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UNIVERSITI TE KNOLOGI PLTRONAS

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COURSE

PAB2084 WELL LOGGING AND FORMATION EVALUATION

DATE TIME

7th SEPTEMBER

2011 (WEDNESDAY)

9.40 AM -- 12.00 NOON (3 HOURS)

INSTRUCTIONS TU CANDIDATES . 2. Answer ALL questions from the Questions Booklet. Begin EACH answer on a new page in the Answer Booklet. Indicate clearly answers that are cancelled, if any. Where applicable, show clearly steps taken in arriving at the solutions and indicate ALL assumptions. Do not open this Question Booklet until instructed.

Note

There are FOURTEEN (14) pages in this Question Booklet including the cover page and Appendices.

Universiti

Teknoiogi

PETRONAS

PAB 2084

I.

a.

Explain differences between total porosity and effective porosity.

[4 marks] Sketch an appropriate diagram and mark the following depth references; depth (MD), true vertical depth (ND), measured depth subsea measured (MDSS) and true vertical depth subsea (TVDSS).
[4 marks]

b.

2.

a.

Define the SP log. [2 marks] Describe the conditions under which the SP deflection wou'd be: L To the left. [2 marks]

b.

ii.

To the right. [2 marks]

C.

deflection of SP Describe in detail the electrochemical effect causing the curve. [4 marks]

2

PAB 2084
3. a. Explain porosity. how the slowing dawn of neutron indicates the formation

[4 marks] b. Discuss the common exceptions of the neutron slowing down. [6 marks]

4.

a.

Describe the basic principles of formation density tool.
[4 marks]

b.

Describe haw the number of Gamma Ray collisions is related to formation porosity. [6 marks]

5.

a.

Differentiate between resources and reserves.

[Z marks] b. Calculate the gross rock volume (GRV) for the subsurface structure in FIGURE Q6.

FIGURE Q6 [6 marks]

3

PAB 2084

C.

Using the GRV from part(b), calculate the STOIIP given the following values: Not to gross, N7"G= 0.8, Porosity, 'P = 0.2, Oil saturation, Sý ý 0.55, Formation volume factor, F1IF =1.19 RBIBTB. [4 marks]

4

PAB 2084
6. Drilling operation has been completed for clean clastic section using salt water (FIGURE B). From logging data, we have been informed that NO lithology mud is needed and we have obtained the following information: correction

Bottom Hole Temperature Total depth =15,900 ft

(BHT) =1 80° F

Rmt= O.Süohmlm at 80° F SSP = -90mV The foflowing is given:

4ýý

--_

I)ma -p log

Oý -p2 f ýna

fl

SW

=F

K

RwI Rr

F=al

ýPm

(Use a- O62, n2,2, and in=2J5)

5

PAB 2084

t.2

.ý1,

MSF1ý [cn 1ýYý i ý. LLS ýu ýý i`

1ýýý
ý

4!

CNL , ýcý
1

ý1

VT

CR i i. 4°.

ý"ýý

ý.

's

FOC 1f

r--r-iý

TI

ýGý

r-T-rm

1'i

LID ýý

ýýý

ýý ý

FIGURE B

6

PAB 2084

a.

Predict the potential reservoir, by giving the top, bottom and thickness.
[2 marks]

b.

Find out the well log reading at zones A, B and C of the reservoir. Please in TABLE B provided in the appendix. answer

[6 marks]

C.

Calculate the formation temperature at depth 8000 ft.
[4 marks]

d.

Calculate the mud filtrate resistivity, R,, at formation temperature.

[4 marks]

e.

Estimate

the formation

water

resistivity,

R} and its salinity

formation at

temperature.

[6 marks]

f.

Calculate the porosity at the specified zones by two methods and the average. Please answer in TABLE B provided in the appendix.

[8 marks]

9

Estimate the porosity and sithologyat the specified zones. [8 marks]

7

PAB 2084

h.

Calculate

the water

saturation,

Sw and hydrocarbon

saturation,

S, at the

specified zones using the simple Archie equation. [8 marks]

L

Comment on the results obtained; porosity, lithology, fluid types, and contacts . [4 marks]

END OF PAPER -

8

PAB 2084
APPENDIX

ESTIMATION OF FORMATION TEMPERATURE
(Lintar cnacene A, wmed)

T(WPEAA"I'URC

tC¬ýLSiUS)

te'ý

ýFO9Q

L5OG I ý,: JQO

14 P00 W

ý '$,p0'
Z

ý

:'
?, cwO

S, QVci

s,oo

fEMPýRA!

l1IE

1fAHVi.

iE114

EXAMPLE: BIiTIi2XPat Týperatur*

11OOO' {point A). t $rOX'" Ii 167F (P'OifklB). T. mpýraturý ýrcrdirrnt Corw. riiorrxr 1°i'11 OQFk 1823°C/ 1cx m ý

°C! 1!»m 1

,:

Ü.54$60Fi

IOc3 ft

9

PAB 2084 APPENDIX

RESISTIVITY NOMOGRAPH FOR NaCI SOLUTIONS

R (thr ol -r. 4F 5O oC 10

.

O2

Conversion
60

approximated

by:

kPPm
ý

9i9 @75°F
173050ý0 10000

70 80
90 I00

20

T, +6.77 ýýý R2= R1 T1# 8.77

ýoU (Arpt)
ýoo

or
30

80

R2=R1(1-2--L fiý+2Iof

!

ý

60 40 30

5000 4000 3000
2400

03 . 04 . 05 . 06 . 08 . 0.1

40
20

1000
50
10

#

.2

ý

$ý. 3 500 400 300 .4 .5 .ö .B I.0

60 150 80 200
I00

e
6 4

3 2

200

I00 2 3 4

ý

250300

12Ü
I4O

.8 .8
ýý

50 40 30 20

16ü 18O

3
2

ä
6
H
© Schlumberger

200 400
220 X00 240 260

20

Gene
ll; i: 4ý

10

PAB 2084

APPENDlX

ý

DETERMINATION

FROM THE SSP

For predominantly

determine Rmr 05 follows: sodium chloride muds
temperaRmtý at of

If Rmf at 75° is greater than 0.1 ohm-m, correct Rmt to formation a. 0.85 Rjn. ture using Gen-9, and use Rmý , b. If Rr at 75° is less than 4.1 ohm-rn, use SP-2 to derive a value formation temperature.

STATIC

Rmfeq lRweq
,r .4

sP mV
-204-r

B
I

Rmfeq
01- r .

too(3)
© Schiumberger

1.0

11

PAB 2084
APPENDIX

3 Rw VERSUS Rw, AND FORMATION TEMPERATURE q

ý" ý \.

I5ý0 F 100°F ` ___-

-ý75°F ,

N-SATURATION

ý

AI

402

ß3

AS

0.1 0ý2 RW Oº Rmf

0.3

0.5

I.Q

2

345

(ohrnrn)

UI. Ihe solid linu of *Is chart for predominantly NaCl wainr. The dobed ýimas approximate are for ^'averafresh formation rraterý (where effects of alts other than NaCl become ýignificcant),The dathed portions may also be ued for gyp»base mud Mt,rates Example: R, ý 025 at 15O°F. From chart, ýý ý ýý .
Special procerdars for muds containing Ca or Mg in soltrwioi are dlscUIII. d in the rsf"r. nce. Urnebaie mud* usually have a neýigibia amount of Ca in solvtion, and may be treated as regular mad typeý.

r

ý

sPz

12

PAB 2084 APPENDIX

POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY DETERMINATION FROM FORMATION DENSITY LOG AND COMPENSATED NEUTRON LOG (CNL*)
SALT WATER, 11QU1D"FILLEDHOLES

ýý

t, ..,.,.,.,

0
LYnALITE POüü

,
.,....

w.

ý M...#_,.

._.....; _.. -rI _

-,

ý ,.. , ...., .

r.

.-..,...

w....

...

... .º...

.

... .....

.....

.ý..

,

Jo
(APPARENT

20

30

NEUTRON POROSITY INDEX, p. u ('ýCNL)COP
LIMESTONE POROS'1tY)

13

OD
ý

0

4:

m
.

0

ý ý ý

cl) ý
ý ý

0

:

ý ý ý W ý ý ý ý ý ý ý

F-

«h+

ro
D ý

I

ý

ý

ý

ci
ý

<

to

0

N

a
cL Li. ý

z w

0.

a

l)

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