) ? Systems development refers to the activity of creating or modifying existing business system. ? It is called a systems development life cycle because the activities associated with it are ongoing.

4 common SDLC ? Traditional SDLC ? Prototyping ? Rapid Application Development (RAD) ? End-User Development

Traditional SDLC
Systems Investigation Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Implementation Systems Maintenance and Review
understand problem

understand solution

select & plan best solution

place solution into effect

evaluate results of solution

? Advantages
Formal review at the end of each phase allows maximum management control Creates considerable system documentation Documentation allows systems requirements to be traced back.

? Disadvantages
Systems do not meet the users needs Documentation is time-consuming and expensive to create

Prototyping ? An iterative approach to the systems development process. ? A popular technique in systems development.

Iterative 1
Determine requirement

Iterative 2
Determine requirement

Iterative 3
Determine requirement

Analyze alternative

Analyze alternative

Analyze alternative

Specify design

Specify design

Specify design

Implement design

Implement design

Implement design

User review

User review

User review

Types of Prototypes
Operational -A prototype that works accesses - real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations and comparisons, & produces real output. Non Operational - is a mock up or model - includes output and input specifications & formats. -outputs i.e printed reports to managers & the summary layout. - can be discarded.

Advantages and Disadvantages

? users provide constructive feedback ? take weeks only to produce an operational prototype ? allows early detection or errors ? meet users needs. ? do not have formal end-of-phase, the project never seems to end ? lack of system documentation ? overlook on system security issues.

Rapid Application Development (RAD)

? A system development approach that employs tools, techniques & methodologies design to speed application development. ? Advantages:
Very fast in producing an application Lots of interaction between users and developers

? Disadvantages: Needs a lot of users time Systems developers and users must know how to use the tools and techniques Can burn out systems developers energy

End-User Development Life Cycle ? Describes any systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users. ? Many end-users today are developing their own PC-based systems with technical assistance from IS personnel.

Factors affecting systems development success ? Successful systems development means delivering a system that meet user and organizational needs i.e on time and within budget. ? A major factor that can affect the success of systems development is degree of change.

Degree of Change refers to:? Continuous Improvement

projects do not require significant business process or information system changes, therefore they have a high degree of success, whereas,

? Reengineering
involves fundamental changes in how the organization conducts business, therefore they have high degree of risk but also high potential for major business.

? Managing change
The ability to manage change is critical to the success of system development. E.g the working environment habits of users are invariably affected by the development of a new information system. Many problems can result from implementing a new system or modifying an existing system. Problems such as:? ? ? ? Employee fear of losing his/her job Belief that the proposed or new system will create more work Reluctant to work with computer people Unwillingness to learn new approaches.

Quality of Project Planning

? Another key success factor is the quality of project planning. The bigger the project, the more likely that poor planning will lead to significant problems i.e.
over budget Projects fall behind schedule Do not meet expectations.

? Although proper planning cannot guarantee that these types of problems will be avoided, it can minimize the likelihood of their occurrence.

Factors contributing to the project failure ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Solve the wrong problem Poor problem definition and analysis Poor communication Project is too ambitious Lack of top management support Lack of users involvement Poor testing and implementation

- End of Chapter 6-