Research Report by: Anjlee Agarwal, Access Consultant

 

This Research has been done under the aegis of the project titled “International NGO Partnership agreement Programme” with the financial support of Department for International Development, U.K. and being implemented by VSO- India and Samarthyam
     

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research and building standards & regulations is intended for reference by decisionmakers and programme personnel working on public buildings, especially those in urban planning and management, architecture, research & training, and NGO networking. Selfhelp organizations of persons with disabilities and accessibility consultants involved in addressing access issues will also find this research and revised building standards & regulations useful. I sincerely acknowledge my appreciation for VSO, India for making it possible to undertake this research study. My heartfelt thanks go to Mrs. Rakhi Sarkar, Mrs. Nalini Paul and Mrs. Purba Sen Mitra. I extend my deep gratitude to Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India for welcoming this initiative and providing valuable inputs & suggestions. My heartfelt thanks go to Mr. A. K. Mehta, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. This research would not have been possible without the specific and pertinent technical inputs from: Mr. Ashutosh Joshi, Director, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India Mr. M. L. Chotani, Director cum Member Secretary, Association of Municipalities and Development Authorities (AMDA) Mr. Jay B. Kshirsagar, Chief Planner, Town & Country Planning, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India Special appreciation needs to be mentioned to everyone who has contributed in various capacities such as technical information, coordinating, editing and many other tasks that are needed to put a research together. This study would not have been possible without the involvement of access experts of Samarthyam, National Centre for Accessible Environments, India: Mr. Debabrata Chakravarti, Director Ms. Nidhi Madan, Architect & Landscape Architect Mr. Ashwani Kumar, Director I extend a sincere word of gratitude to all those who have given their valuable time, inputs and suggestions in this research.

Anjlee Agarwal Samarthyam Email: samarthyaindia@yahoo.com Website: www.samarthyam.org

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Very few buildings, transportation services and other public facilities including roads, stations etc., are at present accessible. One of the critical aspects of provisions of equal opportunities is creation of non-handicapping physical environment. It is envisaged that through appropriate schemes and programmes, almost the entire built infrastructure both in rural and urban areas would be made barrier free and the guidelines and space standards prescribed by Ministry of Urban Development would be implemented in letter and spirit in all buildings and environment outside buildings. Persons with disabilities would be able to access all public facilities and most private building or built infrastructure easily. Vision 2025 www.planningcommission.gov.in/reports

“If we recognize that every individual person should have the same rights as any other individuals, people with a disability as part of the community should also have equal rights with those of the able-bodied. People with a disability should not be discriminated against because of their physical conditions. Like any one of us, they need to make their journey to work, to learn, to receive medical treatment and to socialize. They also have to enter different buildings and use different public facilities. They have the rights to lead a normal life.” Accessibility Traps Everywhere Faced Against By People With Disabilities – Land use Planning For An Accessible Transport System And Built Environment For The Wheelchair Bound In Hong Kong, Rehabilitation Alliance, Hong Kong

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S. No. 1. 2. 3.

Table of Contents Acronyms Glossary Introduction to Research Study 3.1 Indian Statute Law 3.2 Need for the Research Study 3.3 Objectives 3.4 How this Research can be used 3.5 Impacts & Benefits 3.6 Methodology 3.7 Cities coverd Scope 4.1 Equality and Inclusion 4.2 Concept of Non-Handicapping Environment, Barrier-Free Environment and Universal Design 4.2 Special Needs Versus Universal Access Disability Framework 5.1 Existing Laws and Legislations 5.2 Law and Policy Reform 5.3 Person with Disability 5.4 Disabilities 5.5 Goals National Status 6.1 Initiatives in the Eleventh Plan on Accessibility 6.2 Initiatives by Ministry of Urban Development 6.3 Incorporation of provisions of Barrier Free Building by various States Governments 6.4 Action taken by State Governments 6.5 Current status of amendment Analysis of State Wise Bye-Laws 7.1 Comparative Analysis 7.2 Recommendations Updated Model Building Bye-Laws - Planning & Building Standards Regulations References Annexure I- Questionnaire Survey Annexure II- Model Building Bye-Laws, 2004 Annexure III- National Building Code, 2005 Annex D Annexure IV- Comparative Analysis of Accessibility Standards, India

Page 6 7 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 17 17 18 20 21 21 23 24 24 25 27 27 27 32 32 35 36 36 41 42 71 72 74 78 90

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10.

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1. Acronyms

AMC - Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation AUDA - Ahmadabad Urban Development Association BDA- Bhubaneswar Development Authority BMC- Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation BRTS - Bus Rapid Transit System CP - Cerebral Palsy DDA – Delhi Development Authority DPO - Disabled Persons Organization GoI- Government of India KMDA- Kolkata Municipal Development Authority m- Meter(s) MCD- Municipal Corporation of Delhi MD- Multiple Disabilities mm- Millimeters MoUD - Ministry of Urban Development MR - Mental Retardation MSJ&E- Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment NDMC- New Delhi Municipal Council NGO - Non Government Organization O/o CCPD- Office of the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities PWD Act - Persons with Disabilities Act 1995 PWD- Public Works Department PwDs - Persons with Disabilities TOD - Transit Oriented Development UNCRPD- United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities WwD(s) – Woman(en) with Disability(ies)

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2. Glossary

2.1 Accessible- with respect to buildings or parts of buildings, means that all people who might want to enter and use the building, including disabled people, are able to gain access. 2.1 Accessible Route-A continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible elements and spaces of a building or facility. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts, and clear floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at vehicular ways, walks, ramps, escalators and lifts. 2.3 Appropriate Number - The number of a specific item that would be necessary, in accordance with the purpose and function of building or facility, to accommodate individuals with specific disabilities in proportion to the anticipated number or individuals with disabilities who would use a particular building or facility. 2.4 Aging – Those manifestations of the aging processes that significantly reduce mobility, flexibility, co-ordination, and perceptiveness but are not accounted for in the categories mentioned in Disabilities (refer 5.3). 2.5 Braille - The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write. Each Braille character or cell is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two columns of three dots each. Braille is adapted to several languages including Hindi. 2.6 Clear Door Width – the clear door width is the unobstructed passage available after reducing the 1) thickness of the door; 2) The space between the door and the frame on the hinged side; and 3) the thickness of door stop molding on the door frame. Therefore the clear door width is always less than the full width of the door. 2.7 Colour Contrast - The basic guidelines for making effective colour choices are based on the hue value of the colours. The most commonly used methods of achieving colour contrast incorporate either ‘harmonising’ or ‘contrasting’ colour combinations. 2.8 Fixed Turning Radius Wheel – The tracking of the caster wheels and large wheels of a wheelchair when pivoting on a spot. 2.9 Fixed Turning Radius, Front Structure to Rear Structure – The turning radius of a wheelchair, left front-foot platform to right rear wheel, or right front-foot platform to left rear wheel, when pivoting on a spot. 2.10 Hue - Hue is the perceptual attribute associated with elementary colour names. Hue enables us to identify basic colour categories such as blue, green, yellow, red and purple.
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People with normal colour vision report that hues follow a natural sequence based on their similarity to one another. With most colour deficits, the ability to discriminate between colours on the basis of hue is diminished.

• • •

Indicating a button to activate an automatic door Indicating a transit route that uses accessible vehicles Indicating an accessible transit station or vehicle

2.11 Induction loop system - An induction loop system helps deaf people who use a hearing aid or loop listener hear sounds more clearly because it reduces or cuts out background noise. An induction loop is a cable that goes around the listening area. An electric current is fed to the loop by an amplifier that gets its signal from a connection with a source of sound that can be a microphone placed in front of the person speaking. The resulting current in the loop produces a magnetic field that matches the sound. The hearing impaired person can then pick up this magnetic field if they are sitting within the area of the loop and their hearing aid – or loop listening aid – is set to ‘T’. Loop Induction Units are available in India. 2.12 International Symbol of Access - Also known as the (International) Wheelchair Symbol, the International Symbol of Access consists square overlaid with a stylized image of a person using a wheelchair. The symbol is often seen where access has been improved, particularly for wheelchair users and other mobility impaired persons. The symbol denotes a barrier free environmental, such as steps, to help also older people, parents with prams, and travelers with luggage. The wheelchair symbol is "International" and therefore not accompanied by Braille in any particular language. Specific uses of the ISA include:

• •

Marking a parking space reserved for vehicles used by disabled people Marking a public lavatory with facilities designed for wheelchair users

2.13 Kerb - A side raised barrier to a carriage way. 2.14 Kerb ramp-A short ramp cutting through a kerb or built up to it. 2.15 LRV - Light reflectance value (LRV) is the total quantity of visible light reflected by a surface at all wavelengths and directions when illuminated by a light source. 2.16 Luminosity Contrast – also known as tonal contrast is the most important element that assists people with vision impairments to distinguish between two different surfaces. A minimum difference of 26 points in the Light Reflectance Value of colours of two architectural surfaces produces an adequate luminosity contrast that is perceivable by people with visual impairments.

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2.17 Persons with Disabilities1 – A Person with Disability is a person with any physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment which in interaction with various barriers may hinder full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. 2.18 Ramps, Ramps with Gradients –Because the term `ramp’ has a multitude of meanings and uses, its use in this study is clearly defined as ramps with gradients (gradual slope joining two level surfaces) that deviate from what would otherwise be considered the normal level. An exterior ramp, as distinguished from a `walk’, would be considered an appendage to a building leading to a level above or below the existing ground level. 2.19 Sound Amplification System – Sound Enhancement System (SES) is often referred to as sound amplification, sound distribution, and sound field technology. This technology enhances the quality of the speaker’s voice, enhances the deaf person’s acoustic accessibility to the speaker, and therefore enhances the communication experience. 2.20 Tactile Guiding Blocks – These are 300 x 300 mm tiles that incorporate bars that are 5mm (± 0.5mm) high, 20mm wide and spaced 50mm from the centre of one bar to the centre of the next. These flat topped bars that are easily detectable underfoot by people with visual impairments. They are used externally to guide people with visual impairments along the circulation path. They may also be used internally in large busy areas such as railway stations and airports. 2.21 Tactile Warning Blocks – In order to warn persons with visual impairments of the approaching danger, it is recommended to incorporate Tactile Ground Surface Indicators (TGSI) along the approach path to unavoidable obstacles and hazards. TGSI, also commonly known as ‘Tactile Warning Blocks’, are 300 mm x 300 mm tiles that incorporate rows of 5 mm (± 0.5 mm) high flat-topped blister like domes that are easily detectable underfoot by persons with visual impairments. These tactile warning blocks are recognized internationally as a sign of approaching hazards, and are readily available in the domestic Indian market. 2.22 Universal Design2 – means the design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. 2.23 Walk, Walks – Because the terms `walk’ and `walks’ have a multitude of meanings and uses, their use in this standard is clearly defined as a predetermined prepared surface, exterior pathway leading to or from a building or facility, or from one exterior area to another, placed on the existing ground level and not deviating from the level of the existing ground immediately adjacent.
                                                             1 Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2010; http://www.disabilitystudiesnalsar.org/lawpolicy.php 2 Ron Mace, http://www.ncsu.edu/www/ncsu/design/sod5/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm  Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 9

3 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH STUDY
 

3.1 Indian Statute Law There is a substantial and ever-changing Indian statute law which bears on the commissioning, design, construction and management of the built environment. This includes legislation and regulations on planning and development, construction standards, health and safety, equality of status and opportunity, transport, sustainability, conservation and environmental protection. The Building Regulations needs to be regularly updated to take better account of the needs and rights of persons with disabilities. Building Regulations or Building Bye-Laws Building Bye-Laws are tools used to regulate coverage, height, building bulk and architectural design and construction aspects of buildings so as to achieve orderly development of an area with in a city/State. These are formulated and implemented by local authorities for application with in their respective limits. Each local authority follows the Municipality Act for its area. Building Bye-Laws are essentially based on the National Building Code. They stipulate administrative procedures to regulate building construction activities. Local government authorities have the power to implement and enforce these procedures. 'Comprehensive building regulations have not yet been formulated that address the needs of persons with disabilities. Why are these essential? Building Bye-Laws is mandatory in nature and serves to protect buildings against fire, earthquake, noise, structural failures and other hazards. In India, there are still many small and medium sized towns, which do not have Building Bye-Laws. In the absence of any regulatory mechanism such towns are confronted with excessive coverage, encroachment and haphazard development resulting in chaotic conditions, inconvenience for the users, inaccessible or barrier-filled design structures and disregard for building aesthetics etc. Who abides by the regulations? Building Bye-Laws is useful for State Governments, Urban Local Bodies, Development Authorities, State Town Planning Departments and other Planning Agencies in various parts of the country. Planners, building designers, engineers & architects refer and comply with Building Bye-Laws. Hence, while designing, planning and construction; Building Bye-Laws regulates the parameters/ standards of a building. Town & Country Planning Organization (TCPO) has prepared "Model Building Bye-Laws" in the year 2004, for the guidance of the State Governments, Urban Local Bodies, Development Authorities, etc. This was to facilitate the local bodies to play an effective role in adopting,
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enforcing and implementation of the Building-Bye Laws. 3.2 Need for the Research Study It is found that there are various codes, guidelines, manuals and standards issued by various Central & State Ministries and agencies for built environment. These are:

• • • •

Bureau of Indian Standards, National Building Code, 2005 CPWD Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly persons, 1998 Manual Barrier Free Environment, O/o the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, 2002 Model Building Bye-Laws, 2004 (TCPO, Ministry of Urban Development)

These documents are outdated, need revision and lead to multiplicity in adhering to standards by the implementing agencies and stakeholders. There is an urgent need to review, analyze, harmonies and update all the above into a comprehensive single document and present the same to Government of India for incorporation and making it mandatory in Model Building ByeLaws. The National Building Code that accompany the Building Regulations are not exhaustive, do not address all building types and, while they offer minimum requirements for meeting the needs of some people, they give no suggestions on how to meet the needs of others. For example, guidance might be given on the design of part of a building so as to make it suitable for wheelchair users, without offering any guidance as to how the needs of visually impaired people might also be met. “Accessibility Research on Comparative Analysis of Building ‘Access’ ByeLaws in various states of India” looks specifically into comparative analysis of the existing national codes and framing of accessible design standards in Model Building Bye-Laws. How it is important for the public including disabled persons? Building Bye-Laws is extremely important from the point of independent & safe usage of spaces by trans-generation population including persons with disabilities. “The Delhi Model Building Bye-Laws contain eight chapters3. The important features of the Model Bye-Laws are that there is a separate chapter (Chapter-3) on Development Code pertaining to residential and non-residential premises, which cover all types of uses. Another chapter (Chapter-5) highlights the need for structural safety and services. Further separate chapters have been devoted for Fire Protection and Safety (Chapter-7) and Conservation of Heritage sites (Chapter 8). The Bye-Laws also provide for the facilities in the public buildings
                                                             3 Shri K. T. Gurumukhi, Chief Planner, TCPO; July 2004 Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 11

for “handicapped persons” vide Appendix – “G” (Bye Laws: 6.8)”. Similar Annexure/Appendix provides for “suitable provision” for disabled persons in the Building Bye-Laws of various other states. Building and Safety Regulations must be complied with by all concerned, but simple compliance with these regulations is not always enough. We are required to obey all the law, not just the bits we like or the bits we know. There is a common misapprehension that compliance with one legal requirement can take away the need to comply with another. There is no legal basis for this type of argument. Compliance, for instance, with Health and Safety Regulations, or with requirements for fire protection, do not take away from or supersede the need to comply fully with Appendix – “G” of the Building Bye-Laws. Solutions must be found that satisfy all legal requirements. 3.3 Objectives Research, evaluation study and updated Model Building Bye-Laws to make all public buildings ‘inclusive’ 3.4 How this research can be used • Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) is the nodal agency to direct, frame, regulate and enforce Building Bye-Laws. MoUD is currently revising its Central Public Works Department (CPWD) Guidelines- “Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons, 1998”. The research findings will be shared with MoUD, so as to include research recommendations in the revised CPWD Guidelines, 1998 and Model Building Bye-Laws, 2004, so that uniformity of access standards can be maintained and single reference document will be available throughout the nation. Once adopted by MoUD, it becomes binding on all State Governments, Urban Local Bodies, Development Authorities, etc. to incorporate the revised & updated access standards in their Bye-Laws also. In a meeting held in September 2009 with Commissioner, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), Commissioner, MCD expressed the urgency and necessity of having comprehensive ‘accessible’ standards formulated and supplemented in the existing unified Building Bye-Laws of Delhi. It is circulated to National Building Congress, Departments and Schools of Architecture and Engineers, Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) and professionals (Engineers & Architects) to help them incorporate inclusive and universal design standards in their curriculum, projects, plans/blue prints and retrofitting.

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3.5 Impacts and Benefits It is extremely important and essential to bridge the gap in the existing Model Building Bye-Laws and provide for accessible space standards for ‘every’ design element in all types of buildings and public spaces. Compliance to the accessible space standards developed as an outcome of the research study will help ensure a conducive environment for persons with disabilities. This will result in an inclusive environment comprising of Universal Design standards, which will not only help persons with diverse disabilities but also persons with reduced mobility (such as senior citizens, families with young children, persons with temporary ailments, pregnant women, persons carrying heavy luggage and persons with hidden diseases). It is hoped that this research study will prove useful for State Governments, Urban Local Bodies, Municipal Corporations & Development Authorities, Town & Country Planning Departments and other Planning Agencies in various parts of the country. 3.6 Methodology The methodology which is followed for documenting the rationales behind the regulations includes the following:

• •

Analysis of current regulations /Building Bye-Laws of at least seven states viz. Delhi, Goa, Orissa, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, West Bengal and Gujarat. Visit to the state capitals of these states (Delhi, Ahmadabad, Panjim, Jaipur, Ranchi and Bhubaneswar) who have adopted Building Bye-Laws for discussions with Town Planning Departments; Municipal Commissioners and/or Officers, Urban Development authorities and architects with respect to, adoption and usage of Building Bye-Laws in accordance with local requirements. Following activities were undertaken: - Structured interviews to document rationale and underlying principles as perceived by planning staff – Urban Development Authority and Municipal Corporations. - Examination of compliance and viability aspects of implementation. - Data collection and compilation of existing Building Bye-Laws and its implementation by various State/ capital cities of India is vital for the project. - Advocacy and lobbying with the concerned agencies/officers is also undertaken in each visit. The necessity to update and revise Building Bye-Laws was stressed upon. Also strategies for implementation and compliance of BBL were worked out with concerned officers in several agencies by way of organizing capacity building workshops on Disability sensitization and universal accessibility issues. These agencies include: o Nagarplikas & Municipal Corporation; o Urban Development Authority; o State Commissioners for Persons with Disabilities; o Department of Social Welfare;
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o o o o o o o

Department of Women & Child development; State Tourism Departments; State Transport Department Urban Local Bodies Public Works Department; Town & Country Planning; NGOs and DPOs.

Comparative analysis of regulations, recent global best practices and approaches:

Analysis and review the following codes/manuals in consonance with the UNCRPD, 2008 - Bureau of Indian Standards, National Building Code, 2005 - CPWD Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly persons, 1998 - Manual on Barrier Free Environment, O/o the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, 2002 Identification of key gap areas Compilation of research findings Dissemination of research findings to concerned authorities including MoUD, Municipal Corporations, National Building Congress, Departments and Schools of Architecture and Engineers, IITs and professionals and O/o the Chief Commissioner for PwDs for taking possible measures for its effective implementation by dissemination to all State Commissioners for PwDs.

• • •

3.7 Cities covered 1) Delhi, 2) Ahmadabad, Gujarat 3) Ranchi, Jharkhand 4) Bhubaneswar, Orissa 5) Jaipur, Rajasthan 6) Panjim, Goa 7) Kolkata, West Bengal

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Cities covered in the Research Study

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Highlights of each city selected: 1) National Capital Territory of Delhi- Delhi being the national capital and focus of attention for the upcoming Commonwealth Games in 2010 has both the political will and financial capability to ensure compliance of access standards by the civic agencies and stakeholders. Delhi is also strategic from nodal, implementation and advocacy perspective. There are a multitude of Central and State Government/Ministries/agencies/ stakeholders who can adopt and enforce model Building Bye-Laws for showcasing and creating replicable models of accessible buildings and infrastructure. Delhi’s diverse urban landscape was sought to be seen through a single prism of the unified building bye-laws framed in 1983. The need of the hour was to create new/updated Building Bye-Laws which can encompass and correspond to the diversity of the city. 2) Bhubaneswar, Orissa – Bhubaneswar is the only other planned city besides Chandigarh in India. In the city of Bhubaneswar, some access implementation has been carried out which needs to be checked- situational analysis and compliance of Building Bye-Laws. Hence meeting with Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) and Bhubaneswar Development Authority (BDA) officers was undertaken.
 

3) Ranchi, Jharkhand- Ranchi on the contrary is a young capital and lot of infrastructural work is in progress. However, access features are apparently not been incorporated therein. An intervention at this stage for incorporation of accessible design standards in all elements of buildings in the Building Bye-Laws will be extremely beneficial. 4) Panjim, Goa- Goa has taken the lead over all the other states in India in implementing access features, not only in the buildings but also market places, schools and government offices have been made fairly accessible. Hence, documentation of these initiatives and case study for replicability and sustainability in other cities has been undertaken. 5) Jaipur, Rajasthan- Jaipur Urban Development Authority (JUDA) is yet to amend their ByeLaws w.r.t. access standards. Hence, an advocacy meeting with JUDA on amendment and implementation of universal accessibility features in the Bye-Laws was required. 6) Kolkata, West Bengal- Although taking the initiative of incorporation of access features in Building Bye-Laws, much progress has not been apparently made in implementation in the public buildings of Kolkata, capital city of West Bengal state. The visit to Kolkata and meeting with Town Planner, Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) and DPOs identifies and documents bottlenecks in this respect.
 

7) Ahmadabad, Gujarat- Identical conditions of Kolkata prevail in Ahmadabad also and a study visit to Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and Ahmadabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA) was undertaken to find out whether the problems are an exception or a rule.

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4. SCOPE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4.1 Equality and Inclusion This research study on accessible design standards for building regulations is about how to achieve equality and inclusiveness for ‘everybody’ in buildings. It is also about how to ensure that everyone can make full use of all buildings and environments they live in, work in and visit. This means more than just an interpretation of Laws or regulations. Fundamentally, it is about how to implement the following set of principles: Access
 

Everyone should be able to get into buildings and environments. They should be able to approach and enter unaided, with ease and without embarrassment. Equitable Use
 

Everyone should be able to use buildings and external spaces with equal facility. The design and management of buildings and external spaces must not make them more difficult to use for one person than another. Enjoyment
 

Everyone deserves the right to enjoy their surroundings. Safety
 

Everyone has the right to live, work and relax in safe surroundings. The design and management of buildings and external environments must make them safe for every person. Consideration
 

Everyone deserves equal consideration from those who commission, design, construct and manage buildings and environments. Consideration costs nothing. If we believe in ‘building for everyone’, then it is unacceptable that a woman should suffer disadvantage because she is pregnant, a child because of being small or older people simply because they are elderly. It is equally unacceptable that people should be disadvantaged because of their impaired sight, hearing or mobility. It is particularly unacceptable when the disadvantage suffered is the result of carelessness or thoughtlessness, and is entirely avoidable. If the needs of a group of people are not considered in the design of a building or environment, then that group is denied equality with those whom the building or environment is designed to
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suit. There is no principle that would defend the denial of rights simply because the owner, designer, contractor or manager of a building simply hasn’t considered them or mistakenly thinks that it is too difficult or expensive to provide for them. Environments can enable If the first and last step of a flight is clearly marked, a person with impaired sight will find a stairs easier to use. An induction loop in a busy environment will enable communication with people whose hearing is impaired. An easily accessible seat at a cinema or theatre will facilitate someone using crutches or a wheelchair. A threshold with no step provides access for everyone. None of these provisions is costly. It is the function of our environments to enable. We make buildings to live, work and play in. We build to enable these activities and many others. A building or environment which does not enable fails in its purpose. Only if a building provides for the full range of potential users can it claim to fulfill its purpose. Environments can disable A smooth circular doorknob will be very difficult to use if a person has poor grip. Even a single step can make entry for a person pulling a suitcase on wheels, or a person using a wheelchair, almost impossible. It is the environment which disables, not any impairment. When an environment is intended to provide for an activity, and yet through its design or management prevents someone from carrying it out, that environment fails in its purpose. Environments can injure What should be a pleasant stroll down any street can, for visually impaired people, become an unpredictable journey through a painful obstacle course. For children under 16 statistics indicate that accidents account for more hospital admissions than all other causes put together. Half of these accidents occur in the home, where many could be avoided by better design. Statistics suggest that more people die as a direct or indirect result of stair falls than die from lung cancer. Stairs with landings and short flights greatly reduce the chances of a long fall and serious injury. They are also more comfortable for everybody than long straight flights, and do not take up more space or cost more money. 4.2 Concept of Non-Handicapping Environments, Barrier-Free Environments and Universal Design 4.2.1 General planning and design considerations No part of the built environment should be designed in a manner that excludes certain groups of people on the basis of their disability or frailty. No group of people should be deprived of full
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participation in and enjoyment of the built environment or be made less equal than others due to any form or degree of disability. In order to achieve this goal adopted by the United Nations, certain basic guiding principles need to be applied. a. b. c. d. It should be possible to reach all places of the built environment; It should be possible to enter all places within the built environment; It should be possible to make use of all facilities within the built environment; and It should be possible to reach, enter and use all facilities in the built environment without being made to feel that one is an object of charity.

4.2.2 Physical Planning and Design These basic guiding principles may serve as general requirements for consideration in physical planning and design. These requirements may be summarized as follows: a. b. Accessibility: The built environment shall be designed so that it is accessible for all people, including those with disabilities and elderly persons. Access or accessible: This means that everyone can, without assistance, approach, enter, pass to and from, and make use of an area and its facilities without undue difficulties. Constant reference to these basic requirements during the planning and design process of the built environment will help to ensure that the possibilities of creating an accessible environment will be maximized. Reachability: Provisions shall be adopted and introduced into the built environment so that as many places and buildings as possible can be reached by all people, including those with disabilities and elderly persons. Usability: The built environment shall be designed so that all people, including those with disabilities and elderly persons can use and enjoy it. Safety: The built environment shall be so designed that all people, including those with disabilities and elderly persons, can move about without undue hazard to life and health. Workability: The built environment where people work shall be designed to allow people, including those with disabilities, fully to participate in and contribute to the work force. Barrier-free or non-handicapping: This means unhindered, without obstructions, to enable disabled persons free passage to and from and use of the facilities, in the built environment.

c.

d. e.

f.

g.

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4.3 Special needs versus universal access4 Everyone experiences disability. The common assumption that ‘a person with a disability’ equals ‘wheelchair user’ is inaccurate. Everyone is disabled by the environment at some stage in their life. An elderly person, or someone who is short of breath, or has a broken ankle or bad back, will find a stairs difficult or impossible. Young children often cannot reach door handles and light switches. With a sprained wrist it is impossible to turn most taps. High kerbs are difficult to negotiate with a child in a buggy. The examples are endless. Disability is part of everyday experience. 4.3.1 Special needs Historically, access to the built environment for people with any impairment was thought about as a ‘special need’. Most people could manage a ‘normal’ environment. A minority could not. This view held that the ‘normal environment’ had to be modified to be made usable by people with impairments of one kind or another, but only in so far as was ‘reasonable’, as defined by people who have no significant impairment. With this approach, accessibility was treated as an add-on issue. The building was designed for the ‘normal’ person. Only afterwards were additional features such as lifts, ramps, larger lavatories and tactile warnings on stairways added, so as to improve access and use by people with disabilities. 4.3.2 Universal Right of Access A more inclusive approach is to think in terms of the Universal Right of Access and to seek to improve accessibility and usability for everyone. This way of thinking benefits everybody, not just those with impairments. Properly working doors, adequately sized passageways, appropriately designed lavatories, easily legible signs and so on are of use to everybody. Accessibility for everyone becomes the norm: Buildings for Everyone. This approach is as relevant to the retrofitting of old buildings as it is to the design and construction of new ones. It is the most practical and sustainable way of creating an environment in which everyone can participate. The user is at the centre of the issue and process, not the building or the designer. In this approach, accessibility, central to the process from the outset, can become invisible, properly integrated into the general building design.

                                                             4 Buildings for Everyone; National Rehabilitation Board, British & Irish Building Regulations, 1998  Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 20

5. DISABILITY FRAMEWORK -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5.1 Existing Laws and legislations India has the largest number of disabled people in the world. To put that into perspective, the number of disabled people in India is the same as the entire population of the UK. Within India, as elsewhere, statistics on the number of disabled people are contested and vary due to differing definitions of disability and reliability of sample surveys. Although the National Planning Commission uses the figure of 4% for budgetary purposes (only recently increased from 1.9%), the most commonly accepted figure in India is 6% of total population or 70 million people. Three important National and International Acts/Laws that need special mention so as to include access needs of persons with disabilities in revised Model Building Bye-Laws are: 5.1.1 The Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 19955 It’s almost fifteen years since passage of the PWD Act 1995; however the provisions of the Act have not been included in the Building Regulations. The Act provides equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation to the disabled persons; especially Chapter 8, section 44 & 46 states Non-Discrimination6 in transport and access to the built environment. 45. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide for(a) Installation of auditory signals at red lights in the public roads for the benefit of persons with visually handicap; (b) Causing kerb cuts and slopes to be made in footpaths for the easy access of wheel chair users; (c) Engraving on the surface of the zebra crossing for the blind or for persons with low vision; (d) Engraving on the edges of railway platforms for the blind or for persons with low vision; (e) Devising appropriate symbols of disability; (f) Warning signals at appropriate places. 46. (b) Braille symbols and auditory signals in elevators or lifts;

                                                             5 http://ccdisabilities.nic.in/Act%201.htm 6 http://ccdisabilities.nic.in/chapter8.htm  Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 21

5.1.2 The National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act7, 1999 National Trust affirms inclusion of persons with developmental disabilities (severe and multiple) in all arenas of life including accessibility and mobility in the built environment. 5.1.3 United Nation Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities8 (UNCRPD), 2008 The Government of India (GOI) has signed and ratified the Convention. But to comprehend all dimensions of the Convention, stakeholders need to understand and think deeply about the rights and how to implement them. CRPD came into force in India in May 2008 to bring about the ‘change’ in the lives of persons with disabilities. However, it is evident that no convention or law can by itself bring about change. The change can be made only if “people advocate for the change”. Unlike the Person With Disability Act 1995, which defines disability in relation to medical conditions and degrees of impairment, the UN Convention, sees disability as an interaction of impairments and barriers that hinder effective participation in a society9. The founding documents of the UN say “that we are all equal and we are all members of the human family which is important for freedom, fairness and peace in the world”.10 The purpose of the Agreement is to ensure that the signatory countries (including India, which has ratified the convention on 1 October 200711) will make sure that:
st

• •

All human rights and freedom of all people with disabilities are enjoyed, promoted and protected; The dignity of people with disabilities is respected.

Article 9 Accessibility of UNCRPD clearly states: • The countries will eliminate barriers that people with disabilities face in buildings, the outdoors, transport, information, communication and services, in both cities and the countryside. Hence people with disabilities can live independently and fully live their lives. They will make rules and put them into practice for: a. Buildings, roads, transportation, indoor and outdoor objects, for example, schools, housing, hospitals, health centers, and workplaces; b. Information, communications, and other things, for example, electronic services and emergency services.

                                                             7 www.thenationaltrust.in 8 http://www.icrpd.net/implementation/en/index.htm 9 Understanding the UNCRPD, Arth Astha and VSO 10 Laymen’s Handbook on UN Convention on Rights of the Persons with Disabilities, eNABLE Now, Adhar, Orissa 11 Understanding the UNCRPD, Arth Astha and VSO Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 22

The countries will also take action to: a. Make, put in place, and oversee minimum standards for accessibility for places and services that are open to public; b. Make sure that private businesses and organizations that are open to the public are accessible for people with disabilities; c. Train people who are involved in accessibility issues on what people with disabilities need when it comes to accessibility; d. Have Braille signs and easy to read and understand information in buildings open to the public; e. Provide help, such as readers, sign language interpreters and guides, so people with disabilities can access buildings open to the public; f. Provide other types of help as needed so people with disabilities can get access to information; g. Promote access to new technologies for people with disabilities; h. When looking for, and creating new technology, make sure that accessibility is taken into account early on, so that this technology can be made accessible at the smallest cost.

5.2 Law and Policy Reform Government of India (GOI) has decided to bring a new Act for Persons with Disabilities to fulfill its commitment as a signatory to the convention. Currently, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, GOI is working with Disabled Peoples Organizations (DPOs) & Civil Societies on the legislative changes required harmonizing Indian law with UNCRPD. Work on creation of new “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2010” is underway. The paradigm of accessibility changed more and more to Universal Design i.e. design for all and universal accessibility, which brought about a necessity of change in the current legal framework. In short, the basic principles of the new law are universal accessibility, non-discrimination, independent living, design for all, civil dialog and measures of positive action. Its goal addresses to meet these principles through replacing the old conceptual framework focused only on barriers removal, encouraging new points of view which are considered more appropriate to achieve an accessible society. It is imperative that Building Bye-Laws should be revised and updated in consonance with UNCRPD and the new “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2010”.
 

5.3 Persons with Disabilities Building Bye-Laws uses the term “physically challenged” to describe persons with disabilities. The word “physically challenged” in actuality signify locomotor (orthopaedically) disabled persons such as wheelchair/crutch/caliper users and hence Bye-Laws exclude sensory and mental disabilities. As a strategy, the definition of persons with disabilities should also extend to include not only persons with locomotor disabilities (wheel chair users), but also sensory (persons with low vision, vision impairment, deaf and hearing impairment) and developmental
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disabilities (Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, Multiple and Cognitive disabilities). Recommendation: Model Building Bye-Laws should provide equal access to not just few but ‘all’ persons with disabilities, as mentioned in UNCRPD. Hence the term “physically challenged” or “handicapped” to be replaced with “Persons with Disabilities”. 5.4 Disabilities 5.4.1 Non-ambulatory Disabilities – Impairments that, regardless of cause or manifestation, for all practical purposes, confine individuals to wheelchairs. 5.4.2 Semi-ambulatory Disabilities – Impairments that cause individuals to walk with difficulty or insecurity. Individuals using braces or crutches, amputees, arthritis, spastics and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills may be semi-ambulatory. 5.4.3 Sight Disabilities – Total blindness or impairments affecting sight to the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger. 5.4.4 Hearing Disabilities – Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an individual insecure in public areas because he is unable to communicate or hear warning signals. 5.4.5 Disabilities of Inco-ordination – Faulty co-ordination or palsy from brain, spinal, or peripheral nerve injury. 5.4.6 People with Allergies – People with allergies may be sensitive to dust, mildew, pollen, animal hair, formalin, turpentine, etc. Some are sensitive to contact with substances and materials such as nickel, chromium and rubber. 5.4.7 People with Heart and Lung Diseases – People with heart and lung diseases may only be able to walk short distances and may be unable to climb stairs. The requirements of these people are similar to those with impaired mobility. 5.4.8 People with Epilepsy, Hemophilia, etc. – The requirements of those with epilepsy, hemophilia, etc. are related primarily to the design of buildings and the need to minimize the risk of injury caused by falling or encountering obstacles. 5.4.9 People with Incontinence, Enterostomy Operations, etc. - The requirements of people with incontinence, enterostomy operations, etc. (colostomies, ileostomies and urostomies) are mainly related to bathroom provision. In certain circumstances, for example, in public watercloset compartments, it may be desirable to provide a special sink for emptying urine bags.

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5.5 Goals Universal Accessibility
 

Universal accessibility is an essential pre-condition to enable persons with disabilities to live independently and participate fully in all aspects of life12. Consequently persons with disabilities shall be provided such accessibility on an equal basis with others to the built environment. Model Building Bye- Laws should include designs that satisfy requirements of persons with disabilities and also meet the needs of many other people; such as families with young children or persons carrying luggage, pregnant women will benefit from an accessible environment, as will people with temporary mobility problems (e.g. a leg in plaster) and senior citizens. One aspect of this experience is the general appreciation that improving infrastructure for people with disabilities almost always improves it for everybody. Another is that, despite the wide variety of disabilities, improvements for one group usually helps other groups. Thus, the overall objective of the revision in the Model Building Bye-Laws is to provide ‘inclusive design’ and through that achieve social inclusion. Integrating the concepts and content detailed in this research study and planning guidelines into the practice by architects, contractors, engineers, landscape architects, planners, managers, surveyors and sub-contractors, indeed all involved in the making and management of all buildings and the environment; will ensure that they do so in the most equitable and inclusive way and that they are indeed buildings for all.
     

                                                             12 Working Draft of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2010; Centre for Disability Studies NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, India
 

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Concept of Universal Design Universal design is about design, a way of thinking about the power of design to facilitate everyone's experience and well-being. Barrier-free/accessible design is an important commitment to equal opportunity but a narrow concept about special solutions for a portion of the population with functional limitations related to disability and/or aging. Three reasons why universal design may be poised to have an increasingly significant impact on future policy decisions: • its goals can be seen as integral to the civil rights of individuals; • a large, aging mass of baby boomers will press for environments that allow more people to live independently into old age; and • the emergence of a distinct "disability culture" with shared values, visions, and customs manifested especially through building designs will exert additional pressure. “Looking to the forecasts concerning age-group-structure changing of population everybody can see an enormous increase in the next 20 years within the 60+ generation. Additionally many people have to be seen as temporary disabled caused by accidents or injuries. Invincible barriers make life more complicated not only for people with disabilities but also for elderly people, parents with their little kids, people carrying heavy goods … many barriers which have to be avoided! Accessibility and usability of buildings and facilities for people with special needs, Ms. Monica Klenovec, Austrian Standards Institute

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6. National Status ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6.1 Initiatives in the Eleventh Plan on Accessibility The Chapter, Social Justice, under the Section, ‘Empowering Disabled People’ the Eleventh Plan document13, states:
 

“A National Centre to facilitate and support the development of Universal Design and barrierfree built environment will be established”. It also says, “A concerted effort would be made to make all public buildings and facilities such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and so on, compliant with the requirements of a barrier-free built environment. Towards this end, the Building Bye-Laws, municipal and civic regulations, relevant codes for construction and design should incorporate the requirements of a barrier-free environment. Similarly, all shops/malls and similar places open to public, should be insisted upon to provide the facilities required for the disabled.” 6.2 Initiatives by Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and State Governments To promote barrier free environment in the public buildings, MoUD had issued a notification: NOTIFICATION TO BE PUBLISHED IN THE GAZETTE OF INDIA EXTRAORDINARY PART-II SECTION 3 SUB-SECTION (II) MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION (Delhi Division) New Delhi, the 28.08.2002 Barrier Free Environment in the Public Building for Persons with Disabilities Whereas the issue of making suitable provision in the Building Bye-Laws, 1983 to ensure that the public buildings that are erected in Delhi provide barrier free environment for the persons with disabilities has been under the consideration of the Government. Whereas the following modifications/additions which the Central Government proposed to make in the Building Bye-Laws 1983 in this regard were published for the public information vide Public Notice dated 26 March, 2002 and were advertised in the leading newspapers on 4 April, 2002. In all 7 objections/suggestion were received and they were examined by a Committee under the Convenorship of Chief Planner of Town & Country Planning Organization. Whereas after thorough consideration of the report, Central Government has decided to make the following Modifications/additions in the Building Bye-Laws, 1983.
                                                             13 Annual Report for 2009-10 in ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN- Chapter 3
 
th th

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Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (2) of section 11A of Delhi Development Act, 1957, the Central Government made the following modifications/additions to the Building Bye-Laws, 1983 with effect from the date of publication of this Notification in the Gazette of India. Modification: To provide barrier free environment in the public building for persons with disabilities. 2. Definitions:

2.91 Non-ambulatory disabilities: Impairments that, regardless of cause or manifestation, for all practical purposes, confine individuals to wheelchairs. 2.92 Semi-ambulatory disabilities: Impairments that cause individual to walk with difficulty or insecurity. Individuals using braces or crutches, amputees, arthritis, spastics and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills may be semi-ambulatory. 2.93 Hearing disabilities: Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an individual insecure in public areas because he is unable to communicate or hear warning signals. 2.94 Sight disabilities: Total blindness or impairment affecting sight to the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger. 2.95 Wheel Chair: Chair used by disabled people for mobility i) Size of Small Wheel Chair: 750 X 1050 mm (ii) Size of Large Wheel Chair: 800 X 1500 mm. 30.0 To provide facilities in the public building for the disabled persons. 30.1 Scope: These Bye-Laws are applicable to all building, recreation areas & facilities used by public. It does not apply to private domestic residences. 30.1.1 Site planning: Level of the roads, access paths & parking areas shall be described in the plan along with specification of materials. Every building should have at least one access to main entrance / exit to the disabled which shall be indicated by proper signage. This entrance shall be approached through a ramp together with stepped entry. The ramp should have a landing after every 9 meter run and in front of the doorway. Minimum size of landing shall be 1000 X 2000 mm. 30.1.2 Access path/walk way: Access path from plot entry and surface parking to building entrance shall be minimum of 1800 mm. wide having even surface without any step. Slope, if any shall not have gradient greater than 5%. Selection of floor material shall be made suitably to attract or to guide visually impaired persons (limited to floor material whose colour texture is conspicuously different from that of the surrounding floor material or the material that emit different sound to guide visually impaired persons. Finishes shall have a non-slip surface with texture traversable by a wheel chair. Curbs wherever provided should blend to common level. 30.1.3 Parking: For parking of vehicles of disabled people the following provisions shall be made: (a) Surface parking for two Equivalent Car Spaces (ECS) shall be provided near entrance for the physically handicapped persons with maximum travel distance of 30 meter
Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 28

from building entrance. (b) The width of parking bay shall be minimum 3.6 meter. (c) The information stating that the space is reserved for wheel chair users shall be conspicuously displayed. (d) Guiding floor materials shall be provided or a device which guides visually impaired persons with audible signals or other devices which serves the same purpose shall be provided. 30.2 Building requirements: The specified facilities for the buildings for disabled persons shall be as follow: 1) Approach to plinth level. 2) Corridor connecting the entrance/exit for the handicapped. 3) Stair-ways. 4) Lift. 5) Toilet. 6) Drinking water. Braille signage shall be provided at the above specified facilities. Approach to Plinth Level: Ramp shall be provided with non-slip material to enter the building minimum clear width of ramp shall be 1800 mm with maximum gradient 1:12, between top and bottom of the ramp. Length of ramp shall not exceed 9.00 metres having 800 mm high handrail on both sides extending 300 mm beyond the ramp. Minimum gap from the adjacent wall to the handrail shall be 50 mm. 30.2.1 Minimum clear opening for the entrance door shall be 1000 mm. Threshold shall not be raised more than 12 mm. For stepped approach, size of tread shall not be less than 300 mm and maximum riser shall be 150 mm. Provision of 800 mm high handrails on both sides of the stepped approach similar to the ramped approach shall be made. Corridor connecting the entrance/exit for the disabled: 30.2.2 The corridor connecting the entrance/exit for handicapped leading directly outdoors to a place where information concerning the overall use of the specified building can be provided to visually impaired person either by a person or by signs, shall be provided as follows: (a) Guiding floor materials shall be provided or devices that emit sound to guide visually impaired persons. (b) The minimum width shall be 1500 mm. (c) In case there is a difference of level, slope ways shall be provided with a slope of 1:12. (d) Handrails shall be provided for ramps/slope ways. 30.2.3 Stairways: Stairways with open riser & provision of nosing are not permitted in such building. 30.2.4 Lifts: Whenever lift is required as per Bye-Laws, provisions of at least one lift shall be made for the wheel chair user with the following car dimensions of lift recommended for passenger lift for 13 persons capacity by Bureau of Indian Standard.
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Clear internal depth 1100mm Clear internal width 2000mm Entrance door width 910mm A handrail not less than 600mm long at 900mm above floor level shall be fixed adjacent to the control panel. The lift lobby shall be of an inside measurement of 1800mm X 2000 or more. The Braille signage will be posted outside the lifts. Operational details of lifts shall confirm to the National Building Code (NBC) and will be the responsibility of designer as well as manufacturer. 30.2.5 Toilets: One special WC in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of handicapped with essential provision of washbasin near the entrance for the handicapped. (a) The minimum size shall be 1500mm X 1750mm. (b) Minimum clear opening of the door shall be 900mm and the door shall swing out/sliding type. (c) Suitable arrangement for vertical/horizontal handrails with 50mm clearance from wall shall be made in the toilet. (d) The WC seat shall be 500mm from the floor. 30.2.6 Refuge: An alternative to immediate evacuation of a building via staircases and/or lifts is the movement of disabled persons to areas of safety within a building. If possible, they could remain there until the fire is controlled and extinguished or until rescued by fire fighters. • It is useful to have the provision of a refuge area, usually at the fire protected stair landing on each floor that can safety hold one or two wheelchairs; Have doorways with clear opening width of 900mm and complying with Section 4.6; and Have an alarm switch installed between 900mm and 1200mm from the floor level.

• •

[No. K-12016/5/79/DDIA/VA/IB Vol.IX(Pt)] Sd/(NISHA SINGH) DIRECTOR (DD)

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New Delhi: Building Access ByeLaws The Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation has issued a public notice proposing amendments to the Unified Building ByeLaws, 1983, pertaining to the National Capital Territory of Delhi. This step has been taken with a view to providing a barrier-free environment in public buildings for persons with disability and are applicable to all buildings, recreational areas and facilities used by the public. Domestic residences are exempted in this notification. At the outset, the notice seeks to identify the disabilities which include impairments that confine individuals to wheelchairs and "impairments that cause individuals to walk with difficulty or insecurity'' and "individuals using braces or crutches, amputees, arthritics, spastics and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills''. The notice also takes into account hearing disabilities "that might make an individual insecure in public areas because he is unable to communicate or hear warning signals'' and sight disabilities - "total blindness or impairments affecting sight to the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger''. It also specifies that "every building should have at least one access to main entrance/exit to the disabled which shall be indicated by proper signage. This entrance shall be approached through a proper ramp together with stepped entry''. The notice further lays down that the access path from the plot entry and surface parking to building entrance will have even surface without any step. Slope, if any shall not have gradient greater than 5 percent. Selection of floor material shall be made suitably to attract or to guide visually impaired persons. For parking of vehicles of disabled persons, surface parking for two equivalent car spaces shall be provided near the entrance for the physically challenged persons with maximum travel distance of three meters from building entrance. The information stating that the space is reserved for wheelchair users shall be conspicuously displayed. Guiding floor materials shall be provided or a device which guides visually impaired persons with audible signals or other devices which serves the same purpose shall be provided, the notice adds. Also, the notice stipulates that the buildings will have to provide specified facilities such as approach to plinth level, corridor connecting the entrance/exit for the handicapped, stair-ways, lift, toilet and drinking water. While Braille signage shall be provided at the above-specified facilities, the notice also calls for provision of ramps with non-slip material at the entry to the building. Guiding floor materials or devices that emit sound shall be provided to guide the visually impaired persons in the corridor connecting the entrance and exit for the handicapped. Stairways with open riser and provision of nosing are not permitted in such buildings. Wherever lift is required as per ByeLaws, provision of at least one lift shall be made for the wheel-chair user with specified cage dimensions. The Braille signage will be posted outside the lifts. The notice also lays down that "one special WC in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of handicapped with essential provision of washbasin near the entrance''. An alternative to immediate evacuation of a building via staircases and/or lifts is the movement of persons with disability to safety areas within a building. If possible, they could remain there until fire is controlled or extinguished or until rescued by fire-fighters. It is useful to have the provision of a refuge area, usually at the fire protected stair- landing on each floor that can safely hold one or two wheel-chairs, the notice stipulates. Source: Bye-Laws changes to help disabled access. The Hindu, April 04, 2002, New Delhi. Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 31

6.3 Incorporation of provisions of Barrier Free Building by various States Governments Regarding Accessibility and Barrier-Free Environment, the Annual Report (2007-08) of Ministry of Urban Development mentions:
 

Under the title ‘Promotion of Non-Handicapping Environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons’, it states: “Effort will be made to ensure adoption of Bye-Laws and space standards by all States, municipal bodies, and Panchayati Raj Institutions in the country. These authorities will ensure that all newly constructed buildings for public-use are barrierfree. It further goes on to add that the Ministry has prepared Model Building Bye-Laws, which contain provisions for improving access to various public buildings by disabled and elderly persons. These Building Bye-Laws have been sent to the State Governments, Union Territories, Delhi Development Authority, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, New Delhi Municipal Committee etc. for adoption”. Appointment of Access Officer in every District The Annual Report also states all States have been asked to appoint an Access Officer in every District to bring to notice cases of non-compliance to the concerned authorities. In the year 2010, NDMC, New Delhi and North & South Goa have appointed Access officers. Cities such as Ahmadabad, Ranchi, Bhubaneswar, Jaipur and Kolkata have not yet taken any step in this direction. 6.4 Action taken by State Governments Report on incorporation of provisions of barrier free buildings by various States Governments is given below: S. No. 1. State Government West Bengal Communication No. ME/499/IM-38/07 dated 11th June, 2008 Action Taken

2.

Madhya Pradesh Tripura

3.

4.

Andhra Pradesh

Provision has already been incorporated in West Bengal Municipal (Buildings), Rules, 2007 (Rule 173) 333/Legal-MProvision has already been incorporated in the 563/TCP/08 dated 19th Madhya Pradesh Bhumi Vikas Niyam, 1984 June, 2008 No.F.2(268)Provision has been incorporated in Tripura L/TCPO/2004dated Building Rules, 2004, Rule No.107 June, 2008 Lr. L. Dis. No. Vide Go Ms. No. 670 MA dated 6th 4928/2008/p3 dated September, 2007 ULBs have been directed to 1st July, 2008 incorporate the provision in their Bye- Laws

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5.

Delhi

Provision incorporated in Unified Building ByeLaws, 1983 vide MoUD notification No.K12016/5/79/DDLA/VA/IB Vol. IX (Pt.) No. Research/Model DCR/2008-09/3043 dated 8th June, 2008 No. DTP/Building Bye Laws/ URC/ 3404 dated 9th July, 2008 Provision incorporated in Ahmadabad Urban Development Authority Development (AUDA) Control Regulations State order no. TBP 432001/2133/CR230/01/UD.ll dated 10th March, 2005 directed all ULBs of the State to incorporate the provision State Order No. No.4716/9-A-1-29 Vividh/98 dated 21st Octpber,2000 directed to incorporate the provision in the Building ByeLaws of all the Development Authorities of the State. Provision is to be incorporated by amending Kerala Municipal Building Regulations, 1999, State Government to issue notification (Under Consideration) Under active consideration of UT Administration Under active consideration of UT Administration. Provision is incorporated in Model Zoning Regulations of Town and Country Planning Department Section 22,Schedule-IV Incorporated in the Ranchi Regional Development Authority Development Control Regulations.

6.

Gujarat

7.

Maharashtra

8.

Uttar Pradesh No. 775/VANI (1)/Bhavan Upvidhi/CTP/2008-09 dated 14th July, 2008 Kerala No. C1-4922/08 dated 18th July, 2007

9.

10.

Dadra & Nagar Haveli Daman & Diu

11.

12.

Karnataka

No. TPS/GNL/2005/08/447 dated 23rd July, 2008 No.ATP/DMN/MISC/T CH/859/08 /269 dated 7th August, 2008 No.TP/ZR:3/1:FD-0809dated 2nd September,2008 Confirmed in Chief Planner Brainstorming Session held at Ranchi on 21st October, 2008 D-42011/4/06TCPdated 17th May, 2008 No. CTA/A-lll/2006/ 167/7 dated 5th April, 2008

13.

Jharkhand

14.

Mizoram

Incorporated in Aizawl Development Authority Building Regulations, 2008 vide Chapter VI Information yet to be received.

15.

Chandigarh

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16.

17.

No.10/361/2001 DMA/Vol. ll 11925 dated 19th October, 2008 Uttar Pradesh 775/STP(1)/BBL/CTP/200809 dated 14th July, 2008

Goa

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Manipur Uttarakhand Meghalaya Puducherry A&N Islands Punjab

24. 25. 26.

Karnataka J&K Himachal Pradesh

27. 28. 29.

Arunachal Pradesh Bihar Haryana

Provision incorporated in The Goa Land Development & Building Construction Regulations 2010 State Government has instructed vide Go No.4716/9-A-1-29- MISC/98 dated 21st October, 200 all the Development Authorities to incorporate the provision of Barrier Fee as provided in the UP Building Construction and Development Bye-Laws, 200 vide Chapter-10 9/4/95-TP/796 dated 10th Under active consideration of State June, 2008 Government. 1100/T&CP/ Tech-Misc/2008 Under active consideration of State dated 10th June, 2008 Government. DUA/P/26/2003/93 dated 12th Under active consideration of State June, 2008 Government. 361/TCP/AP/208/1102 dated Incorporated in Pondicherry Building 16th June, 2008 Bye-Laws and Zoning Regulation,1992 TP-21/CE/2008/3152 2nd Under active consideration of State U.T. July, 2008 Administration. No 5952/CTP(Pb)/SP-135 To be incorporated in Punjab Urban dated 14th July, 2008 Planning and Development Authority (Building) Rules, 1996 TP/ZR:3/1FD-08-09 2nd Incorporated in Model Zonal September, 2008 Regulations Vide Schedule-IV Information yet to be received. No. HIM/TP/PJT/ARZ/XIVThe provision has been incorporated in 4595 dated 6.5.09 Himachal Pradesh Town and Country Planning (Amendment) Rules, 2007 The State Government has notified in Shimla, regulation of Barrier Free Environment in Public & semi-Public Buildings and recreational area facilitating access to persons with Disabilities on 24.2.2007. Building Regulations are yet to be finalized for the State Information yet to be received. No. CTP/A-lll/2006/16717 Incorporated in Zonal Regulations of dated 5.4.06 HUDA.
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30. 31.

Lakshadweep Islands Orissa MP-I-64/08/2517/DTP dated 25th May, 2009 Rajasthan

Information yet to be received. Provision has been incorporated in the Bhubaneswar Development Authority Building Regulations, 2008 Development Authorities of the State are in the process of incorporating the same.

32.

Table 1 6.5 Current status of amendment Given below is the information on the current status of amendment of Building Bye-Laws by various states: S. No. States / UTs which have already amended their Building Bye-Laws Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Goa Daman & Diu Dadar & Nagar Haveli Maharashtra Kerala Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Tripura Madhya Pradesh NCT Delhi Mizoram Jharkhand Puducherry Harayana Orissa States/UTs which are in process of amending their Building Bye-Laws Chandigarh Manipur Uttarakhand Meghalaya Punjab Arunachal Pradesh States/UTs which have yet to amend their Building Bye-Laws Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Assam Chhattisgarh Rajasthan Lakshadweep Sikkim Tamil Nadu Bihar Nagaland Andaman & Nicobar Islands

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Table 2 Source Table 1 & 2: TCPO, MoUD, Government of India States highlighted in pink colour are covered under the Research Study

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7. ANALYSIS OF STATE WISE BYE-LAWS AND RE-FRAMED REGULATIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.1 Comparative Analysis A comparative analysis* of Accessibility Standards is undertaken to find out the missing gaps and acquire the best standards that can be incorporated in the Model Building Bye-Laws. Codes/manuals analyzed are: - Bureau of Indian Standards, National Building Code, 2005 - CPWD Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly persons, 1998 - Manual on Barrier Free Environment, O/o the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, 2002 *Comparative analysis is given in Annexure IV. In addition, an analysis of Bye-Laws of cities such as (Delhi, Ahmadabad, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Panjim, Kolkata and Jaipur) and Model Building Bye-Laws, 2004, TCPO, MoUD was undertaken in light of universal accessibility and inclusion. Following are the common observations and recommendations:
 

7.1.1 Model Building Bye-Laws Building regulations should aim to improve accessibility and create a barrier-free environment for all people – including parents with young children and groups like the elderly, pregnant women and persons with disabilities. Model Building Bye-Laws Appendix – “G” (Bye Laws: 6.8) ‘To Provide Facilities in the Public Building excluding Domestic Buildings for Handicapped Persons’ is given in Annexure II. 7.1.2 Applicability of Regulations ‘To Provide Facilitates in the Public Building excluding Domestic Buildings for Handicapped Persons’14; it affirms: “These Bye-Laws are applicable to public buildings and exclude domestic buildings. Building which shall provide access to Ambulant disabled and Non-Ambulant disabled are listed below. Distinction is made for buildings to be designed for the use of large wheel chairs and small wheel chair”. This makes the scope of Building Bye-Laws limited and applies to usage by very few people in the society. Some of the critical areas which need modifications are: • This Appendix specifies ‘few’ buildings to be used by persons with disabilities and not ‘all’ buildings. It is limited to public buildings only and does not cover private constructions
                                                             14 Model Building Bye-Laws , TCPO; 2004 Accessibility Research and Framing of Model Building Bye Laws                         Page 36

• •

including residential buildings. It specifies space standards for Ambulant disabled and Non-Ambulant disabled persons only. Access needs of persons with other disabilities such as vision impairment, low vision, hearing impairment, deaf blind & other multiple disabilities and developmental disabilities (such as Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, Autism, etc.) are not touched upon. While covering the design features under the heading of building requirement, it covers only four elements i.e. plinth (ramp), stairways, lifts and toilets. While taking wheelchair dimensions, the user- anthropometrics of person and mobility aid (width, height, etc.) is not taken into consideration. This has resulted in framing of size and space standards, which are relatively unusable and unfriendly for disabled persons, especially those using various mobility aids. It seems that these regulations are not ever implemented - nobody ever bothers with them, least of all, the Development Authorities. As with any regulations, they will only be adopted if they are properly enforced and if there is a general acceptance of their relevance. Accessibility Regulations suffer from a particular difficulty, as there is no obvious public safety requirement and people often think that their particular building will not require to be accessed by disabled people. In other countries for example, UK, access regulations are enforced by two quite separate mechanisms: - Building Regulations, which provide standards for the construction of two types of buildings – dwellings and buildings to which the public have a right of access. These regulations exclude management arrangements and are not specific to particular types of disability. Disability Discrimination Legislation, which requires equality of access to services and employers to provide a suitable working environment for disabled employees. Furthermore, in the case of UK, for buildings other than dwellings the intention is that disabled people should be able to enjoy the same access to services, work opportunities and entertainment as the able bodied population. These regulations therefore cover shops, offices, hotels, restaurants cinemas etc.

7.1.3 Short Title, Extent & Commencement • • It needs to be clearly stated in what categories of buildings will this regulation be applicable and what is the scope of these regulations. Regulations include elements only for ‘within buildings’ and one paragraph for parking/ access. There are no comprehensive Regulations for public space like streets, parking, curbs, parks etc. Regulations and its enforcement seem to be suggestive and not mandatory, as they are not backed by or reviewed in any official certification process. All present efforts are informal and on voluntary basis. These regulations are extremely important and require a system of enforcement to be adopted by all Local Bodies, throughout the states. Hence, it needs to be incorporated within the certification process of all public non-residential
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buildings. All present regulations address to the ‘Physically Handicapped’ not towards a complete Barrier Free Built Environment – these regulations ideally, are also meant for other groups like parents with young children, the elderly, pregnant women, the temporary injured, etc. The concept of ‘Universal Design’ needs to be introduced, rather than focus only on the physically handicapped, and more particularly, only the wheelchair user.

7.1.4 Site Development • Regulation aims to make reasonable provision to ensure that all public non-residential buildings are accessible and usable by all people. Parents with children, elderly people and persons with disabilities, should be able to gain access to, and within such buildings, and should be able to use them, both as visitors to the building or as people who work in it. The aim is to provide a suitable means of access for people from the entrance point at the curtilage of the site, and from any parking that is provided on the site, to the building. It is also important that pedestrian routes between buildings within a complex are also accessible. The regulations cover only access to building and parking provisions and do not look at several other concerns like footpaths, street curbs, etc. as those these matters are better controlled elsewhere under planning regulations.

7.1.5 Access Path/ Walk Way • In designing an approach to a building, it should be recognized that wheelchair users and ambulant disabled people have difficulty in negotiating changes in level. Also, people with impaired sight need to be warned of abrupt changes in level. • It is important to be aware that the needs of disabled people vary. For example, not all ambulant disabled people find it as easy to use a ramp as they do a stair. • The design of the approach will also need to take into account the overall constraints of space, and relative levels determined accordingly. • It is also important to reduce the risks to people with impaired sight, of being injured where elements of the building can present potential hazards on access routes adjacent to buildings. 7.1.6 Parking People who need to travel to buildings by car need to be able to park, have sufficient space to enter and leave their vehicle, on occasions move to the rear of their vehicle, then walk, travel in a wheelchair or with pushchairs or luggage etc. to the principal entrance of the building. As a general rule regulations should encourage equality of access to a building through the principal entrance used by all visitors. It is not acceptable to have a separate wheelchair access round the back, for example: • If parking is provided, it should accommodate the needs of disabled people. The surface of a designated parking bay, in particular the area surrounding the bay, should allow the
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safe transfer to a wheelchair and transfer from the parking area to the access route to the building without undue effort or hazards from tripping. People should be able to alight from a vehicle close to the principal entrance of the building on a level surface that is convenient for transfer to a wheelchair.

7.1.7 Building Requirements It would seem more logical to separate regulations dealing with the outside approach to the building from those dealing with internal circulation. • If site constraints necessitate an approach steeper than 1 in 20, an approach incorporating ramped access should be provided. Gradients should be a low as practicable, as steep gradients create difficulties for some wheelchair users who lack the strength to propel themselves up a slope or have difficulty in slowing down or stopping when descending. 1 in 12 regarded as maximum for wheelchairs over a short distance. • Ramps are also not necessarily safe and convenient for ambulant disabled people (such as those using bi-lateral crutches). For example, some people who can walk but have restricted mobility find it more difficult to negotiate a ramp than a stair. In addition, adverse weather conditions increase risk of slipping on a ramp. • Wheelchair users need adequate space to stop and take rest on landings, to open and pass through doors without the need to reverse into circulation routes or to face the risk of rolling back down slopes. • Some people have a weakness on one side and that leads to the need for handrails at each side of ramps where they are the sole means of access. If the total rise of a ramped approach is too high, it can be unacceptably tiring for wheelchair users and some people with walking difficulties, even if a number of rest landings are provided. • Many ambulant disabled people (such as bi-lateral crutch users) find it easier to negotiate a flight of steps than a ramp and hence the presence of handrails on both sides of steps for support is essential. • People with impaired sight risk tripping or losing their balance if there is no warning that there is a change in level. Tripping is most hazardous at the head of a flight of steps. • The warning should be placed sufficiently in advance of the hazard to allow time to stop and not be so narrow that it might be missed in a single stride. • Materials for treads should not present a slip hazard, especially when the surface is wet. • Persons with vision impairment should be able to appreciate easily where to place their feet by highlighting nosing and avoiding open risers. • When entering the building, people should be able to open and close entrance doors without difficulty. All entrance doors should be wide enough to allow unrestricted passage for a variety of users, including wheelchair users, people with assistance dogs and with small children. 7.1.8 Corridors and passageways • Should be wide enough to allow wheelchair users access to adjacent rooms and spaces,
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to pass other wheelchair users and, where necessary, to turn through 180°. Narrower corridors would be reasonable in some locations, such as those to which lift access is not available. It is also important to ensure that internal doorways in corridors and into rooms are sufficiently wide to accommodate a wheelchair and where two doorways is close together, there is adequate maneuvering room between them. In order to help people with visual impairments to appreciate the size of a space they have entered, or to find their way around, there should be a visual contrast between the wall and the ceiling, and between the wall and the floor. Such attention to surface finishes should be coupled with good lighting design.

7.1.9 Lift In multi-storey buildings, a passenger lift is the most suitable means of access when moving from one storey to another. • Signs indicating the location of an accessible lift should be clearly visible from the building entrance. • Is the provision of a passenger lift to be a requirement of the regulations – i.e. are disabled people have right to access to upper stories or will it be sufficient to ensure that they can access the facilities available in the building on a ground floor? • Changes of level can also occur within a storey and these can be accommodated internally by the provision of ramps/ platform lifts. • Besides the lift, internal stairs should always be provided as an alternative means of vertical access and designed to suit the PwDs. • A wheelchair user needs sufficient space and time to manoeuvre into a passenger lift, particularly when other people are sharing it. Lift doors should be designed to allow adequate time to enter or leave the lift without coming into contact with closing doors. A wheelchair user should be able to reach the controls that summon and direct the lift. 7.1.10 Toilets Wheelchair users should be able to approach, transfer to, and use the sanitary facilities provided within a building. Also a wheelchair user could be assisted by opposite sex. For example: a father by her daughter, a lady by her son. This requires the provision of a wheelchair accessible unisex toilet. The relationship of WC to basin and other accessories, and to the space required for maneuvering, should enable disabled people to transfer independently or with assistance. 7.1.11 Signage International symbol of Accessibility (wheelchair logo) has been illustrated in the NBC, 2005 but it has not been incorporated in the Regulations. In fact, signage forms an important design consideration while designing for the disabled persons. The parking regulation for the wheelchair users, internal accessible routes, way finding and the sanitary requirements should also be indicated by proper signage.

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7.2 Recommendations 1. Revision of the Building Bye-Laws of all cities/ towns and districts to make them more comprehensive and inclusive. Currently all Bye-Laws are specifically geared only for ‘physically challenged people’. There is a need to incorporate the specific needs of persons with all kinds of disabilities, senior citizens, temporarily disabled, children and persons with reduced mobility. Ministry of Urban Development should ensure that Building Bye-Laws are updated, adopted and implemented by all the States & Union Territories. MoUD Annual Report (2007-08) states, “All States have been asked to appoint an Officer in every District to bring to notice cases of non compliance to the concerned authorities”. These Officers should be well versed with access standards and their names should be made known so that DPOs/NGOs can closely work with them. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) and The Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) should include accessibility and universal design as an essential mandatory component. Adoption and implementation of accessible and inclusive Building Bye-Laws in totality. Merely provision of a ramp/lift and/or accessible toilet does not make a building fully accessible. In addition to incorporating access features in the built environment, it is equally important to make the approach, pavement, parking and entry to the buildings accessible. Government officials’ in charge of policy and implementation of development projects should be oriented and sensitized to the importance and ways of incorporating access features. Implementation of the Building Bye-Laws needs to be made mandatory. Completion certificate should not be issued to owners/agencies not complying with Building Bye-Laws. Incentives/ tax relief for compliance and penalization for non-compliance. Costs/funds should be allocated for accessible elements outlined in the Building ByeLaws of all cities and towns. Integration of access in the plans of all urban development schemes to ensure that reservation for specific categories of the population are meaningfully implemented (eg. in housing, water and sanitation schemes). All existing public buildings (with special priority to hospitals, schools, government offices, service providers, commercial buildings, recreation centers, libraries, parks, malls etc.) should be audited by a group of trained auditors and modifications carried out in a stipulated timeframe. Architects, construction engineers and those who are professionally involved in the design and construction of physical environment should be sensitized to the needs of persons with disabilities through in-service training as well as suitable modification to the curriculum in technological institutes as part of their professional studies.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

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8. Updated Model Building Bye-Laws -Planning & Building Standards Regulations ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Model Building Bye-Laws with updated access standards are given in this section. Along with these standards, revised & detailed Guidelines: Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons by MoUD should also be referred. 8.1 Universal Design in the Public Building for Persons with Disabilities Universal Design enables persons with disabilities to move about safely and freely and to use all facilities within the built environment. It also facilitates independent functioning of individuals, so that they can get into and participate in all activities of life without assistance. 8.2 Scope These Bye-Laws are applicable to all buildings, recreation areas & facilities used by public. 1. Site planning: To accommodate the persons with disabilities and elderly, each building and its site should be planned and designed as an integral unit from the very beginning of the design process. • • • Level of the roads, access paths & parking areas shall be described in the plan along with specification of materials. Every building should have at least one access to main entrance / exit for persons with disabilities, which shall be indicated by proper signage. The approach to the entrance should be level if possible. Where entrances or exits are not leveled, both steps and ramps should be provided, as some disabled persons (particularly those who use walking frames or are unable to flex the soles of their feet) cannot use the ramps upon which wheelchair users depend. The ramp should have a landing after every 9 meter run and in front of the doorway. Minimum size of landing shall be 1200mm x 2000mm. The approach should be adequately illuminated after dark.

• •

2. Access Path/ Walk Way: • Access path from plot entry and surface parking to building entrance shall be minimum of 1500mm wide and for moderate two way traffic preferred width is 1800mm, having even surface without any steps. • Slope, if any, shall not have gradient greater than 5%. • The walkway should not have a gradient exceeding 1:20. It also refers to cross slope. • When walks exceed 60 meter in length it is desirable to provide rest area adjacent to the walk at convenient intervals of 30 meter for bench/ resting seats. For comfort, seat height should be between 450 mm-500 mm, have a back rest and hand rests at 700 mm height. • Texture change in walk ways adjacent to seating by means of warning blocks should be provided for persons with vision impairment. • Avoid gratings and manholes in walks.
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• Kerbs wherever provided, should have kerb ramps. Kerb should be dropped, to be flush with walk way, at a gradient no greater than 1:10 on both sides of necessary and convenient crossing points (see Fig. 1). Width should not be less than 1200mm. If width (X) is less than 1200mm, then slope of the flared side shall not exceed 1:12. Warning strip to be provided on the kerb side edge of the slope, so that a person with vision impairment does not accidentally walk onto the road (see Fig. 3). • Selection of floor Tactile pavings- Guiding & Warning blocks shall be provided (refer Section 7) to guide persons with vision impairment (refer Figure 2). • Finishes shall have non slip surface with a texture traversable by a wheel chair. • Street furniture, trees, lighting and dustbins should be located on one side of pathways. The surface texture and color surrounding may be changed to indicate the approach to those items.

Figure 1 Kerb ramp

Figure 2 Tactile tile configuration for approach & entrance
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Figure 3 Kerb Ramp 3. Signage • Signs are to provide information. They can inform the user of a route, a hazard, or a facility. Signs also communicate an identity for the building or environment they serve. • Signage forms a small percentage of the cost of a building, typically only 0.1%, but they do contribute greatly to the aesthetics and first impression of a building. • A signage system also increases person’s awareness of their surroundings and aids orientation within the environment. Adequate expenditure on a well designed sign system can therefore be very beneficial to everyone. • The location of signs should ideally be part of the process of planning the building and environment. 3.1 Sign Design Specifications • Signs should be mounted between 1400mm and 1700mm from floor level. • The individual characters between 15mm-50mm tall, raised by 1-1.5mm and bold & color contrasted with their background. • The sign should be in a prominent position. • The face of the sign should be well illuminated by natural or artificial light. • The character or pictogram size should be 100mm minimum to 170mm maximum height for each 3meter of viewing distance.
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• • • • • • •

The font should be simple such as Arial, Helvetica medium, and san serif or similar. The colour of the text should be in a colour that contrasts with the sign board. The sign board should also contrast with the wall on which it is mounted. The surface of the sign should not be reflective. Some signs such as those adjacent to or on a toilet door or office door may be embossed so that they can be read by touch. The text should be a minimum height of 15mm to a maximum of 50mm and a depth of embossing of 1mm to 5mm. For persons with vision impairment information board in Braille should be installed on the wall at 1400-1600mm and it should be possible to approach them closely.

Figure 4 Way finding signage

Figure 5 International Symbol of Accessibility

Figure 6 Sign Posting
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4. Accessible Parking • Parking should be within 30meters of the main entrance of the building. • Two accessible parking lots with minimum width of 3600mm x 5000mm should be provided. • It should have the international signage painted on the ground and also on a signpost\ board put near it. • The symbol should be large enough to be easily visible by person looking for the accessible parking, recommended size being 1000mm x 1000mm but not larger than 1500mm x 1500mm. With the preferred colours being white and blue, the sign painted on the floor should contrast in colour and luminosity with the floor colour. • There should be directional signs guiding people to the accessible parking.

Figure 7 Accessible parking

Figure 8 Signpost for accessible parking

5. Ground and Floor Surfaces • Ground and floor surfaces (along accessible routes and in accessible rooms and spaces, including floors, walks, ramps, stairs, and curb ramps) should be stable, firm and slip-resistant. • Vertical level changes up to 6mm may not need edge treatment. Changes in level between 6mm and 12mm should be leveled off with a slope no greater than 1:2. • Edges of paths can be clearly defined by using different colors and textures.

Figure 9 Change in level of accessible route
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6. Gratings • Covers and gratings should be non-slip, flush with finished ground level and be such that openings are not more than 12mm wide. • Gratings and slot type drainage should be sited away from pedestrian flows and perpendicular to the main line of pedestrian flows so as not to trap small wheels (figure 10).

Figure 10 Gratings 7. Tactile Paving- Guiding & Warning Tiles • Tactile guidance blocks (Line-type) indicate a barrier free route for a person with visual impairment (Figure 11). It is recommended to install two rows of tactile guidance tiles along the entire length of the proposed accessible route. Care must be taken to ensure that there are no obstacles, such as trees, poles or uneven surfaces, along the route traversed by the guidance blocks. Also, there should be clear headroom of at least 2.1 meters height above the tactile guidance blocks, free of protruding objects such as overhanging tree branches and signage, along the entire length of the walk. • Tactile warning blocks (Dot-type) indicate an approaching potential hazard or a change in direction of the walkway, and serve as a warning of the approaching danger to persons with visual impairments, preparing them to tread cautiously and expect obstacles along the travel path, traffic intersections, doorways, etc. (Figure 12). The warning blocks prepare the person to tread cautiously. They are used to screen off obstacles, drop-offs or other hazards, to discourage movement in an incorrect direction, and to warn of a corner or junction. Two rows of tactile warning tiles should be installed across the entire width of the designated accessible pedestrian pathway at appropriate places such as before intersections, building entrances, obstacles such as trees, and each time the walkway changes direction.

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7.1 Places to install guiding blocks: • In front of an area where traffic is present. • In front of an entrance/exit to and from a staircase or multi-level crossing facility. • Entrances/exits at public transport terminals or boarding areas. • Sidewalk section of an approach road to a building. • Guiding path from a public facility to the nearest public transport station. • In rural areas, stones of different sizes may be used to separate the road from the curb, and to indicate the approach to public places.

Figure 11 Guiding tiles
                   

Figure 12 Warning tiles

Figure 13
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Figure 14 Engineering Configuration of Guiding Path and Warning Strip 8. Entrance Doors Whatever the type of entrance door, it must be wide enough to accommodate pedestrian traffic comfortably. • The recommended minimum clear opening width of an internal door is 900mm minimum. • Where doors comprise two leaves (i.e. double doors), each leaf should be 900mm min. wide, so that persons carrying large items and wheelchair users do not have to open both leaves. • Manual doors should incorporate kick plates 300-400mm high to withstand impact of wheelchair footrest (this is especially important where doors are glazed). • Also be fitted with vision panels at least between 900mm and 1500mm from floor level. • Be color contrasted with the surrounding wall and should not be heavier than 22N to open. • Lever handles and push type mechanisms are recommended. When a sliding door is fully open, handles should be usable from both sides. • Where revolving doors or turnstiles are used, an alternative wheelchair-accessible entrance must also be provided. • A distance of 400mm should be provided beyond the leading edge of door to enable a wheelchair user to maneuver and to reach the handle. • Thresholds of doorways should not exceed 12mm. Raised threshold and floor level changes at doorways should be leveled off (beveled) with a slope on each side of a threshold. • To ensure maximum clarity for persons with vision impairments, the entrance should be easily distinguishable from its surroundings by the effective use of landscaping, signage, colour (preferably yellow/orange), tonal contrast and tactile surfacing.
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• •

Door hardware should be positioned between 900-1000mm above floor (Figure 15). Operable devices such as handles, pulls, latches and locks should: o Be operable by one hand o Not require fine finger control, tight grasping, pinching or twisting to operate Glazed doors and fixed glazed areas should be made visible by use of a clear, colour and tone contrasted warning or decorative feature that is effective from both inside and outside and under any lighting conditions, e.g. a logo, of minimum dimensions 150mm by 150mm (though not necessarily square), set at eye level.

Figure 15 Position of door hardware

Figure 16 Position of Braille signage

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Figure 17 Placement of other Signage

Figure 18 Clear door width
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9. Lobby • Where both doors open in the same direction, and are manual, lobby dimensions should measure 1500mm (w) x 2000mm (l). • Where both sets of doors could open into a lobby (i.e. doors are mounted on two-way hinges), lobby dimensions should be increased to 1500mm (w) x 2400mm (l).
 

10. Steps & Stairs • • • • Steps should be uniform with the tread not less than 300mm and the risers 150mm. The risers should not be open. The steps should have an unobstructed width of at least 1200mm. Have continuous handrails on both sides including the wall (if any) at two levels: upper at 900mm and lower at 760mm and extend not less than 300mm beyond the top and bottom step (Figure 20). Warning blocks to be placed 300mm at the beginning and at the end of all stairs. Nosing to be avoided. The staircase should be adequately and uniformly illuminated during day and night (when in use). The level of illumination should preferably fall between 100-150 lux. The rise of a flight between landings must be no more than 1200mm. There should be no more than 12 risers in one flight run. Landing should be 1200mm deep, clear of any door swing/ window. Lighting systems in stairwells should be designed to create a slight contrast between treads and risers, while providing a uniform overall level of illumination. Where the stair direction must change, a series of landings is recommended. All steps should be fitted with a permanent colour and tone contrasting at the step edge, extending the full width of the step, reaching a minimum depth of 50mm on both tread and riser. The stair covering and nosing should be slip-resistant, non-reflective, firmly-fixed and easy to maintain. Sofit (underside /open area under the stairs) of the stairs should be enclosed or protected.

• • • • • • • • •

• •

Figure 19 Step edges in contrast colour

Figure 20 Stairs with handrails
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11. Handrails • Handrails should be circular in section with a diameter of 38-45mm (Figure 21). • At least 50mm clear of the surface to which they are attached. • Handrail at foot of the flight of stairs should extend 300mm beyond the stairs in the line of travel and returning to the wall or floor or rounded off, with a positive end that does not project into the route of travel. • Handrails/grab bars should be in a color that contrasts sharply with the surrounding area. • The handrail should be positioned at two levels- 760mm and 900mm above the pitch-line of a flight of stairs. • The handrail should be circular in section, of diameter 40mm and formed from materials which provide good grip such as timber, nylon or powder coating, matt finish metal finishes. • The handrail should contrast in colour (preferably yellow/orange) with surrounding surfaces and should be supported on brackets which do not obstruct continuous hand contact with the handrail.

Figure 21 Knuckle clearance 12. Ramps • Ramps should be accompanied by steps for ambulant disabled persons. • The gradient should ideally be 1 in 20 and no greater than 1 in 12. • The steeper the gradient, the shorter the length of ramp between landings. • On long ramps, a horizontal resting space should be provided every 6 meters. • Surface materials should be slip-resistant, non-reflective, firmly-fixed and easily maintained • The edge of the ramp should have an edge protection with a minimum height of 100mm. • Landings every 750mm of vertical rise. • A tapping or lower rail should be positioned so that its bottom edge is no higher than 200mm above ground level. • Handrails on the ramps should be on both sides at two levels: upper at 900mm and lower at 760mm; both end to be rounded and grouted; extend 300 mm beyond top and bottom of ramp. • A row of tactile warning blocks should be placed 300mm beginning and end of each run. • Landings should be provided at regular intervals as indicated in the table (Table 1).
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Minimum specifications for Ramps Level difference ≥ 150 mm ≤ 300 mm ≥ 300 mm ≤ 750 mm ≥ 750 mm ≤ 3000mm ≥ 3000 mm Minimum Ramp Width gradient of Ramp 1:12 1:12 1:15 1:20 1200 mm 1500 mm 1800 mm 1800 mm Handrail on both sides √ √ √ √ Table 1 Comments

Landings every 5 meters of ramp run. Landings every 9 meters of ramp run. Landings every 9 meters of ramp run.

Figure 22 Straight ramp
 

Figure 23 L-shape ramp
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13. Lifts A carefully designed lift makes a huge contribution to the accessibility of a multi-storey building for persons with reduced mobility and disabilities. • Lift locations should be clearly signposted from the main pedestrian route and recognizable through design and location. • The colour and tone of the lift doors should contrast with the surrounding wall finish to assist in their location. Lift doors with metallic finishes such as steel grey and silver should be avoided as they are difficult to identify by persons with low vision. • The lift lobby shall be of an inside measurement of 1800mm X 2000mm or more. • A clear landing area in front of the lift doors of minimum dimensions 1500mm x 1500mm should be provided. • By making the landing area distinguishable by floor surface and contrast, it will aid location and recognition of core areas. This could comprise a change in floor finish from thin carpet to vinyl/PVC, or cement/mosaic floor to carpet. • Changes in floor finish must be flush. There should be no difference in level between the lift door and the floor surface at each level. The gap if unavoidable should not be more than 12mm. • The floor level/location should be indicated on the wall adjacent to or just above the call buttons, and opposite the lift doors where possible.

Figure 24 Lift lobby

Figure 25 Lift signage

13.1 Lift Dimensions • Provisions of at least one lift shall be made for the wheel chair user with the following car dimensions: o Clear internal depth -1400 mm o Clear internal width - 1400 mm o Entrance door width - 900 mm
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13.2 Lift Controls • The lift call button should be wall-mounted adjacent to the lift and should contrast with wall finish, either by using a contrasting panel, or a contrasting border around the button panel. • The call buttons should be located within the range 800-1000mm above floor finish. • Buttons should not be touch sensitive, but should require a light positive pressure. • Buttons should ideally be large enough to be operable by the palm of the hand if required. • The control buttons inside the lift should be positioned on the side wall rather than front wall to allow access from the back and front of the lift car, by mobility aid users like wheelchair users. • In larger lifts, controls should be positioned on both side walls, at least 400mm from front wall and between 800-1000mm above floor level. • The control buttons should contrast with their surroundings and illuminate when pressed. • The control buttons should incorporate highly visible tactile embossed (NOT engraved) characters. It is desirable, to repeat the legend in Braille. • Time of closing of an automatic door should be more than 5 seconds and the closing speed should not exceed .25 meters per second. There should be a provision of censor enabled closing (Figure 26).

Figure 26 Lift controls 13.3 Car Design • Internal walls should have a non-reflective, matt finish in a colour and tone contrasting with the floor, which should also have a matt, non-slip finish. • Use of reflective materials such as metal (stainless steel for example) can be problematic in creating sufficient contrast with control buttons, emergency telephone cabinet etc. for persons with low vision and the use of such materials should be avoided wherever possible.
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• • •

A mirror (750mm above floor level) on the rear wall can be useful to persons using wheelchairs and other mobility aids should they need to reverse safely out of the lift car or view the floor numbers. Internal lighting should provide a level of illumination of minimum 100 lux (approximately 5075 lux at floor level), uniformly distributed, avoiding the use of spotlights or down lighters wherever possible A grab bar should be provided along both sides and the back wall, 900mm above floor level. Handrails should be of tubular or oval cross section, in order to be easily gripped and capable of providing support. Handrails should be positioned so that there is a clear space behind the handrail to allow it to be grasped i.e. knuckle space should be 50mm.

Figure 27 Lift standards 13.4 Information Systems • Lifts should have both visual and audible floor level indicators. • Audible systems are also usually capable of incorporating additional messages, such as door closing, or, in the case of an emergency, reassurance (with manual over-ride allowing communication with lift occupants). • Audible distinction between adjacent lifts can be useful. For example, using a female voice recorded message in one lift and a male voice recorded message in the other. • Announcement system should be of 50 decibel. • The display could be digital or segmented LED, or an appropriate alternative. • A yellow or light green on black display is preferred to a red on black display as it is easier to read.
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14. Corridors/Passages • Corridors should be 1800mm minimum wide to allow two wheelchairs to pass. • The floor should be slip-resistant. • Corridors should be left unobstructed and features such as fire extinguishers and AC recessed. • If necessary, changes of direction should be at 90 degrees, avoiding curved corridors or oblique angles where possible. • In long corridors, consideration should be given to the provision of resting places or support rails. • Seating should be slightly recessed off the main circulation route. • Directional signage should be repeated in long corridors to prevent disorientation.

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Figure 32 Minimum clearance for 90º turn

Figure 33 Minimum around an obstruction

Figure 34 Doorways

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15. Windows • Windows should be designed to avoid the glare which is a particular problem for people with impaired sight. • Large glass areas close to circulation spaces should be marked a little below eye-level with a coloured band or frame. • A window should have an unobstructed viewing zone for wheelchair users 600mm-1450mm (Figure 35). • Transoms positioned between 900mm and 1200mm should not be incorporated into the design to allow a clear view through a window from a seated position. Windows should be easy to open and close. • Their controls should be placed between 800 -1000mm from the floor. Lever handles should be used in preference to knobs. • Windows should contrast visually with their background for the benefit of persons with visual impairments.

Figure 35 16. Washrooms and Toilets • Accessible public toilets should have the international symbol of accessibility displayed outside for wheelchair access. • The toilet door should be an outward opening door or two way opening or a sliding type and should provide a clear opening width of at least 900mm. It should have a horizontal pull-bar, at least 600mm long, on the inside of the door, located so that it is 130mm from the hinged side of the door and at a height of 1000mm.

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16.1 WC Compartment Dimensions • The dimensions of a unisex toilet are critical in ensuring access. The compartment should be at least 2200mm and 2000mm (Figure 36). • Layout of the fixtures in the toilet should be such that a clearing maneuvering space of 1500mm x1500mm in front of the WC and washbasin (Figure 40). 16.2 Water Closet (WC) Fittings • Top of the WC seat should be 450-480mm above finished floor level, preferably be of wall hung or corbel type as it provides additional space at the toe level. • An unobstructed space 900mm wide should be provided to one side of the WC for transfer, together with a clear space 1200mm deep in front of the WC. • WC should be centred 500mm away from the side wall, with the front edge of the pan 750mm away from the back wall. Have a back support. The WC should not incorporate a lid, since this can hinder transfer. • L-shape grab bar at the adjacent wall and on the transfer side (open side) swing up grab bar shall be provided. • The cistern should have a lever flush mechanism, located on the transfer side and not on the wall side and not more than 1000mm from the floor. 16.4 Grab Bars • Grab bars should be manufactured from a material which contrasts with the wall finish (or use dark tiles behind light colored rails), be warm to touch and provide good grip. • It is essential that all grab rails are adequately fixed, since considerable pressure will be placed on the rail during maneuvering. Grab bars should sustain weight of 200kgs minimum. • A hinged type moveable grab bar should be installed adjacent to the WC on the transfer side (Figure 36). This rail can incorporate a toilet tissue holder. A distance of 320mm from the centre line of the WC between heights of 200-250mm from the top of the WC seat. It should extend 100-150mm beyond the front of the WC. • A fixed wall-mounted L- shape grab bar (600mm long horizontal and 700mm long vertical) on the wall side should be provided. It should be placed at a height of 200-250mm above the WC seat level.

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Figure 36 Plan of Accessible Toilet 16.3 Wash Basins • Wash hand basins should be fitted on cantilevered brackets fixed to the wall. • The basin should be fixed no higher than 750mm above finished floor level. • Be of dimensions 520mm and 410mm, mounted such that the top edge is between 800900mm from the floor; have a knee space of at least 760mm wide by 200mm deep by 650-680mm high (Figure 37). • The position of the basin should not restrict access to the WC i.e. it should be located 900mm away from the WC. • A lever operated mixer tap fitted on the side of the basin closest to the WC is useful as it allows hot and cold water to be used from a seated position on the WC. The water temperature should be thermostatically controlled at 40¡-45¡. • The hand drying facilities should be located close to the wash hand basin between 10001200mm. • Lever type handles for taps are recommended. • Mirror’s bottom edge to be 1000mm from the floor and may be inclined at an angle.
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Figure 37 Washbasin standards 16.5 Fixtures and Fittings • Contrast between fittings and fixtures and wall or floor finishes will assist in their location. For example, using contrasting fittings, or dark tiles behind white wash hand basins and urinals, contrasting soap dispensers and toilet roll holders. Contrast between critical surfaces e.g. floors, walls and ceilings helps to define the dimensions of the room. • Towel rails, rings and handrails should be securely fixed to the walls and positioned at 800-1000mm from the floor. • The mirror should be tilted at an angle of 300 for better visibility by wheelchair users. • It should have lower edge at 1000mm above floor finish and top edge around 1800mm above floor finish. • Hooks should be available at both lower-1200mm and standard heights- 1400mm, projecting not more than 40mm from the wall. • Where possible, be equipped with a shelf of dimensions 400mm x 200mm fixed at a height of between 900mm and 1000mm from the floor. • Light fittings should illuminate the user's face without being visible in the mirror. For this reason, most units which have an integral light are unsatisfactory. • Large, easy to operate switches are recommended, contrasting with background to assist location, at a maximum height of 1000mm above floor finish. • All toilet facilities should incorporate visual fire alarms. • Alarms must be located so that assistance can be summoned both when on the toilet pan i.e. at 900mm height and lying on the floor i.e. at 300mm, from floor surface. Alarms should be located close to the side wall nearest the toilet pan, 750mm away from rear wall and at 900mm and 200mm above floor finish.
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16.6 Signage of accessible toilets • All unisex accessible toilets to have access symbol in contrast colours (Figure 38).

Figure 38 For the benefit of the persons with vision impairment, all general toilets to have male pictogram in triangle or female pictogram in circle, marked on plates with raised alphabets and put on wall next to door and on the door as well (Figure 39). A distinct audio sound (beeper/clapper) may be installed above the entrance door for identification of the toilets.

 

Figure 39 Placement of signage

Figure 40 Internal circulation in accessible toilet cubicle
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Figure 41 Ladies Toilet

Figure 42 Gents Toilet

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16.7 Accessible Urinal At least one of the urinals should have grab bars to support ambulant persons with disabilities (for example, crutch users). • A stall-type urinal is recommended. • Urinals shall be stall-type or wall-hung, with an elongated rim at a maximum of 430mm above the finish floor. • Urinal shields (that do not extend beyond the front edge of the urinal rim) may be provided with 735mm clearance between them. • Grab bars to be installed on each side, and in the front, of the urinal (Figure 43). • The front bar is to provide chest support; the sidebars are for the user to hold on to while standing.

Figure 43 Accessible urinal

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17. Shower Cubicles • Should have seats: height 450mm-480mm which facilitate easy transfer by wheelchair users. • Grab rails at a height of 760mm-900mm. • Call buttons or other signal devices at a height: 800mm-1000mm; can be easily reached in an emergency. • Sufficient space should be provided beside shower cubicles for transfer by wheelchair users: 900mm x 1200mm. • Shower doors, locks or catches should be of a type that can be opened from the outside in an emergency. • Shower doors should preferably be of a sliding or outward opening type. • A sloping floor 1:40-1:50 with trapped outlet and non-slip waterproof finish is recommended. 17.1 Shower Dimensions • For a level area (laid to falls, flush floor drain), incorporating WC and wash hand basin, the minimum internal dimensions are 2300mm x 2400mm, preferably 2500mm x 2500mm (Figure 44). • Where only a shower is provided (floor laid to falls, flush floor drain), the minimum internal dimensions are 1800mm x 2350mm (Figure 45), but this should allow for a dry area for clothing, towel, etc. 17. 2 Shower Fittings • Where a separate shower cannot be fitted and it has to be integral with the bath, the shower head should be adjustable in height within a range of 1.5 meters to 2 meters above floor level. • It may be helpful to provide a flexible hose of sufficient length to enable the shower head to be used at the washbasin. • Shower controls should have clearly visible signs, preferably with tactile embossed symbols for on/off and hot/cold. • A thermostatically controlled lever operated shower valve set at 40¡-45¡ should be provided at a height of 1000mm above floor finish. • Controls should be positioned at least 300mm away from any side wall. • The shower spray should be fixed to a flexible hose and slider fitting to give an adjustable height range of 800mm -1000mm above floor finish (Figure 46). • Within the shower, 600mm x 600mm vertical and horizontal rails, positioned 900mm away from the fold-down shower seat. The horizontal rail should be positioned 760mm above floor finish or 200mm above the shower seat.

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Figure 44 Individual washroom with roll in shower

Figure 45 Shower facility
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Figure 46 Shower fittings

18. Emergency Egress • An accessible environment is one which persons can not only enter and use independently, but also one which they can leave safely in the event of an emergency 18.1 Emergency Evacuation Strategy • The basic principle of an emergency egress strategy is to move persons horizontally to a safe area where, if necessary, they can await assistance or rescue, before travelling vertically to reach the final exit level. • The egress routes will therefore comprise horizontal escape routes, refuges, stairwells and lifts. As well as safe escape routes; a fire evacuation strategy must be in place. • The management procedures identified in the fire evacuation strategy will be influenced by the design of the building, its occupancy and its use. • There should be procedures to ensure the safe egress of persons who work in the building who may experience difficulties in the event of an emergency. This could include persons with visual or hearing impairments, persons with learning difficulties and persons with mobility difficulties. • Clear, well illuminated signage indicating escape routes is essential (Figure 47).

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Figure 47 Emergency Egress Signage 18.2 Refuge • An alternative to immediate evacuation of a building via staircases and/or lifts is the movement of disabled persons to areas of safety within a building. If possible, they could remain there until the fire is controlled and extinguished, or, until rescued by fire fighters. Refuge area should be provided, usually at the fire-protected stair landing on each floor that can safely hold one or two wheelchairs. • Each area of refuge must be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier having minimally one hour fire resistance rating. Each area of refuge is to be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke. • Two wheelchairs spaces of size 800mm x 1200mm each to be provided in the refuge area. The area of rescue assistance shall not encroach on any required exit width. The total number of such areas per story shall be not less than one for every 200 persons of calculated occupant load served by the area of rescue assistance. • All stairs next to the refuge should have a clear width of 1200mm between the handrails. • A method of two-way communication, with both visible and audible signals, shall be provided between each area of rescue assistance and the primary entry. • Each area of rescue assistance shall be identified by a sign which states "REFUGE AREA" and displays the international symbol of accessibility. The sign should be illuminated when exit sign illumination is required. Signage should also be installed at all inaccessible exits and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the direction to areas of rescue assistance. In each area of rescue assistance, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted adjoining the two-way communication system. 18.3 Alarm Systems Concerning vocal alarms, vibrating alarms and instructions for escape from danger: • If emergency warning systems, e.g. vibrating alarms or vocal alarms, are installed, they should include a means of warning for visually impaired persons. • Visual alarm devices should be provided for persons with hearing impairments. • Sockets should be provided near beds to allow alarm systems, including vibrating under-pillow devices, to be connected easily. • Alarm signals such as flashing lights, vibrating beds or variable velocity fans can alert deaf or deaf and blind residents. Emergency exit lights and directional signals mounted near the floor have been found to be useful in cases where a lot of smoke is present. Pre-recorded messages and on-the-spot broadcasts from a central control center would be of great benefit.
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REFERENCES

1) Buildings for Everyone; National Rehabilitation Board, 1998, National Disability Authority 2) CPWD Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly persons, 1998 3) Delhi Development Plan: A Citizen Appraisal available at www.ccsindia.org/2009dch/chapter15.pdf 4) IS: 4963 - 1968, Recommendations for buildings and facilities for the Physically Handicapped 5) IS: 4963-1988, Indian Standard Recommendations for Buildings and Facilities for 6) Bureau of Indian Standards, National Building Code, 2005 7) Proposals for Amending Part M - Access to and use of buildings: A Consultation Package issued by the Building Regulations Division, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, UK. 8) The Building Act 1984, UK 9) The Building Regulations 2000, UK 10) Guidelines to Improve Barrier-Free Access for Public Trans port Passenger Facilities, 2001, ECOMO Foundation, Japan 11) “Access for All”, 12) Manual Barrier Free Environment, O/o the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, 2002 13) Model Building Bye-Laws, 2004 (TCPO, Ministry of Urban Development)

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Annexure I

Questionnaire for Municipal and Urban Development AuthoritiesCommissioners, Town Planners and officers SUPPORT FOR INCLUSIVE BYE-LAWS From the title of the section on ‘Facilities for the Physical Handicapped Persons’ it appears that the focus for the Bye-Laws is to provide access to facilities for those only with physical disabilities. However, an inclusive perspective of ‘universal design’ should be taken to provide accessible places for everyone- for people with disabilities of all types- congenital, societal and environmental, i.e. not only for people born with physical disabilities but those caused by hazards in the environment, by age and condition-the aged, pregnant, children. 1. Towards this goal, how can JNNRUM, the MoUD and/ or NGOs/Access Resource Groups assist the state government in creation of inclusive Bye-Laws? COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN GUIDELINES There is an absence of standardized design guidelines- dimensions, details for most aspects of buildings. As a result, many building practices continue to be followed, even though they may not be totally appropriate, due to adoption from other countries or being outdated. In this situation, the Bye-Laws can form the basis for better design practices. 2. Since the Bye-Laws are being revised by the MoUD to create a comprehensive database, do you believe that these can be adopted in their entirety by the state? Are there other provisions that you believe should be considered specific to the state? SPECIFIC GUIDELINES As laid out in the existing guidelines, the design of schools has been accorded special significance. In light of the development underway in the state is it feasible to incentivize the provision of accessible facilities for commercial spaces, public buildings, both public and private educational and medical institutions and other places with specific guidelines? For example, hospitals require all routes to be accessible, whereas for retail spaces it would be one direct route. Similarly, the outdoor domain is equally if not more important- the pavement, building access, road crossings should all be given due importance. 3. Especially with so many multi-national firms coming in, who provide accessible work environments as general policies, would places built to international accessibility standards attract foreign direct investment (FDI)?

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KEEPING TRACK 4. What percentages of buildings/ public spaces are actually built to be accessible? During the building permitting process and/ or time that the completion certificate is given, are there any checks to make sure the existing provisions are provided? If not, what can be done to make sure they are? 5. Can Access officers be appointed or Access Co-ordination Cell be formed within the Municipal Corporation for this purpose? 6. Also, can new buildings/ developers be penalized for not providing access? And/ or rewarded by correspondingly allowing some leniency/ concessions in some other condition that it is hard to meet? AWARENESS 7. Is it possible to follow both approaches- enforcement of Laws and education of the larger public about the measures required to make places more accessible? 8. Do you think it is feasible to create model buildings that are completely accessible and publicize this through websites/forums/media for sensitization and spreading awareness? MANAGEMENT & MAINTENANCE Long-term maintenance of the accessible facility is as important as its creation. For example, if there is a large mailbox that falls in the path of travel/ or rubbish in a hallway, an accessible route is no longer accessible. This is a disability for the abled too. Here perhaps, incentives will work the best. 9. Is there any such incentive scheme to reward/ punish long-term behavior tried/ tested that you believe can be implemented?

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Annexure II Model Building Bye-Laws Appendix – “G” (Bye Laws: 6.8) To Provide Facilities in the Public Building excluding Domestic Buildings for Handicapped Persons Town & Country Planning Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India issued the Model Building Bye-Laws in November 2004 to all the states. 1. Definitions Ambulant Disabled People:

Disabled who are able to walk but who may depend on prostheses (Artificial Limbs) orthoses (Calipers), Sticks, crutches or walking aids.

Non-Ambulant Disabled People: Disabled people with impairments that confine them to wheelchair. Wheel Chair: Chair used by disabled people for mobility. (i) Size ofsmall wheel chair: 750 x 1050 mm (ii) Size of large wheel chair: 800 x 1500 mm 2. Scope These Bye-Laws are applicable to public buildings and exclude domestic buildings. Building which shall provide access to ambulant disable and Non-Ambulant disabled are listed below. Distinction is made for buildings to be designed for the use of large wheel chairs and small wheel chair. 3. Building to be designed for Ambulant Disabled People Higher Secondary School, Conference Hall, Dance Halls, Youth Centres, Youth Clubs, Sport Centres, Sport Pavilions, Boat Club Houses, Ice Rinks, Bowling Centres, Swimming Pools, Police Stations, Law Courts, Courts Houses, Sport Stadiums, Theaters, Concert Halls, Cinemas, Auditorias, Small Offices (the maximum plinth area 1400 sq.mt) Snack Bars, Cafes and banqueting rooms (for capacity above 50 dinners). Note: i) In sport stadiums provisions shall be made for non-ambulant spectators (small wheel chair) ii) @ 1:1000 up to 10,000 spectators and @ 1:2000 for spectators above 10,000. iii) In Theaters, Concert Halls, Cinemas and Auditoria provisions shall be made for non-ambulant spectators (Small Wheel Chairs) @ 1/250 up to 1000 spectators and 1/500 for spectators above 1000. 4. Building to be designed for Non-Ambulant Disabled People: Schools for physically handicapped, cremation, buildings as mentioned in 3, Botanical
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Gardens, Religious Buildings, Old People Clubs, Village Halls, Day Centers, Junior Training Centres, Post Offices, Banks, Dispensaries, Railway Stations, Shops, Super Markets, and Departmental Stores. Notes: Large wheel chair criteria shall be applicable on ground floors of the following building, post offices, banks, dispensaries, railway station, shops, supermarkets, and departmental stores. 5. Building to be designed for Non-Ambulant People (using small wheel chairs) Public lavatories in Tourist Sports, Clubs Motels, Professional and Scientific Institution, Museum, Art Galleries, Public Libraries, Laborites, Universities, Collage for further Education, Teachers Training Colleges, Technical College, Exhibition Halls Dentist Surgeries, Administrative Department of the Hospitals, Service Stations, Car Parking, Buildings Airports Terminals, Bus Terminals, Factories Employing Handicapped for Sedentary Works, Large Offices, (with plinth area abode 1400 sq.mt.), Tax Offices, Passport Offices, Pension Offices, and Labour Offices, Cafes, Banqueting Rooms and Snack Bars (For capacity above 100 dinners). 6. Buildings Requirements: 6.1 The following building requirements are to be provided for building mentioned above. 6.2 Site Planning Access path form plot entry and surface parking to building entrance shall be minimum of 1800 mm wide having regular surface without any steps. The parking of vehicles of disabled people two equivalent car spaces (ECS) shall be provided near entrance of 30 m from building entrance. 7. Approach to Plinth Level Ramp shall be provided to enter the building, minimum width of ramp shall be 1800 mm with maximum gradient 1:12, length of ramp shall not exceed 9.0 m having 900mm high hand rail on both sides extending 300 mm on both sides of ramps. Minimum gap from the adjacent wall to the handrail shall be 50 mm. Entrance landing shall be provided adjacent to ramp with the minimum dimension 1800 X 2000 mm. Minimum clear opening for the entrance door shall be 1000 mm. Threshold shall not be raised more than 12 mm. For stepped approach size of tread shall not be less than 275 mm and maximum riser shall be 150 mm. 8. Stairways Height of the riser shall not be more than 150 mm and width of the tread not less than 275 mm, nosing if provided shall not extend beyond 25 mm. Maximum number of risers on a flight shall be limited to 12.
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9. Lifts Whenever lift is required as per Bye-Laws, provision of at-least one lift shall be made for NonAmbulant disabled (using small wheel chairs with the following minimum dimensions of lift). Clear internal depth 1090 mm Clear internal width 1750 mm Entrance door width 910 mm A handrail not less 600 mm long at 1000 mm above floor level shall be fixed adjacent to the control panel. 10. Toilets 10.1 One special W.C. in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of disabled. No additional provision of W.C. is to be made for disabled. Size of the W.C. shall depend on the category of disabled for whom it is has been provided. All doors in W.Cs shall open outside. The type of W.C. shall be European with seat height as 500 mm. Handrails, where provided shall have min 25 mm dia. 10.2 Provision of W.Cs in buildings without lift: Provision of special W.C. shall be made on all floors for buildings designed for ambulant disabled persons. For buildings designed for non-ambulant disabled special W.C. shall be provided at ground floor. Size of W.C. shall depend on the type of wheel chair used by the disabled. 10.3 Provisions of W.Cs in buildings with lift: Provision of Special W.C. shall be made on all floors. Size will depend on the category of disabled for whom it has been provided. 10.4 Toilet Details 10.4.1 For Toilets Designed for Ambulant Disabled The minimum size of W.C. shall be 1075 x 1650 mm with a minimum depth of 1450 mm from entry door 900 mm. Long handrail on the side closer to W.C. with a clear width between the handrails shall be 900 mm and height of handrails shall be 800 mm from floor level. Minimum size of the clear door opening shall be 780 mm. 10.4.2 For Toilets Designed for Non-Ambulant Disabled Small Wheel Chair The minimum size of W.C. shall be 1350 x 1500 mm with a minimum depth of 1500 mm from entry door. 900 mm long handrail on the side closer to W.C. shall be provided. To provide movement space for wheel chair, W.C. seat shall be fixed towards one side to the opposite adjacent wall. The centerline of W.C. from the adjacent wall shall be 400 mm and minimum 950 mm from the other wall. Minimum size of the clear door opening shall be 780 mm.
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10.4.3 For Toilets Designed for Non-Ambulant Disabled Using Large Wheel Chair The minimum size of W.C. shall be 1500 X 1750 with a minimum depth of 1750 mm for entry door. 900 mm long handrail on the side wall closer to W.C. shall be provided. To provide movement space for wheel chair, W.C. seat shall be fixed towards one side of the opposite wall. The centerline of the W.C. from the adjacent wall shall be 400 mm and a minimum of 1100 mm from the other wall. Min. size of clear door opening shall be 860 mm.

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Annexure III NATIONAL BUILDING CODE ANNEX D (Clause 12.21) SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANNING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGE MEANT FOR USE OF PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED D-1 GENERAL D-1.1 These requirements apply to all buildings and facilities used by the public. These apply to temporary or emergency conditions as well as permanent conditions. It does not apply to private residences. These requirements are concerned with non- ambulatory disabilities, semi-ambulatory disabilities, sight disabilities, hearing disabilities, disabilities of inco-ordination, aging, allergies, heart and lung diseases, epilepsy, haemophilia, incontinence and enterostomy. It is intended to make all buildings and facilities used by the public accessible to, and functional for the physically challenged through and within their doors, without loss of function, space, space or facility where the general public is concerned. It supplements the general requirements of the Code, and reflects greater concern for safety of life and limb. In cases of practical difficulty, unnecessary hardship, or extreme differences, the Authority may grant exceptions from the literal requirements of this Annex or permit the use of the other methods or methods or materials, but only when it is clearly evident that equivalent facilities and protection are thereby secured. D-1.2 For the purpose of this Annex, the following definitions shall apply. PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONLES RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS D-1.2.1 Aging Those manifestations of the aging processes that significantly reduce mobility, Flexibility. Coordination. And perceptiveness but are not accounted for in the categories mentioned in D-11.2.3.1 to D-1.2.3.9. D-1.2.2 Appropriate Number The number of a specific item that would be necessary, in accordance with the purpose and function of building or facility, to accommodate individuals with specific disabilities in proportion to the anticipated number or individuals with disabilities who would use a particular building or facility. D-1.2.3 Disabilities D-1.2.3.1 Non-ambulatory disabilities Impairments that, regardless of cause or manifestation, for all practical purposes, confine individuals to wheelchairs.
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D-1.2.3.2 Semi-ambulatory disabilities Impairments that cause individuals to walk with difficulty or insecurity. Individuals using braces or crutches, amputees, arthritis, spastics and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills may be semi-ambulatory. D-1.2.3.3 Sight disabilities Total blindness or impairments affecting sight the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger. D-1.2.3.4 Hearing disabilities Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an individual insecure in public areas because he is unable to communicate or hear warning signals. D-1.2.3.5 Disabilities of inco-ordination Faulty co-ordination or palsy from brain spinal, or peripheral nerve injury. D-1.2.3.6 People with allergies People with allergies may be sensitive to dust, mildew pollen, animal hair, formalin, turpentine, etc. Some are sensitive to contact with substance and materials, such as, nickel, chromium and rubber. D-1.2.3.7 People with heart and lung diseases People with heart and lung diseases may only be able to walk short distances and may be unable to climb stairs. The requirements of these people are similar to those with impaired mobility. D-1.2.3.8 People with epilepsy, hemophilia etc. The requirements of those with epilepsy, hemophilia etc, are related primarily to the design of buildings and the need to minimize the risk of injury caused by falling or encountering obstacles. D-1.2.3.9 People with incontinence, enterostomy operations, etc. The requirements of people with incontinence, enterostomy operations, etc (colostomies, ilcostomies and urostomies) are mainly related to bathroom provision. In certain circumstances, for example, in public water-closet compartments, it may be desirable to provide a special sink for emptying urine bags. D-1.2.4 Fixed Turing Radius, Front structure to Rear Structure The turning radius of a wheelchair, left front-foot platform to right rear wheel, or right front-foot platform to left rear wheel, when pivoting on a spot. D-1.2.5 Fixed Turning Radius Wheel The tracking of the caster wheels and large wheels of a wheelchair when pivoting on a spot.
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D-1.2.6 Involved (Involvement) A portion or portions of the human anatomy or physiology, or both, that have a loss or impairment of normal function as a result of genesis, trauma, disease, inflammation or degeneration. D-1.2.7 Ramps, Ramps with Gradients Because the term ‘ramp’ has a multitude of meanings and uses, its use in this text is clearly defined as ramps with gradients (gradual slope joining two level surfaces) that deviate from what would otherwise be considered the normal level. An exterior ramp, as distinguished from a ‘walk’, would be considered an appendage to a building leading to a level above or below the existing ground level. D-1.2.8 Walk, Walks Because the term ‘walk’ and ‘walks’ have a multitude of meaning s and uses, their use in this standard of meanings and users, their use in this standard is clearly defined as a predetermined prepared surface, exterior pathway leading to or from a building or facility, or from one exterior area to another, placed on the existing ground level and not deviating from the level of the existing ground immediately adjacent. D-2 SITE DEVELOPMENT D-2.1 Almost any building can be made accessible to physically challenged persons by so planning the site that the terraces, retaining walls and winding walks are used effectively. D-2.1.1 Site development is the most effective means to resolve the problems created by topography, definitive architectural designs problems, singularly or collectively, so that aggress, ingress and egress to buildings by physically challenged may be facilitated while preserving the desired design and effect of the architecture. D-2.2 Walks D-2.2.1 Public walks should be at least 1200mm wide and should have a gradient not greater than 1 in 20. D-2.2.1.1 It is essential that the gradient of walks and driveways be less than that prescribed for ramps, since walks would be devoid of handrails and kerbs and would be considerably longer and more vulnerable to the elements. Walks of near maximum grade and considerable length should have level areas at intervals for purposes of rest safety. Walks or driveways should have a non-slip surface. D-2.2.2 Such walks shall be of a continuing common surface not interrupted by steps or abrupt changes in level.
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D-2.2.3 Wherever walks cross other walks, driveways or parking lots they should blend to a common level. D-2.2.3.1 This requirement, does not require the elimination of kerbs, which, particularly if they occur at regular intersections, are a distinct safety feature for all of the challenged, particularly the blind. The preferred method of meeting the requirement is to have the walk incline to the level of the street. However, at principal intersections, it is vitally important that the kerbs run parallel to the street, up to the point where the walk is inclined, at which point the kerb would turn in and gradually meet the level of the walk at its highest point. A less preferred method would be to gradually bring the surface of the driveway or street to the level of the walk. The disadvantage of this method is that a blind person would not know when he has left the protection of a walk and has entered the hazards of a street or driveway (see Fig 9.) D-2.2.4 A walk shall have a level platform at the top which is at least 1500mm long, if a door swings out which is at least 1500mm long, if a door swings out onto the platform or towards the walk. This platform shall extend at least 300mm beyond each of the doorway. D-2.2.5 A walk shall have a level platform at least 900mm deep, if the door does not swing onto the platform or towards the walk. This platform shall extend at least 300mm beyond each side of the doorway. D-2.3 Parking Space D-2.3.1 Space that are accessible and approximate to the facility should be set aside and identified for use by individual with physical disabilities. D-2.3.2 A parking space open on one side, allowing room individuals in wheelchairs or individuals on braces and crutches to get in and out of an automobile onto a level surface, is adequate, is adequate. It should have a minimum width of 2700mm preferably 2800mm for ambulant disabled and minimum 300mm preferably 3300 for wheel chair users. D-2.3.3 Parking spaces for individuals with physical disabilities when placed between two conventional diagonal or head-on parking spaces should be 3.6m to 3.8m wide and the length of the aisle should 7.3m, 6.1m and 6.5m for head-on, 90° and 60° parking respectively. D-2.3.4 Care in planning should be exercised, so that individuals in wheelchairs and individuals using braces and crutches are not compelled to wheel or walk behind parked cars. D-2.3.5 Consideration should be given to the distribution of spaces for use by the disabled in accordance with the frequency and persistency of parking needs. D-3 BUILDINGS D-3.1 Ramps with Gradients where ramps with gradients are necessary desired, they shall
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conform to he following requirements (see Fig. 10). D-3.1.1 A ramp when provided should not have a slope greater than 1 in 20 or maximum of 1 in 12 for short distance up to 900mm. D-3.1.2 A ramp shall have handrails on at least one side, and preferably two sides, that are 900mm high, measured from the surface of the ramp, that are smooth, and that extend 300mm beyond the top and bottom of the ramp. Where major traffic is predominantly children, the handrails should be placed 760mm high. NOTES 1. Where handrails are specified to be of heights other than 80cm, it is recommended that two sets of handrails be installed to serve all people. Where major traffic is predominantly children, particularly physically disabled children, extra care should be exercised in the placement of handrails, in accordance with the nature of the facility and the age group or groups being serviced (see also D-3). 2. Care should be taken that the extension of the handrails is not in itself a hazard. Extension up to 300mm may be made on the side of a continuing wall. D-3.1.3 A ramp shall have a surface that is non-slip surface and if length is 3500mm, the minimum width shall be 1500mm. D-3.1.3.1 The provision of non-slip surfaces on ramps greatly assists the challenged persons with semi ambulatory and ambulatory disabilities. Non-slip surfaces are provided by many finishes and materials. The surfaces of the concrete ramp can be made non-skid by brooming the surface or by finishing with an indenting roller. D-3.1.4 A ramp shall have a level platform at the top which is at least 1800mm long, if a door swings out onto the platform or toward the ramp. This platform shall extend at least 300mm beyond each side of the doorway (see Fig.11). D-3.1.5 Each ramp shall have at least 1800mm of straight clearance at the bottom. D-3.1.6 Ramps shall have level platforms at 10m to 12m intervals for purposes of rest and safety, and shall have platforms minimum 1.5m length wherever they turn. D-3.1.6 Ramps shall have level platforms at 10m to 12m intervals for purposes of rest and safety, and shall have platforms minimum 1.5m length wherever they turn. D-3.1.7 For visually impaired people, ramps may be colour contrasted with landing. D-3.1.8 To minimize rise to wheelchair users, ramps should be equipped with herbs approximately
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50mm high at exposed sides. D-3.2 Entrances D-3.2.1 At least one primary entrance to each building shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs (see Fig. 12A) and shall be indicated by a sign (see Fig. 12B). D-3.2.2 At least one entrance usable by individuals in, wheelchairs shall be on a level that would make the elevators accessible. D-3.3 Doors and Doorways D-3.3.1 Door width To enable wheelchair users to pass through doors, the minimum clear width should be 900mm and shall be operable by a single effort. In certain cases the clear width should be 900mm to 1000mm; for example, if the wheelchair has to be turned in the doorway, where there is a doorcloser or at entrance doors to public buildings and in other situations where there is considerable traffic. D-3.3.1.1 Two-leaf doors are not usable by those with disabilities defined in D-1.2.1, D-1.2.2 and D-1.2.5 unless they operate by a single effort, unless one of the two leaves meets the requirements of D-3.3.1. D-3.3.1.2 Side-hung doors To facilitate wheelchair manoeuvre, Doors should be hung with the hinges in room corners. Doors opening out into corridors or circulation spaces should be avoided as far as possible. D-3.3.1.3 It is recommended that all doors have kick plates extending from the bottom of the door to at least 400mm from the floor, or be made of a material and finish that would safely withstand the abuse they might receive from canes, crutches, wheelchair foot-platforms, or wheelchair weeks. D-3.3.2 Wheelchair Maneuvering Space To enable wheelchair users to approach doors maneuvering space is needed as shown in the Fig.13. A corridor should have a width of at least 1200mm to allow a 90°turn to made through a door. In narrow spaces sliding doors may be preferable. D-3.3.3 Thresholds Raised thresholds should be avoided, but where this is not possible, their height should not exceed 25mm. Rubber thresholds are advantageous for wheelchair users. D-3.3.3.1 Care should be taken in the selection, placement and setting of door closers so that they do not prevent the use of doors by the physically disabled. Time-delay door closers are
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recommended. D-3.3.3.2 Self-closing doors: Wheelchair users and other with impaired mobility have difficulty in using self-closing doors. The force required to open them should be reduced as far as possible. Public buildings should preferably have sliding automatic doors. D-3.3.4 Door Identification: To help people with impaired vision to see doors, the door and frame should be in a colour which contrasts with the adjoining wall. Glass or glazed doors should be marked with a coloured band or frame, a little below eye-level. D-3.3.5 Handles Door handles and locks should be easy to manipulate. To facilitate the closing of a door by wheelchair users (for example, a water-closet compartment), the door should have a horizontal handle approximately 800mm from the floor. Self-closing doors should be equipped with an easy gripped vertical pull-handle with a length of at least 300mm, and with the lower end approximately 800mm above floor. For many people and especially those with impaired vision, it is helpful to make clear whether doors are to be pulled or pushed (see Fig. 14). D-3.4 Windows: Windows should be designed to avoid the glare which is a particular problem for people with impaired vision. Large glass areas close to circulation spaces should be marked a little below eye-level with a coloured band or fame. To enable wheelchair users to see through a window comfortably, the sill should be not higher than 800mm from the floor. Windows should be easy to open and close. Their controls should be placed in the zone 900 to 1200mm from the floor (see Fig. 15). D-3.5 Stairs: Stairs should not be the only means of moving between floors. They should be supplemented by lifts or raps. D-3.5.1 Straight flights of steps are preferred by ambulant disabled people. Treads should be approximately 300mm deep and risers not higher than 150mm. Steps should be of a consistent height and depth throughout the stair. Projecting nosings and open stairs should be avoided to minimize the risk of stumbling. D-3.5.2 Handrails should be provided to both sides of any stairway. They should be continuous and extend not less than 300mm beyond the top and bottom step (otherwise it is difficult for the disabled to use the rail at the first and last step; see fig. 16). D-3.5.3 For people with impaired vision, there should be a colour contrast between landings, and top and bottom steps of a flight of steps of a flight of steps, or the front edge of each should have a contrasting colour. D-3.6 Floors D-3.6.1 Floors shall have a non-slip surface.
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D-3.6.2 Floors on a given storey shall be of a common level throughout or be connected by a ramp in accordance with D-3.1.1 to D-3.1.8. D-3.6.2.1 A gentle slope up to 10mm may be given between the level of the floor of the corridor and the level of the floor of the corridor and the level of the floor of the toilet rooms. D-3.6.2.2 There should not be a difference between the level of the floor of a corridor and the level of a meeting room, dining room, or any other room, unless proper ramps and provided. D-3.1 Sanitary Facilities It is essential that sanitary facilities, in accordance with the nature and use of a specific building or facility, be made accessible to, and usable by, the physically challenged. D-3.7.1 Sanitary facilities shall have space to allow traffic of individuals in wheelchairs (see Fig.17 and 18). D-3.7.2 Sanitary facilities shall have at least one water-closet cubical for the ambulant disabled (see Fig.19 and 20). That: a) is 900mm wide; b) is at least 1500mm, preferably 1600mm deep; c) has a door (where doors are used), that is, 800mm wide and swings out; d) has handrails on each side, 780mm high and parallel to the floor, 40mm clearance between rail and wall, and fastened securely at ends and centre; and e) has a water-closet with the seat 500mm from the floor. Note-The design and mounding of the water-closet is of considerable importance. A Wall-mounted water-closet with a narrow understructure that recedes sharply is most desirable. If a floor mounted water-closet must be used, it should not have a front that is wide and perpendicular to the floor at the front of the seat. The bowl should be shallow at the front of the seat and turn backwards more that downwards to allow the individual in a wheelchair to get close to the water-closet with the seat of the wheelchair. D-3.7.3 Sanitary facilities shall have wash basins with narrow aprons, which when mounted at standard height are usable by individuals in wheelchairs; or they shall have wash basins mounted higher, when particular designs demand, so that are usable by individuals in wheelchairs. D-3.7.3.1 The drain pipes and hot-water pipes under a sanitary appliance shall be covered or insulated so that a wheelchair individual do not find it inconvenient. D-3.7.4 Some mirrors and shelves shall be provided above the wash basins at a height as low as
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possible and not higher than 1m above the floor, measured from the top of the shelf and the bottom of the mirror. D-3.7.5 Sanitary facilities for men shall have wall-mounted urinals with the opening of the basin 460mm from the floor, or shall have floor-mounted urinals that are on level with the main floor of the toilet room. D-3.7.6 Toilet rooms shall have an appropriate number of towel racks, towel dispensers, and other dispensers and disposal units mounted not higher than 910mm from the floor. D-3.8 Drinking fountains or other water-dispensing means shall be accessible to and usable by the physically disabled. D-3.8.1 Drinking water fountains or water coolers shall have up front spouts and control. D-3.8.2 Drinking water fountains or water coolers shall be hand-operated or hand and footoperated. D-3.8.2.1 Conventional floor mounted water coolers may be convenient to individuals in wheelchairs if a small fountain is mounted on the side of the cooler 800mm above the floor. D-3.8.2.2 Fully recessed drinking water fountains are not recommended. D3.8.2.3 Drinking water fountains should not be set into an alcove is wider than a wheelchair. D-3.9 Public Telephones An appropriate number of public telephones should be made accessible to and usable by the physically disabled. Note-The conventional public telephone boots is not usable by most physically disabled individuals. There are many ways in which public telephones may be made accessible and usable. It is recommended that architects and builders confer with the telephone companies in the planning of the building or facility. D-3.9.1 Such telephones should be kept so that the dial is placed at minimum 1200mm from floor and the handset may be reached by individuals in wheelchairs. D-3.10 Handrails Handrails are used as a locational and mobility aid by blind and visually impaired people, and as a support for people with mobility impairments. The handrail should be securely fitted to the wall to withstand heavy pressure. Handrails should turn in towards the wall at either end.

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D-3.10.1 Handrails should be approximately 900mm from the floor. The rail should be easy to grip, having a circular section with a diameter of approximately 40mm and fixe as shown in Fig 21. D-3.10.2 To aid identification, the colour of the rail should contrast with the wall behind/

D-3.11 Elevators In a multi-storey building, elevators are essential to the successful functioning of physically disabled individuals. They shall conform to the requirements given in D-3.11.1 and D-3.11.2. D-3.11.1 Elevators shall be accessible to, and usable by the physically disabled on the level that they use to enter the building, and at all levels normally used by the general public. D-3.11.2 Elevators shall allow for traffic by wheelchairs (see also D-3.3). D-3.12 controls It is advantageous for wheelchair users if controls are placed at low level. For visually impaired people, controls should be in the zone 900mm to 1200mm from the floor. It is advantageous if controls in, for example, lifts are placed at an angle of approximately 45° to the wall so that they are easier to read and operate. To cater for wheelchair users, controls should be placed not less than 400mm from room corners. All the power and electric points should be placed at one meter above the floor level and should not project outside walls. D-3.12.2 Again, to eater for visually impaired people, controls should be colour-contrasted with backgrounds. Information should preferably be in relief for tactile reading. D-3.12.3 To aid operation of people with impaired co-ordination or impaired vision, switches, etc, should have large push plates. D-3.12.4 Controls for powered door openers to hinged doors should be located so that the doors do not conflict with wheelchairs, sticks, walking aids, etc. D-3.12.5 To facilitate operation for people with limited used by the public is particularly essential to the blind. D-3.12 Identification Appropriate identification of specific facilities within a building used by the public is particularly essential to the blind. D-3.13.1 Raised letters or numbers shall be used to identify rooms or offices.

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D-3.13.2 Such identification should be placed on the wall, to left of the door, preferably at a height of 1500mm from the floor. D-3.13.3 Doors that are not intended for normal use, and that might prove dangerous if blind person were to exit or enter by tem, should be made quickly identifiable to the touch by knurling the door handle or knob (see Fig.22). D-3.13 Warning Signals D-3.14.1 Audible warning signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous audible signals for the benefit of the blind. To assist blind people, lettering and symbols on signs should be in relief for tactile reading.

D-3.14.2 Visual signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous audible signals for the benefit of the blind. To assist blind people, lettering and symbols on signs should be in relief for tactile reading. D-3.14.4 Signs should be designed and located so that they are easy to read. For visually impaired people, signs should preferably be at eye-level and it should be possible to approach them closely. Text and symbols should be colour-contrasted with the background. The letters should not be less than 12mm high. D-3.14.5 Information based on colour codes only should be avoided; colourblind people may find them difficult to understand. D-3.15 Work Bench This should be at least 800mm wide, 600mm deep and 650mm to 700mm high. For wheelchair users, the convenient height of work tops is between 750mm and 850mm; flexible provision is preferred. Further, for wheelchair access to a work bench, wash basin or table, a clear space for knees and footrests is needed. D-3.16 Hazards Every effort shall be exercised to obviate hazards to individuals with physical disabilities. D-3.16.1 Access panels or manholes in floors, walks, and walls may be extremely hazardous, particularly when in use, and should be avoided. D-3.16.1 access panels or manholes in floors, walks, and walls may be extremely hazardous
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particularly when it is in proximity of normal pedestrian traffic, barricades shall be placed on all open sides; at least 8.5m from the hazard and warning devices shall be installed in accordance with D-3.14.2. D-3.16.4 Low-hanging door closers that remain within the opening of a doorway, when the door is open or that protrude hazardously into regular corridors or traffic ways when the door is closed, shall be avoided. D-3.16.4 Low-hanging signs, ceiling lights and similar objects or signs and fixtures that protrude into regular corridors or traffic way shall be avoided. A minimum height of 2.1m measured from the floor is recommended. D-3.16.5 Ramps shall be adequately lighted. D-3.16.6 Exit signs shall be in accordance with good practices [3(5)]. D-3.16.7 Equipment and materials causing allergic reactions should as far as possible be avoided in dwellings and building. D-4 DESIGNING FOR CHILDREN The dimensions given in this Annex are for adults of average stature. In designing buildings for use by children, it may be necessary to alter some dimensions, such as, height of handrails, in accordance with accepted standards [3(6)]. D-5 For additional information regarding other facilities and conveniences required in buildings meant for use of physically challenged, reference may be made to accepted standards [3(7)].

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Annexure IV

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS INDIA

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S. NO. 1.

DESIGN ELEMENTS BASIC DIMENSION S/ ANTHROPO METRICS Space Allowances

CPWD 1998 Space Allowance 900 x 1200 Turning radius 1500 to 2000

MSJE 2001 Without obstruction Max. Forward Reach – 1200mm (from floor level) Min. Forward Reach – 400mm (from floor level) Comfortable Reaching zone – 800 to 1200mm
 

IS: 4963 / NBC 2005

Forward reach

Door Handles Electric Controls

Without obstruction Max. upper reach – 1300 Max. lower reach – 380

Over Obstruction Max. reach over an obstruction (500mm deep) – 1100mm Wheelchair width – 680mm Turning radius –1500 min. 1800 (ideal) Vision zone – 900 to 1800 mm range Wheelchair size –100 to 1200 mm length 600 to 700mm width Max. Side Reach – 1300 mm (from floor lvl) Min. side reach –250 mm (from floor lvl) Max. side reach over an obstruction 1200mm

With obstruction Max. Forward reach – 1100

Eye Levels

Entrance width Wheelchair casters

Max. Side reach (upper level) –1300 Max. side reach (lower level) – 230 Max. Side reach over obstruction – 1200 Max. side reach over obstruction – 860 Height for switches (power) – 400 to 500 Height for switches (light) – 900 to 1200 Height of doors handles – 900 to 1200 Opening controls for windows - < 1400

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Min. Width of entrance/ exit door- 900 Range of reach – 630 Eye level – 1190 Space required under the counter for wheelchair footrest– 350mm deep

White cane range – 685mm above floor level Wheelchair castor width –12mm

Turning radius 1500 (min.), 1800 (ideal) Min. Front approach Doorways space – 450mm Wheelchair casters 180mm OD CRUTCHES Space Allowance -300mm with no obstruction up to 300mm height SITE PLANNING 2. Min. width – 1200mm For WALKS AND PATHS two way traffic –1650mm to 1800mm Height of controls from floor level 600mm– 1200mm

Walk gradient 3-5% (30mm to 50mm in 1M ) Resting spaces after 60M Seat height –350mm to 425mm, < 450mm Opening between bars of grating < 12mm Side walk for pedestrian 1500< Guiding blocks 250mm to 300mm on both sides of walkway

Min. width of walkways – 1200mm with gradient not greater than1:20 Sidewalk to be at least Level platform 1500mm wide at the top min. – 1500mm long Clear headroom of at and extending least 2000mm from at least 300mm floor level beyond each side of doorway Colored tactile marking Level platform strip of at least 600mm at least 900mm deep, if door wide at the beginning and end of traffic island does not swing onto platform for pedestrians with impaired vision

Walkway width for people using crutches – 920mm

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3. 4.

LEVELS AND GROOVE KERB RAMP

Max. allowable Level difference - 20mm Desirable – 0 mm To be provided where vertical rise is less than 150mm Gradient not be steeper than 1:10 Width not be less than 900mm Vertical Rise Max. Gradient 0 – 15mm 1:2 15 – 50mm 1:5 50 - 200mm 1:10 >200 mm 1:12 Max. Length – 9M Min. clear width – 1200mm Min. flat surface at bottom, landing and top – 1500mm Handrails between 800 –900mm above floor level extending 300mm beyond the top and bottom of the ramp 75mm high kerbs at exposed side of ramps Max. – 25mm high Max. Gradient – 1:10

5.

RAMPS

Min. width – 1800mm Gradient – 1:12 Max. Length – 9M Handrail -900mm & 800mm on both sides of ramp Min. gap to wall – 50mm Min. flat surface at bottom, landing and top – 1500mm Handrail Dia. – 40mm with50mm gap from wall

Slope not greater than 1 in 20 and max. up to 1 in 12 for short distance up to 9000mm Handrails 900mm high extending 300mm beyond the top and bottom of ramp For children handrails height – 760mm Min. width 1500mm for a ramp of length 3500mm Level platform at top of ramp min. 1800mm long With platform extending min. 300mm each side of doorway 1800mm of straight clearance at the bottom For rest and safety Level

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platforms of min. 1.5M length at 10M to 12M intervals 50mm high kerbs at exposed side of ramps 6. CORRIDOR Min. width (visually impaired ) –1500mm Min. width for two wheelchairs -1800mm Gradient – 1:12 Min. length of landing 1500mm Min. area at corner to turn a wheelchair – 1400 x 1700mm Max. height of handrail –800mm Min. height of obstruction – 2000mm Min. dimension for entrance – 1800 x 2000mm Max. travel distance from entrance – 30M Min. width of parking bay – 3.60 M

7. 8.

ENTRANCE LANDING PARKING

Symbol of access to be painted on the designated parking lot of square of min. 1000mm and max. of 1500mm

For Ambulant Disabled Min. width required 2700mm Preferable width – 2800mm Car park entrance to For Wheelchair have height clearance Users of at least 2000mm Min. width required – 3000mm Preferable width – 3300mm Min. dimensions of Width of parking accessible car parking aisles 3.6- 3.8m lot 4800mm x 3600mm

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9.

ENTRANCES/ Min. clear width of DoorEXIT DOORS 900mm Min. width of Front approach – 1450mm Min. width of latch side approach - 2250mm

900 mm Thresholds not more than 20mm

Length of parking aisles 7.3 m for head on parking 6.1m for 90° parking 6.5m for 60° parking Min. clear door width – 900mm For wheelchair turning – 900 to 1000 mm Doors to have Kick plates up to 400mm from the floor level Depending on the free space beside the opening side (450 or 550mm), the depth of free space should be 1500 or 1400mm Threshold should not exceed 25mm Door (horizontal) handle approximately at 800mm from the floor level Vertical pull handle at least 300mm long with lower end

Kick plates min. 250mm high from floor Handle Height 800 – 900mm

Threshold not be raised > 12mm Kick plate -300mm from the floor Door bell 850 to 1100mm Information sign max. 1500mm height

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approx. 800mm above floor level 10. WINDOWS Max. sill level– 850mm Opening zone –850 to 1200mm from the floor Unobstructed view from 600 to 1400mm Max. Sill level – 800mm Opening zone – 900 to 1200mm from the floor level Approximately 900mm from the floor level Circular section with dia. 40mm and clearance of 50mm from wall Treadsapprox. 300mm deep Riser- 150mm Handrails – extending 300mm beyond the top and bottom of the staircase

11.

HANDRAILS / GRAB BARS

1000 mm above floor level 50mm clearance from wall

30-45mm dia Clear space of 40mm from the wall Installed at a height of 800 to 900 mm

12.

STAIRS

Min. width of flight –1350mm

Riser -max. 150mm Tread -300mm Nosing projectingmax. 25mm Height of handrail800 -900mm extending not more than 300mm beyond the top and bottom of the staircase

Max. height of riser –170mm Min. tread width – 300mm Height of handrail 800 900mm

Extending up to 300mm to 450mmat top and bottom of the stairs Max. Dia. of railing -50mm 13. LIFTS Min. area of lift cage size 1100mm x 2000mm 1200mm wide x 1400mm deep Controls in the zone 900mm to 1200mm from the floor with a preferable angle of 45° from the wall

Door width (clear opening) – 900mm Gap between lift door and floor surface 12mm max.

Door width – 900mm

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Lift lobby with min. -1800 x 1800 mm from inside

Clear floor space of at least 900mm x 1200mm with no obstruction for a wheelchair user to reach the call button

Controls to be placed not less than 400mm from the corners of the wall for wheelchair users

Height of call button –900mm Height of control panel –1000 Length of handrail –600mm Automatic door closing time > 5 sec. Height of Call button – 900mm to 1200mm Height of control panel – 900mm to 1200mm Grab bars at height of 900mm from the floor to be fixed on both sides and rear of lift Min. width of platform lift -900mm Min. length – 1200mm Min. size of toilet cubicle for wheelchair WC seat at user not less 500mm above than1500mm x floor level 1750mm Rail at 280mm above WC seat Toilet roll dispenser mounted below the grab bars at 300mm from the front edge and at a height between 50mm and 250mm from the top of W.C. seat W.C. seat located between 460 to 480mm from the centerline of WC to the adjacent wall and
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14.

TOILETS

Min. size 1500 x 1750

 

 

Min. clear opening -900mm W.C. seat at 500mm from floor level Mini size toilet stall 1800 x 900

 

 

For Ambulant Disabled Width of sanitary cubicle at least 900mm

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have a clear dimension of 750mm from the front edge of W.C. to the rear wall to facilitate transfer Toilet seat height – 500mm (min.)

wide

15.

WASHBASIN

Tap height < 950mm

Grab bars mounted at a height between 280 to 300mm from the WC Standard size of dim. 520mm x 410mm

Door width – 800mm Handrails on each side – 780mm high above floor and 40mm clearance between rail and wall Basin rim at 780mm above floor

Mirror top level <1550mm

Foot clearance - 230mm

Vertical rail – Min. distance between 835 to 1295mm centerline and side above floor wall – 460mm Top edge mounting height – 800 to 840mm from the floor Knee space min. 750mm wide x 200mm deep x 680mm high Min. clear floor space of 750 mm wide x 1200mm deep of which a max. of 480mm in depth may be under wash basin Bottom edge of mirror at height < 1000mm Towel and soap Pull rail – 1070 mm above floor level

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16.

BATHTUB

dispensers, hand dryer, controls between 1000 to 1200mm from the floor level Clear floor space of at least 750mm width in front of bathtub Seat with bathtub at least 250mm width along its entire length or with 400 mm depth across the width Grab bars at least 1200mm long, along the length of bathtub and 180 to 280mm above the bathtub rim Faucets not more than 450mm above the bathtub rim Shower Cubicles Min. interior dimensions of shower cubicle 1500mm x 750mm Min. clear floor space in front of shower entrance should be 1200m m x 900mm L-shaped configuration of grab bars between 700mm and 800mm from the shower floor Vertical grab bar at

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least 750mm long Horizontal grab bar at least 900mm long Handheld shower hose not less than 1500mm Rim of the urinal not more than 430mm from the floor level Min. clear floor space in front of urinal 750mm x 1200mm 120mm clear space between urinal grab bar and wall surface For wheelchair users counter Clear floor space 900 height – 700mm with 350mm x 1200 mm depth under it Clear knee space 480 mm deep 750mm high Counter top between 750-800mm Depth not less than 480mm  Clear knee space between the bottom of the apron and floor at least 750mm wide, 200mm deep and 750mm high Clear floor space in front of free standing or built in drinking water cooler – 1200mm wide x 700mm in front

17.

URINALS

Wall mounted urinals with opening of the basin – 460mm from the floor or floor mounted urinals be used

18.

COUNTERS

Work bench at least 800mm wide, 600mm deep and 650mm to 700mm high Convenient work top height for wheelchair users 750mm to 850mm Height – 800mm

19.

DRINKING WATER FOUNTAINS

Height 700mm

Depth below 350mm

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20.

TELEPHONE

700 mm high & 350mm depth below

Clear foot space not less than 900mm x 1200mm in front of telephone booth or counter

Min. 1200mm from floor level

Receiver height Enclosed space of Telephone <1100mm booth at least 870mm x 1000mm Operable height of telephone parts800mm to 1200 mm from floor level Min. length of telephone cord – 900mm  Max. Mail slot height –1200mm Max. height of coin slot –1200mm Height of control buttons 900mm to 1200mm from floor level Two rows of guiding blocks for persons with vision impairment be provided 300mm away from bus stop poles on sidewalk. -doADAPTABLE HOUSING For wheelchair users, the entrance should have a platform of at least 1500mm x 1500mm Clear floor space for wheelchair of at least 900mm x 1200mm, in front of all utilities
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21. 22. 23.

MAIL BOXES VENDING MACHINES ATM MACHINE BUS STOPS

Mail slot height -1200mm Coin slot – 1200mm

24.

24. 25.

TAXI STAND RESIDENCE

 

26.

KITCHEN

Worktops, sink, cooking area – Height of 780 – 800mm from floor level Knee room of 700mm high under the sink Max. height of shelves over worktop – 1200mm Min. gap of 400mm between the edge of worktop and top shelves At least 1500mm turning space for wheelchair to be kept near all entry point

Wheelchair turning radius of 1500mm Counter tops should be between 750mm and 800mm in height Clear knee space for a wheelchair user at least 900mm wide x 480mm deep x 750mm high Shelves and storage spaces to be between 300mm and 1200mm height from floor surface

27.

LIVING ROOM AND BEDROOM

Bed should have a height of 500mm from the floor surface Bed to be positioned to provide at least 1500mm turning radius at the transfer side

Min. width in Bedside table or cabinet between front of bedroom 450mm and 900mm closet 900mm Closet should have a clear floor space of at least 900mm x 1200mm Clothes hanger rod at a height 1050 to 1200mm Clothes bar at a height of 1200mm Wall hook at a height of 1100mm-1300mm in the closet area

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28.

RAILWAY STATIONS

Reservation/ information counter heights < 850 Width of concourse min.1800mm Guiding blocks 300mm away from ticket vending machine Guiding blocks on platform > 800mm from the edge

Min. width for Station entrance –1800mm

Corridor width to be at least 1800mm

29.

RESERVATI ON AND INFORMAT ION COUNTERS

Clear floor space in front of counters – 900mm x 1200mm At least one low counter at a height of 750 to 800mm Clear knee space under the counter 750mm high x 900mm wide x 480mm deep Ticket gates min. 900mm wide to allow wheelchair user’s passage Railway car doors to be at least 900mm wide Gap between the car doors and the platform should be less than 12mm Aisles in accessible railway cars to be at least 750mm wide

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30.

SIGNAGE

Preferred height for notices/ sign for wheelchair users 750mm to1200mm Preferred height for notices/ sign for ambulant users 1200mm to 1350mm Min. clearance for suspended or projecting signs 2000mm

Preferred height for notices/ sign for wheelchair users 750mm to 1200mm Preferred height for notices/ sign for ambulant users 1200mm to 1350mm

Preferably at a height of 1500mm from the floor level

Min. clearance for suspended or projecting Letter size signs 2000mm min. 12mm high Low hanging signs at a minimum height of 2.1M from the floor  REFUGE Refuge area to have doorways with clear opening width of 900mm An alarm switch between 900mm and 1200mm from the floor level Circulation path of at least 1200mm wide Accessible route with a min. clear width of 900mm to be provided from the circulation path to tables reserved for people with disabilities Height of the tables not higher than 800mm with a min. clear knee space of 750mm high and 480mm deep Approach pathway to park should be level and at least 1500mm wide Entrance should be at least 900mm Some fixed seats to be taken off from various locations to provide wheelchair parking space of min. 750mm wide x 1200mm long

31.

FIRE EVACUATIO N NEEDS HOTEL AND EATING OUTLET

32.

33.

PARK

34.

AUDITORIU M AND CINEMA HALLS

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