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The idea behind using risk management practices is to protect businesses from being vulnerable. Many business risk management plans may focus on keeping the company viable and reducing financial risks. However, risk management is also designed to protect the employees, customers, and the public from negative events like fires or acts of terrorism that may affect them. Risk management practices are also about preserving the physical facilities, data, records, and physical assets a company owns or uses.
Risk management provides a clear and structured approach to identifying risks. Having a clear understanding of all risks allows an organization to measure and prioritize them and take the appropriate actions to reduce losses. An effective risk management practice does not eliminate risks. However, having an effective and operational risk management practice shows an insurer that your organization is committed to loss reduction or prevention. It makes your organization a better risk to insure. Having a risk management plan is an important part of maintaining a successful and responsible company. Every company should have one. It will help to protect people as well as physical and financial assets.
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2.0 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study of this Malacca Monorail are based on the real accident happened to two British tourists on 1st November 2011. As Malacca Monorail is a new attraction provided by Melaka State Government to the tourists, the service should consider the safety requirement that they should provide to their property. Therefore, we are handling this study to identify the existing and potential risk regarding the monorail service. After doing this research, we can apply it to the risk management process as to suggest the possible safety requirement and method to avoid the risk from happen.
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The methodology that used in our research is through interview with Mohd.Irwan Bin Abdullah, which is Technician of the Malacca Monorail. We choose to interview him because he is the one with experiences and closest person to the risk. He deals with daily risk that potentially hazardous to the operation of the Malacca Monorail. We designed specific questions for him to help us identifying existing risk and potential risk on both the monorail and its stations. The interview last for about 30 minutes as we inspect thoroughly of the monorail safety systems.
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Melaka River and Coast Development Corporation (PPSPM) was established on the 1st June of 2005 under section III of the Enactment 2, year 2005 and is responsible for developing and managing the development of rivers and beaches/coastal in the state systematically. Their function is to work as an agency which administering and managing all rivers and coast in Melaka State and to make sure all the rivers and the coast are in clean, beautiful, and viable, which is suitable for tourism destination. The objective is identifying the rivers and coast of Melaka State by knowing their strengths and weaknesses. They are also responsible to develop, implement and promote infrastructure projects for bring up the values. Malacca Monorail operation at Taman Rempah had been takeover by Melaka River and Coast Development Corporation effective on 5 Mac 2012. Apart of Malacca Monorail, PPSPM also responsible of managing Private Park and Ferris wheel, Eye on Malacca situated at Jalan Tun Ali. PPSPM had given the honor to take over management of Malacca Monorail, Private Park and Eye on Melaka under instruction from Chief Minister, Datuk Seri Mohd. Ali Rustam. to PPSPM CEO, Datuk Baharom Majid. It is because the situation of Hang Jebat monorail system which is situated at Taman Rempah is well known for its tourism product, Malacca River Cruise. Being so, Chief Minister think it is best for PPSPM to manage Malacca Monorail and they had started since the past 19 Mac 2012. Previously, the monorail starts its operation on October 2010, managed by Melaka Taming Sari Bhd. The first phase of the system, built at a cost of RM15.9 million and covering 1.6km from Taman Rempah in Pengkalan Rama to Kampung Bunga Raya Pantai, was opened to the public on 21 October 2010. PPSPM guaranteed to deliver the best services for their entire tourism product that currently under their management. The first step is to combine all of these products under one economic package- CEO of PPSPM. Currently the ticket price of Malacca Monorail remain the same regardless of different management
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previously, which is RM10 for adults, and RM5 for kids under age 12 years old. 4.1 About Malacca Monorail
The Malacca Monorail is a monorail in Malacca City, Malacca, Malaysia. Built at the cost of RM16.5 million (1st phase). 2nd phase of the Malacca Monorail Project estimated to cost around RM13.2 million. It is opened to the public on 22nd October 2010. The monorail is capable to accommodate maximum of 22 people per session. The estimate time per session of touring from Station Hang Tuah (Jalan Bunga Raya) to Station Hang Jebat(Taman Rempah) is around 30 minutes. Currently Station Hang Jebat is still under construction and not opened to the public yet. The ticket price is RM10 for adults and only RM5 for kids under 12 years old. Operation hour is from 9.30 am until 12 am, and if there are a lot of people still coming in, they will stay open up to 1 am. The monorail operates daily regardless of holiday. Its being constructed in 2008, and completed on schedule on June 2010. The contractor responsible is Agibs Engineering Sdn. Bhd. On 14 December 2011, in a press conference, Chied Minister of Malacca said that the state government will still proceed with 2nd phase of Malacca Monorail project using technology from China, regardless of the 1st phase of the monorail suffering more than 21 major and minor technical difficulties. The cost is estimated at RM13.2 million to cover construction of rail from Station Hang Jebat(Taman Rempah) to Jalan Mutahir and Jalan Tun Ali to Station Hang Tuah at Jalan Bunga Raya with 1.3km of distance. Some of the upgrades in the 2nd phase are include emergency doors in each coach, path between two rails, traffic control station and automatic transfer mechanism with generators. There will be two coaches, each coach capable to accomodate maximum of 12 people. Each touring session is around 45 minutes with average speed of 15km per hour. The project is estimated to complete on Februari 2013.
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4.1.1 Vehicle Management System (VMS) The VMS provides supervisory control, monitoring and diagnostic systems. Train status information is graphically displayed to the operator via the HMI panel. Its user-friendly interface display allows the operator to quickly respond and understand all train systems status. The annunciation of train system status and abnormal conditions are categorized and displayed in real time, and prioritized in order of critical system hierarchy. As an option, critical data can be logged for further analysis. 4.1.2 Brake System The brake system comprises the latest generation electro-pneumatic mechatronic system available. Cost-effective, modular and lightweight it provides multiple functionalities including high integrity emergency brakes, service brakes (blended where necessary), security brakes and parking brakes. The system is configurable with ATO / ATP railway applications, and provides valuable cost and weight savings. Additional functions include compressor control, communications with train management system, selfdiagnosis, wheel slip and slide control with dual bus communication between bogies and individual cars. 4.1.3 Cab Facilities The driver’s console incorporates the master controller assembly, control buttons and panel view. The master controller controls the propulsion and braking systems, and is equipped with a Drivers’ Vigilance Device (DVD) control, which prevents vehicle movement without positive manual actuation by the operator. An ergonomic console design, combined with a pneumatic seat suspension maximizes reach of the controls and panel-view
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interface while enhancing driver-comfort and providing an optimal field of vision. The air-conditioned driver’s compartment also carries emergency safety equipment.
INTRODUCTION TO THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS
The risk management process can be define as the systematic process of identifying, evaluating and analysis loss exposure and selecting the most effective technique to mitigate these loss exposure. A Risk Process it allows you to identify each risk, quantify the impact and take action now to prevent it from occurring and reduce the impact should it eventuate. There are four steps in the risk management process:
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Usually risk process is been used whenever your ability to meet your objectives is at risk. Most teams face risks on a regular basis. By putting in place this risk management process, you can monitor and control risks, removing all uncertainty. The risk management process involves running risk reviews to identify and quantify risks. The risks are then documented and the Risk Process helps you take action to reduce the likelihood of them occurring. This Risk Process will help you put in place the right processes for managing risk today.
Identifying Potential and Existing Risks
Identify risk is the process of identifying any potential event that may impede business operations. This is the main steps and need to careful analysis this is because it can make serious problem towards the organization. The risk manager must know wholly about the organization
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from the background of the company, mission and goal, and also operation of the company. A risk varies from one organization to another due to differences in operation and condition of working environment. In monorail, Malacca they are several risk that may be occur:
i. Property risk In property risk there are existing risk that happen before this where monorail breakdown during operation due to system failure on September 2011. This is because monorail is operated by computerize system. Another existing risk is where monorail needs to stop operation during raining or bad weather because of slippery track. Land Public Transport Commission (SPAD) had issued an order to Melaka Taming Sari to stop the monorail service on Nov 30 for the second time because for the safety of passengers. Another thing that already happens is obstacle on the monorail track where a crow gets stuck at the monorail tire.
There also some potential of property risk that may occur to monorail, Malacca. First is risk of fire happen whether it happen on monorail or their building station itself. Second is risk of burglary at the monorail station. Next is failure of sensor system. Sensor system is a technology where the monorail will operate when all safety is good. So sensor system is important for monorail. Last of property risk is the problem on the power supply that want to operate the monorail system.
ii. Liability risk. Liability risk can be define as a risk that are arising from our actions itself where it will may occur or caused to someone else injured or any damaged. This may be occur if the driver or engineer that no careful or
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take easy of the safety. This is dangerous and will cause anything bad happen to the passenger of monorail. iii. Financial risk. Financial risk is where risk that face by company in term of money that will affect their business. Monorail already twice stops their operation because of technical problem. This will give the problem for monorail to run the business and get profit. They can’t stop their operation too long because it can make monorail, Malacca will face loss.
iv. Risks arising from failure of others. This risk arising where the company face a problem when other party fail to fulfill or perform its contractual obligation thus that can make them financial loss. This is happen where the workers are not doing their job well. It will be difficult for monorail to operate and also will face a lot of others risk.
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5.1.1 Tools for risk identification
Tools for risk identification are use for measure and identify what risk that may happen. This tools usually use by risk manager to identify what risk that may occur in their business or company. There are several tools that have been use by monorail:
i. Physical inspections. Physical inspection is where they inspect usually a vehicles or machine by that they will know what risk that may occur. In monorail the or technician. Monorail, Malacca also engineer about inspection of week and inspection will done by engineer
call engineer from China to teach our local usually take 3 hour for monorail inspection.
monorail. They will usually doing inspection 2 times a
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Ii. Financial Statement. This also one of the tools that been used for identifying loss exposure risk. They will seek from company income statement and statement of Analyzing the financial statement will also should a business sources and uses of funds. interruption risk takes place.
provides cues on revenues that will be lost
iii. Historical loss data. Historical loss data will help the company to identify the loss exposure and the possibilities of loss recurrence in the organization. Usually it happen during off peak period where there are no many tourists came to Malacca. So from the historical loss data they should know how to avoid risk of losses.
Evaluating And Analyzing The Potential And Existing Risk
Evaluating and analyzing risk meaning once the risk have been identified, the next step is to evaluate and analyze them in terms of financial loss. Risks are ranked according to their severity (maximum probable loss) and frequency (likelihood of occurrence).
EVALUATING AND ANALYSING RISKS
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Certain risks demand more attention than others. This is because risk that certain organization may faces will be more crucial if the risk is in the bigger amount. For example, a major lawsuit for malpractice resulting in permanent disability, although remote, may cause an organisation to go bankrupt. This matter must, therefore, be given top priority versus that of frequent losses resulting from breakdown of the photocopiers. In our survey about Malacca Monorail, what we may found about the risk that are existing are firstly, sensor problem. This sensor problem we may define under property risk. The monorail uses the sensor in order to move it. The frequency of the risk to occur is low but however the severity is high. It was only a small glitch with the sensors of the sliding doors, which caused the train to stop. The problem won’t easily happen because of the management had already fixed it, and the severity is high because of once it happen it will stop the company from working and the face a big loss of profit. The next existing risk is bad weather. The bad weather is under the property risk. It means once the weather is rainy or thunderstorm the company will automatically stop the operation. The frequency is high and the severity is also high. It is because weather is something uncontrollable; when the weather is rainy the operation should directly stop. The rail will be slippery. Thirdly, financial risk, it is risks faced by business enterprises stemming from uncertainties or adverse changes in prices of interest rates and exchange rates. The frequency of this risk is high and the severity also high. Lastly under existing risk is environmental risk (birds stuck on rail). Anything may be happen when it’s related to the environment. The frequency is high and the severity also high.
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The potential risk that our group had discovered is fire, under property risk. There are potential on fire burning because of they are using high electricity, once the electric trip then it might be really dangerous to everyone. The frequency of the risk is low and the severity is high. The fire burning will not easily happen because they have safety precaution but once it happen it will definitely loss a huge profit. Second potential risk is burglary. It’s under property risk. Because of the company is place at the semi town area so the probability of theft is high. The income daily of monorail during school holiday is in good reputation so the workers should always take care of their responsibility as workers. The frequency is high but the severity is low. Thirdly is breach of duty of care. The risk is under liability group. The employee must get ready in whatever emergency that may occur; they should never careless in order to finish their job. As example, a driver that conduct the rail should stop or emergency break the coach if something needed. This risk is low frequency and also low in severity. Next is computerized problem which is in property classification. The monorail is using computerized method in order to move it. The system should not be wrongly entered by wrong system. The frequency is low and the severity is high. Last but not least, risk of power supply, it is under property risk. The monorail uses the power supply in order to move, but if the power is less or none then the monorail can’t move and directly no passenger and can’t make profit. The frequency is low and the severity also low it is because they should have another plan in order to control the matter.
EXISTING RISK SENSOR PROBLEM POWER SUPPLY BAD WEATHER FINANCIAL RISK
FREQUENCY LOW LOW HIGH HIGH
SEVERITY HIGH LOW HIGH HIGH
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ENVIRONMENT POTENTIAL RISK FIRE BUGLARY BREACH OF DUTY OF CARE COMPUTERIZED PROBLEM POWER SUPPLY
HIGH FREQUENCY LOW HIGH LOW LOW LOW
HIGH SEVERITY HIGH LOW LOW HIGH LOW
Risk Matrix Type of risk High frequency High severity Bad weather Financial risk Environment Low frequency Sensor problem Fire Computerized problem Power supply Breach of duty of care Power supply Low severity Burglary
Selecting And Implementing Appropriate Loss Prevention And
Reduction Techniques An implementing strategy should be applied after the risks have been identified and evaluated. For each risk, the possibility of the occurence is differed from each other. In general, a few treatments for the risk can be taken by the risk manager. The treatment of risks are retention, reduction, transfer and avoidance. These approaches may only be used as a guide
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depending on the experience of the organization. However, the combination of approaches is the best solution to reach a risk management decision. 5.3.1 Risk Management Tools As the monorail suffering more than 21 cases of damages, the company had designed a risk management tools which they think able to help them reduce unlikely incidents in the future. • Risk Control There are 3 types of risk control, which are avoidance, prevention, and reduction. i. Avoidance
Risk avoidance activities refer to efforts undertaken to not acquire or abandon the risk due to certain reasons. In this case, the occurence of the loss exposure is reduced to zero or does not take place at all because the risk does not exist. In this particular case, the monorail management stop their operation during bad weather especially during heavy rains and storm. It is because the rails that the monorail using are not using ‘thermal paint’, causing the tyre of the monorail cannot grip properly on its track which may cause the monorail to skid and went off the rail. Although it is possible to avoid certain risks, not all risk can be avoided. For example a passenger might suddenly dead in the monorail because heart attack or millions of other reasons which nothing to do with the monorail at all, because death is inevitable.
Risk prevention refers to efforts undertaken to reduce the likelyhood or frequency of the risk happening. In this case, the management
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routinely inspected for mechanical problems of the monorail from its tyre pressure, hydraulics, up to its engine and door sensors, to reduce the frequency off accidents. iii. Reduction
Risk reduction refers to efforts to reduce or minimise the outcome of losses, in term of severity of losses. In this case, a simple risk reduction technique to reduce severity of fire losses in the monorail, which the company adopted is by made sure that fire estinguisher is readily available at the most convenient location in each of the monorail coaches. More elaborate attempts may involve the passenger who did not allowed to smoke as they entering the monorail station to eliminate peril of fire losses. • Risk Financing These are techniques of funding the losses should they occur. Two approaches of risk financing that the company adopted are risk retention and risk transfer. i. Retention
Risk retention happens when organisations decide to retain the risks either wholly or partly because there is no other way of dealing with the risks. Risk that cannot be avoided or reduced are normally retained. In this case, the company retain of all their minor damaged part such as screws that hold the monorail in place, shattered glass of the windows, air-conditioned system in the monorails are all being retain by the company so that the damage can be quickly repaired and the operation will not be put in halt too long which can heavily suffer income of the company. If they choose to claim the minor damaged part from its manufacturer, it would take longer time for the monorail to be repaired. In past case, 18 passengers from Hong Kong were trapped in the monorail and being evacuated using ladder when
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the monorail suddenly stopped for no reasons. The company then refunded all of the passengers tickets at full price. ii. Transfer
Risk transfer methods involve transferring the risk to another party so that the impact of the loss is minimised. As the monorail management, like it or not they have to buy insurance as they involved in the public transportation business where any possible accidents could happen involving the lives of hundred of people using the monorail daily. The premium is being paid each month and passenger can claim using their tickets as proof of purchase if any accidents occured. By using the risk matrix approach, the risk manager of Malacca Monorail can find an effective way to prevent the loss and reduce its frequency to happen. Based on the risk evaluated in the previous stage, the treatment of risk and strategy can be implemented within the company. As for the first risk, which is the sensor problem, its frequency to happen is low, and the severity is high as it might lead to failure of operation. The strategies to implement for this risk are avoidance and reduction. The risk avoidance action that can be taken by Malacca Monorail is to make a regular inspection on the monorail systems before operating it every day. As this risk is an existing risk, many safety precautions have been made by Malacca Monorail as to avoid it to happen again in the future. The second risk is bad weather. Nobody can predict what the weather could be on the day. As from the past experience by Malacca Monorail, their operation has been suspended by SPAD for two months, due to slippery condition on the rail. The frequency of this risk to happen is high and the severity is also high. Therefore, the approach to be applied is avoidance and reduction. The risk of bad weather can be avoided by discontinuing the operation during rainy seasons or bad weather.
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The third risk that could occur is the financial risk. Its frequency to happen is low and the severity is high. The financial risk could occur when there is failure in operation due to damage of systems and bad weather. If this happen, it could lead to loss in profit for Malacca Monorail. For this risk, the strategy that should be implemented is risk transfer. Malacca monorail can transfer their financial loss to the insuransce company. For this reason, they have to pay a high premium price that will cover their financial loss. However, a major research will be made by the insurance company first before they get their financial loss covered. The fourth risk is environmental risk. This risk refer to the risk that exist around the operational area of monorail. For example, during previous accident, there is a crow stucked on the rail and lead to a disruption in the monorail operation. The frequency of this risk to happen is high and the severity is also high. Therefore,the appropriate method tto be applied for this risk is avoidance and reduction. The risk can be avoided by making an inspection on the rail track before operating every day. This kind of accident could make the passenger in a danger condition. The monorail driver should be aware of the surrounding areas as to reduce the severity of the accident if it is happened. The fifth risk is fire risk. The frequency of this risk to happen is low, but when it happen, the severity is high as it could lead to physical injuries to the passsenger and drivers. The strategic implementation that can be applied for this risk is to transfer risk. Trasfering risk is the act of transferring the responsibility in term of financial to the insurance company. However, a few safety measures have been taken by Malacca Monorail as to reduce the severity of the risk. Malacca Monorail has placed fire extinguisher in each car of the train as a precaution in case fire happened. Besides, there is also an emergency exit through the windows is available in the monorail. If fire occur in the monorail, it could lead to failure of systems operation. There is also provided the key of the door to be opened manually.
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The sixth risk is burglary. The frequency of this risk to happen is low and the severity is high. The frequency is low because the business area is a place where there are many crowds. However, if it is happened, the severity is high as it might caused an injury either to the worker or the passangers. For this risk, the possible strategy to be implemented is avoidance and reduction. This risk can be avoided by making a regular check up on the business property area. For instance, placing a guard would be helpful to reduce the frequency of burglary to happen. For now, Malacca Monorail only provide the suveillance camera as to monitoring the business area. The seventh risk is breach of duty of care. This risk could happen when the worker is careless when handling the operation. When this happen, it could lead to a serious accident occur. This risk also will lead to a liability risk when company has to bear a responsibility towards the passengers. The frequency of this risk to happen is low and the severity of risk is high. Therefore, the strategic implementation is avoidance and reduction. The company can avoid this risk from happened by giving a proper training to the worker. The worker must be expert in handling the monorail operational systems. The eight risk that might occur is computerized problem. Computerized problem could happen when the usage of the monorail is over the limit, without required service. The frequency for this risk to happen is low while the severity is high. The failure of the computerized system could also lead to a serious accident. The implementation strategy that should be taken by the company is to make a regular check up and service to the systems as to check whether it is functioning correctly or not. For this reason, the state government of Malacca has appointed an engineer from the monorail maker, Unis Technology Company Limited from China to work with Malacca Monorail. He is responsible to ensure that the monorail systems can work properly. The last risk that might occur is short of power supply risk. As the monorai works progress by using the electrical supply, the monorail company has to provide a backup supply for the monorail operations. The
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frequency for this risk to happen is low, and the severity is also low. Therefore, the implementing strategy is retention strategy. In case it happened, Malacca Monorail has provided an enough supply for one day operation. Therefore, they also provided a fund as to cover the cost of supply required when there is no electrical power supply.
Monitoring And Reviewing The Risk Management Process
The risk management process must be monitored to ensure that all parties in the organisation comply and adhere to its requirements. The risk manager must ensure that the standards set are met that performances are measured against those standard. The evaluation process also enables the risk manager to detect past mistakes and oversights in the risk management process and to take corrective actions New risks may also emerge requiring a review of the overall risk management process. There are several methods practices by the management Some of them are regular inspection of the monorail. Inspections are being conducted daily early in the morning before the monorail are being open to public at 9.30 am. The inspection are conducted mainly focus on its engine tyre, doors sensor and controlling systems. It is because if one of those failed to function properly, the monorail will be put on halt all day until the problem solved. The monorail also will be service timely according to its recommended service period without any delay. Regular parts that frequently needed to be service is tyre pressure, electrical appliances such as the air—conditioner, computerized controls, and rails. These parts are being service up to 3
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times per week to prevent fatigue of some of the parts, especiallt during school holidays as many customers during that period of time. Workers also being monitored, from staff behind the ticketing counter, until behind the wheel of the monorail. This is to ensure that the company serving their customers, which majority of them are tourists from all around the world experience the best holiday they ever had in their lives. They are being monitored from time to time via their supervisor of their shift. The staffs also being trained to handle any mishaps or accidents if ever occured during the occupancy of the passengers in the monorail. CCTV monitoring systems also being used by the company to monitor both their employee and customers. This is to ensure that if anything happen, they will have records of the incidents and can be investigate thoroughly to prevent it happen in the future. The CCTV monitoring the employee so that risk of employees’ crimes could be reduce and prevented.
To improve the safety of its monorail operations and prevent a reoccurrence of this type accident, it is recommended that the following remedial safety actions be undertaken by Malacca Monorail:
i. Ensure that its drivers comply with the prescribed operating speeds
for all sections of the track.
ii. Ensure that its drivers understand the emergency braking system and
are practised in its operation in periodic training drills. iii. Verify that the new Anti-Collision Control system ensures sufficient separation between monorails and does so under all operating conditions.
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iv. Determine the cause of the monorail
door failures and undertake
remedial action is necessary to ensure their consistent,
v. Ensure its track tape maintenance schedule provides for the timely
inspection and replacement for worn tape.
vi. Upgrade the audio recording system used for voice recordings
between train control and drivers to ensure ease of retrieval and clear, high fidelity replay. vii.Ensure its monorail management system is capable of providing controllers with real-time data on the location of all monorails on the track. viii. Ensure all time logs on digital recording equipment are
synchronised at all times. x. Develop and regularly conduct an emergency exercise that includes full participation by emergency services.
Since its opening in 22 October 2010, there are 21 reported cases of breakage of the monorail, from the door screws to the engine problems. The company had conducted so many test runs but still, there are major technical problems occurred from time to time. Causing the public to ask the question, ‘Is the Malacca Monorail is an asset or liability to the government of Malacca state?’. However, Chief Minister Datuk Seri Mohd. Ali Rustam is being optimistic that he will continue to proceed with 2nd phase of the monorail with starting cost of RM13.2 million. As the phase 1
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act as a learning platform for Malaysian to manage a monorail transit system, the 2nd phase will eliminate most of the flaws being identified in the phase 1 monorail so that future accidents could be avoided. Sure the risks are still there. But like it or not, the management should discuss thoroughly especially with engineers who expert in the monorail to act as their consultants to give consultations especially in the safety of the customers. It is essential for the management, currently PPSPM as the managing team, to maintain good image in providing the best services to their customers if they want to generate profit in the long run. For every company, profit must not be their main focus, but they should focus mostly on the safety of their customers as well as the environment. To do that they must have a very good risk management team with the adequate measures in risk management process to predict both existing risks and potential risks available in the transportation business. Anything that involves the public and society must be carefully planned before being executed. It is because safety requirement is a must in any public transportation so that major accidents could be avoided and being well managed if ever occurred. The transition of management from Melaka Taming Sari Bhd. to Perbadanan Pembangunan Sungai Dan Pantai Melaka (PPSPM) is considered as a good move as they have more experiences in managing tourism products all around Malacca. They have the expertise as well as facilities to ensure that monorail Malacca 2nd phase project will become a reality and serving both Malaysian and tourists from all around the world to explore Malacca in their own unique way. 8.0 Appendix
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i. Sensor System
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Group Members during site visit
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