Draft Indian Accessibility Standard

:

Recommendations for Buildings and Facilities for Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities

Compiled By National Centre for Promotion of Employment for Disabled People A-77, South Extension – II, New Delhi – 110049 Website: www.ncpedp.org Phone: +91-11-26265647/48; Fax: +91-11-26265649; E-mail: secretariat@ncpedp.org

Legend:
To be deleted: To be deleted To be added: To be added Assistive Devices: Assistive Devices

Table of Contents
TABLE OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................................3 LIST OF TABLES ..........................................................................................................................................3 1. SCOPE .........................................................................................................................................................4 2. TERMINOLOGY .......................................................................................................................................5 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................10 WHEELCHAIR .............................................................................................................................................10 FUNCTIONING OF A WHEELCHAIR ...............................................................................................................10 ADULT INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONING IN A WHEELCHAIR ...............................................................................11 INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONING ON CRUTCHES .................................................................................................12 PEOPLE WITH HEARING DISABILITIES ........................................................................................................12 PEOPLE WITH SIGHT DISABILITIES .............................................................................................................13 PEOPLE WITH COGNITIVE DISABILITIES .....................................................................................................14 SITE DEVELOPMENT ..............................................................................................................................15 WALKS15 PARKING SPACE..........................................................................................................................................21 BUILDINGS .................................................................................................................................................24 RAMPS WITH GRADIENTS ...........................................................................................................................24 5.2 ENTRANCES .................................................................................................................................30 5.3 DOORS AND DOORWAYS ..............................................................................................................31 5.4 WINDOWS ....................................................................................................................................36 5.5 STAIRS .........................................................................................................................................38 FLOORS40 5.7 SANITARY FACILITIES ..................................................................................................................43 SHOWER FACILITY .....................................................................................................................................52 DRINKING FOUNTAINS................................................................................................................................54 PUBLIC TELEPHONES..................................................................................................................................54 HANDRAILS ................................................................................................................................................55 ELEVATORS.................................................................................................................................................57 CONTROLS..................................................................................................................................................59 IDENTIFICATION..........................................................................................................................................60 WARNING SIGNALS ....................................................................................................................................66 WORK BENCH ............................................................................................................................................66 HAZARDS ...................................................................................................................................................66 EMERGENCY EGRESS..................................................................................................................................69 DESIGNING FOR CHILDREN.................................................................................................................73

Table of Figures
FIGURE 1: REFERENCE WHEELCHAIR!..................................................................7 FIGURE 2: AVERAGE TURNING SPACE FOR A WHEELCHAIR!.......................................7 FIGURE 3: SUITABLE METHOD OF BLENDING PAVEMENT AND ROADWAY SURFACES!........7 FIGURE 4: ACCESSIBLE CAR PARKING BAY! ...........................................................7 FIGURE 5: EXAMPLE OF RAMPED APPROACH!........................................................7 FIGURE 6: LEVEL AREAS REQUIRED AT END OF RAMPS LEADING TO DOORWAYS! ............7 FIGURE 7: ENTRANCES! ................................................................................... 7 FIGURE 8: MANOEUVRING SPACE NEEDED FOR WHEELCHAIR USERS TO APPROACH DOORS ! ......................................................................................................... 7 FIGURE 9: TWO DOORS IN A SERIES! ...................................................................7 FIGURE 10: POSITION OF HANDLE!....................................................................7 FIGURE 11: POSITION OF SILL AND WINDOW CONTROL! ..........................................7 FIGURE 12: EXTENSION OF HANDRAIL IN STAIRS!..................................................7 FIGURE 13: ACCESSIBLE TOILET UNIT FOR WHEELCHAIR USER! ..................................7 FIGURE 14: ACCESSIBLE WC!........................................................................... 7 FIGURE 15: WC GRAB-BARS FOR WHEELCHAIR USERS!...........................................7 FIGURE 16: SUGGESTED PLAN WC COMPARTMENT FOR THE AMBULANT DISABLED! ........7 FIGURE 17: SECTION THROUGH WC COMPARTMENT FOR THE AMBULANT DISABLED!.....7 FIGURE 18: SHOWER FACILITY! .........................................................................7 FIGURE 19: COMBINED WC & SHOWER FACILITY! ..................................................7 FIGURE 20: FIXING OF HANDRAIL!.....................................................................7 FIGURE 21: SIGNAGE INSTALLATION HEIGHT!.......................................................7 FIGURE 22: INCORPORATING EMBOSSED TEXT, SYMBOL AND BRAILLE!........................7 FIGURE 23: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR BRAILLE! ............................................7 FIGURE 24: DOOR HANDLE!............................................................................ 7

List of Tables
TABLE 1: APPROPRIATE CAR PARK PROVISION!.....................................................7 TABLE 2: MINIMUM SPECIFICATIONS FOR RAMPS!..................................................7 TABLE 3: RECOMMENDED INTERNAL FLOOR SURFACE COMBINATIONS! ........................7 TABLE 4: TEXT HEIGHTS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF SIGN!........................................7

1. Scope .1 This standard applies to all buildings and facilities used by the public. It applies to temporary or emergency conditions as well as permanent conditions. It does not apply to private residences, but applies to communal facilities in residential areas. .2 These requirements are concerned with non-ambulatory disabilities, semi-ambulatory disabilities, sight disabilities, hearing disabilities, disabilities of inco-ordination, cognitive disabilities, aging, allergies, heart and lung diseases, epilepsy, haemophilia, incontinence and enterostomy. .3 This standard is intended to make all buildings and facilities used by the public accessible to, and functional for the physically challenged through and within their doors, without loss of function, space or facility where the general public is concerned. It supplements existing Indian standards, and reflects greater concern for safety of life and limb. In cases of practical di"culty, unnecessary hardship, or extreme di#erences, administrative authorities may grant exceptions from the literal requirements of this standard or permit the use of other methods or materials, but only when it is clearly evident that equivalent facilities and protection are thereby secured. These are the minimum requirements that may be incorporated in a building to make it useable by people with disabilities and the elderly and should not be compromised upon.

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2. Terminology .0 For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions shall apply. .1 Aging – Those manifestations of the aging processes that significantly reduce mobility, flexibility, co-ordination, and perceptiveness but are not accounted for in the categories mentioned in 2.3.1 to 2.3.9. .2 Appropriate Number - The number of a specific item that would be necessary, in accordance with the purpose and function of building or facility, to accommodate individuals with specific disabilities in proportion to the anticipated number or individuals with disabilities who would use a particular building or facility. .3 Disabilities .3.1 Non-ambulatory Disabilities – Impairments that, regardless of cause or manifestation, for all practical purposes, confine individuals to wheelchairs. Semi-ambulatory Disabilities – Impairments that cause individuals to walk with di"culty or insecurity. Individuals using braces or crutches, amputees, arthritis, spastics and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills may be semiambulatory. Sight Disabilities – Total blindness or impairments a#ecting sight to the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger. Hearing Disabilities – Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an individual insecure in public areas because he is unable to communicate or hear warning signals. Disabilities of Inco-ordination – Faulty co-ordination or palsy from brain, spinal, or peripheral nerve injury. People with Allergies – People with allergies may be sensitive to dust, mildew, pollen, animal hair, formalin, turpentine, etc. Some are sensitive to contact with substances and materials such as nickel, chromium and rubber. 5

.3.2

.3.3

.3.4

.3.5

.3.6

.3.7

People with Heart and Lung Diseases – People with heart and lung diseases may only be able to walk short distances and may be unable to climb stairs. The requirements of these people are similar to those with impaired mobility. People with Epilepsy, Haemophilia, etc – The requirements of those with epilepsy, heamophilia, etc, are related primarily to the design of buildings and the need to minimize the risk of injury caused by falling or encountering obstacles. People with Incontinence, Enterostomy Operations, etc - The requirements of people with incontinence, enterostomy operations, etc, (colostomies, ileostomies and urostomies) are mainly related to bathroom provision. In certain circumstances, for example, in public water-closet compartments, it may be desirable to provide a special sink for emptying urine bags.

.3.8

.3.9

.4 Fixed Turning Radius, Front Structure to Rear Structure – The turning radius of a wheelchair, left front-foot platform to right rear wheel, or right front-foot platform to left rear wheel, when pivoting on a spot. .5 Fixed Turning Radius Wheel – The tracking of the caster wheels and large wheels of a wheelchair when pivoting on a spot. .6 Involved (Involvement) – A portion or portions of the human anatomy or physiology, or both, that have a loss or impairment of normal function as a result of genesis, trauma, disease, inflammation or degeneration. .7 Ramps, Ramps with Gradients - Because the term `ramp’ has a multitude of meanings and uses, its use in this text is clearly defined as ramps with gradients (gradual slope joining two level surfaces) that deviate from what would otherwise be considered the normal level. An exterior ramp, as distinguished from a `walk’, would be considered an appendage to a building leading to a level above or below the existing ground level. .8 Walk, Walks – Because the terms `walk’ and `walks’ have a multitude of meanings and uses, their use in this standard is clearly defined as a predetermined prepared surface, exterior 6

pathway leading to or from a building or facility, or from one exterior area to another, placed on the existing ground level and not deviating from the level of the existing ground immediately adjacent. .9 Hue - Hue is the perceptual attribute associated with elementary colour names. Hue enables us to identify basic colour categories such as blue, green, yellow, red and purple. People with normal colour vision report that hues follow a natural sequence based on their similarity to one another. With most colour deficits, the ability to discriminate between colours on the basis of hue is diminished.

.10LRV - Light reflectance value (LRV) is the total quantity of visible light reflected by a surface at all wavelengths and directions when illuminated by a light source. .11Luminosity Contrast – also known as tonal contrast is the most important element that assists people with vision impairments to distinguish between two di#erent surfaces. A minimum di#erence of 26 points in the Light Reflectance Value of colours of two architectural surfaces produces an adequate luminosity contrast that is perceivable by people with visual impairments. .12Chroma - Often referred to as "colourfulness," chroma is the amount/ intensity and the level of saturation of identifiable hue in a colour. A colour without hue is achromatic or monochromatic and will appear gray. For most colours, as the brightness increases, the chroma increases as well, except with the very light colours. .13Colour Contrast - The basic guidelines for making e#ective colour choices are based on the hue value of the colours. The most commonly used methods of achieving colour contrast incorporate either ‘harmonising’ or ‘contrasting’ colour combinations. .14Tactile Warning Blocks – In order to warn persons with visual impairments of the approaching danger, it is recommended to incorporate Tactile Ground Surface Indicators (TGSI) along the approach path to unavoidable obstacles and hazards. TGSI, also commonly known as ‘Tactile Warning Blocks’, are 300 mm x 300 mm tiles that incorporate rows of 5 mm (± 0.5 mm) high flattopped blister like domes that are easily detectable underfoot by

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persons with visual impairments. These tactile warning blocks are recognised internationally as a sign of approaching hazards, and are readily available in the domestic Indian market. .14 Tactile Guiding Blocks – These are 300 x 300 mm tiles that incorporate bars that are 5mm (± 0.5mm) high, 20mm wide and spaced 50mm from the centre of one bar to the centre of the next. These flat topped bars that are easily detectable underfoot by people with visual impairments. They are used externally to guide people with visual impairments along the circulation path. They may also be used internally in large busy areas such as railway stations and airports. Induction loop system - An induction loop system helps deaf people who use a hearing aid or loop listener hear sounds more clearly because it reduces or cuts out background noise. An induction loop is a cable that goes around the listening area. An electric current is fed to the loop by an amplifier that gets its signal from a connection with a source of sound, that can be a microphone placed in front of the person speaking. The resulting current in the loop produces a magnetic field that matches the sound. The hearing impaired person can then pick up this magnetic field if they are sitting within the area of the loop and their hearing aid – or loop listening aid – is set to ‘T’. Loop Induction Units are available in India. Sound amplification system - Sound Enhancement System (SES) is often referred to as sound amplification, sound distribution, and sound field technology. This technology enhances the quality of the speaker’s voice, enhances the deaf person’s acoustic accessibility to the speaker, and therefore enhances the communication experience.

.15

.16

.17

Braille - The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write. Each Braille character or cell is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two columns of three dots each. Braille is adapted to several languages including Hindi. Braille comprises of two grades – Grade 1 & Grade 2

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.18

Grade 1 Braille - Grade 1 Braille is in full spelling and consists of the letters of the alphabet, punctuation, numbers, and a number of composition signs which are special to braille. Grade 2 Braille- Grade 2 Braille consists of Grade 1 and several contractions and short-form words. Clear Door Width – the clear door width is the unobstructed passage available after reducing the 1) thickness of the door; 2) The space between the door and the frame on the hinged side; and 3) the thickness of door stop molding on the door frame. Therefore the clear door width is always less than the full width of the door. International Symbol of Access - Also known as the (International) Wheelchair Symbol, the International Symbol of Access consists square overlaid with a stylized image of a person using a wheelchair. The symbol is often seen where access has been improved, particularly for wheelchair users and other mobility impaired persons. The symbol denotes a barrier free environmental, such as steps, to help also older people, parents with prams, and travellers with luggage. The wheelchair symbol is "International" and therefore not accompanied by Braille in any particular language. Specific uses of the ISA include: • Marking a parking space reserved for vehicles used by disabled people • Marking a public lavatory with facilities designed for wheelchair users • Indicating a button to activate an automatic door • • Indicating an accessible transit station or vehicle Indicating a transit route that uses accessible vehicles

.19

.20

.21

.23

Kerb - A side raised barrier to a carriage way.

.24

Kerb ramp- A short ramp cutting through a kerb or built up to it.

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3 General Principles and Considerations

3.1Wheelchair For details regarding wheelchair, see IS : 7454-1974 and IS : 8086-1976 While the guidelines in this standard attempt at including the needs of all wheelchair users, dimensions of the following manual adult wheelchair have been used as a reference to guide the recommendations:

Figure 1: Reference Wheelchair 3.2Functioning of a wheelchair 3.2.1 When planning spaces in buildings to cater for wheelchair turning, a guide is to impose on the plan a circle of 1500 1800 diameter. If this space is clear, the plan arrangement will normally be satisfactory. However, spaces in doorways, niches and under work-tops, desks or furniture can often be used when turning. Where a high degree of accessibility is required, such as in hospital buildings, spaces should be more generous. 3.2.2 Considerable energy is needed to propel a wheelchair manually up ramps, over changes in level or over soft or uneven surfaces. Thresholds and changes in level should be avoided. Ground and floor surfaces should be hard and even.

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3.2.3 The fixed turning radius of a standard wheelchair, wheel to wheel, is 450 mm. the fixed turning radius, front structure to rear wheel, is 785 mm. 3.2.4 The average turning spaces required is 1800 x 1800 mm (see Fig. 2)

Figure 2: Average Turning Space for a Wheelchair 3.2.5 A minimum width of 1650 mm, preferably 1800 mm, is required for two individuals in wheelchairs to pass each other. 3.2.6 The width of corridors in the hospital rehabilitation centre and in the paraplegic centres should be two meter meters. 3.3Adult Individual Functioning in a Wheelchair 3.3.1 The average unilateral reach is 1500 mm and ranges from 1350 to 1600 mm.

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3.3.2 The average horizontal working (table) reach is 775 mm and ranges from 715 to 830 mm. 3.3.3 The bilateral horizontal reach, both arms extended to reach side shoulder high, ranges from 1350 to 1700 mm and averages 1560 mm. 3.3.4 An individual reaching diagonally, as would be required in using a wall-mounted dial telephone or towel dispenser, would make the average reach (on the wall) 1200 1125 mm from the floor. 3.4Individual Functioning on Crutches 3.4.1 When walking with a normal gait, the distance between crutch tips ranges from 760 to 840 mm depending on the height of the person. 3.4.1.1Most individuals ambulating on braces or crutches, or both, or on canes are able to manipulate within the specifications prescribed for wheelchair users, although doors present quite a problem at time. However, attention is called to the fact that a crutch tip extending laterally from an individual is not obvious to others in heavily tra"cked areas, certainly not as obvious or protective as a wheelchair is, therefore, a source of vulnerability. 3.4.1.2Some cerebral palsied individuals with cerebral Palsy, and some severe arthritics, would be extreme exceptions to 3.4.1 and 3.4.1.1 3.5People with Hearing Disabilities 3.5.1 People with hearing disabilities have particular di"culty in comprehending sounds and words in noisy environments. Rooms should be acoustically well insulated. In public buildings loudspeaking systems should be clearly audible. Supplementary visual information should be provided, for example, in bus terminals, railway stations and airports.

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3.5.2 People with hearing disabilities may rely on lip reading; this is helped if there is good overall lighting which is nonreflective. Where communication is required with persons sitting on the other side of counters separated by glass panes, in order to minimize reflected glare it is important that these glass panels be screened from light sources. They may have di"culty using telephones, etc. Audible signals may in certain cases be supplemented with visual signals. 3.5.3 People using hearing aids will benefit with sound amplification and induction loop devices. Sound amplification systems and Induction loops may should be installed in reception and information counters, auditoria, theatres, meeting rooms, etc, to improve sound reception for people with hearing aids. Inductive couplers should be installed in public telephones. 3.5.4 Persons with hearing impairments rely on signage for wayfinding. It is therefore important that signage and orientation information be provided at all key decision making points, such as intersections along the primary circulation route, staircase landings and lift lobbies. 3.6People with Sight Disabilities 3.6.1 For people with sight disabilities, orientation can be aided by marking with the use of colour, illumination and, in certain cases, the texture of material. Design and plan arrangements should be simple and uncomplicated. Contrasting colours should be used to aid the identification of doors, stairs, ramps, passage ways, changes of direction, etc. Surfaces can be varied to indicate passage ways, changes of direction, etc. Orientation cues should be specially illuminated. Handrails can be used as a location aid. 3.6.2 To minimize the risk of falls and injuries, hazards such as posts, single steps and projections from walls should be avoided wherever possible. Hazards should be emphasized by means of illumination and by contrasting colours and materials. Obstacles should not project into the circulation routes where there should be a clear headroom of at least 2.1 meters. 13

3.6.3 People with sight disabilities are often sensitive to glare. Unwanted mirroring a#ects and reflections may be avoided by attention to the location of windows and illumination, and the choice of floor and wall surfaces. People with sight disabilities often have di"culty in reading signs and other printed information. Persons with reduced sight benefit with provision of large font sizes in signs and printed information. Blind people are restricted to tactile reading and benefit with incorporation of embossed characters and Braille. Visual information in, for example, bus terminals, railway stations and airports should be supplemented with audible information. 3.7People with Cognitive Disabilities .1People with cognitive disability have varying needs. Some may also have mobility restrictions as a result of their cognitive disability. A large number of people with this disability may have di"culties in coordinating and controlling their movements. .2When moving about outdoors, they may be confronted with di"culty in perceiving, comprehending, or interpreting information such as signs or complex site maps. They may stumble easily over even minor bumps and fall heavily. They may also have spatial orientation di"culties and in some cases lack the ability to distinguish color or to di#erentiate between left and right. .3While addressing access needs of people with other disabilities may meet most of their access requirements, some things that may aid their access include oA logical layout of building oClear and easy-to-grasp information as an aid to orientation. o Having landmarks such as fountains, sculptures within the building may aid wayfinding. oVery complex designs should be avoided oEven pathway surface oAdequate resting spaces

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4 Site Development 4.1Almost any building can be made accessible to physically challenged persons disabled people by so planning the site that the terraces, retaining walls and winding walks are used e#ectively. 4.1.1 Site development is the most e#ective means to resolve the problems created by topography, definitive architectural designs or concepts, water table, existing streets, and typical problems, singularly or collectively, so that aggress, ingress and egress to buildings by disabled people physically challenged may be facilitated while preserving the desired design and e#ect of the architecture. 4.1.2 The relative levels of the principal entrance to the building and the entry point to the site (as well as walks across the site) should be designed to, as far as is practicable, provide level access, thereby eliminating the need for ramped and stepped approach. 4.2Walks 4.2.1 Public walks should be at least 1200 mm wide and should preferably with level or have the gentlest possible gradient that does not exceed have a gradient not greater than 1 in 20. 4.2.1.1It is essential that the gradient of walks and driveways be less than that prescribed for ramps, since walks would be devoid of handrails and kerbs and would be considerably longer and more vulnerable to the elements. Walks of near maximum grade and considerable length should have level areas at intervals for purposes of rest and safety. Walks or driveways should have a non-slip surface. 4.2.1.2Slopes with gradient steeper than 1 in 20 are to be treated as ramps and must comply with requirements of handrails, edge protection, tactile warning blocks and landings as detailed in section 5.1

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4.2.1.3The cross-fall gradient across a level access route should not exceed 1 in 50, except when associated with a dropped kerb. 4.2.2 Such walks shall be of a continuing common surface not interrupted by steps or abrupt changes in level. 4.2.3 Wherever walks cross other walks, driveways, or parking lots they should blend to a common level. 4.2.3.1This requirement, does not require the elimination of kerbs, which, particularly if they occur at regular intersections, are a distinct safety feature for all of the challenged, particularly the blind. The preferred method of meeting the requirement is to have the walk incline to the level of the street. However, at principal intersections, it is vitally important that the kerbs run parallel to the street, up to the point where the walk is inclined, at which point the kerb would turn in and gradually meet the level of the walk at its highest point. A less preferred method would be to gradually bring the surface of the driveway or street to the level of the walk. The disadvantage of this method is that a blind person would not know when he has left the protection of a walk and has entered the hazards of a street or driveway (see Fig. 3).

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Figure 3: Suitable Method of Blending Pavement and Roadway Surfaces 4.2.4 A walk shall have a level platform at the top which is at least 1500 mm long, if a door swings out onto the platform or towards the walk. This platform shall extend at least 300 mm beyond each side of the doorway. A walk shall have a level platform at least 900 mm deep, if the door does not swing onto the platform or towards the walk. This platform shall extend at least 300 mm beyond each side of the doorway. 4.2.5 Gratings within an access route should be set flush with the surrounding surface. To prevent trapping of front castors of wheelchairs, and bases of walking sticks, white canes and crutches, the gratings along walkways should not have slots greater than 13 mm wide and should be set at right angles to the dominant line of travel. 4.2.6 In order to ensure easy navigation by persons with visual impairments, the following features should be incorporated throughout the length of walks: 4.2.6.1Tactile Paving Tactile tiles have specially raised finishes that are easily detectable by persons with visual impairments. There are 17

predominantly two kinds of tactile blocks – tactile guidance tiles and tactile warning tiles. 4.2.6.1.1Tactile guidance blocks indicate a barrier free route for a person with visual impairment. It is recommended to install two rows of tactile guidance tiles along the entire length of the proposed accessible route. Care must be taken to ensure that there are no obstacles, such as trees, poles or uneven surfaces, along the route traversed by the guidance blocks. Also, there should be a clear headroom of at least 2.1 meters height above the tactile guidance blocks, free of protruding objects such as overhanging tree branches and signage, along the entire length of the walk. 4.2.6.1.2Tactile warning blocks indicate an approaching potential hazard or a change in direction of the walkway, and serve as a warning of the approaching danger to persons with visual impairments, preparing them to tread cautiously and expect obstacles along the travel path, tra"c intersections, doorways, etc. The warning blocks prepare the person to tread cautiously. Two rows of tactile warning tiles should be installed across the entire width of the designated accessible pedestrian pathway at appropriate places such as before intersections, building entrances, obstacles such as trees, and each time the walkway changes direction. 4.2.6.2Barriers and Hazards Obstacles such as lighting columns, bollards, signposts, seats and trees, should be located at or beyond the boundaries of walkways. Where unavoidable, protruding objects should not reduce the clear width of an accessible route or maneuvering space. 4.2.6.2.1Protruding objects in the access route should contrast visually with the background environment. 4.2.6.2.2Free-standing columns that support an entrance canopy and low level posts, e.g. bollards, should

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not be positioned within the width of an access route. 4.2.6.2.2.1Free standing columns and posts within an access route should incorporate a band 200 mm high, between heights of 1350 mm and 1650 mm from the walkway floor finish, and which contrasts visually with the remainder of the post or column. 4.2.6.2.2.2Bollards should be at least 1000 mm high, provide a wheelchair passage width of at least 850 mm, and should not be linked with chains. 4.2.6.2.3To be detectable by a white cane, protruding objects should follow the following rule: 4.2.6.2.3.1Objects projecting with the lower edge of the projection at or below 300 mm and upper edge of the projection minimally 1200 mm above the finished walk surface are detectable by the white cane, and these may protrude into the walks to an extent that allows wheelchair passage, in keeping with 4.2.1. 4.2.6.2.3.2Objects mounted with their leading edges between 300 mm and 2100 mm above the finished walk surface should not protrude more that 100 mm into the walks. 4.2.6.2.4Hazard protection should be provided if objects project more than 100 mm into an access route and their lower edge is more than 300 mm above the ground. 4.2.6.2.4.1Hazard protection associated with such objects should take the form of a kerb or other solid barrier so that a blind or partially sighted person can detect the hazard using a cane. The hazard protection should not extend beyond the front edge of the object, nor should it be set back more than 100 mm from its front edge.

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4.2.6.2.4.2In addition to guarding rail at surface of the installed to guide

a means of cane detection, a level of 900 mm from the accessible route should be people around an obstruction.

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4.3Parking Space 4.3.1 Spaces that are accessible and approximate to the facility should be set aside and identified for use by individuals with physical disabilities. The designated accessible space should be no more than 50 meters away from the main accessible entrance. 4.3.2 A parking space open on one side, allowing room for individuals in wheelchairs or individuals on braces and crutches to get in and out of an automobile onto a level surface, is adequate. It should have a minimum width of 2 700 mm preferably 2 800 mm for ambulant disabled and minimum 3 000 mm preferably 3 300 mm for wheel chair users. 4.3.3 Parking spaces for individuals with physical disabilities when placed between two conventional diagonal or head-on parking spaces should be 3.6 m to 3.8 m wide, including a 1200 mm wide wheelchair transfer space on one side, and the length of the aisle should 7.3 m, 6.1 m and 6.5 m for head-on, 90° and 60° parking respectively. These minimum dimensions include provision of a 1200 mm wide wheelchair loading/ transferring space along the side and at the rear of the parking bay. Where there are two accessible parking bays adjoining each other, then the 1200mm side transfer bay may be shared by the two parking bays. The transfer zones, both on the side and the rear should have yellow or white cross-hatch road markings.

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Figure 4: Accessible Car Parking Bay

4.3.4 Care in planning should be exercised, so that individuals in wheelchairs and individuals using braces and crutches are not compelled to wheel or walk behind parked cars. 4.3.5 Consideration should be given to the distribution of spaces for use by the disabled in accordance with the frequency and persistency of parking needs. The following minimum requirement shall apply.
Table 1: Appropriate Car Park Provision

Visitors Parking Employees Parking

Car park capacity Car park capacity over upto 50 50 1 2% of total available 1 + Total number of disabled employees

4.3.6 Walks shall be in conformity with 4.2. Have a walkway conforming to 4.2 connecting the designated parking to the accessible entrance. 4.3.7 Signage

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4.3.7.1There should be the international symbol of accessibility painted on the 2400 mm wide floor where the car is to be parked. The symbol should be large enough to be easily visible by person looking for the accessible parking, recommended size being 1000mm x 1000mm but not larger than 1500mm x 1500mm. With the preferred colours being white and blue, the sign painted on the floor should contrast in colour and luminosity with the floor colour 4.3.7.2There should also be a signboard with the international symbol of accessibility at the height of 1200mmm from the floor right at the end of the parking. 4.3.7.3The Symbol of Access should be displayed at approaches and entrances to car parks, to indicate the provision of accessible parking lot, for people with disabilities within the vicinity. Directional signs should be displayed at points where there is a change of direction to direct people with disabilities to the accessible parking bays.

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5 Buildings

.1 Ramps with Gradients This standard recommends that that the approach to a building is level. If a change in level along the access route is unavoidable, it will be necessary to provide a sloped surface on which a wheelchair user can travel. As some ambulant disabled people have di"culty using ramps, it is undesirable for a ramp to be the only approach to a building. However, where change in change in level is no greater than 200 mm, a ramp may be acceptable as the only means of access, avoiding the need for a step. Where ramps with gradients are necessary or desired, they shall conform to the following specifications (see Fig. 3).
Table 2: Minimum Specifications for Ramps

L e v e di#erence $ 150 mm % $ % $ 150 300 300 750 mm mm mm mm

l M i n i m u m Ramp Width gradient of Ramp 1:10 900 mm 1:12 1:12 1200 mm 1500 mm

Handrails on Comments both sides X & & Landin every meters ramp run. Landin every meters ramp run. Landin every meters ramp run. gs 5 of gs 9 of gs 9 of Flared Sides preferable

% 750 mm $ 3000 mm

1:15

1800 mm

&

% 3000 mm

1:20

1800 mm

&

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Figure 5: Example of Ramped Approach .1.1 A ramp when provided should not have a slope greater than 1 in 20 or maximum of 1 in 12 for short distance up to 9000 mm.

.1

A ramp gradient of 1:15 (or less) is considered adequate and a gradient of 1:12 is the absolute maximum. The ramp with a gradient of 1:12 is considered too steep by many wheelchair users to use independently and usually results in the wheelchair ‘flipping’ backwards when ascending. It is also equally di"cult to control the wheelchair while descending such a ramp. Therefore wherever possible, a ramp should never be steeper than 1:15. Beyond a certain height, ramps become too tiring for the user, even if a number of rest landings have been provided. It is therefore recommended that no series of ramps to a building should rise in total more than 2 meters. If a series of ramp flights rise more than 2 meters an alternative means of access, such as a lift, should be provided. The required minimum clear unobstructed width of a ramp (i.e. between handrails) is 1200 mm for ramps up to 3.6 meters long. For ramps longer than 3.6 meters and up to 9 meters the minimum width should be 1500mm. For ramps more that 9 meters long the ramp should be minimally 1800 mm wide.

.1.1

.2

25

.3

A uniform illumination level of 150 lux should be maintained on the ramp. The materials selected for the surface finish of a ramp should be firm and easy to maintain. These must also be slip resistant, especially if surfaces are likely to become wet due to location or use, or if spillage occurs. The use of shiny, polished surface materials that cause glare should be avoided. The provision of non-slip surfaces on ramps greatly assists the challenged persons with semi-ambulatory and ambulatory disabilities. Non-slip surfaces are provided by many finishes and materials. The surfaces of the concrete ramps can be made non-skid by brooming the surface or by finishing with an indenting roller. Tactile warning blocks should be installed at the top, bottom and landings of each ramp run. The space under the ramp, with a head room of up to 2.1 meters, to be cordoned o# either by building a wall in front of it or by putting handrails to guide persons with visual impairments around the hazard. This space can also be used as storage area if required. A ramp shall have handrails on at least one side, and preferably two both sides, that are at a height of 900 mm high measured from the surface of the ramp, that are smooth, and that extend 300 mm beyond the top and bottom of the ramp.. Where major tra"c is predominantly children, the handrails should be placed 760 mm high. NOTE 1 - Where codes specify handrails to be of heights other than 900 mm, it is recommended that two sets of handrails be installed to serve all people. Where major tra"c is predominantly children, particularly physically disabled children, extra care should be exercised in the placement of handrails, in accordance with the nature of the facility and the age group or groups being serviced (see also 6.1). NOTE 2 – Care should be taken that the extension of the handrails is not in itself a hazard. Extension up to 300 mm may be made on the side of a continuing wall.

.3.1

.3.2

.4

.5

.6

26

.6.1

The handrails must extend 300 mm beyond the top and bottom of the ramp and the ends should either be grouted in the wall/ floor or be rounded. As much of the extension as possible should be horizontal. The extension should not intrude into any circulation route so as to cause an obstruction. Be continuous on both the sides, even on landings Be of 30 – 45 mm diameter, installed at a distance of at least 40 mm from the adjacent wall. Preferably be mounted on wall/ baluster by using L-Shaped brackets that do not break a continuous grip when sliding hand on the handrail Be finished so as to contrast in colour and luminance with the background against which these will be viewed Note: Achieving adequate Visual Contrast - For people with adequate sight, di#erences in the nature or the intensity of colour provide adequate visual contrast. Unfortunately, this is not the case for all people who are visually impaired. The main feature of a surface, which appears to be strongly correlated with the ability of visually impaired people to identify di#erences in colour, is the Light Reflectance Value (LRV) of the surfaces. Di#erences in LRV can be used to assess the degree of visual contrast between the surfaces of elements such as handrails, doors, door furniture, key fittings/fixtures and surrounding surfaces etc. It is recommended to maintain a minimal LRV di#erence of 26 points in order to ensure adequate visual contrast between any two surfaces. Best contrasts are achieved by incorporating combinations that involve one light (with LRV/ tone value between 0 and 50) and one dark (with LRV/ tone value between 50 and 100) colour. Visual contrast can be further enhanced by increasing di#erences in the Hue and Chroma values. Most major paint manufacturers include Hue, LRV and Chroma values for their colours in their swatch books. Manufacturers of many other materials will make the LRV available, since light reflectance is now very important in the building of "green" buildings.

.6.2 .6.3

.6.4

. .6.5

27

A ramp shall have a surface that is non-slip surface and if length is 3500 mm, the minimum width shall be 1500 mm. .7 The provision of non-slip surfaces on ramps greatly assists the challenged persons with semi-ambulatory and ambulatory disabilities. Non-slip surfaces are provided by many finishes and materials. The surfaces of the concrete ramps can be made nonskid by brooming the surface or by finishing with an indenting roller. A ramp shall have a level platform at the top which is at least 1800 mm long, if a door swings out onto the platform or toward the ramp. This platform shall extend at least 300 mm beyond each side of the doorway (see Fig. 6).

.8

Figure 6: Level Areas Required at End of Ramps Leading to Doorways .9 Each ramp shall have at least 1800 mm of straight clearance at the bottom. Ramps shall have level platforms at 10 m to 12 m intervals for purposes of rest and safety, and shall have platforms minimum 1.5 m length wherever they turn. Landings, minimally 1500 mm long, should be provided along the length of the ramp, at intervals of every 5 meters for a gradient of 1:12 and every 9 meters for a gradient of 1:15 or 1:20. Landings also need to be provided at the

.10

28

beginning and the end of the ramp and where the ramp changes direction. Note: An unobstructed width of 1800 mm is the minimum that permits two wheelchair users to pass each other. Although landings will generally have the same width as that of the ramp, if there is likely to be frequent use of the ramp by people in wheelchairs, it may be advisable to maintain a minimum width of 1800 mm for the intermediate landings so that these may serve as passing places for wheelchair users. .11 For visually impaired people, ramps may be colour contrasted with landing. To minimize rise to wheelchair users, ramps should be equipped with herbs approximately 50 mm high at exposed sides.

.12

29

5.2! Entrances .1 At least one primary entrance to each building shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs (see Fig. 5A) and shall be indicated by a sign (see Fig. 5B). This should be either step free or have a ramp as per clause 5.1.

Figure 7: Entrances

.2

In multi storey buildings, the accessible entrance must have an accessible route leading to the elevators. The accessible entrance, if di#erent from the main entrance, should be located adjacent to the main entrance and not at the rear of the building. The accessible entrance should be clearly signed and easy to locate. Threshold at the entrance should be avoided but if unavoidable, it should be no higher than 15mm and must be beveled. A clear, firm and level landing of at least 1800mm x 1800mm should be provided on either side of the entrance door.

.3

.4

.5

30

.6

Internal floor surfaces should be of materials that do not impede the movement of wheelchairs. If mat is provided it should be in level with the floor finish. Persons with visual impairments find it easier to locate doors if there is a texture di#erence in the floor around the doorway from the rest of the flooring. It is generally good practice to recess foot mats in the floor on either side of the door but care must be taken to ensure that the top end of the mats are flush with the rest of the flooring. Beepers may be put at all main entrances so enable people with visual impairments to locate them. Also tactile layout plan of the building may be kept at the entrance for people with visual impairments. Glazed entrance doors must have manifestations on the glass preferably at two levels i.e. one between 850 to 1000mm and another between 1400 to 1600mm above the floor. The manifestation should be contrasting in colour from the immediate background and be minimally 150mm high. 5.2.2! At least one entrance usable by individuals in wheelchairs shall be on a level that would make the elevators accessible.

.6.1

.7

.8

5.3! Doors and Doorways .1 Doorwidth - To enable wheelchair users to pass through doors, the minimum clear width should be 900 mm. The door opening force, when measured at the leading edge of the door, should not be more than 30 N from 0° (the door in the closed position) to 30° open, and not more than 22.5 N from 30° to 60° of the opening cycle. and shall be operable by a single e#ort. In certain cases the clear width should be 900 mm to 1000 mm; for example, if the wheelchair has to be turned in the doorway, where there is a door-closer or at entrance doors to public buildings and in other situations where there is considerable tra"c.

.1.1

31

.1.2

Two-leaf doors are not usable by those with disabilities defined in 2.1, 2.2 and 2.5 unless they operate by a single e#ort, or unless one of the two leaves meets the requirements of 5.3.1. Side-hung doors - To facilitate wheelchair manoeuvre and safety of building users, doors should be hung with the hinges in room corners. Doors opening out into corridors or circulation spaces should be avoided as far as possible. It is recommended that all doors have kick plates extending from the bottom of the door to at least 400 mm from the floor, or be made of a material and finish that would safely withstand the abuse they might receive from canes, crutches, wheelchair foot-platforms, or wheelchair wheels. Wheelchair Manoeuvring Space - To enable wheelchair users to approach doors manoeuvring space is needed as shown in the Fig. 8. A corridor should have a width of at least 1200 mm to allow a 90° turn to be made through a door. In narrow spaces sliding doors may be preferable. Front approaches to pull side of swinging doors shall have maneuvering space that extends 600 mm minimum beyond the latch side of the door if 1200 mm minimum is provided perpendicular to the doorway or maneuvering space that extends 450 mm minimum beyond the latch side of the door shall be provided if 1500 mm minimum is provided perpendicular to the doorway.. Front approaches to push side of swinging doors shall have maneuvering space that extends 300 mm minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 1200 mm minimum perpendicular to the doorway.

.1.3

.1.4

.2

.2.1

.2.2

32

Figure 8: Manoeuvring Space Needed for Wheelchair Users to Approach Doors .3 Two Doors in a Series Incase of doors in a sequence such as in the lobby of public restrooms, the minimum space between two hinged or pivoted doors in series should be 1500 mm plus the widths of the two doors swinging into that space, as illustrated in figure 9.

33

Figure 9: Two Doors in a Series .4 Thresholds - Raised thresholds should be avoided, but where this is not possible, their height should not exceed 25 15 mm. Thresholds exceeding 5 mm should be beveled. Rubber thresholds are advantageous for wheelchair users. Care should be taken in the selection, placement and setting of door closers so that they do not prevent the use of doors by the physically disabled. Time-delay door closers are recommended. Door Closers. If a door has a closer, then the sweep period of the closer shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 70 degrees, the door will take at least 3 seconds to move to a point 75 mm from the latch, measured to the leading edge of the door. Public buildings should preferably have sliding automatic doors. Self-closing doors - Wheelchair users and other with impaired mobility have di"culty in using self-closing doors. The force required to open them should be reduced as far as possible Public buildings should preferably have sliding automatic doors.

.4.1

.4.2

34

.5

Door Indentification - To help people with impaired sight to see doors, the door and frame should be in a colour which contrasts with the adjoining wall. Glass or glazed doors should be marked with a coloured band or frame, a little below eyelevel. The door should not be of a highly polished/ reflective material such as stainless steel. Glass Doors - The presence of a glass door should be made apparent, with permanent (manifestation) at two levels, within 850 mm to 1000 mm from the floor and within 1400 mm to 1600 mm from the floor, contrasting visually with the background seen through the glass in all light conditions. The edges of a glass door should also be apparent when the door is open. Note: If a glass door is adjacent to, or is incorporated within, a fully glazed wall, the door and wall should be clearly di#erentiated from one another, with the door more prominent. To achieve this, the door may be framed on both sides and the top by an opaque high-contrast strip at least 25 mm wide.

.5.1

.5.2

.6

Vision Panels - If a door has a single viewing panel, the minimum zone of visibility should be between 500 mm and 1500 mm from the floor. If a door requires an intermediate horizontal section for strength or to accommodate door furniture, the door should have two viewing panels, one accommodating a zone of visibility between 500 mm and 800 mm from the floor and the other accommodating a zone of visibility between 1150 mm and 1500 mm from the floor. Handles - Door handles and locks should be easy to manipulate. To facilitate the closing of a door by wheelchair users (for example, a water-closet compartment, that does not have a self closing mechanism), the door should have a horizontal handle, provided on the closing face of the door, approximately 800 mm from the floor. Self-closing doors should be equipped with an easy gripped vertical pull-handle with a length of at least 300 mm, and with the lower end approximately 800 mm above floor. For many people and specially those with impaired sight, it is helpful to make clear whether doors are to be pulled or pushed (see Fig. 10). 35

.7

.7.1

Wherever possible, door-opening furniture with a lever action should be used. Knob type door furniture is di"cult to use by people with manual impairment," arthritis or a weak grip. It should be possible to operate door opening furniture one handed, without tightly grasping it or twisting the wrist, e.g. by using a closed fist. For easy identification by visually impaired people all door furniture should contrast visually with the surface of the door. The location and design of latch and push/pull handles should be consistent throughout a building.

.7.2

.7.3

Figure 10: Position of Handle 5.4! Windows Windows should be designed to avoid the glare which is a particular problem for people with impaired sight. Large glass areas close to circulation spaces should be marked a little below eye-level with a coloured band or frame. To enable wheelchair users to see through a window comfortably, the sill should be not higher than 800 mm from the floor. Transoms positioned between 900 mm and 1200 mm should not be incorporated into the design to allow a clear view through a window from a seated position. Windows should be easy to open and close. Their 36

controls should be placed in the zone 900 to 1200 mm from the floor (see Fig. 11). Lever handles should be used in preference to knobs. Windows should contrast visually with their background for the benefit of persons with visual impairments.

Figure 11: Position of Sill and Window Control

37

5.5! Stairs 5.5.1! Stairs should not be the only means of moving between floors. They should be supplemented by lifts or ramps. 5.5.2! Straight flights of steps are preferred by ambulant disabled people. Treads should be approximately 300 mm deep and risers not higher than 150 mm. Steps should be of a consistent height and depth throughout the stair. Projecting nosings and open stairs should be avoided to minimize the risk of stumbling. Also, spiral stairs should be avoided. Handrails should be provided to both sides of any stairway. They should be continuous, even on landings, and extend not less than 300 mm beyond the top and bottom step (otherwise it is di"cult for the disabled to use the rail at the first and last step; see Fig. 12). The handrails should be installed between heights of 900 mm and 1000 mm from the furnished surface of treads and landings.

5.5.3!

38

Figure 12: Extension of Handrail in Stairs 5.5.4! For people with impaired sight, there should be a colour contrast between landings, and top and bottom steps of a flight of the steps., or the front edge of each step should have a contrasting colour. The nosing on the edge of the steps should not project more than 25 mm over the tread below and the nosing (25 mm on the riser and 25 mm on the tread) must contrast in colour to the risers and the treads.

.5 .6

Illumination level of 150 lux should be maintained on the stairs. The materials selected for the surface finish of the stairs should be firm and easy to maintain. It must also be slip resistant, especially if surfaces are likely to become wet due to location or use, or if spillage occurs. The use of shiny, polished surface materials that cause glare should be avoided. 39

.7

Tactile warning blocks should be installed at the top, bottom and landings of each flight of steps. The space under the stairs, with a head room of up to 2.1 meters, to be cordoned o# either by building a wall in front of it or by putting handrails to guide persons with visual impairments around the hazard. This space can also be used as storage area if required. There should be no more than 12 steps in one flight run. The stairs landing should be minimally 1200mm deep. The stairs should have minimum 1000 mm clear width. Floors Floors shall have a non-slip surface. Floors on a given storey shall be of a common level through out or be connected by a ramp in accordance with 5.1.1 to 5.1.8. A gentle slope up to 10 mm may be given between the level of the floor of the corridor and the level of the floor of the toilet rooms. There should not be a di#erence between the level of the floor of a corridor and the level of a meeting room, dining room, or any other room, unless proper ramps are provided. Note: Changes in level up to 6mm may be vertical and without edge treatment Changes in level between 6mm and 12mm shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2. Changes in level greater than 12 mm shall be accomplished by means of a ramp in accordance with 5.1

.8

.9 .10 .11 .6 .1 .2

.2.1

.2.2

.3

Applying textural di#erences and colour contrasts in the internal floor finishes to di#erent functional areas such as ticket counters, enquiry desk, waiting areas, etc enhances detectability of these areas by persons with visual impairments. Where such textural di#erences are provided, it is important that these are detectable and distinguishable underfoot by persons with visual impairments. 40

The following table provides a list of some floor texture combinations that are easily distinguished by persons with complete sight loss. Table 3: Recommended Internal Floor Surface Combinations Marb G r le ani (unp te olish ed) S a nd sto ne Ko t a S t on e Ce V i r a nyl mi c Til es Ca r p e t ( T hic k Pil e) Ca r p e t ( T h i n Pil e) Wo T e o d rra e n zo Flo ori ng

Marble (polished) Marble (unpolished) Granite Sandstone Kota Stone Ceramic Tiles Vinyl Carpet (Thick Pile) Carpet (Thin Pile) Wooden Flooring

P r e f e r r e d Combination

Less Preferred

N o Preferred

t

.3.1

The floor surfaces next to entrances, internal doors, ramps, stairs and any other unavoidable permanent fixtures in the circulation route (such as pillars and lobby centre pieces) should 41

be di#erent from the rest of the surrounding areas, in colour and texture, to highlight the desirable features. .3.2 For large open and plane areas, consider defining routes with contrasting floor finishes and textures. Having the floor finish of the restaurant or the bar in a di#erent texture and colour from the connecting corridor or lobby will help in their recognition. Surface materials for stairs and ramps should be of a di#erent texture and contrast visually with the landings. Highly contrasting coloured strips may be laid along the access corridors and emergency escape paths, to enhance the mobility of persons with visual impairments. Note: Where di#erent materials are to be used for demarcating areas e.g. ramps, landings and approaching paths, it is important to ensure that the coe"cients of friction are similar to minimize the risk of stumbling, especially for people with impaired mobility, such as the ones using crutches or other mobility aids. .4 Avoid too many patterns or textures on floor finishes and carpets, as these tend to confuse people with visual impairments and those with cognitive disabilities. Floor surface finishes with patterns that could be mistaken for steps or changes in level should be avoided. Acoustic qualities of surfaces, such as sound absorption, become imperative when choosing floor finishes for lobby areas and conference halls/ meeting rooms, as these can enhance or diminish independence of guests with hearing impairments. Surfaces that are highly reflective, especially when polished, have an adverse a#ect on people who can not withstand glare and should be avoided. Moreover, reflections can mislead people, particularly those who are visually impaired. Whilst the surface finish should be as smooth as possible to prevent tripping hazards and to provide an easy travel surface for wheelchairs; it must also be slip resistant, especially when wet such as when spillage occurs.

.3.3

.3.4

.5

.6

.7

42

.7.1

Cobbles, bare earth, sand and loose gravel should not be used on external approach paths, such as the route from accessible parking to the building entrance, For external ramps, slip resistant surfaces can be formed using several slabs or a concrete or similar base covered with an applied slip resistant coating (like paint, grit in an epoxy carrier etc.). It is important to ensure that regular cleaning and polishing does not produce a slippery surface. If floor surfaces are carpeted, they should be firmly fixed with no loose edges, so as not to provide a tripping hazard for ambulant disabled people or people who are visually impaired. Deep pile carpets (deeper than 12mm) should be avoided. If gratings are located in walking surfaces, then they shall have spaces no greater than 12 mm wide in one direction. If gratings have elongated openings, then they shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel 5.7! Sanitary Facilities

.7.2

.7.3

.8

.9

Accessible unisex sanitary facilities allow persons with disabilities to be assisted by carers of the opposite gender. It is therefore essential that at least one unisex accessible sanitary facility be available on the principle floor. In addition, in public use buildings such as Malls, Hospitals, Museums etc., and in larger buildings such as multi-storey o"ces there should be unisex accessible facilities on all floors. Apart from this all toilet blocks must have one cubicle suitable for use by persons with ambulatory disabilities. in accordance with the nature and use of a specific building or facility, be made accessible to, and usable by, the physically challenged. .1 An accessible unisex sanitary facilities must have the minimum dimension of 1800 mm x 2350 mm shall have space to allow tra"c of individuals in wheelchairs, in accordance with 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 (see Fig. 10 and 11).

43

Figure 13: Accessible Toilet Unit for Wheelchair User .1.1 Layout: .1.1.1 The layout of the fixtures in the restroom should be such that there is a clear maneuvering space of 1800mm x 1800mm in front of the water closet and wash basin in the accessible toilet unit. .1.1.2 All fixtures and utilities should provide a clear space of 750 mm x 1200 mm for wheelchair users to access them.

.1.2 Door: .1.2.1 The toilet door should either be an outward opening door or a sliding type and should provide a clear opening width of at least 900 mm. .1.2.2 Be provided with a horizontal pull-bar, at least 600 mm long, on the inside of the door, located so that it is 130

44

mm from the hinged side of the door and at a height of 1100 mm. .1.2.3 Be capable of being locked from the inside by a device that is operable by one hand, activated by a force not more than 22 N and which does not require fine finger control, tight grasping, and pinching or twisting of the wrist.

.1.3 Water Closet: .1.3.1 The Water Closet should preferably be of wall-hung or corbel type as it provides additional space at the toe level; .1.3.2 Should be positioned such that the distance between the centerline of the water closet and the adjacent wall is 450 mm to 480 mm, and the distance between front edge of the water closet and the rear is 750 mm. The top of the water closet seat should be at a height of 450 - 500 mm from the floor.

Figure 14: Accessible WC .1.3.3 There should be an adequate clear floor space of at least 1350 mm depth and 900 mm width, both in front and on the transfer side, adjacent to the water closet.

45

.1.3.4

A back support reduces the chance of imbalance or injury caused by leaning against exposed valves or pipes. A back support should be provided where there is no seat lid or tank. The flush control should either be lever type or automatic, and located on the transfer side of the water closet. The flush control should not be located more than 1100 mm from the floor.

.1.3.5

.1.3.6 Grab-bar Details: .1.3.6.1 Be slip-resistant with round ends; .1.3.6.2 Have a circular section of 30-45 mm in diameter; .1.3.6.3 Be free of any sharp or abrasive elements .1.3.6.4 Be mounted at a height between 200 mm and 250 mm from the top of the water closet seat; .1.3.6.5 One 600mm long horizontal and one 600mm long vertical grab bar should be mounted on the side wall closest to the water closet, as illustrated in fig. 15;

Figure 15: WC Grab-bars for Wheelchair Users .1.3.6.6 A fold-up type horizontal grab bar should be installed adjacent to the water closet, at a distance of 320mm from the centre-line of the WC, between heights of 200 mm and 250 mm from the top of the water closet seat and extending 100 to 150 mm beyond the front of the water closet. .1.4 Wash Basin - To comply with accessibility requirements the wash basin should: Be mounted such that the minimum distance between the centerline of the fixture and the side wall is 460 mm. The 46

.1.4.1

top edge should be between 800 mm and 840 mm from the floor; .1.4.2 Have a knee space underneath that is at least 750 mm wide, 200 mm deep and 750 mm high; Have a minimum clear floor space of 750 mm wide by 1200 mm deep, of which a maximum of 480 mm in depth may be under the wash basin; Have the hot water and drain pipes within the knee space or toe space properly insulated; Have automatic or lever type faucets;

.1.4.3

.1.4.4

.1.4.5 .1.5

Additional Considerations: Where more than one accessible toilet is provided, a left and right hand transfer option should be made available. All utilities and accessories such as soap dispenser, hand dryer etc should be installed between heights of 800mm and 1100 mm from the floor surface.

.1.5.1

.1.5.2

.2

Sanitary facilities shall have at least one water-closet cubical for the ambulant disabled (see Fig. 16 and 17), that: is 900 mm wide; is at least 1500 mm, preferably 1600 mm deep; has a door (where doors are used), that is, 800 mm wide and swings out; has handrails on each side, 780 mm high and parallel to the floor, 40 mm clearance between rail and wall, and fastened securely at ends and centre; has a water-closet with the seat 500 mm from the floor; Have adequate clear floor space of at least 750 mm circular diameter in front, in the water closet; and

.2.1

.2.2

.2.3

.2.4 .2.5

47

.2.6

Where the wash basin is meant to be used by people with ambulatory disabilities, two 600 mm long vertical grab bars should be installed on either side of the basin with their mid points at 1100 mm from the floor level.

.3 Additional Considerations: .3.1 There should be adequate colour and tonal contrast between the fixtures, walls and the flooring. This is to enable easy recognition by persons with visual impairments. .3.2 There should be a visual emergency alarm in the toilet. NOTE – The design and mounting of the water closet is of considerable importance. A wall-mounted water closet with a narrow understructure that recedes sharply is most desirable. If a floor mounted water closet must be used, it should not have a front that is wide and perpendicular to the floor at the front of the seat. The bowl should be shallow at the front of the seat and turn backwards more than downwards to allow the individual in a wheelchair to get close to the water closet with the seat of the wheelchair.

48

Figure 16: Suggested Plan WC Compartment for the Ambulant Disabled

49

Figure 17: Section Through WC Compartment for the Ambulant Disabled 5.7.3! Sanitary facilities shall have wash basins with narrow aprons, which when mounted at standard height are usable by individuals in wheelchairs; or they shall have wash basins mounted higher, when particular designs demand, so that they are usable by individuals in wheelchairs. The drain pipes and hot-water pipes under a sanitary appliance shall be covered or insulated so that a wheelchair individual does not find it inconvenient. .4 Some mirrors and shelves shall be provided above the wash basins at a height as low as possible and not higher than 1 m above the floor, measured from the top of the shelf and the bottom of the mirror. Sanitary facilities for men shall have wall-mounted urinals with the opening of the basin 460 mm from the floor, or shall have floor-mounted urinals that are on level with the main floor of the toilet room. 50

.5

Toilet rooms shall have an appropriate number of towel racks, towel dispensers, and other dispensers and disposal units mounted not higher than 910 mm from the floor.

51

.8 Shower Facility A roll in shower facility with a shower seat is preferred over a bath tub as most persons with mobility impairments find it di"cult to step in/ out of the latter. .8.1 The minimum dimensions of an accessible shower facility should be 1800 mm X 2350 mm.

Figure 18: Shower Facility

.8.2

There should be a 1800 mm X 1800 mm wheelchair turning space with the shower facility Door shall comply with 5.7.1.2 Shower seat: A wall mounted shower seat, preferably fold up kind, shall be installed.

.8.3 .8.4

.8.4.1 The shower seat should be positioned such that the distance between the centerline of the water closet and the adjacent wall is 450 mm to 480 mm, and the distance between front edge of the water closet and the rear wall is 650 mm. The top of the shower seat should be at a height of 450 - 500 mm from the floor.

52

.8.4.2 There should be an adequate clear floor space of at least 1350 mm depth and 900 mm width, both in front and on the transfer side, adjacent to the water closet. .8.5 .8.6 Grab rails Details as per 5.7.1.3.6 Stationary, Fittings and Accessories

.8.6.1 A shelf should be provided for toiletries in a position that can be reached by a person sitting on the shower seat or from the wheelchair before or after transfer. .8.6.2 All shower controls should be at a distance of 500 mm from the rear wall .8.6.3 Shower controls should be between installed between 750 mm to 1000 mm from the floor .8.6.4 The adjustable and detachable shower head, with a minimally 1500 mm long hose, should be installed between 900 mm and 1200 mm from the floor

Figure 19: Combined WC & Shower Facility

53

.9 Drinking Fountains An appropriate number of drinking fountains or other water-dispensing means shall be accessible to and usable by the physically disabled. .9.1 Drinking water fountains or water coolers shall have up front spouts and control. Drinking water fountains or water coolers shall be handoperated or hand and foot-operated. Conventional floor mounted water coolers may be convenient to individuals in wheelchairs if a small fountain is mounted on the side of the cooler 800 mm above the floor. Fully recessed drinking water fountains are not recommended. Drinking water fountains should not be set into an alcove unless the alcove is wider than a wheelchair (see 3.1).

.9.2

.9.3

.9.4 .9.5

.10Public Telephones .10.1 In buildings in which telephones for public use are provided, at least one accessible telephone mounted at a height suitable for use by a wheelchair user should be provided in an accessible location, preferably near the entrance. Where several accessible telephones are provided, they should be positioned at di#erent heights to suit ambulant people and wheelchair users. .10.2 A fold down seat (450 mm – 520 mm high) or a perch seat (650 mm – 800 mm high) should be provided for the convenience of people with ambulatory disabilities. .10.3 Preferably, telephones for use by disabled people should be located to enable wheelchair users to approach and use the telephone from the front and the side. Where it is only possible to approach a telephone from the front, a knee recess at least 750 mm wide, 480 mm deep and 760 mm high should be provided under the telephone unit. .10.4 Directions to accessible telephones for disabled people should be clearly marked by combining the International Symbol of Access (ISA) with a telephone symbol.

54

.10.5 Telephone Controls • Controls on accessible telephones for wheelchair users should be angled so that they can be used by people when seated or when using a perch seat, if provided. • Telephone controls should be located between 750 mm and 1000 mm above the floor. • To benefit visually impaired people, telephones should be selected which have well lit keypads, large embossed or raised numerals that contrast visually with their background and a raised dot on the number 5. • To assist persons using hearing aids, accessible telephone units should have inbuilt inductive couplers. 5.9.1! An appropriate number of public telephones should be made accessible to and usable by the physically disabled. NOTE – The conventional public telephone booth is not usable by most physically disabled individuals. There are many ways in which public telephones may be made accessible and usable. It is recommended that architects and builders confer with the telephone companies in the planning of the building or facility. 5.9.2! Such telephones should be kept so that the dial is placed at minimum 1200 mm from floor and the handset may be reached by individuals in wheelchairs. .11Handrails Handrails are used as a locational and mobility aid by blind and visually impaired people, and as a support for people with mobility impairments. Many disabled and elderly people rely on handrails/ grab bars to maintain balance or prevent serious falls. The handrail should be securely fitted to the wall to withstand heavy pressure. Handrails should turn in towards the wall at either end. .11.1 Handrails should be approximately 900 mm from the floor. The rail should be easy to grip, having a circular section with a diameter of approximately 40 mm and fixed as shown in Fig. 14 20.

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Figure 20: Fixing of Handrail .11.2 To aid identification, the colour of the rail should contrast with the wall behind. .11.3 Handrails may be provided with Braille/ tactile markings at the beginning and the end to give location cues to people with visual impairment. .11.4 Have continuous gripping surfaces, without interruptions or obstructions that can break a hand hold; .11.5 For stairs and ramps:.11.5.1Be provided on both the sides; .11.5.2Be continuous, even at the landings; and .11.5.3Extend at least 300 mm beyond the stairs/ ramps. .11.6 In case the handrail is enclosed in a recess, the recess should extend at least 450 mm above the top of the rail.

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.12Elevators In a multi-storey building, elevators are essential to the successful functioning of physically disabled individuals. They shall conform to the requirements given in 5.11.1 and 5.11.2. .12.1 Elevators shall be accessible to, and usable by the physically disabled on the level that they use to enter the building, and at all levels normally used by the general public. .12.2 The minimum internal clear space of the lift car should be 1200 mm wide and 1400mm deep. .12.3 The lift door should be a minimum of 900mm wide and should contrast with the adjoining wall. .12.4 The lift should have a voice announcement system along with a visual display to indicate the floor level. .12.5 A clear maneuvering space of 1 800 mm ' 1800 mm should be provided in front of the entrance to all types of lift. This landing area should be well lit artificially with a maintained illuminance level of at least 100 lux. .12.6 Lift Call Buttons should comply with 5.13 .12.7 Signs indicating the location of an accessible lift should be provided in a location that is clearly visible from the building entrance. The sign should incorporate a representation of the International Symbol for Access. .12.8 A sign indicating the number of the floor should be provided on each lift landing on the wall opposite the lift. It is also recommended to install a floor directory of the main facilities and services available on the lift landing, along with an accessible emergency egress route that clearly indicates the location of nearest refuge areas for persons with disabilities. .12.9 The use of visually and acoustically reflective wall surfaces should be minimized within the lift car as visual reflections can cause discomfort and a#ect the visual acuity of people with visual impairments.

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.12.10 The floor of the lift car should be slip resistant and have similar frictional qualities to the floor of the lift landing to decrease the risk of stumbling. .12.11 There should be handrails placed horizontally, at a height of 900 mm from the floor level; and be fixed on both sides and at the rear of the elevator. .12.12 The provision of a mirror on the wall of the lift car opposite the lift door is a positive aid to navigation for wheelchair users. It allows the wheelchair user to see if anyone is behind them and also to see the floor indicator panel. The mirror should not extend below 900 mm from the lift floor to avoid confusing people with impaired sight. .12.13 There should be no horizontal or vertical gaps between the floors of the lift landings and lift car. Where a horizontal gap is unavoidable, this should not exceed 12 mm. .12.14 The emergency communication system should be coupled with an induction loop system installed all around the lift. Telephone units, where provided, should have an inbuilt inductive coupler to assist persons using hearing aids. .12.15 While a conventional passenger lift is the preferred option to provide comprehensive access for all users to levels in a building, in existing buildings where access to such a lift is not possible, a platform lift should be provided as an alternative option. .12.15.1The size of the platform should be minimally 1050mm X 1250mm. .12.15.2Platform lifts for public use by disabled people should be provided with clear instructions for use and fitted with an alarm in case users get into di"culty. .12.15.3The addition of a fold-down seat would be a benefit to ambulant disabled people. .12.16 Elevators shall allow for tra"c by wheelchairs, in accordance with 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 5.3.

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.13Controls It is advantageous for wheelchair users if controls are placed at low level. For visually impaired people, they should be at eye-level. .13.1 To enable wheelchair users to reach controls while not placing them too low for visually impaired people, controls should be in the zone 900 mm to 1200 mm from the floor. It is advantageous if controls in, for example, lifts are placed at an angle of approximately 45° to the wall so that they are easier to read and operate. .13.2 To cater for wheelchair users, controls should be placed not less than 400 mm from room corners. All the power and electric points should be placed at one meter above the floor level and should not project outside walls. .13.3 Again, to cater for visually impaired people, controls should be colour-contrasted with the surrounding face plate panel and the face plate should similarly contrast with the background wall on which it is mounted. Information should preferably be in relief (embossed letters/ symbols accompanied with Braille information) for tactile reading. .13.4 To aid operation for people with impaired co-ordination or impaired sight, switches, etc, should have large push plates, operable by one hand. .13.5 Controls for powered door openers to hinged doors should be located so that the doors do not conflict with wheelchairs, sticks, walking aids, etc. .13.6 To facilitate operation for people with limited strength in arms and hands, handles should be easy to grip and turn. These should be operable by one hand.

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.14Identification Appropriate identification of specific facilities within a building used by the public is particularly essential to the blind. To enable wayfinding in building interiors by persons with visual impairments, it is important to ensure provision of tactile information in directional and room identification signage. This is achieved by incorporation of embossed/ raised lettering and pictograms, as well as Braille descriptions. Signage should form part of an integrated communication scheme that gives clear directions, information and instructions for the use of a building. These should support a wayfinding strategy that considers the needs of di#erent types of building users as well as the complexity of the building layout. Visual and tactile information should be reinforced by audible information. .14.1 Location and Positioning of Visual Signage .14.1.1Directional signs should be placed only on fixed parts of the building such as walls, posts and floors. .14.1.2Directional signs should readily identify and easily distinguish accessible routes from each other, providing a logical sequence from a starting point to a point of destination and providing a clear indication of return routes to named exits. .14.1.3Information and direction signs should be provided at each point where they are required, for example at junctions of circulation routes and key destinations such as doorways, at reception points, at facilities such as telephones, bu#ets and toilets, and in rooms, spaces and counters where hearing enhancement systems are fitted. Clear directions indicating the facilities on each floor are essential on landings and stairs to help ensure that disabled people do not visit the wrong floor of a building. .14.1.4With the exception of signs to toilets, signs to rooms should generally not be placed on doors but on the wall to the leading edge side of the door as otherwise when the door is open the sign may not be visible.

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Figure 21: Signage Installation Height .14.1.5In spaces in which signs would not be visible in large crowds, they should be suspended from the ceiling. The preferred minimum headroom of directional signs suspended from ceilings or posts, or projected from walls, should be 2100 mm. .14.1.6Consideration should be given to duplicating detailed signs or instructions, especially safety notices, at high and low level, i.e. at 1350 to 1650 mm for a visually impaired person when standing and 1000 mm to 1100 mm for convenient close viewing by a wheelchair user. .14.1.7Signs associated with a control panel, such as lift controls, should be located between 800 mm and 1100 mm above floor level to meet the needs of people sitting in a wheelchair and people standing. .14.1.8Signs should be positioned to avoid reflections from daylight and artificial lighting. .14.2 Signage Design .14.2.1Visual signs should comprise of simple words, clearly separated from one another, in short sentences.

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.14.2.2Abbreviations, words placed closely together, and very long words are all hard to read and should be avoided. .14.2.3Visually impaired people will more easily read a short sentence or single word message in Title Case, i.e. with an initial upper case letter of each word followed by lower case letters. Words entirely in upper case type (capital) should be avoided. .14.2.4A sans serif type face should be used. Fonts that are commonly used are Helvetica medium, Arial, Futura or Avant Garde. .14.2.5Embossed letters are easier to read than indented or engraved letters, especially if their leading edges (left and upper) are sharp and as well defined as possible. Therefore, directional signs and signs identifying functions or activities within a building should incorporate embossed letters with a depth of 1.25 mm ± 0.25 mm, a stroke of 1.75 mm ± 0.25 mm, and the edges slightly rounded.

Figure 22: Incorporating Embossed Text, Symbol and Braille .14.2.6The height of lettering for signs should be chosen to suit the type of sign and the viewing distance in accordance with the following table.

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Table 4: Text Heights for Di"erent Types of Sign V i e w i n g Type of Sign Text Height Embossed Distance (mm) Braille Text L o n g External fascia signs 200 X range External location signs 90 – 120 Preferable External direction signs 90 Preferable House numbers 90 Preferable M e d i u m Location and direction 60 Preferable range Identification signs 40 Preferable C l o s e Room identification 30 & range signs Directories 15 & Wall mounted 15 & information

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.14.2.7To enable persons with visual impairments to locate and establish the extent of text on a sign, the text should be left aligned. .14.2.8Universally recognized symbols should be used to replace text, wherever possible. Other symbols should supplement text, but should not be used in isolation. The symbols or pictograms on visual signs should be embossed and their size should be as large as the location will allow, subject to design constraints. .14.2.9Signs to designated accessible facilities for disabled people should incorporate the International Symbol for Access. Examples of such facilities include accessible entrances and accessible toilets. .14.2.10The colour and light reflectance value (LRV) of letters, symbols and pictograms should contrast by at least 70% with the LRV of the colour used for the signboard. Signboards should contrast visually with their backgrounds. Where the LRV of a required signboard colour matches that of the background wall colour and neither can be changed, a visually contrasting border should be placed around the sign, equal in width to at least half the letter height of the text used for the sign.

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.14.2.11Universally accepted colour coding should be used for the background or text of warning signs, as appropriate, i.e. green for safety, yellow for risky and red for danger/ emergency. .14.2.12Where Braille is to be provided grade 1 Braille should be used for single word signs and grade 2 contracted Braille should be used to reduce the length of multi-word signs. Where Braille forms part of a sign, a marker (e.g. a notch) should be located at the left hand edge of the sign to help locate the Braille message.

Figure 23: Technical Specifications for Braille .14.3 Raised letters or numbers shall be used to identify rooms or o"ces. .14.4 Such identification should be placed on the wall, to left of the door, preferably at a height of 1500 mm from the floor. .14.5 Information based on colour codes only should be avoided; colourblind people may find them di"cult to understand. .14.6 Doors that are not intended for normal use, and that might prove dangerous if a blind person were to exit or enter by them, 64

should be made quickly identifiable to the touch by knurling the door handle or knob (see Fig. 24).

Figure 24: Door Handle

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.15Warning Signals .15.1 Audible warning signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous visual signals for the benefit of those with hearing disabilities. .15.2 Visual signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous audible signals for the benefit of the blind. To assist blind people, lettering and symbols on signs should be in relief for tactile reading. .15.3 Signs should be designed and located so that they are easy to read. For visually impaired people, signs should preferably be at eye-level and it should be possible to approach them closely. Text and symbols should be colour-contrasted with the background. The letters should not be less than 12 mm high. .15.4 Signs should be well illuminated and surfaces should not cause mirroring or reflections. Signs should not be behind glass or similar materials. .15.5 Information based on colour codes only should be avoided; colourblind people may find them di"cult to understand. .16Work Bench This should be at least 800 mm wide, 600 mm deep and 650 mm to 700 mm high. For wheelchair users, the convenient height of work tops is between 750 760 mm and 850 mm; flexible provision is preferred. Further, for wheelchair access to a work bench, wash basin or table, a clear space for knees and footrests toe is needed. This clear space shall be minimally 750 mm wide, 480 mm deep and 760 mm high. .17Hazards Every e#ort shall be exercised to obviate hazards to individuals with physical disabilities. .17.1 Access panels or manholes in floors, walks, and walls may be extremely hazardous, particularly when in use, and should be avoided.

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.17.2 When manholes or access panels are open and in use, or when an open excavation exists on a site, particularly when it is in proximity of normal pedestrian tra"c, barricades shall be placed on all open sides, at least 8.5 m from the hazard, and warning devices shall be installed in accordance with 5.15.2. .17.3 Low-hanging door closers that remain within the opening of a doorway, when the door is open or that protrude hazardously into regular corridors or tra"c ways when the door is closed, shall be avoided. .17.4 Low-hanging signs, ceiling lights, and similar objects or signs and fixtures that protrude into regular corridors or tra"c way shall be avoided. A minimum height of 2.1 m measured from the floor is recommended. .17.5 Ramps and stairs shall be adequately lighted with a minimum maintained illumination level of 150 lux .17.6 Exit signs shall be in accordance with IS : 4878-1968. .17.7 Equipment and materials causing allergic reactions should as far as possible be avoided in dwellings and buildings. .17.8 Hazard protection should be provided if objects project more than 100 mm into an access route and their lower edge is more than 300 mm above the ground. This is especially important for open areas under staircases and ramps. .17.8.1Hazard protection associated with such objects should take the form of a kerb or other solid barrier so that a blind or partially sighted person can detect the hazard using a cane. The hazard protection should not extend beyond the front edge of the object, nor should it be set back more than 100 mm from its front edge. .17.8.2In addition to a means of cane detection, guarding rail at a level of 900 mm from the surface of the accessible route should be installed to guide people around an obstruction. .17.8.3Also, all protruding obstacles should also be su"ciently di#erentiated in colour and tone from the floor and wall surfaces and other backgrounds against which they may be 67

viewed. Particularly strong contrast is needed for features that extend more than 100 mm beyond their support at ground level, such as signs, telephone counters, literature displays and fire extinguishers. To make such protruding objects distinctly obvious, it is recommended to provide a high contrast background as well as contrasting hatching on the floor under such features. .17.9 Pillars extending in circulation path should either contrast sharply from the background walls or have a 200 mm wide band of a colour that contrasts from the rest of the pillar as well as from the background environment, placed at eye level (i.e. between 1350 mm and 1650 mm from the furnished floor level) .17.10 In order to warn persons with visual impairments of the approaching danger, it is recommended to incorporate Tactile Ground Surface Indicators (TGSI) along the approach path to unavoidable obstacles and hazards. Examples of usage of tactile warning blocks are at beginning, end and landings of staircases and ramps; at trip hazards such as single steps and thresholds; along approach to features that protrude into the circulation path up to a height of 2.1 meters from the floor level, such as signs, telephone counters, literature displays and fire extinguishers; and along unprotected edges such as on railway platforms.

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.18Emergency Egress Provision of accessible means of egress from all public use areas and facilities is as vital a component as accessible ingress. .18.1 Raising the Alarm: Placement (accessibility) and visibility of alerting devices is very important. Fire alarm boxes, emergency call buttons and lighted panels should be installed between heights of 800mm and 1100 mm from the furnished floor surface. These should be adequately contrasted in colour and tone from the background wall and should be labeled with raised letters and also in Braille. .18.2 Alerting Systems: In emergency situations, it is critical that people are quickly alerted to the situation at hand, for persons with disability the following needs to be considered: .18.2.1Audible alarms with ‘Voice Instructions’ should be installed that can help guide them to the nearest emergency exit. As an alternative to the pre-recorded messages, these alarms may be connected to central control room for on-the-spot broadcasts. .18.2.2Non – auditory alarms (visual or sensory) to alert persons with hearing impairments should be installed at visible locations in all areas that the building users may visit (including toilet areas, storerooms etc.). Non-auditory alarms include flashing beacons. To prevent triggering an epileptic attack, light strobes should not exceed 5 flashes per second. .18.3 Evacuation Plans: Evacuation plans that clearly indicate the designated emergency evacuation routes (in compliance with 5.18.4) as well as location of refuge areas (in compliance with 5.18.5) should be displayed at all public areas of the building. These should contrast strongly against the background. Where possible, these should incorporate raised letters and tactile routes, and Braille for benefit of persons with visual impairments. .18.4 Emergency Evacuation Routes: In buildings or facilities, or portions of buildings or facilities, required to be accessible, accessible means of egress shall be provided in the same number as required for exits by local building/life safety regulations. 69

.18.4.1Designating evacuation routes shall be at least 1200 mm wide, to ensure a wheelchair user and an able bodied person are able to pass each other along the route. The route should be free of any steps or sudden changes in level and should be kept free from obstacles such as ash trays and flower pots. .18.4.1.1An exit stairway to be considered part of an accessible means of egress shall have a minimum clear width of 1200 mm between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge complying with 5.18.5 within an enlarged floor-level landing or a horizontal exit. .18.4.1.2While typical elevators are not designed to be used during an emergency evacuation, evacuation elevators are designed with standby power and other features according to the elevator safety standard and can be used for the evacuation of individuals with disabilities. An evacuation elevator to be considered part of an accessible means of egress shall be accessed from either an area of refuge complying with 5.18.5 or a horizontal exit. .18.4.2Orientation and direction signs should be installed frequently along the evacuation route and these should preferably be internally illuminated. .18.4.3Whilst the emergency lighting provided by traditional overhead emergency lighting luminaries, conforming to the Indian Standard IS: 9583-1981: Emergency Lighting Units, is acceptable for people who are visually impaired, there is research based evidence that provision of photoluminescent wayguidance systems that create a minimum illuminance of 0.2 lux along the emergency escape route can significantly enhance independent navigation of persons with vision impairments during emergency evacuation. A ‘Way Guidance lighting system’ consisting of low mounted LED or other photoluminescent strips to outline the exit route (with frequent illuminated direction indicators along the route) should be installed along the entire length of the evacuation route.

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.18.4.4Exit signs shall be in accordance with IS: 4878-1968. Exit signage should also be available in tactile format in the evacuation route. Note: Fireproof doors along circulation paths that are not exclusively egress routes generally require a force greater than 25 N to operate, rendering several disabled people dependent on others to negotiate these doors. While it is essential to cater safety measures for unpredictable emergencies, it is also important to provide an accessible environment to disabled persons. Consider holding the doors open with magnetic catches or ‘floor springs’ that are connected with the fire alarm system .18.5 Provision of Refuge Areas: Where a required exit from an occupiable level above or below a level of accessible exit discharge is not accessible, refuge areas shall be provided on each such level (in a number equal to that of inaccessible required exits). A refuge area, also known as an area of rescue assistance, is a place of relative safety where persons who may not be able to negotiate inaccessible egress routes may await rescue assistance. .18.5.1Every required area of refuge is to be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible egress route. .18.5.2Every area of refuge shall have direct access to an exit stairway complying with 5.18.4.1.1 or an evacuation elevator complying with 5.18.4.1.2 .18.5.3Each area of refuge must be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier having minimally one hour fire resistance rating. ( Each area of refuge is to be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke. .18.5.4The size of the refuge to provide at least two accessible areas each being not less 750 mm by 1200 mm. The area of rescue assistance shall not encroach on any required exit width. The total number of such areas per story shall be not less than one for every 200 persons of calculated occupant load served by the area of rescue assistance.

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.18.5.5All stairs next to the refuge should have a clear width of 1200 between the handrails. .18.5.6A method of two-way communication, with both visible and audible signals, shall be provided between each area of rescue assistance and the primary entry. .18.5.7An ‘Evac Chair’ should be installed in all refuge areas. Evac Chairs are assistive devices that can be rolled down the stairs by trained personnel when conducing assisted evacuation of persons with mobility impairments. .18.5.8Each area of rescue assistance shall be identified by a sign which states "REFUGE AREA" and displays the international symbol of accessibility. The sign should be illuminated when exit sign illumination is required. Signage should also be installed at all inaccessible exits and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the direction to areas of rescue assistance. In each area of rescue assistance, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted adjoining the two-way communication system.

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6 Designing for Children .1 The dimensions given in this Annex are for adults of average stature. In designing buildings for use by children, it may be necessary to alter some dimensions, such as height of handrails according to IS : 4838 (Part 1)-1969 and IS : 4838 (Part 2)-1979.

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