You are on page 1of 15

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (R.A. 386) Art 1. This A t sh!"" #$ %&'(& !s th$ Ci)i" C'*$ '+ th$ Phi"i,,i&$s E.O. 48 of March 20 !"4# Ro$as %ode %ommission &r. 'eorge (aco)o *chairman+ ,an-ary 2. !"4" */assed )y %ongress+ Art. -. L!(s sh!"" t!%$ $++$ t !+t$r 1. *!/s +'""'(i&0 th$ '1,"$ti'& '+ th$ir ,2#"i !ti'& i& th$ O++i i!" 3!4$tt$5 2&"$ss it is 'th$r(is$ ,r')i*$*. This C'*$ sh!"" t!%$ $++$ t 1 /$!r !+t$r ,2#"i !ti'&. 0-g. 10 !"20 *too3 effect+ EO 200 *04-ino+ laws to )e effective m-st )e /-)lished either in the Official 'a5ette or in a news/a/er of general circ-lation in the co-ntry. *6a7ada v 6-vera/-)lication not to )e in Official 'a5ette )eca-se of its erratic release and limited readershi/+ 8ntended to ena)le /eo/le to )ecome familiar with the stat-te M-st )e in f-ll P-)lication is an indis/ensa)le re4-irement a)sence of which will render the law ineffective. 9-nless otherwise /rovided: *refers to !2day /eriod not /-)lication Art. 3. I0&'r!& $ '+ th$ "!( $6 2s$s &' '&$ +r'1 '1,"i!& $ th$r$(ith. a//lies only to mandatory and /rohi)itory laws Art. 7. L!(s sh!"" h!)$ &' r$tr'! ti)$ $++$ t5 2&"$ss th$ '&tr!r/ is ,r')i*$* ;aw loo3s to the f-t-re. 8nstances when a law may )e given a r$tr'! ti)$ effect< o =hen the law e$/ressly /rovides for retroactivity *insofar as it does not /re>-dice or im/air vested or ac4-ired rights in accordance with the %ivil %ode or other laws+ o %-rative or remedial *c-ring defects or adding to the means of enforcing e$isting o)ligations+. R?;E< 8f the irreg-larity consists in doing some act or doing it in the mode which the legislat-re might have made material )y an e$/ress law it may do so )y a s-)se4-ent one. o Proced-ral. *to avoid /ossi)le in>-stice+ o Penal in character and favora)le to the acc-sed. *not a ha)it-al delin4-ent @if wAin !0 years from date of release or last conviction of a crime he is fo-nd g-ilty of any said crimes a third time or oftener.+ Art. .. A ts $6$ 2t$* !0!i&st th$ ,r')isi'&s '+ 1!&*!t'r/ !&* ,r'hi#it'r/ "!(s sh!"" #$ )'i*5 $6 $,t (h$& th$ "!( its$"+ !2th'ri4$s th$ir )!"i*it/. Mandatory ;aws omission of which renders the /roceeding or acts to which it relates generally illegal or void. E$am/le< /rescri/tive /eriods Prohi)itory ;aws contain /ositive /rohi)itions and are co-ched in the negative terms im/orting that the act re4-ired shall not )e done otherwise than designated. E$am/le< 9BO:C Dowever if the law e$/ressly /rovides for the validity of acts committed in violation of a mandatory or /rohi)itory /rovision of a stat-te s-ch act shall )e considered valid or enforcea)le. Art. 6. Ri0hts 1!/ #$ (!i)$*5 2&"$ss th$ (!i)$r is '&tr!r/ t' "!(5 ,2#"i ,'"i /5 1'r!"s 'r 0''* 2st'1s5 'r ,r$82*i i!" t' ! thir* ,$rs'& (ith ! ri0ht r$ '0&i4$* #/ "!(. =aiver intentional relin4-ishment of a 3nown rightE not /res-med )-t m-st )e clearly and convincingly shown either )y e$/ress sti/-lation or acts admitting no other reasona)le e$/lanation 0 right to )e validly waived m-st )e in e$istence at the time of the waiver and m-st )e e$ercised )y a d-ly ca/acitated /erson act-ally /ossessing the right to ma3e the waiver. */res-//oses that the /arty has 3nowledge of its rights )-t chooses not to assert them+ Art. 9. L!(s !r$ r$,$!"$* '&"/ #/ s2#s$:2$&t '&$s5 !&* th$ir )i'"!ti'& 'r &'&;'#s$r)!& $ sh!"" &'t #$ $6 2s$* #/ *is2s$5 'r 2st'15 'r ,r! ti $ t' th$ '&tr!r/. Wh$& th$ '2rts *$ "!r$ ! "!( t' #$ i& '&sist$&t (ith th$ C'&stit2ti'&5 th$ +'r1$r sh!"" #$ )'i* !&* th$ "!tt$r sh!"" 0')$r&. A*1i&istr!ti)$ 'r $6$ 2ti)$ ! ts5 'r*$rs !&* r$02"!ti'&s sh!"" #$ )!"i* '&"/ (h$& th$/ !r$ &'t '&tr!r/ t' th$ "!(s 'r th$ C'&stit2ti'&. Re/eal legislative act of a)rogating thro-gh a s-)se4-ent law the effects of a /revio-s stat-te or /ortions thereof. May )e either e$/ress or im/lied. Art. 8. <2*i i!" *$ isi'&s !,,"/i&0 'r i&t$r,r$ti&0 th$ "!(s 'r th$ C'&stit2ti'& sh!"" +'r1 ,!rt '+ th$ "$0!" s/st$1 '+ th$ Phi"i,,i&$s. ,-dicial decisions o altho-gh in themselves not laws ass-me the same a-thority as the stat-te itself. o %onstit-te evidence of what the law means. o 9legis inter/retatio legis vim o)tinet: inter/retation /laced -/on the written law )y a com/etent co-rt has the force of law o F% decisions @ a-thoritative and /recedentGsetting o 8nferior co-rts decisions and %o-rt of 0//eals @ merely /ers-asive o 0/iag v %antero *>-dge entered into2 nd marriage witho-t having his first void marriage >-dicially declared a n-llity not a )asis for immorality+ at that time there was no need for >-dicial declaration of n-llity o =iegel v Fem/io &y case where the F-/reme %o-rt declared that there was a need for a declaration of n-llity of a void marriage. Art. =. N' 82*0$ 'r '2rt sh!"" *$ "i&$ t' r$&*$r 82*01$&t #/ r$!s'& '+ th$ si"$& $5 '#s 2rit/ 'r i&s2++i i$& / '+ th$ "!(s. Bing-no non de-e enri4-ecerse torti5eramente con dano de otro =hen the stat-tes are silent or am)ig-o-s this is one of those -

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 1 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

f-ndamental /rinci/les which the co-rts invo3e in order to arrive at a sol-tion that wo-ld res/ond to the vehement -rge of conscience. ,-stice Dolmes @ 9&o and m-st legislate: to fill in the ga/s in the law )eca-se the mind of the legislator li3e all h-man )eings is finite and therefore cannot envisage all /ossi)le cases to which the law may a//ly. Bor has the h-man mind the infinite ca/acity to antici/ate all sit-ations. Art. 1?. I& !s$ '+ *'2#t i& th$ i&t$r,r$t!ti'& !&* !,,"i !ti'& '+ "!(s5 it is ,r$s21$* th!t th$ "!(1!%i&0 #'*/ i&t$&*$* ri0ht !&* 82sti $ t' ,r$)!i". %onstr-ction and inter/retation come only after it has )een demonstrated that a//lication is im/ossi)le or inade4-ate witho-t them. Art. 11. C2st'1s (hi h !r$ '&tr!r/ t' "!(5 ,2#"i 'r*$r 'r ,2#"i ,'"i / sh!"" &'t #$ '2&t$&!& $*. Art. 1-. A 2st'1 12st #$ ,r')$* !s ! +! t5 ! 'r*i&0 t' th$ r2"$s '+ $)i*$& $. %-stom r-le of cond-ct formed )y re/etition of acts -niformly o)served */racticed+ as a social r-le legally )inding and o)ligatory. ,-ridical c-stom @ can s-//lement stat-tory law or a//lied in the a)sence of s-ch stat-te. Focial c-stom @ canHt s-//lement stat law or a//lied in the a)sence of stat-te. %-stom even if /roven cannot /revail over a stat-tory r-le or even a legal r-le en-nciated )y the F% Art. 13. Wh$& th$ "!( s,$!%s '+ /$!rs5 1'&ths5 *!/s 'r &i0hts5 it sh!"" #$ 2&*$rst''* th!t /$!rs !r$ '+ 36. *!/s $! h@ 1'&ths5 '+ 3? *!/s@ *!/s5 '+ -7 h'2rs@ !&* &i0hts +r'1 s2&s$t t' s2&ris$. I+ 1'&ths !r$ *$si0&!t$* #/ th$ir &!1$5 th$/ sh!"" #$ '1,2t$* #/ th$ &21#$r '+ *!/s (hi h th$/ r$s,$ ti)$"/ h!)$. I& '1,2ti&0 ! ,$ri'*5 th$ +irst *!/ sh!"" #$ $6 "2*$*5 !&* th$ "!st *!/ i& "2*$*. 8f the e$tra day in a lea/ year is not a day of the year )eca-se it is the 1..th day then to what year does it )elongI %ertainly it m-st )elong to the year where it falls and therefore the 1.. days constit-te one year. Art. 17. P$&!" "!(s !&* th's$ '+ ,2#"i s$ 2rit/ !&* s!+$t/ sh!"" #$ '#"i0!t'r/ 2,'& !"" (h' "i)$ 'r s'8'2r& i& th$ Phi"i,,i&$ t$rrit'r/5 s2#8$ t t' th$ ,ri& i,"$s '+ ,2#"i i&t$r&!ti'&!" "!( !&* t' tr$!t/ sti,2"!ti'&s. %iti5ens and foreigners are s-)>ect to all /enal laws. =ill even attach regardless whether or not a foreigner is merely so>o-rning in Phil territory ABT they may however )e imm-ne from s-it and therefore cannot )e criminally /rosec-ted in the Phili//ines in certain cases where the Phili//ine government has waived its criminal >-risdiction over them on the )asis of the /rinci/les of /-)lic international law and treaty sti/-lations !".! Vienna %onvention on &i/lomatic Relations @ /rovided that the /erson of the di/lomatic agent shall )e inviola)le and he shall not )e lia)le to any form of arrest or detention. De shall en>oy imm-nity from criminal >-risdiction of the receiving state.

Art. 1.. L!(s r$"!ti&0 t' +!1i"/ ri0hts !&* *2ti$s5 'r t' th$ st!t2s5 '&*iti'& !&* "$0!" !,! it/ '+ ,$rs'&s !r$ #i&*i&0 2,'& iti4$&s '+ th$ Phi"i,,i&$s5 $)$& th'20h "i)i&0 !#r'!*. Bationality R-le 6enchave5 v Escano the only a)sol-te divorce recogni5ed is one of the alien s/o-se. Fili/ino s/o-se can )e said to have committed conc-)inage *h-s)and+ or ad-ltery *wife+. Art. 16. R$!" ,r',$rt/ !s ($"" !s ,$rs'&!" ,r',$rt/ is s2#8$ t t' th$ "!( '+ th$ '2&tr/ (h$r$ it is sit2!t$*. H'($)$r5 i&t$st!t$ !&* t$st!1$&t!r/ s2 $ssi'&s5 #'th (ith r$s,$ t t' th$ 'r*$r '+ s2 $ssi'& !&* t' th$ !1'2&t '+ s2 $ssi'&!" ri0hts !&* t' th$ i&tri&si )!"i*it/ '+ t$st!1$&t!r/ ,r')isi'&s5 sh!"" #$ r$02"!t$* #/ th$ &!ti'&!" "!( '+ th$ ,$rs'& (h's$ s2 $ssi'& is 2&*$r '&si*$r!ti'&5 (h!t$)$r 1!/ #$ th$ &!t2r$ '+ th$ ,r',$rt/ !&* r$0!r*"$ss '+ th$ '2&tr/ (h$r$i& s!i* ,r',$rt/ 1!/ #$ +'2&*. 0//lica)ility of Bational ;aw of decedent in intestate or testamentary s-ccession with regard to< o Order of s-ccession o 0mo-nt of s-ccessional rights o 8ntrinsic validity of the /rovisions of the will o %a/acity to s-cceed Arti "$ 19. Th$ +'r1s !&* s'"$1&iti$s '+ '&tr! ts5 (i""s5 !&* 'th$r ,2#"i i&str21$&ts sh!"" #$ 0')$r&$* #/ th$ "!(s '+ th$ '2&tr/ i& (hi h th$/ !r$ $6$ 2t$*. Wh$& th$ ! ts r$+$rr$* t' !r$ $6$ 2t$* #$+'r$ th$ *i,"'1!ti 'r '&s2"!r '++i i!"s '+ th$ R$,2#"i '+ th$ Phi"i,,i&$s i& ! +'r$i0& '2&tr/5 th$ s'"$1&iti$s $st!#"ish$* #/ Phi"i,,i&$ "!(s sh!"" #$ '#s$r)$* i& th$ir $6$ 2ti'&. Pr'hi#iti)$ "!(s '& $r&i&0 ,$rs'&s5 th$ir ! ts 'r ,r',$rt/5 !&* th's$ (hi h h!)$ +'r th$ir '#8$ t ,2#"i 'r*$r5 ,2#"i ,'"i / !&* 0''* 2st'1s sh!"" &'t #$ r$&*$r$* i&$++$ ti)$ #/ "!(s 'r 82*01$&ts ,r'12"0!t$*5 'r #/ *$t$r1i&!ti'&s 'r '&)$&ti'&s !0r$$* 2,'& i& ! +'r$i0& '2&tr/. E$trinsic validity @ if act is valid where it is e$ec-ted even if said act wonHt )e valid here will )e deemed as valid nonetheless. &i/lomatic and cons-lar officials are re/resentatives of the state therefore Phili//ine law sho-ld /revail if act is e$ec-ted )efore a di/lomat in a foreign co-ntry. *)asis< )y r-les of international law host co-ntry where di/lomat is assigned waives its >-risdiction over the /remises of the di/lomatic office of another co-ntry located in the said host co-ntry+ Art. 18. I& 1!tt$rs (hi h !r$ 0')$r&$* #/ th$ C'*$ '+ C'11$r $ !&* s,$ i!" "!(s5 th$ir *$+i i$& / sh!"" #$ s2,,"i$* #/ th$ ,r')isi'&s '+ this C'*$. HBMAN RELATIONS

>)))$r0!

P!0$ - '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

Art. 1=. E)$r/ ,$rs'& 12st5 i& th$ $6$r is$ '+ his ri0hts !&* i& th$ ,$r+'r1!& $ '+ his *2ti$s5 ! t (ith 82sti $5 0i)$ $)$r/'&$ his *2$5 !&* '#s$r)$ h'&$st/ !&* 0''* +!ith. /rinci/le of a)-se of rights. %odifies the conce/t of what is >-stice and fair /lay so that the a)-se of right )y a /erson will )e /revented. Elements of a)-se of right< o 6here is a legal right or d-ty o =hich is e$ercised in )ad faith o For the sole intent of /re>-dicing or in>-ring another Art. -?. E)$r/ ,$rs'& (h'5 '&tr!r/ t' "!(5 (i""+2""/ 'r &$0"i0$&t"/ !2s$s *!1!0$ t' !&'th$r5 sh!"" i&*$1&i+/ th$ "!tt$r +'r th$ s!1$. s/ea3s of the general sanction for all the other /rovisions of law which do not es/ecially /rovide their own sanction. Art. -1. A&/ ,$rs'& (h' (i""+2""/ !2s$s "'ss 'r i&82r/ t' !&'th$r i& ! 1!&&$r th!t is '&tr!r/ t' 1'r!"s5 0''* 2st'1s 'r ,2#"i ,'"i / sh!"" '1,$&s!t$ th$ "!tt$r +'r th$ *!1!0$. fill in the co-ntless ga/s of the stat-tes which leave so many victims of moral wrongs hel/less even tho-gh they have act-ally s-ffered material and moral in>-ry. &eals with acts contra )on-s mores @ and has the following elements< o 6here is an act which is legal o (-t which is contrary to morals good c-stoms /-)lic order or /-)lic /olicy o 0nd it is done with intent to in>-re. CCC 0rticles !" 20 and 2! are related to each other and -nder these articles an act which ca-ses in>-ry to another may )e made the )asis for an award of damages. %ommon Element< act m-st )e intentional. Dowever art 20 does not disting-ish< 9willf-lly: or 9negligently: J /ari delicto in e4-al fa-lt in similar offense or crime e4-al in g-ilt or in legal fa-lt. Art. --. E)$r/ ,$rs'& (h' thr'20h !& ! t 'r ,$r+'r1!& $ #/ !&'th$r5 'r !&/ 'th$r 1$!&s5 ! :2ir$s 'r '1$s i&t' ,'ss$ssi'& '+ s'1$thi&0 !t th$ $6,$&s$ '+ th$ "!tt$r (ith'2t 82st 'r "$0!" 0r'2&*5 sh!"" r$t2r& th$ s!1$ t' hi1. ; /revention of -n>-st enrichment. Bo /erson can claim what is not validly and legally his or hers. Art. -3. E)$& (h$& !& ! t 'r $)$&t !2si&0 *!1!0$ t' !&'th$rDs ,r',$rt/ (!s &'t *2$ t' th$ +!2"t 'r &$0"i0$& $ '+ th$ *$+$&*!&t5 th$ "!tt$r sh!"" #$ "i!#"$ +'r i&*$1&it/ i+ thr'20h th$ ! t 'r $)$&t h$ (!s #$&$+it$*. Art. -7. I& !"" '&tr! t2!"5 ,r',$rt/ 'r 'th$r r$"!ti'&s5 (h$& '&$ '+ th$ ,!rti$s is !t ! *is!*)!&t!0$ '& ! '2&t '+ his 1'r!" *$,$&*$& $5 i0&'r!& $5 i&*i0$& $5 1$&t!" ($!%&$ss5 t$&*$r !0$ 'r 'th$r h!&*i !,5 th$ '2rts 12st #$ )i0i"!&t +'r his ,r't$ ti'&. G in consonance with what is right and legal. Art. -.. Th'20ht"$ss $6tr!)!0!& $ i& $6,$&s$s +'r ,"$!s2r$ 'r *is,"!/ *2ri&0 ! ,$ri'* '+ ! 2t$ ,2#"i (!&t 'r $1$r0$& / 1!/ #$ st',,$* #/

'r*$r '+ th$ '2rts !t th$ i&st!& $ '+ !&/ 0')$r&1$&t 'r ,ri)!t$ h!rit!#"$ i&stit2ti'&. to /revent inconsiderate and ostentatio-s activities d-ring times of emergency s/ecifically /rovides for the entities which are given legal standing to see3 an in>-nction< o any government or o /rivate charita)le instit-tion. Art. -6. E)$r/ ,$rs'& sh!"" r$s,$ t th$ *i0&it/5 ,$rs'&!"it/5 ,ri)! / !&* ,$! $ '+ 1i&* '+ his &$i0h#'rs !&* 'th$r ,$rs'&s. Th$ ++. !&* si1i"!r ! ts5 th'20h th$/ 1!/ &'t '&stit2t$ ! ri1i&!" '++$&s$5 sh!"" ,r'*2 $ ! !2s$ '+ ! ti'& +'r *!1!0$s5 ,r$)$&ti'& !&* 'th$r r$"i$+E 1. Pr/i&0 i&t' th$ ,ri)! / '+ !&'th$rDs r$si*$& $ -. M$**"i&0 (ith 'r *ist2r#i&0 th$ ,ri)!t$ "i+$ 'r +!1i"/ r$"!ti'&s '+ !&'th$r 3. I&tri02i&0 t' !2s$ !&'th$r t' #$ !"i$&!t$* +r'1 his +ri$&*s 7. V$6i&0 'r h21i"i!ti&0 !&'th$r '& ! '2&t '+ his r$"i0i'2s #$"i$+s5 "'("/ st!ti'& i& "i+$5 ,"! $ '+ #irth5 ,h/si !" *$+$ t5 'r 'th$r ,$rs'&!" '&*iti'&. EKP;0B068OB OF %OMM8FF8OB 6O 8B%;?F8OB OF 0R6 2. *Protection of D-man &ignity+ o Facredness of h-man /ersonality is a concomitant of every /lan for h-man amelioration. o 6he to-chstone of every system of laws of the c-lt-re and civili5ation of every co-ntry is how far it dignifies man. Art. -9. A&/ ,$rs'& s2++$ri&0 1!t$ri!" 'r 1'r!" "'ss #$ !2s$ ! ,2#"i s$r)!&t 'r $1,"'/$$ r$+2s$s 'r &$0"$ ts5 (ith'2t 82st !2s$5 t' ,$r+'r1 his '++i i!" *2t/ 1!/ +i"$ !& ! ti'& +'r *!1!0$s !&* 'th$r r$"i$+ !0!i&st th$ "!tt$r5 (ith'2t ,r$82*i $ t' !&/ *is i,"i&!r/ !*1i&istr!ti)$ ! ti'& th!t 1!/ #$ t!%$&. Art. -8. B&+!ir '1,$titi'& i& !0ri 2"t2r!"5 '11$r i!" 'r i&*2stri!" $&t$r,ris$s5 'r i& "!#'r5 thr'20h th$ 2s$ '+ +'r $5 i&ti1i*!ti'&5 *$ $it5 1! hi&!ti'& 'r !&/ 'th$r 2&82st5 ',,r$ssi)$ 'r hi0hh!&*$* 1$th'* sh!"" 0i)$ ris$ t' ! ri0ht '+ ! ti'& #/ th$ ,$rs'& (h' th$r$#/ s2++$rs *!1!0$. ,?F68F8%068OB )y the !"4# %ivil %ode commission< o 8t is necessary in a system of free enter/rise. &emocracy )ecomes a verita)le moc3ery if any /erson or gro-/ of /ersons )y any -n>-st or highhanded method may de/rive others of a fair chance to engage in )-siness or earn a living. Art. -=. Wh$& th$ ! 2s$* i& ri1i&!" ,r's$ 2ti'& is ! :2itt$* '& th$ 0r'2&* th!t his 02i"t h!s &'t #$$& ,r')$* #$/'&* r$!s'&!#"$ *'2#t5 ! i)i" ! ti'& +'r *!1!0$s +'r th$ s!1$ ! t 'r '1issi'& 1!/ #$ i&stit2t$*. S2 h ! ti'& r$:2ir$s '&"/ ! ,r$,'&*$r!& $ '+ $)i*$& $. B,'& 1'ti'& '+ th$ *$+$&*!&t5 th$ '2rt 1!/ r$:2ir$ th$ ,"!i&ti++ t' +i"$ ! #'&* t' !&s($r +'r *!1!0$s i& !s$ th$ '1,"!i&t sh'2"* #$ +'2&* t' #$ 1!"i i'2s. (-) I+ i& ! ri1i&!" !s$ th$ 82*01$&t '+ ! :2itt!" is #!s$* 2,'& r$!s'&!#"$ *'2#t5 th$ '2rt sh!"" s' *$ "!r$. I& th$ !#s$& $ '+ !&/ *$ "!r!ti'& t' th!t $++$ t5

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 3 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

it 1!/ #$ i&+$rr$* +r'1 th$ t$6t '+ th$ *$ isi'& (h$th$r 'r &'t th$ ! :2itt!" is *2$ t' th!t 0r'2&*. Proof )eyond Reasona)le &o-)t amo-nt of /roof which forms an a)iding moral certainty that the acc-sed committed the crime charged. BO6 a)sol-te certainty (?6 s-ch degree of /roof is more e$acting than what is needed in a civil case which is< Pre/onderance of Evidence as a whole evidence add-ced )y one side o-tweighs that of the adverse /arty. Art. 3?. Wh$& ! s$,!r!t$ i)i" ! ti'& is #r'20ht t' *$1!&* i)i" "i!#i"it/ !risi&0 +r'1 ! ri1i&!" '++$&s$5 !&* &' ri1i&!" ,r' $$*i&0s !r$ i&stit2t$* *2ri&0 th$ ,$&*$& / '+ th$ i)i" !s$5 ! ,r$,'&*$r!& $ '+ $)i*$& $ sh!"" "i%$(is$ #$ s2++i i$&t t' ,r')$ th$ ! t '1,"!i&$* '+. G 4-ant-m of evidence still merely /re/onderance of evidence even if the civil action arose from a criminal offense Art. 31. Wh$& th$ i)i" ! ti'& is #!s$* '& !& '#"i0!ti'& &'t !risi&0 +r'1 th$ ! t 'r '1issi'& '1,"!i&$* '+ !s ! +$"'&/5 s2 h i)i" ! ti'& 1!/ ,r' $$* i&*$,$&*$&t"/ '+ th$ ri1i&!" ,r' $$*i&0s !&* r$0!r*"$ss '+ th$ r$s2"t '+ th$ "!tt$r. if civil action arose not from a felony 4-asiGdelict act or omission which ca-ses damage to another there )eing fa-lt or negligence if there is no /reGe$isting contract-al relation )etween the /arties. &oes not /rovide for an inde/endent civil action. %-l/a a4-iliana *4-asi delict+ having had its own fo-ndation and indiv-ality se/arate from criminal negligence against 4-asiGdelito *c-/la e$traGcontract-al+ or criminal negligence 0lso a//lies to c-l/a contract-alG distinct from criminal action instit-ted )ased on criminal negligence. 6his is governed )y %ivil %ode and not those of Revised Penal %ode and it )eing entirely se/arate and distinct from criminal action the same may )e instit-ted and /rosec-ted inde/endently of and regardless of the res-lt of the latter. Art. 3-. A&/ ,2#"i '++i $r 'r $1,"'/$$5 'r !&/ ,ri)!t$ i&*i)i*2!"5 (h' *ir$ t"/ 'r i&*ir$ t"/ '#str2 ts5 *$+$!ts5 )i'"!t$s 'r i& !&/ 1!&&$r i1,$*$s 'r i1,!irs !&/ '+ th$ +'""'(i&0 ri0hts !&* "i#$rti$s '+ !&'th$r ,$rs'& sh!"" #$ "i!#"$ t' th$ "!tt$r +'r *!1!0$sE !. Freedom of Religion 2. Freedom of F/eech 1. Freedom to write for he /ress or to maintain a /eriodical /-)lication 4. Freedom from ar)itrary or illegal detention 2. Freedom from s-ffrage .. 6he right against de/rivation of /ro/erty witho-t d-e /rocess of law #. 6he right to a >-st com/ensation when /rivate /ro/erty is ta3en for /-)lic -se 8. 6he right to e4-al /rotection of the laws ". 6he right to )e sec-re in oneHs /erson ho-se /a/ers and effects against -nreasona)le searches and sei5-res !0. 6he li)erty of a)ode and of changing the same !!. 6he /rivacy of comm-nication and corres/ondence

!2. 6he right to )ecome a mem)er of associations or societies for /-r/oses not contrary to law !1. 6he right to ta3e /art in a /eacea)le assem)ly to /etition the government for redress of grievances !4. 6he right to )e free from invol-ntary servit-de of any form !2. 6he right of the acc-sed against e$cessive )ail !.. 6he right of the acc-sed to )e heard )y himself and co-nsel to )e informed of the nat-re and ca-se of the acc-sation against him to have a s/eedy and /-)lic trial to meet the witnesses face to face and to have com/-lsory /rocess to sec-re the attendance of witness in his )ehalf. !#. Freedom from )eing com/elled to )e a witness against oneHs self or from )eing forced to confess g-ilt or from )eing ind-ced )y a /romise of imm-nity or reward to ma3e s-ch confession e$ce/t when the /erson confessing )ecomes a state witness !8. Freedom from e$cessive fines or cr-el or -n-s-al /-nishment -nless the same is im/osed or inflicted in accordance with a stat-te which has not )een >-dicially declared -nconstit-tional and !". Freedom of access to the co-rts I& !&/ '+ th$ !s$s r$+$rr$* t' i& this !rti "$5 (h$th$r 'r &'t th$ *$+$&*!&tDs ! t 'r '1issi'& '&stit2t$ ! ri1i&!" '++$&s$5 th$ !00ri$)$* ,!rt/ h!s ! ri0ht t' '11$& $ !& $&tir$"/ s$,!r!t$ !&* *isti& t i)i" ! ti'& +'r *!1!0$s5 !&* +'r 'th$r r$"i$+. S2 h i)i" ! ti'& sh!"" ,r' $$* i&*$,$&*$&t"/ 'r !&/ ri1i&!" ,r's$ 2ti'& (i+ th$ "!tt$r #$ i&stit2t$*)5 !&* 1!/ #$ ,r')$* #/ ! ,r$,'&*$r!& $ '+ $)i*$& $. Th$ i&*$1&it/ sh!"" i& "2*$ 1'r!" *!1!0$s. E6$1,"!r/ *!1!0$s 1!/ !"s' #$ !*82*i !t$*. Th$ r$s,'&si#i"it/ h$r$i& s$t +'rth is &'t *$1!&*!#"$ +r'1 ! 82*0$ 2&"$ss his ! t 'r '1issi'& '&stit2t$s ! )i'"!ti'& '+ th$ P$&!" C'*$ 'r 'th$r ,$&!" st!t2t$. for effective maintenance of democracy for these reasons< o in most cases threat to freedom originates from a)-ses or /ower of government officials and /eace offices most are left witho-t redress )eca-se fiscal is over)-rdened or cant /rosec-te a fellow /-)lic official *high ran3ing+ o 4-ant-m of evidence re4-ired for a criminal action is /roof )eyond reasona)le do-)t which often /revents a//ro/riate /-nishment. o &irect and o/en violations of the Penal %ode tram/ling -/on the freedoms named are not so fre4-ent as those s-)tle clever and indirect ways which do not come within the /ale of the /enal law. 6hese which are not criminally /-nisha)le are greatest dangers to which democracy clies. res/ondeat s-/erior /rinci/al and agent or master and servant. Bo res/ondeat s-/erior )etween s-/erior officers of the military and their s-)ordinates. May )e 9directly: or 9indirectly: P-)lic acco-nta)ility

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 7 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

'ood faith is not a defense. 8t is eno-gh that there was a violation of the constit-tional rights of the /laintiffs and it is not re4-ired that defendants sho-ld have acted with malice or )ad faith. 6he wrong may )e civil or criminal. 6o ma3e good faith material is to defeat the main /-r/ose of article 12 which is that effective /rotection of individ-al rights. Art. 33. I& !s$s '+ *$+!1!ti'&5 +r!2*5 !&* ,h/si !" i&82ri$s5 ! i)i" ! ti'& +'r *!1!0$s5 $&tir$"/ s$,!r!t$ !&* *isti& t +r'1 th$ ri1i&!" ! ti'&5 1!/ #$ #r'20ht #/ th$ i&82r$* ,!rt/. S2 h i)i" ! ti'& sh!"" ,r' $$* i&*$,$&*$&t"/ '+ th$ ri1i&!" ,r's$ 2ti'&5 !&* sh!"" r$:2ir$ '&"/ ! ,r$,'&*$r!& $ '+ $)i*$& $. R068OB0;E< to allow the citi5en to enforce his rights in a /rivate action )ro-ght )y him regardless of the action of the Ftate attorney. 8n a criminal /rosec-tion the com/lainant is the Ftate. 6he in>-red individ-al is the one most concerned )eca-se it is he who has s-ffered directly. De sho-ld )e /ermitted to demand re/aration for the wrong which /ec-liarly affects him. %riminal Begligence not incl-ded in the /rovision. 6he law /enali5es the negligent act or careless act )-t not the res-lt thereof. Art. 37. Wh$& ! 1$1#$r '+ ! it/ 'r 12&i i,!" ,'"i $ +'r $ r$+2s$s 'r +!i"s t' r$&*$r !i* 'r ,r't$ ti'& t' !&/ ,$rs'& i& !s$ '+ *!&0$r t' "i+$ 'r ,r',$rt/5 s2 h ,$! $ '++i $r sh!"" #$ ,ri1!ri"/ "i!#"$ +'r *!1!0$s5 !&* th$ it/ 'r 12&i i,!"it/ sh!"" #$ s2#si*i!ri"/ r$s,'&si#"$ th$r$+'r$. Th$ i)i" ! ti'& h$r$i& r$ '0&i4$* sh!"" #$ i&*$,$&*$&t '+ !&/ ri1i&!" ,r' $$*i&0s !&* ! ,r$,'&*$r!& $ '+ $)i*$& $ sh!"" s2++i $ t' s2,,'rt s2 h ! ti'&. Art. 3.. Wh$& ! ,$rs'&5 "!i1i&0 t' #$ i&82r$* #/ ! ri1i&!" '++$&s$5 h!r0$s !&'th$r (ith th$ s!1$5 +'r (hi h &' i&*$,$&*$&t i)i" ! ti'& is 0r!&t$* i& this C'*$ 'r !&/ s,$ i!" "!(5 #2t th$ 82sti $ '+ ,$! $ +i&*s &' r$!s'&!#"$ 0r'2&*s t' #$"i$)$ th!t ! ri1$ h!s #$$& '11itt$*5 'r th$ ,r's$ 2ti&0 !tt'r&$/ r$+2s$s 'r +!i"s t' i&stit2t$ ri1i&!" ,r' $$*i&0s5 th$ '1,"!i&!&t 1!/ #ri&0 ! i)i" ! ti'& +'r *!1!0$s !0!i&st th$ !""$0$* '++$&*$r. S2 h i)i" ! ti'& sh!"" #$ s2,,'rt$* #/ ,r$,'&*$r!& $ '+ $)i*$& $. O& th$ *$+$&*!&tDs 1'ti'&5 th$ '2rt 1!/ r$:2ir$ th$ ,"!i&ti++ t' +i"$ ! #'&* t' i&*$1&i+/ th$ *$+$&*!&t i& !s$ th$ '1,"!i&t sh'2"* #$ +'2&* t' #$ 1!"i i'2s. (-)I+ *2ri&0 th$ ,$&*$& / '+ th$ i)i" ! ti'&5 !& i&+'r1!ti'& sh'2"* #$ ,r$s$&t$* #/ th$ ,r's$ 2ti&0 !tt'r&$/5 th$ i)i" ! ti'& sh!"" #$ s2s,$&*$* 2&ti" th$ t$r1i&!ti'& '+ th$ ri1i&!" ,r' $$*i&0s. Reservation of %ivil 0ction.shall )e made )efore the /rosec-tion starts /resenting its evidence and other circ-mstances affording the offended /arty a reasona)le o//ort-nity to ma3e s-ch reservation. EK%EP6 (P 22 *criminal action for violation of (P 22 shall )e deemed to incl-de the corres/onding civil action. Bo reservation to file s-ch civil action se/arately shall )e allowed. =hen se/arate civil action is s-s/ended. 8F criminal action is filed after the said civil action has already )een instit-ted the latter shall )e s-s/ended in whatever stage it may )e fo-nd )efore >-dgment on the merits. 6he s-s/ension shall last -ntil final >-dgment is rendered in the criminal action. (?6 nevertheless )efore >-dgment on the merits -

is rendered in the civil action the same may -/on motion of the offended /arty )e consolidated with the criminal action in the co-rt trying the criminal action. *shall )e tried and decided >ointly.+ o E$tinction of /enal action does not carry with it e$tinction of the civil action. Dowever the civil action )ased on delict may )e deemed e$ting-ished if there is a finding in a final >-dgment in the criminal action that the act or omission from which the civil lia)ility may arise did not e$ist. =hen civil action may /roceed inde/endently shall only re4-ire /re/onderance of evidence. *art 12 11 14 and 2!#. of civil code+. 8n no case however may the offended /arty recover damages twice for the same act or omission charged in the criminal action. Effect of &eath on %ivil 0ctions @ &eath of acc-sed after arraignment will e$ting-ish civil lia)ility arising from the delict. Dowever when civil action may /roceed inde/endently */receding /aragra/h+ it may contin-e against the estate or legal re/resentative of the acc-sed after /ro/er s-)stit-tion or against said estate or heirs to s-)stit-te the deceased and g-ardian for minor heirs. ,-dgment in civil action not a )ar . 0)solved defendant in a civil action is not a )ar to a criminal action against the defendant. Art. 36. Pr$82*i i!" :2$sti'&s5 (hi h 12st #$ *$ i*$* #$+'r$ !&/ ri1i&!" ,r's$ 2ti'& 1!/ #$ i&stit2t$* 'r 1!/ ,r' $$*5 sh!"" #$ 0')$r&$* #/ th$ r2"$s '+ '2rt (hi h th$ S2,r$1$ C'2rt sh!"" ,r'12"0!t$ !&* (hi h sh!"" &'t #$ i& '&+"i t (ith th$ ,r')isi'&s '+ this C'*$. Precedence. 6he general r-le is that where )oth a civil and criminal case arising from the same facts are filed in co-rt the criminal case ta3es /recedence. EK%EP68OB< if there is a /re>-dicial 4-estion one that arises in a case the resol-tion of which is a logical antecedent of the iss-e involved therein and the cogni5ance of which /ertains to another tri)-nal. 6here are always 2 cases involved civil and criminal. 6he criminal case is always s-s/ended )eca-se the iss-es in the civil is determinative of the o-tcome of the criminal case. 6wo essential elements of a /re>-dicial 4-estion< o 6he civil action involved an iss-e similar or intimately related to the iss-e raised in the criminal action o 6he resol-tion of s-ch iss-e determined whether or not the criminal action may /roceed. PERSONS Ci)i" P$rs'&!"it/ Art. 39. <2ri*i !" !,! it/5 (hi h is th$ +it&$ss t' #$ th$ s2#8$ t '+ "$0!" r$"!ti'&s5 is i&h$r$&t i& $)$r/ &!t2r!" ,$rs'&5 !&* is "'st '&"/ thr'20h *$!th. C!,! it/ t' ! t5 (hi h is th$ ,'($r t' *' ! ts (ith "$0!" $++$ t5 is ! :2ir$* !&* 1!/ #$ "'st. ,-ridical ca/acity @ ac4-ired -/on )irth of a /erson. Jsome cases even -n)orn. *art 40 4! #42 824+ and terminated only -/on death.

>)))$r0!

P!0$ . '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

%a/acity to act is not inherent in a /erson. Art. 38. Mi&'rit/5 i&s!&it/ 'r i1#$ i"it/5 th$ st!t$ '+ #$i&0 *$!+;12t$5 ,r'*i0!"it/ !&* i)i" i&t$r*i ti'& !r$ 1$r$ r$stri ti'&s '& th$ !,! it/ t' ! t5 !&* *' &'t $6$1,t th$ i& !,! it!t$* ,$rs'& +r'1 $rt!i& '#"i0!ti'&s5 !s (h$& th$ "!tt$r !ris$ +r'1 his ! ts 'r +r'1 ,r',$rt/ r$"!ti'&s5 s2 h !s $!s$1$&ts. Grestricts the ca/acity to act. Art. 3=. Th$ +'""'(i&0 ir 21st!& $s5 !1'&0 'th$rs5 1'*i+/ 'r "i1it !,! it/ t' ! tE !0$5 i&s!&it/5 i1#$ i"it/5 th$ st!t$ '+ #$i&0 *$!+;12t$5 ,$&!"t/5 ,r'*i0!"it/5 +!1i"/ r$"!ti'&s5 !"i$&!0$5 !#s$& $5 i&s'")$& / !&* tr2st$$shi,. Th$ '&s$:2$& $s '+ th$s$ ir 21st!& $s r$ 0')$r&$* i& this C'*$5 'th$r '*$s5 th$ R2"$s '+ C'2rt5 !&* i& s,$ i!" "!(s. C!,! it/ t' ! t is &'t "i1it$* '& ! '2&t '+ r$"i0i'2s #$"i$+ 'r ,'"iti !" ',i&i'&. A 1!rri$* ('1!&5 -1 /$!rs '+ !0$ 'r ')$r5 is :2!"i+i$* +'r !"" ! ts '+ i)i" "i+$5 $6 $,t i& !s$s s,$ i+i$* #/ "!(. )roader in sco/e than art 18 )-t en-merates sit-ations which merelmodify the ca/acity to act. JJJ F8'B8F8%0B%E OF 0R6 18 and 1" Ma3e an overview of the sit-ation that 4-alifies a /ersonHs /ower to -nderta3e acts which can /rod-ce legal effects. N!t2r!" P$rs'&s Art. 7?. Airth *$t$r1i&$s ,$rs'&!"it/@ #2t th$ '& $i)$* hi"* sh!"" #$ '&si*$r$* #'r& +'r !"" ,2r,'s$s th!t !r$ +!)'r!#"$ t' it5 ,r')i*$* it #$ #'r& "!t$r (ith th$ '&*iti'&s s,$ i+i$* i& th$ +'""'(i&0 !rti "$ Art. 71. F'r i)i" ,2r,'s$s5 th$ +'$t2s is '&si*$r$* #'r& i+ it is !"i)$ !t th$ ti1$ it is '1,"$t$"/ *$"i)$r$* +r'1 th$ 1'th$rDs ('1#. H'($)$r5 i+ th$ +'$t2s h!* !& i&tr!;2t$ri&$ "i+$ '+ "$ss th!& 9 1'&ths5 it is &'t *$$1$* #'r& i+ it *i$s (ithi& -7 h'2rs !+t$r its '1,"$t$ *$"i)$r/ +r'1 th$ 1!t$r&!" ('1#. 'el-5 v %0 canHt invo3e 9/rovisional /ersonality: of a conceived child to o)tain damages for and on )ehalf of an a)orted child considering that art 40 and 4! were not met. (?6 the /arents can o)tain damages in their o-r right against the doctor who ca-sed the a)ortion on acco-nt of distress and ang-ish attendant to its loss and disa//ointment of their /arental e$/ectation. (8R6D %ER68F8%06E )est evidence of the fact of )irth. Once registered with the office of the local civil registrar it )ecomes a /-)lic doc-ment. Entries are only L/rima facieH evidence of the facts contained therein. 6his is strictly confidential and the contents cant )e revealed e$ce/t in the cases /rovided )y law.JJJ 6hey still maintain their nat-re as /-)lic doc-ments )eca-se following the /ro/er legal /roced-re they can )e o)tained )y those interested therein. o BonGdisclos-re of (irth Records< E$ce/t -/on re4-est of any of the ff< Person himself or any /erson a-thori5ed )y him

Art. 7-. Ci)i" P$rs'&!"it/ ri0hts !&* '#"i0!ti'&s '+ !&* #/ (i"". &eath %ertificate< 6he office of the local civil registrar of a m-nici/ality or a city m-st also have in its c-stody the death certificated of the /ersons who died in its locality. 6he rights and o)ligations of a dead /erson can still )e reg-lated )y contract will or the law. Art. 73. I+ th$r$ is *'2#t5 !s #$t($$& - 'r 1'r$ ,$rs'&s (h' !r$ !""$* t' s2 $$* $! h 'th$r5 !s t' (hi h '+ th$1 *i$* +irst5 (h'$)$r !""$0$s th$ *$!th '+ '&$ ,ri'r t' th$ 'th$r5 sh!"" ,r')$ th$ s!1$@ i& th$ !#s$& $ '+ ,r''+5 it is ,r$s21$* th!t th$/ *i$* !t th$ s!1$ ti1$ !&* th$r$ sh!"" #$ &' tr!&s1issi'& '+ ri0hts +r'1 '&$ t' th$ 'th$r. Proof of death m-st )e esta)lished )y /ositive evidence. 8t can never )e esta)lished from mere inference arising from another inference or from /res-m/tions and ass-m/tions. *,-a4-in v Bavarro son died )efore mom d-ring ,a/anese shootings+ <2ri*i !" P$rs'&s Art. 77. Th$ ++. !r$ 82ri*i !" ,$rs'&sE !. 6he state and its /olitical s-)divisions 2. Other cor/orations instit-tions and entities for /-)lic interest or /-r/ose created )y law their /ersonality )egins as soon as they have )een constit-ted according to law 1. %or/orations /artnershi/s and associations for /rivate interest or /-r/ose to which the law grants a >-ridical /ersonality se/arate and distinct from that of each shareholder /artner or mem)er. Art. 7.. <2ri*i !" ,$rs'&s 1$&ti'&$* i& N's. 1 !&* - '+ th$ ,r$ $*i&0 !rti "$ !r$ 0')$r&$* #/ th$ "!(s r$!ti&0 'r 'r0!&i4i&0 th$1. Pri)!t$ 'r,'r!ti'&s !r$ r$02"!t$* #/ "!(s '+ 0$&$r!" !,,"i !ti'& '& th$ s2#8$ t. P!rt&$rshi,s !&* !ss' i!ti'&s +'r ,ri)!t$ i&t$r$st 'r ,2r,'s$ !r$ 0')$r&$* #/ th$ ,r')isi'&s '+ this C'*$ '& $r&i&0 ,!rt&$rshi,s (36 !&* 39!) Art. 76. <2ri*i !" ,$rs'&s 1!/ ! :2ir$ !&* ,'ss$ss ,r',$rt/ '+ !"" %i&*s5 !s ($"" s i& 2r '#"i0!ti'&s !&* #ri&0 i)i" 'r ri1i&!" ! ti'&s5 i& '&+'r1it/ (ith th$ "!(s !&* r$02"!ti'&s '+ th$ 'r0!&i4!ti'&. ,-ridical Person is a )eing of legal e$istence s-sce/ti)le of rights and o)ligations or of )eing the s-)>ect of >-ridical relations. 0s a f-ndamental r-le the Ftate cannot )e s-ed witho-t its consent.

Dis s/o-se /arentAs his direct descendants or g-ardian or instit-tion legally in charge of him if he is a minor 6he co-rt or /ro/er /-)lic official whenever needed in administrative >-dicial or other official /roceedings to determine the identity of the childHs /arents or other circ-mstances s-rro-nding his )irth 8n case of /ersonHs death the nearest of 3in. is $6ti&02ish$* #/ *$!th. Th$ $++$ t 2,'& th$ th$ *$ $!s$* is *$t$r1i&$* #/ "!(5 #/ '&tr! t

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 6 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

Political s-)divisions m-nici/al cor/orations /rovinces cities and m-nici/alities. o M-nici/al cor/orations e$ist in d-al ca/acity. 6hey e$ercise the right s/ringing from sovereignty 6hey e$ercise /rivate /ro/rietary or cor/orate right arising from their e$istence as legal /ersons and not as /-)lic agencies. %or/orations *government+ are governed )y (P .8 a3a %or/oration %ode of the Phili//ines. *effective May ! !"80+ Partnershi/ 2 or more &istinct Personality and E$ce/tions< %or/orations /artnershi/s and associations for /rivate interest and /-r/ose may )e granted )y law a >-ridical /ersonality se/arate and distinct from that of each shareholder /artner or mem)er. E$am/le< O)ligation of cor/ is not o)ligation of stoc3holder and vice versa. Art. 79. B,'& th$ *iss'"2ti'& '+ 'r,'r!ti'&s5 i&stit2ti'&s !&* 'th$r $&titi$s +'r ,2#"i i&t$r$st 'r ,2r,'s$ 1$&ti'&$* i& N'. - '+ Art 775 th$ir ,r',$rt/ !&* 'th$r !ss$ts sh!"" #$ *is,'s$* '+ i& ,2rs2!& $ '+ "!( 'r th$ h!rt$r r$!ti&0 th$1. I+ &'thi&0 h!s #$$& s,$ i+i$* '& this ,'i&t5 th$ ,r',$rt/ !&* 'th$r !ss$ts sh!"" #$ !,,"i$* t' si1i"!r ,2r,'s$s +'r th$ #$&$+it '+ th$ r$0i'&5 ,r')i& $5 it/ 'r 12&i i,!"it/ (hi h *2ri&0 th$ $6ist$& $ '+ th$ i&stit2ti'& *$ri)$* th$ ,ri& i,!" #$&$+its +r'1 th$ s!1$. Citi4$&shi, !&* D'1i i"$ Art. 78. Th$ +'""'(i&0 !r$ iti4$&s '+ th$ Phi"i,,i&$s !. 6hose who were citi5ens of the Phili//ines at the time of the ado/tion of the %onstit-tion of the Phili//ines 2. 6hose )orn in the Phili//ines of foreign /arents who )efore the ado/tion of said %onstit-tion had )een elected to /-)lic office in the Phili//ines 1. 6hose whose fathers are citi5ens of the Phili//ines 4. 6hose whose mothers are citi5ens of the Phili//ines and -/on reaching the age of ma>ority elect Phili//ine citi5enshi/ 2. 6hose who are nat-rali5ed in accordance with law. Art. 7=. N!t2r!"i4!ti'& !&* th$ "'ss !&* r$! :2isiti'& '+ iti4$&shi, '+ th$ Phi"i,,i&$s !r$ 0')$r&$* #/ s,$ i!" "!(s. Art. .?. F'r th$ $6$r is$ '+ i)i" ri0hts !&* th$ +2"+i""1$&t '+ i)i" '#"i0!ti'&s5 th$ *'1i i"$ '+ &!t2r!" ,$rs'&s is th$ ,"! $ '+ th$ir h!#it2!" r$si*$& $. &omicile denotes a fi$ed /ermanent residence to which when a)sent one has the intention of ret-rning. o &omicile is residence co-/led with the intention to remain for an -nlimited time. o Residence -sed to indicate a /lace of a)ode whether /ermanent or tem/orary. o One may have many residences )-t only one domicile.

0 minor follows the domicile of his /arents &omicile of origin can only )e lost and a change of domicile occ-rs when the following re4-isites are /resent< o 0n act-al removal or an act-al change of domicile o 0 )ona fide intention of a)andoning the former /lace of residence esta)lishing a new one o 0cts which corres/ond with the /-r/ose. ?nder the Family %ode the h-s)and and wife shall fi$ the family domicile. 8n case of disagreement the %o-rt shall decide. Art. .1. Wh$& th$ "!( r$!ti&0 'r r$ '0&i4i&0 th$15 'r !&/ 'th$r ,r')isi'& *'$s &'t +i6 th$ *'1i i"$ '+ 82ri*i !" ,$rs'&s5 th$ s!1$ sh!"" #$ 2&*$rst''* t' #$ th$ ,"! $ (h$r$ th$ir "$0!" r$,r$s$&t!ti'& is $st!#"ish$* 'r (h$r$ th$/ $6$r is$ th$ir ,ri& i,!" +2& ti'&s. ,-s Fang-inis citi5enshi/ )y )lood ,-s Foli refers to citi5enshi/ on the )asis of the /lace of )irth 0c4-isition of %iti5enshi/< governed )y %0 4#1 as amended. o M-alifications Bot )e less than 2! on day of hearing of /etition M-st have resided in Phil for a contin-o-s /eriod of not less than !0 years 'ood moral character and )elieves in the /rinci/les of %onsti. Pro/er cond-ct and irre/roacha)le manner d-ring residence in Phil in his relation with constit-ted govHt. as well as with comm-nity heHs living M-st own real estate in Phil worth not less than P2 000.00 Phil c-rrency or m-st have some 3nown l-crative trade /rofessions or lawf-l occ-/ation. *-nder /resent consti no alien may own land e$ce/t thro-gh hereditary s-ccession+ 0)le to s/ea3 and write in English or F/anish and any one of the /rinci/la Phili//ine lang-ages M-st have enrolled his minor children of school age in any /-)lic or /rivate school recogni5ed )y the Office of Private Ed-cation of the Phili//ines o F/ecial M-alifications *!o years contin-o-s residence may )e red-ced to 2 years+ if< Donora)ly held office Esta)lished a new ind-stry or introd-ced a -sef-l invention in the Phil (eing married to a Fili/ino woman Engaged as a teacher in Phil in a /-)lic or recogni5ed /rivate school not esta)lished for e$cl-sive instr-ction of children of /ersons of a /artic-lar nationality or race in any of the )ranches of ed-c or ind-stry for a /eriod of not less than 2 years (orn in the Phili//ines -

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 9 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

=ho are dis4-alified O//osed to organi5ed govt or affiliated with any association who -/hold or teach doctrines o//osing all organi5ed govts. &efend or teach the necessity or /ro/riety of violence /ersonal assa-lt or assassination for the s-ccess and /redominance of their ideas Polygamists or )elievers in /ractice of /olygamy %onvicted of crimes involving moral t-r/it-de F-ffering from mental alienation or inc-ra)le contagio-s diseases &-ring residence has not mingled socially with Fili/inos or who have not evinced a sincere desire to learn and em)race all c-stoms traditions and ideals of Fili/inos %iti5ens of nations with whom *?F and+ the Phil are at war d-ring the /eriod of war %iti5ens of foreign *other than ?F+ whose laws do not grant Fili/inos the right to )ecome nat-rali5ed citi5ens or s-)>ect thereof. ;oss of %iti5enshi/ o Bat-rali5ation in foreign co-ntry o E$/ress ren-nciation of citi5enshi/ o Oath of allegiance to s-//ort consti of foreign -/on )eing 2! yAo. Provided may not divest himself of Phil citi5enshi/ in any manner while RP is at war with any co-ntry o Render service or acce/t commission in the armed forces of foreign. Provided shall not divest a Fili/ino of a Phil citi5enshi/ if< RP has a defensive andAor offensive /act of alliance with foreign co-ntry Faid foreign co-ntry maintains armed forces on Phil territory with consent of RP. Provided< o De states that he does so only in connection with his service to said foreign co-ntry o Render service -nder any circ-mstances mentioned in /ar a and ) shall not )e /ermitted to /artici/ate or vote in any election of RP d-ring /eriod of service or commission in the armed forces of said co-ntry cancellation of certificate of nat-rali5ation declared )y com/etent a-thority a deserter of Phil armed forces in time of war -nless /lenary /ardon or amnesty granted in case of a woman -/on her marriage to a foreigner if )y virt-e of laws in force in her h-s)andHs co-ntry she ac4-ires his nationality. Reac4-isition of %iti5enshi/ o

o o

(y nat-rali5ation. Provided he doesnHt have any of the dis4-alifications /rescri)ed. Re/atriation of deserters of army navy or air cor/s. Provided woman who lost her citi5enshi/ )y reason of marriage with alien )e re/atriated after termination of marital stat-s (y direct act of the %ongress of the Phili//ines

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 8 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

CASES AND ADDITIONAL THIN3S TO REMEMAER

Article 1 Faclolo vs. %0R @ nat-re of marriage F3inner vs. Ftate of O3lahoma @ marriage is one of the )asic civil rights of man (ove vs. Pinnioti @ marriage is not at most a civil contract. 8t is at least a civil contract )eca-se the contracting /arties m-st give their f-ll and free consentAagreement to it. (-t -nli3e other contracts it cannot )e dissolved or )reached >-st )eca-se the e$/ected o-tcome did not materiali5e. P6N6 vs. B;R% @ as a s/ecial contract marriage cannot )e restricted )y any discriminatory r-leAreg-lationsA/olicies. Ftate vs. 6a))y @ marriage creates a s/ecial stat-s or relation )etween contracting /arties Magee vs. Oo-ng @ the state is interested in marriage P-l-eta vs. P0 @ altho-gh marriage esta)lishes a /ermanent -nion it does not shed the /arties individ-al integrity and /rivacy. Binal vs. (ayadog @ as a general r-le the law in force d-ring the time of the marriage shall govern the marriage. (ayog)og vs. %0 @ e$ce/tion to the r-le *Provisions of the F/anish code was not im/lemented in the Phili//ines th-s the laws in force when the case was )ro-ght to the co-rt+ LAWS 3OVERNIN3 MARRIA3E 0. (. %. &. (efore !"2" < the F/anish civil codeE )-t there are /rovisions that never too3 effect in the Phili//ines li3e 0rt. 21 and 24. !"2" -ntil 0-g-st 2" !"20 @ Marriage ;aws of !"2". 0-g-st 10 !"20 -ntil 0-g-st 2 !"88 @ %ivil %ode of the Phili//ines 0-g-st 1 !"88 -ntil /resent @ Family code of the Phili//ines

Void marriage cannot )e c-red. 6h-s while 0rt 22. of the family code /rovides that the law shall have retroactive effect in so far as it does not /re>-dice or im/air vested rights the retroactivity cla-se is a general one and does not e$/ressly and directly validate a /revio-s void marriage -nder the %ivil %ode. 6here is one clear case where the Family code allows the filling of a /etition to declare a marriage void even if the gro-nd was not stat-torily /rovided for a void marriage -nder the %ivil %ode< 0rticle 1. */sychological inca/acity GG no longer has a /rescri/tive /eriod+ 0 case where this is the gro-nd may )e filed regardless of whether the marriage has )een cele)rated )efore or after 0-g-st 1 2004. Article 2-6 %hi Ming 6soi vs. %0 @ /rocreation as one of the essential marital o)ligations -nder the Family %ode is )ased on the -niversal /rinci/le that /rocreation of children thro-gh se$-al -nion is one of the )asic ends of marriage. M.6 vs. ,.6 @ after se$-al change the se$ is already changed th-s that /erson can already contract marriage. 6eter vs. 6eter @ consent re4-isite to marriage relation need not however )e e$/ressed in any s/ecial manner or /artic-lar form. */age !!4+ ;ocal 'overnment %ode was instit-ted on ,an-ary ! !""2. Peo/le vs. ,anssen @ if marriage is iss-ed in a /lace other than the residence of the contracting /arty the marriage /erformed on the )asis of s-ch a marriage license is still valid. Payne vs. Payne @ 6he commission of /er>-ry or dece/tion on the /art of the contracting /arties as to their age in order to avoid the stat-tory re4-irement of /arental consent is not a ca-se to invalidate a marriage o)tained thro-gh s-ch marriage license. 6he marriage certificate is not an essential nor formal re4-irement of marriage. Fail-re to sign a marriage certificate itself does not render the marriage void or ann-lla)le *Madride>o vs. de leon+ (alog)og vs. %0. @ 6he a)sence of witness is merely and irreg-larity which will not render a marriage void.

Bote< 6he Princi/le that the validity of marriage is determined )y the law effective d-ring the cele)ration of the marriage is f-rther highlighted )y the fact that 0F 0 'EBER0; R?;E 6DE B06?RE OF 6DE M0RR80'E 0;RE0&O %E;E(R06E& %0BBO6 (E %D0B'E& (O 0 F?(FEM?EB6 0MEB&MEB6 6O 6DE ;0=.

>)))$r0!

P!0$ = '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

E-genio Fr vs. Vele5 @Phili//ine law does not recogni5e common law marriages. Persons re/resenting themselves as h-s)ands and wives and has )een living together for s-ch a long /eriod of time witho-t marriage are considered 9married: in common law >-risdiction )-t not in the Phili//ines. %osca vs. Palay/ayon @ the /ractice of >-dge of re4-iring the /arties to sign the contract )efore as3ing for their declaration is highly im/ro/er )-t will not affect the validity of the marriage. Dermosisima vs. %0 @ mere )reach of /romise to marry is not an actiona)le wrong. =assmer vs. Vele5 @ (reach of /romise to marry attendant with formally setting a wedding and going thro-gh all the /re/aration can )e lia)le -nder art 2! *%%+

Article 36 6-a5on vs. %0 GG 6he finding of the trial co-rt as to the e$istence or nonG e$istence of the /sychological inca/acity shall )e )inding -/on the F% -nless it can )e s-fficiently shown that the trail co-rt erred. Article 38 (ac3 vs. (ac3 @ >-dicial declaration of n-llity of marriage shall dissolve 0ffinity. Arti "$ 3= %hi Ming 6soi vs. %0 GG 0ny of the /arties of a void marriage may file for n-llity case even tho-gh s-ch /arty is the wrong doer Article 40 C!s$ 1. M$&*'4! -. Ar!0'& 3. 3'1$4 7. C'&s$02$r! .. O*!/!t 6. T'"$&ti&' 9. Wi$0$" 8. C'*$ F!1i"/ D!t$ C')$r$* S$,t$1#$r -85 1=.7 F$#r2!r/ -85 1=.9 <2&$ 3?5 1=91 <!&2!r/ 3?5 1=91 <2&$ -5 1=99 M!/ 3?5 1=83 A202st 1=5 1=86 A202st 35 1=83 R2"i&0 With'2t &$$* With'2t &$$* With &$$* With &$$* With'2t &$$* With'2t &$$* With &$$* With &$$*

Article7 0 vice mayor may act on )ehalf of the mayor and a-thori5e marriages *Peo/le vs. (-stamante+ Article 21 'arcia vs. Recio GG 8f witho-t a certificate of legal ca/acity and the marriage license is nonetheless iss-es the marriage cele)rated on the )asis of s-ch marriage licenses shall not considered void for it is merely an irreg-larity. Article 22 and 23 BicdaoG%arino vs. %arino GG 6he certification of the civil registry shall en>oy high /ro)ative val-e. Article 26 Bo state is )o-nd y committee to geive effect in its co-rt to laws which are re/-gnant to its own laws and good order of society *(rimson vs. (rimson+ =oo =oo Oin vs. Vivo @ 8f the law in the foreign co-ntry *e$. %hina + is not /roven it wo-ld )e ass-med )y the co-rt that it has laws the same as in the Phili//ines &ivorce initiated )y a Fili/ino is against /-)lic /olicy *%ang vs. %0 6echave$ vs. Escano+ 'arcia vs. Recio G 8f the Fili/ino is already nat-rali5ed 0rt 2. will not a//ly )-t the law where he was nat-rali5ed. Article 34 Man5ano vs. Fanche5 @ Re4-irement for article 14 is only that there sho-ld )e no legal im/ediment at the time of the cele)ration of the marriage. Article 35 &omingo vs. %0 GG For /-r/oses of remarriage the only acce/ta)le /roof to show the voidness of the first marriage is a >-dicial declaration iss-ed )y a co-rt directly stating that the first marriage is n-ll and void *&omingo vs. %0+.

Article 41 'ome5 vs. ;i/ana @ as a general r-le marriage contracted d-ring the lifetime of the first s/o-se is n-ll and void. Peo/le vs. 0rcillaGG 6he declaration of /res-m/tive death will still )e /rimaG facie and can )e overthrown )y evidence RP vs. Bolasco @ the a)sence of diligent search on the /resent s/o-se negates that there is well fo-nded )elief to /res-me that the s/o-se is dead. Article 46 (-cat vs. (-cat @ si$ months /regnancy is already conceiva)le th-s no concealment 04-ino vs. &eli5o @ fo-r months /regnancy is still -nconceiva)le there is concealment. Foss vs. Foss @ the h-s)and 3new )efore marriage of the -nchaste character of the s/o-se th-s no gro-nd for legal se/aration.

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 1? '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

Article 47 (rown vs. Oam)ao @ the co-rt can ta3e notice of /rescri/tion even if it is not alleged in the answer in an ann-lment case. Article 48 %ardenas vs. %ardenas and Rehn Ocam/o vs. Florencio @ ,-dgment on sti/-lation of facts and confession of >-dgment is no /rohi)ited so long as it is corro)orated )y inde/endent evidences. Article 49 Filva vs. %0 @ visitation rights sho-ld )e given to the /arent not awarded with c-stody -nless there are com/elling reasons to r-le otherwise. Article 50 Valde5 vs. R6% @ 0rt 20 a//lies on to s-)se4-ent void marriages contracted y a s/o-se of a /rior marriage )efore the latter is >-dicially declared void. For void marriages the r-le on coGownershi/ shall a//ly Article 55 Prather vs. Prather @ se$ with a cowE im/eril the wifeHs life. Fymthe vs. Fymthe @ 0 se/aration where )oth of the s/o-ses willingly conc-r is not a willf-l desertion of one )y the other. Article 56 Ocam/o vs. Florencio @ the fail-re of a h-s)and to loo3 for his erring s/o-se does not constit-te condonation 0lmacen vs. (alta5ar @ the act of the s/o-se of giving money to not filing charges does not constit-te condonation. Peo/le vs. Fensano @ the consent of a s/o-se may)e ded-ced from his actions. 'reene vs. 'reene @ volenti non fit in>-ria =hithers/oon vs =hiters/oon @ connivance Article 58 Pacete vs. %arriaga GG 6he nonGo)servance of the . months cooling off /eriod may set aside the decision of the lower co-rt. For as long as se/aration is inserted in any case the mandatory re4-irement m-st )e com/lied with. 0rroyo vs. Vas4-e5 @ 8f the /etition is denied the co-rt cannot com/el the s/o-ses to live together for marital o)ligations are /-rely /ersonal in character. Article 74-77 6oda ,r. vs. %0 @ a se/aration of /ro/erty cannot )e effected )y mere e$ec-tion of a contract or agreement of the /arties )-t )y the decree of the co-rt a//roving the same.

Article 87 Rodrig-e5 vs. Rodrig-e5 @ the selling of the /ro/erty from the s/o-se to the da-ghter to the father cannot )e n-llified )eca-se all are g-ilty no one may recover what was given )y virt-e of the contract.

COMMENTS ON CASES AY MEL STA. MARIA BALOGBOG CASE =itness testified he didnHt see or hear the act-al e$change of vows. De only testified 98 saw the weddingQ: F% said that the act-al e$change of vows co-ld )e /res-med )eca-se there was an act-al wedding ceremony as testified )y the witness. R0s long as the witness saw there was a wedding ceremony the co-rt then ma3es a /res-m/tion that the e$change of vows too3 /lace.S NAVA O CASE

0-thority of solemni5ing officer is a formal re4-irement. 6he 'EBER0; R?;E is that for solemni5ing officers< !. 8B%?M(EB6 >-dge A mayor 2. =86D8B its >-risdiction a)sence of a-thority treated as no a-thority so Void marriage. Bavarro case stated that if the solemni5ing officer cele)rated the marriage )eyond its >-risdiction this is >-st an irreg-larity. Es/ecially if )oth /arties were in good faith or one of them was in good faith. M6% A R6% ,?&'EGwithin its >-risdiction eg. Ma3ati only %0 A F% ,?F68%EFGentire Phili//ines

S! "# CA ;ower co-rt n-llified a marriage )eca-se of /sychological inca/acity. F% agreed that it was a void marriage )-t the gro-nd was differentC it was )ased on lac3 of marriage licenseQ 6he general r-le is that if yo- donHt assign an error in >-dgment the a//ellate co-rt will not tac3le that -nassigned error or iss-e. (-t in this case even if the iss-e was -nassigned it was so o)vio-s from the records that there was no marriage license so the F% co-ld validly render a >-dgment that indeed the marriage is void )eca-se there was no marriage license.

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 11 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

=hat is im/ortant is yo- still need a %O?R6 OR&ERQ Garcia- eci$ ca%e 0 married (*0-stralian+. ( got a divorce went )ac3 to the Phili//ines to marry again. %an he validly do soI F% said OEF he can if the divorce is 0(FO;?6E. 8f it was >-st a RE;068VE divorce he canHt marry. Relative &ivorce is >-st ;egal Fe/aration. F% also said 0rt. 2. of the Family %ode *F%+ is irrelevant. =hat will a//ly is 0rt. !2 of the %ivil %ode *%%+ which is the B068OB0;86O R?;E. A '# 151 EA NES' E++O 'S 9Bo s-it )etween family mem)ers shall /ros/erC.: 0rt. !2! a//lies only to %8V8; %0FEF. %?F6O&O casesG this is in FPE%80; PRO%EE&8B'F BO6 0 %8V8; %0FE so BO earnest efforts re4-ired. '?0R&80BFD8P 8B6EF606E casesG this is in FPE%PRO BO6 0 %8V8; %0FE BO earnest efforts re4-ired. B?;;86O 0BB?;MEB6 ;E'0; FEP0R068OB casesG BO E0RBEF6 EFFOR6FQ =hyI %o5 even if these 1 are %8V8; %0FEF the law does not allow these cases to )e com/romisedQ R?;EFG if s-it is< !. %8V8; @ earnest efforts re4-ired. %R8MAFPE%PROG no earnest efforts. 2. even if %8V8; )-t falls -nder B?;;86O 0BB?;MEB6 ;E'0; FEP0R068OBG no earnest efforts re4-ired co5 the law does not allow these cases to )e com/romised. 1. if F6R0B'ERRFS are 8BVOV;E&G BO earnest efforts re4-ired.

&EL S'A#&A (A di%c)%%i$n 8f a foreigner wants to get married in the Phili//ines he needs to get a %ER68F8%06E OF ;E'0; %0P0%86O from his EM(0FFO or %OBF?;. (-t in one F% case it was held that the nonGforwarding or nonG/resentation of the %ertificate of ;egal %a/acity was >-st an irreg-larity es/ecially if the /arties were a)le to ac4-ire a M0RR80'E ;8%EBFE then that ma3es the Marriage is validQ Rin short marriage license is the -ltimate re4-irement N not the %ertificate of ;egal %a/acityC. %o5 the general r-le is )efore yo- co-ld a//ly for a marriage license the foreigner m-st /resent his %ert. Of ;egal %a/acity.S *OC' (NE O+ ' (ENN(AL CO,AB('A'(ON 8f the wife is still virgin 1 years after the cele)ration of marriage then it is /res-med that the h-s)and isCCRalam nyo na da/at etoC go see MelHs )oo3S *OSENA ca%e 8f /etitioners are )oth D-s)and N wife and it involved %OB,?'0; assets the signat-re of only ! s/o-se is valid. D N = are ,O8B6 0&M8B8F6R06ORF co-rts /res-me that one 3nows what the other is doingQ -! ca%e D N = DGcomatose so = ass-mes FO;E PO=ER OF 0&M8B8F6R068OB. F% said if wife ass-mes Fole Power of 0dministration yo- need to get a %O?R6 OR&ER. %o-rt Order< it de/ends on the ff circ-mstances. 8f inca/acity is F6ROTEG go to R?;EF OF %O?R6 N file '?0R&80BFD8P /roceedings. 8f inca/acity is 0(0B&OBMEB6G it is F?MM0RO PRO%EE&8B' -nder the F0M8;O %O&E.

.A'E N('! / +(L(A'(ON !. 0ction to im/-gn legitimacy of childG m-st )e a direct s-it. 2. Main action is for /artition of /ro/erty )-t a collateral action was instit-ted to im/-gn the legitimacy of a child. 8s this validI F% said OEF if it was /roven that the mother was (0RREBQ *di /-ede mag3aGana3+

6he whole cha/ter of P06ERB86O N F8;8068OB 0FF?MP68OBF a. M0RR80'E is V0;8& ). %D8;& is ?B&8FP?60(;O OF 6DE =8FE

D0F

G if these 2 ass-m/tions were not met then it falls -nder the (0V8ER0 v. %06O60; case wherein the action was for /artition N the LchildH was /roven to )e falsely claiming legitimacy or illegitimacy as the MO6DER was PROVEB 6O (E (0RREBQ

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 1- '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

L?B8%0 D8,0 %0FEH Rich L/arentsH died. 0 /erson claims that she was a da-ghter. (rothers N sisters of the deceased /arents 4-estioned the standing of the da-ghter. 6he Lda-ghterH arg-ed that only the D-s)and can im/-gn her stat-s in a direct action. 8s the Lda-ghterH correctI F%< =ROB' -n da-ghterQ =hyI 8t was /roven that the da-ghter did not come from the mother so the R-les on Paternity N Filiation will BO6 a//ly. 6his is a )latant case of F0;F8F8%068OB of (8R6D %ER68F8%06E. Fo the R?;E is< %DE%T F8RF6 if the child came o-t from the Mother )efore yoa//ly the R-les on Paternity N FiliationQQQ T0B' %0FE = files ;egal Fe/aration case against D. = won. D went to the ?.F. = now wants to ado/t her children N as3s co-rt to designate her as the one who will e$ercise Parental 0-thority )ased on 0R6. 2!1 of Family %ode. F%< 6ermination of Parental 0-thority is always with %a-se N m-st )e e$/ressly /rovided )y the co-rt. 8n this legal se/aration case there is no showing that the Parental 0-thority of D was terminated. 0R6. 2!1 of F% merely &EF8'B06EF the /erson who will e$ercise /arental a-thority. 8t does not mean that D )eing the g-ilty s/o-se will 0-tomatically lose his /arental a-thority. For 0(0B&OBMEB6 to a//lyG it means total a)sol-te cessation of Family &-ties. 8n the Tang %ase there was no a)andonment )eca-se the D had contact with the children thr- overseas /hone calls al)eit it was seldom. SAL(EN' +EA'- ES ON A*O.'(ON !. 2. (efore a 1rd /arty co-ld ado/t earnest efforts to loo3 for a /ossi)le Lado/terH within the e$tended family. if the )a)y so-ght to )e ado/ted is still inside the wom) of the mother any contract or agreement of ado/tion entered )y the )iological /arents is VO8&Q

1. 4. 2.

0do/ter cannot rescind 0do/tion only the 0do/ted /erson can. (-t the 0do/ter can &isinherit the 0do/ted /erson. ?nder Family %odeG 0liens cannot ado/t *this was old r-le+ ?nder &omestic 0do/tion ;awG 0liens can now ado/t *new r-le+ ;oo3 for the 1 E$ce/tions or gro-nds to e$em/t the aliens from /roc-ring %ertificate of ;egal %a/acity or %ertificate of Residency.

9legally free child: in interco-ntry ado/tion means that the child is vol-ntarily or invol-ntarily committed to social welfare agency. %an yo- file interco-ntry ado/tion a//lication in the reg-lar co-rtsI Y$s5 #2t th$ '2rt (i"" 82st *$t$r1i&$ i+ !"" th$ ,!,$rs !r$ '1,"$t$ F (i"" r$+$r it t' th$ INTERCOBNTRY ADOPTION AOARD +'r th$ ,r',$r *$t$r1i&!ti'& '+ A*',ti'&. (i& sh'rt5 ,2,2&t! ,! ri& /2& s! I&t$r '2&tr/ A*',ti'& A'!r*G s' /'2 #$tt$r 0' th$r$ i&iti!""/5 &'t t' th$ '2rts)

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 13 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

<BRISPRBDENCE OBTLINE AY MEL STA MARIA 1==7 S!"it! ). M!0t'"is Psychological inca/acity is /sychosomatic and deals with state of mind and th-s can only )e /roven )y indicators or e$ternal manifestations of the /erson claimed to )e /sychologically inca/acitated. 6hese indicators m-st )e clearly alleged in the com/laint filed in the co-rt. Hr'h& ). CA F% r-led that the testimony of the h-s)and with res/ect to the re/ort of the /sychiatrist was not within the doctorG/atient /rivileged comm-nication r-le since the one who wo-ld testify is not the doctor )-t the h-s)and. F% also r-led that neither can the h-s)andHs testimony )e considered a circ-mvention of the /rohi)ition )eca-se his testimony cannot have the force and effect of the testimony of the /hysician who e$amined the /atient and made the re/ort. S!" $*' ). Ort!&$4 1==. S!&t's ). CA F A$*i!;S!&t's 6he very first case decided )y the F% which disc-ssed the sco/e and meaning of 0rt1.. F% denied the n-llity case. 0ccdg to ,-stice Fem/io &iyU /sychological inca/acity m-st )e characteri5e )y *a+ gravity *)+ >-ridical antecedence *c+ inc-ra)ility 1==6 T2!s'& ). CA 6he finding of the trial co-rt as to the e$istence or nonG e$istence of a /artyHs /sychological inca/a)it at the time of the marriage is final and )inding on the F% -nless it can )e s-fficiently shown that the tiral co-rtHs fact-al findings and eval-ation of the testimonies and /ieces of evidence /resented are clearly and manifestly erroneo-s. V!"*$4 ). RTC &elivery of /res-m/tive legitime is not re4-ired as a general r-le in void marriagesE )-t as an e$ce/tion to this general r-le the Valde5 r-ling also states that /ar *2+*1+*4+ *2+ of 0rt41 relates only )y the e$/licit terms of 0rt20 to voida)le marriages -nder 0rt22 and e$ce/tionally to void marriages -nder 0rt 40. 1==9 Chi Mi&0 Ts'i Procreation is an essential o)ligation *as the )asic end of marriage+. %onstant nonGf-lfillment of this o)ligation will finally destroy the integrity or wholeness of the marriage. Prolonged ref-sal of a s/o-se to have se$-al interco-rse with his or her s/o-se is considered a sign of /sychological inca/acity altho-gh /hysically ca/a)le. 6his is the only case which n-llity on the gro-nds of P8 was granted. RP ). CA !&* MOLINA F% en-merated the g-idelines in invo3ing the /sychological inca/acity -nder art1.< *!+the )-rden of /roof to show the n-llity of the marriage )elong to the /laintiff *2+the root ca-se of the /sychological inca/acity m-st )e< *a+medically or clinically identified *)+ alleged in the com/laint *c+ s-fficiently /rocen )y e$/erts and *d+ cleary e$/lained in the decision. *1+the inca/acity m-st )e /roven to )e e$isting at the time of the cele)ration of the marriage *4+ P8 m-st )e shown to )e medically or clinically /ermanent or inc-ra)le *2+s-ch illness m-st )e grave eno-gh to )ring a)o-t the disa)ility of the /arty to ass-me the essential o)ligations of marriage. *.+ the essential o)ligations m-st )e those em)odied )y 0rt ." to #! *h-s)and and wife+of F% as well as 0rt 220 22! and 112 */arents and children+ *#+inter/retations given )y the Bational 0//ellate Matrimonial 6ri)-nal of the %atholic %h-rch in the P8 while not controlling or decisive sho-ld )e given great res/ect )y o-r co-rts. *8+the trial co-rt m-st order the /rosec-ting attorney or fiscal and F' to a//ear as co-nsel for the state. Bo decision shall )e handed down -nless the F% iss-es a certification. *last sent not anymore needed /-rs-ant to F% resol-tion+

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 17 '+ 1.

Persons and Family Relations Reviewer

Vena V. Verga

-??3 Masias v. Masias Mercado Fehr v. Fehr (arcelo v. %0G(engson

-??%hoa v. %hoa

-??? M!r 's ). M!r 's F% r-led that 9the /ersonal medical or /sychological e$amination of res/ondent is not a re4-irement for a declaration of /sychological inca/acity and that it is not a condition sine 4-a non for s-ch declaration. Dowever the %o-rt may or may not acce/t the testimony of the /sychologist or /sychiatrist. 6he %o-rt may )ase its decision on the t't!"it/ '+ th$ $)i*$& $ other than the findings of the /sychiatrist or /sychologist.

-??1 R$,2#"i ). D!0*!0 the law does not define what /sychological inca/acity is and therefore the determination is left solely with the co-rts on a caseGtoGcase )asis. &etermination of P8 9de/ends on the facts of the case. Each m-st )e >-dged not on the )asis of a /riori ass-m/tions /redilections or generali5ations )-t according to its own facts.:

>)))$r0!

P!0$ 1. '+ 1.