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Chapter I INTRODUCTION
Gender discrimination is any unequal treatment based on gender and may also be referred to as sexism. Characteristics of gender discrimination are any situation where a person shows a prejudice towards another that would not occur had they been the opposite sex. Gender discrimination is also known as sexual discrimination. Therefore the sex is the main factor that unfairly influences on the decision the will be taken. The decision or discrimination may be receiving a job, promotion or any other employment benefit but it also can be in any other circumstance. Another context in which this may happen is in an educational setting there could be statements (Motto, Patricia , 2000). Discrimination represents a significant social problem in Pakistan as well as throughout the world. Girls face discrimination everywhere in the world. They often receive less food than boys do, have less entrée to schooling and work long hours. Why can't we see the helpless agony of the girl child in our society? Their ignorance will certainly beget to forget our cause, which is still fractured in the regions. In societies where a male child is regarded as more valuable to the family, girls often are denied the right of life, denied the right to name and nationality. And by being married off early or forced to stay at home and help in domestic chores, girls are often denied the right to education and all the advantages that go with it, the right to associate freely and the rights accompanying unjustified deprivation of liberty. These all are basic humiliation from family to girls when boys are regarded as the pillars of tomorrow (Zain-uddin., 2003). Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural areas and lower in the cities. Out of the total 47 million living below the poverty line, 35 million live in rural areas. Poverty rose sharply in the rural areas in the 1990s and the gap in

2 income between urban and rural areas of the country became more significant. This trend has been attributed to a disproportionate impact of the economic slowdown in the rural areas caused by low economic growth, decline in public sector development spending and lower worker remunerations. There are also significant variations in the different regions of Pakistan that contribute to the country’s rising poverty. In the 1999 Fiscal year, the urban regions of the Sindh province had the lowest levels of poverty, and the rural areas of the North West Frontier Province had the highest. Punjab also has significant gradients in poverty among the different regions of the province. In addition, the northwestern frontier provinces of Pakistan are among the most impoverished in the country. Outside the cities, government investment has been negligible, and social and economic structures remained tribal and backward. In the absence of economic development, the Pashtun people of the region dealt in arms and drugs, smuggling people and goods, especially during the Soviet invasion of neighboring Afghanistan and, later, in support of the Taliban regime. These and other activities have led to a breakdown of law and order in many parts of the region (Bradshaw et al., 2002). The gender discriminatory practices in Pakistani society also shape the distribution of poverty in the country. Traditional gender roles in Pakistan define the woman’s place as in the home and not in the workplace, and define the man as the breadwinner. Consequently, the society invests far less in women than man. Women in Pakistan suffer from poverty of opportunities throughout their lives. Female literacy in Pakistan is 29% compared to male literacy at 55%. In legislative bodies women constitute less than 3% of the legislature elected on general seats. The 1973 constitutional reform allowed reserved seats for women in both houses of parliament for a period of 20 years, thus ensuring that women would be represented in parliament regardless of whether or not they are elected on general seats. This provision lapsed in 1993, so parliaments elected subsequently did not have reserved seats for women. Reserved seats for women have been restored in the elections scheduled for October 2002, and will

3 constitute 17% of the strength of parliament. Female labor rates in Pakistan are exceptionally low b(World Bank (2006).

Objectives
1. To study the gender discrimination in Pakistan 2. To explore the gender discrimination in Agricultural University, Faisalabad 3. To give some suggestion for gender discrimination in Agricultural university Faisalabad

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Chapter II Review of literature
Malik, Iftikhar (2006). Women's rights in Pakistan is a prominent issue, but many activists such as the National Plan of Action for Women and the All-Pakistan Women’s Association are working hard towards equality. It is believed by some scholars that because of the strong influences of Hinduism over the Pakistani nation, it is difficult to achieve equal rights for women without reconstructing the entire culture that the country is based on. Hinduism regards women as "born to serve". Pakistan, however, is one of the more advanced developing nation in terms of women’s rights. Mandelbaum, David (2007). The literacy rate of females in Pakistan is at 39.6 percent compared to that of males at 67.7 percent. The objectives of education policies in Pakistan aim to achieve equality in education between girls and boys and to reduce the gender gap in the educational system. However, the policy also encourages girls, mainly in rural areas of Pakistan, to acquire basic home management skills, which are preferred over full-scale primary education. The attitudes towards women in Pakistani culture make the fight for educational equality more difficult. The lack of democracy and feudal practices of Pakistan also contribute to the gender gap in the educational system. This feudal system leaves the underpowered, women in particular, in a very vulnerable position. The long-lived socio-cultural belief that women play a reproductive role within the confines of the home leads to the belief that educating women holds no value. Pearson, Jennifer. (2008) Sex discrimination in education is applied to women in several ways. First, many sociologists of education view the educational system as an institution of social and cultural reproduction. The existing patterns of inequality, especially for gender inequality, are reproduced within schools through formal and informal processes. A recent study published in Time Magazine showed that when comparing young, unattached women against

5 similarly situated men, women tend to earn up to 20% more than their male counterparts. Booth et al., (2004) draw attention to the facts that at both national and international levels "male students do not do as well as girls in reading and writing and appear more often in special education classes, dropout rates and are less likely to go to university" . Boys face a multitude of difficulties when it comes to literacy and the article lists some of the possible areas of literacy education where these difficulties could stem from. These include, but are not limited to, their own gender identity, social and cultural issues, religion, technology, school cultures, teaching styles, curriculum, and the failures of preservice and in-service teaching courses.

Smith and Wilhelm (2002). The first is achievement. Boys typically take longer to learn than girls do, although they excel over females when it comes to "information retrieval and work-related literacy tasks"(9). It is important, therefore, for the teacher to provide the appropriate activities to highlight boys' strengths in literacy and properly support their weaknesses. Also, boys tend to read less than girls in their free time. This could play a role in the fact that girls typically "comprehend narrative and expository texts better than boys do"(9). In his book "Grown Up Digital" Tapscott (2009) suggests that there are other methods to consider in order to reach boys when it comes to literacy: "Boys tend to be able to read visual images better... study from California State University (Hayword) saw test scores increase by 11 to 16% when teaching methods were changed to incorporate more images" (106). In countries where the standard university course is taught lecture-style, with the bulk of learning done within independent studying and reading, it may not be so surprising that not as many males are participating at the undergraduate level. By simply understanding how boys learn best, and catering to those needs, educators at all levels should be able to close the literacy gap between boys and girls. The second aspect to consider that is of importance to boys’ literacy education is attitude. Smith and Wilhelm (2002) highlight that boys typically have a "lower estimation of their reading abilities"

6 than girls do. Boys value reading less and, as previously stated, spend less time in leisure reading. At the elementary level more boys than girls labeled themselves as "non-readers" and by high school 50% of male students designated themselves as such.

7 Chapter III Methodology The main objective of methodology is to explain various tools and techniques employed for the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, related to the study under investigation. 1. UNIVERSE Selection of universe in very important in research study. It provides more accuracy and precision. In statistical sense the term” Universe” means the aggregate of person are objects under study. Universe is a theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given research (Babble, 2001). The study was conducted in Africultural University of Faisalabad. The study population was consisted on all students of Africultural University of Faisalabad. 3.2 SAMPLE “Part of a population is called sample” 26 students from Africultural University of Faisalabad was selected for this research work. 3.3 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION Interview Schedule The data was collected with the help of interviewing schedule; an interviewing schedule was referred to the questions formulated according to the requirements and relevance of the objectives of research. It was a technical procedure to get the required information accurately. Interviewing schedule was prepare in English but translated into Urdu and Punjabi for data collection, if deem necessary. It was formulated with supervision and great attention of supervisor.

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Conceptualization of concepts
Concepts of the abstraction used by the scientist as building blocks for the development of the preposition and theories, which explain and predict the phenomenon (Good and Hatt., 1952). Conceptualization is much more difficult in social science as compared to other discipline, because some concepts are sometimes used with different meanings by different researchers. Some of the concepts used in the present study are operationalzed as under: Statistical techniques used Following techniques of data analysis were used: Percentage Percentage indicates proportion. It is a useful technique for comparison and estimation. Percentage will be calculated by following method. P Where: P F N = = = Percentage Number of observation Total number of frequencies = F/N x 100

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Chapter IV DATA ANALYSIS
In the following pages the researcher has presented and interpreted the data which have been collected from the respondents in the field through interview schedule. In present study data has been analyzed and presented through simple tables representing socio economic characteristics of respondents and other information obtaining to the interview schedule. The factors on which information is calculated includes respondents age, and educational level.

Table 1 Age of the respondent 18-22 22-25 26-30 30-35 Total Frequency 10 8 5 2 25 Percentage 40 32 20 8 100

The above table shows the distribution of respondents by age. This shows that the highest number of the respondents were in the age of 18-22 with the percentage of 40 while 32 % of the respondents in the age of 22-25.

Table 2 Educational status of the respondent

10 Frequency 10 8 5 2 25 Percentage 40 32 20 8 100

B.Sc (Hons) M.A, M.Sc M.Phill P.hD Total

The above table shows the distribution of respondents by educational status. This shows that the highest number of the respondents with the percentage of 40 in the class of B.Sc (Hons) while 32% of the respondents were getting their Master degree. Table 3 Family type of the respondents. Joint Nuclear Extended Total Frequency 11 8 6 25 Percentage 44 32 24 100

The above table shows the distribution of respondents by Family Type. This table shows that the highest number of the respondents were relating to the joint family system while 32% were relating to nuclear family.

Table 4 Occupation of the respondent’s parents Business Civil servant private job Agriculture Frequency 5 8 3 7 Percentage 20 32 12 28

11 Any other 2 8 Total 25 100 The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their parents business. This table shows that the highest numbers of the respondent’s parents with 32 % ration were civil servant. While the 28% of the respondent’s parents were relating to agriculture. Table 5 Do you think that following indicators are the major source of discrimination for female education? Security issues Large distance educational institutions. Rigidity 1 4 Total 25 100 The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their thinking about indicators is the major source of discrimination for female education. The table shows that the highest numbers of the respondent were thinking that security issues were the main source of discrimination for female education. While 24 % of the respondents were thinking that large distance of educational institutions is the major source of discrimination for female education. Table 6 1. Do you agree with this that male are preferred in attaining education as compared to female. Frequency Percentage Yes 17 68 No. 8 32 Total 25 100 Frequency 18 of 6 Percentage 72 24

12 The above table shows the distribution of the respondents by male are preferred in attaining education as compared to female. This table shows that the highest number of the respondents were agreeing with the percentage of 68 that male are preferred in attaining education as compared to female.

Table 7 If yes than specify why Frequency Support of parents for 10 male Job opportunity for 4 males Female get married 1 Traditions 1 Lack of interest for 1 female education Total 17 Percentage 59 23 6 6 6 100

This above table shows that 59% of he respondents reply that the support of parents is a main factor for getting education while 23 % specify that job opportunity for males are preferred in attaining education as compared to female.

Table 8 If No than specify why Religion point of views Non educated parents Frequency 13 5 Percentage 52 20

13 Liberalism 4 To give the equal 3 wattage of both sense Total 25 16 12 100

This above table shows that 52% of he respondents reply in negative because of the religion point of views. 20% specify that Non educated parents preferred son for getting education compare with daughters. Table 9 Do you have any interest to get the knowledge of skill work. Frequency Percentage Yes 21 84 No. 4 16 Total 25 100 The above table shows that 84% of the respondents were having interest to get the knowledge of skill work while 16 % reply in negative. Table 10 1. if yes than what type of skill Frequency House hold skills 9 Professional skills 16 Total 25 This table shows that 64% of the respondents Percentage 36 64 100 wanted to get training of

professional skills while 36% of the respondents wanted house hold skills.

Table 11 Would your parents will encourage you to join an organization after the completion of education. Yes No. Frequency 19 6 Percentage 76 24

14 Total 25 100

The above table shows that 76 % of the respondents encourage their daughters to join an organization after the completion of education while 24 % reply in negative. Table 12 If yes, than what type of organization you will like. Frequency Percentage Government 15 60 Private 4 16 Total 19 76 The above table shows that 60% of the respondents reply they like government job while 16% of the respondents like private jobs.

Table 13 If no, than why Frequency Percentage Against bradri traditions 1 17 Family desire 3 50 Fair of the criticism 0 Any other 2 33 Total 6 100 The above table shows that 50 % of the respondents do job according to family desire while 33 % showed reason any other.

15 Table 14 Do you agree that following statement create the discrimination among males and females in families. Frequency Percentage Educated females are 19 96 good house wife in future. Hate the domestic work 2 8 Do not pay the proper 1 1 weitage to their elder’s decision. Female education is 2 8 against our traditional values. Educated girls can attain 1 4 the socioeconomic autonomy. Due to Joint family 0 system Low education of parents 0 Large family size 0 Total 25 25 The above tables shows that 96% of the respondents agree that statement (Educated females are good house wife in future) create the discrimination among males and females in families.

Table 15 What was your parent’s reaction at the birth of female. Frequency Percentage Happy 9 36 Depressed 4 16 Normal 12 48 25 100 The above table shows that 48% of the respondent’s reaction at the birth of a female child was normal while 36% were happing.

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Table 16 In your point of view physical and psychological problems due to discrimination. Yes No. Total Frequency 19 6 25 Percentage 76 24 100

This table shows that 76% of he respondents physical and psychological problems due to discrimination while 24% reply in negative against the statement.

Table 17 In your opinion what is the basic reason of gender discrimination in our society. Economic problems Depression Male dominance Any other Total Frequency 3 2 20 0 25 Percentage 12 8 80 0 100

17 The above table shows that 80% of the respondents declare that male dominance is the basic reason of gender discrimination in our society. While 12 % said economic problems. Table 18 Do you think that gender discrimination occurring in our society at large scale? Yes No. Total Frequency 20 5 25 Percentage 80 20 100

This table shows that 80% of the respondents were thinking that gender discrimination occurring in our society at large scale. While 20 % reply in against the statement.

Chapter V FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS Findings
 Highest number of the respondents was in the age of 18-22 with the percentage of 40  The highest number of the respondents with the percentage of 40 in the class of B.Sc (Hons)

18  The highest number of the respondents were relating to the joint family system.  The highest numbers of the respondent’s parents with 32 % ration were civil servant.  The highest numbers of the respondent were thinking that security issues were the main source of discrimination for female education.  The highest number of the respondents was agreeing with the percentage of 68 that male are preferred in attaining education as compared to female.  23 % specify that job opportunity for males are preferred in attaining education as compared to female.  52% of he respondents reply in negative because of the religion point of views.  84% of the respondents were having interest to get the knowledge of skill work while 16 % reply in negative.  64% of the respondents wanted to get training of professional skills.  76 % of the respondents encourage their daughters to join an organization after the completion of education.  60% of the respondents reply they like government job while 16% of the respondents like private jobs.  50 % of the respondents do job according to family desire.

19  96% of the respondents agree that statement (Educated females are good house wife in future) create the discrimination among males and females in families.  48% of the respondent’s reaction at the birth of a female child was normal while 36% were happing.  76% of he respondents physical and psychological problems due to discrimination.  80% of the respondents declare that male dominance is the basic reason of gender discrimination in our society.  80% of the respondents were thinking that gender discrimination occurring in our society at large scale.

Conclusions
Gender roles in Pakistan today reflect the weight of culture and tradition, but Islam is an important and influential overlay. In general, Islamization tends to reinforce conservative ideas regarding the role that women should play in society. At a minimum, this slows down policies and programs designed to bring women more into the public sphere, and thereby exact an economic cost. This paper focuses narrowly on the potential economic consequences of Islamization’s impact on women. Pakistan has for decades grossly underinvested in education, and in particular, girls’ education. Education spending is mired at roughly 1 percent of GDP, and in this environment of resource constraints, girls tend to be short-changed. Overall literacy is only 44 percent while adult female literacy is less than 30 percent. Moreover, the gap between male and female literacy rates has widened. In 1975, the literacy gap between men and women in Pakistan was 25 points (11 percent literacy for women vs. 36 percent literacy for men). By 2001, that gap had inched upward to 29 points (29 percent literacy for women versus 58 percent for men). Every one of Pakistan’s governments has

20 launched an educational initiative, most with the clear objective of closing gender gaps, and every one has failed to make notable progress. The number of illiterate Pakistanis has doubled since 1951, while the number of illiterate women has tripled, due to population increases. In fact, Pakistan’s high fertility rates are now understood to be strongly correlated with its low level of female literacy. Pakistan also has a very low level of female workforce participation. The economic benefits of female employment are clear: more women working increases a nation’s output and is an important contributor to household income. Moreover, recent studies indicate that women’s and men’s relative control of resources has significant and different impacts on household consumption patterns.

SUGGESTIONS In Pakistan gender discrimination is founded there in all phases of life. Awareness about the drawbacks of gender gap must have to be known by all the people. So the main thing for this is "education."

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 Equal educational opportunities should be provided to women,;
 skill-training facilities should be provided to them;

 women should be given equal right and power of decisionmaking;
 there is a need to bring equality in resources distribution; equal

opportunities of participation should be given to both genders in various activities;  equal opportunities should be given to the women inside the family affairs as well as outside the family;
 equal opportunities should be provided to women in different

jobs. It will be helpful in poverty alleviation.

References

 Motto, Patricia (2000) Sex Discrimination., Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education, July 2000.  Zain-ud-din. (2003). Women and employment issue in South Asia. Karachi, Pakistan.

22  Bradshaw, Linneker and Mcllwaine. 2002. The poverty line approach: Constraint in gender development. Harper Row. 9p.  World Bank. 2006. South Asian development index. Islamabad, Pakistan.  Malik, Iftikhar (2006). Culture and Customs of Pakistan (1st ed.). Connecticut: Greenwood Press.  Mandelbaum, David (2007). Women's Seclusion and Men's Honor (1st ed.). Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.  Booth D., Bruce F., Elliott-Johns S. (2009) Boys’ Literacy Attainment: Research and related practice. Report for the 2009 Ontario Education Research Symposium. Centre for Literacy at Nipissing University.  Pearson, Jennifer. (2008) "Gender, Education and." Blackwell

Encyclopedia of Sociology. Ritzer, George (ed). Blackwell Publishing, 2007. Blackwell Reference Online. 31 March 2008.  Smith, M., and Wilhelm, J. (2002). "Reading don't fix no Chevys": Literacy in the lives of young men. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.