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A WORLD BANK STUDY

Early Child Education


M A K I N G P R O G R A M S W O R K F O R B R A Z I L S
M O S T I M P O R TA N T G E N E R AT I O N

David K. Evans
Katrina Kosec

        
   




 

2012 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000; Internet: www.worldbank.org
Some rights reserved
1 2 3 4 15 14 13 12
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This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0)
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are
free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work, including for commercial purposes, under the
following conditions:
AttributionPlease cite the work as follows: Evans, David K. and Katrina Kosec. 2012. Early Child
Education: Making Programs Work for Brazils Most Important Generation. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
DOI:10.1596/978-0-8213-8931-7 License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0
TranslationsIf you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the
attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World
Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation.
All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank,
1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2625; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
ISBN (paper): 978-0-8213-8931-7
ISBN (electronic): 978-0-8213-9563-9
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8931-7
Cover photo: Courtesy of Barbara Bruns. The girls in this photo were attending a creche (daycare center)
in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been requested.

















 
 




















 

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03 children in creche
by income quintile
1.0
Fraction enrolled

Fraction enrolled

0.34
0.26
0.18
0.10

0.8

0.6

0.4

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1996

2001
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2006
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Excellent

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160

Inequality
155

140
120

135
125
113

100

106

103

100

94

80

87

81

71

69

60
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40

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110

100

Fourth decile

90
Third decile
80
Second decile

70

60

First (poorest) decile

50
36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50 52 54 56
Child age (months)

58

60

62

64

66

68

70







 




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Age 27

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IQ

Age 10 Age 14

Abecedarian

214%

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6%

6%

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68%

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Perry Preschool

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Child investments per capita


in reais

1,000
900
800
700
600
500
400

2006

2007

2008

2009

Year

 





 

 



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0.8

Fraction enrolled

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year
Creche

Pre-school





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Index

 '%#+B#'6% $ "!>#"!#3$#' ".+,,


"!+,,-1
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00

0.79 0.78

0.76
0.68
0.60

0.85 0.84
0.76
0.70

0.64

0.81 0.82

0.79 0.79
0.70 0.69

0.63
0.58
0.47
0.40

0.54
0.47

0.53

0.42

2001 2009 2001 2009 2001 2009 2001 2009 2001 2009 2001 2009
Brazil
North
Northeast
Southeast
South
Central West
Region
Creche average

Pre-school average


















 




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Average no. of students

 '%#+B+#'"%#%!"##*$$#"!#' "
Creche
40

40
36

30
26

20

26

29

34

32

26
21

23

23

0
Brazil

Central West

North

Northeast

2001

Average no. of students

21

10
South

Southeast

2009

Pre-school
50
40
30
20
10
0

49
40

39

Brazil

38

34

32

Central West

North
2001

42

38

34

29

Northeast

South

34

30

Southeast

2009



 '%#+B0#' "##%%#6% $ "!>#"!#3 "


#& $! " # !"!"$.+,,-1
1.0

Index

0.8
0.6
Public
0.4
Private
0.2
0
Creche

Pre-school
Administrative dependency





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10
9

Excellent

Good

Score

7
6

Adequate

5
4

Basic

Inadequate

P
an are
d nts
st
af
f

st og
ru ra
ct m
ur
e

Pr

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te

ra

ct
io

es
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tiv
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ui e
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on s
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ca
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re
un ea
de ki
rs ng
ta a
nd nd
in
g

Quality domain



10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Excellent
Good
Adequate
Basic

bo
ok
of
se
U

M
ov us
em ic
en &
Pl
ay
t
w
ith
bl
oc
N
at
ks
ur
e
&
s
ac cie
tiv nc
iti e
es
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pe
rv
of isio
pl n
ay
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in ul
te t-c
ra h
ct ild
io
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n
ch p
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hi io
ld n
in of
t'n

Inadequate

Score

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60

Percent

50
40
30

Creche

20

Pre-school

10
0

Inadequate

Basic

Adequate

Good

Excellent

Quality


   




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"!#$
100

Percent

80

46

54
70

60

% Higher education

40
20
0

54

% High-school or less

50
30

Creche

Pre-school
Level of education



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Fraction enrolled

Creche
0.4

0.35

0.35

0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.38

0.34
0.29
0.22

0.18
0.06

0.02

Brazil

0.17

0.14

0.13

Central West

North
Northeast
Region
2001

South

Southeast

2009

Fraction enrolled

Pre-school
0.64

0.6

0.63

0.60

0.51

0.4
0.25

0.34

0.30

0.29

0.34

0.37

0.2
0

0.07

0.04

Brazil

Central West

North
Northeast
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2001

South

Southeast

2009




















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Parents subjective measure of quality

1.00
0.90
y = 0.08x + 0.88
R = 0.03

0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Objective measure of daycare quality



0.9

1.0

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20
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Chile
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Mexico

United
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Sweden

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Mexico

70

United States

60

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50
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Fraction enrolled

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0.12
0.08
0.04
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year
Brazil
North
Northeast

South
Southeast
Central West



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Fraction enrolled

0.9
0.8
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0.6
0.5
0.4
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year
Brazil
North
Northeast

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Southeast
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0.12
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1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year
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1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year
Boys

Girls




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0.10
0.02
1996

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2001
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5th Quintile

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0.85

0.81

0.8

0.76

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0.62
0.6

0.53
0.47
0.38

0.4
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0.72
0.59

0.6

0.41

0.4
0.28

0.26

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0.7
0.6
0.5
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1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
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1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
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1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year
Mother works

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10,000
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8,000

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6,000

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South

4,000

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2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
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0.8

0.6

0.75

0.58

0.57

0.55

0.43
0.39

0.4
0.30

0.29

0.23

0.2

0.16

0.15

0.14

0.19

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0.19

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0.07

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0.8

0.76

0.73
0.64
0.57

0.6

0.4

0.34
0.28
0.19

0.2

0.13
0.05

0.08

0.08
0.02

0.03

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0.16
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0.3
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2009

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0.37
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0.45

0.40

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arly Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazils Most Important Generation is part of
the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the
Banks ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion.
In the past 15 years, Brazil has made great strides in improving access to early child education,
with an enrollment increase of more than 50 percent for both pre-school and creche (day care).
Education programs for young children in Brazil have consistently been shown to have long-term
positive effects on the life outcomes of participants. These programs have demonstrated positive
impacts on, for example, income, length of schooling, and test scores. However, to have such
impacts, pre-schools and creches must be high-quality, and few centers are rated as such, even in
capital cities. Representation of the poorest and most vulnerable children among those attending
pre-school and creche still lags considerably behind that of more privileged children, although
poorer children stand to gain the most from early child education programs. Additionally, large
disparities exist both regionally and between rural and urban populations.
This book details the literature on the long-term effects of early child education and provides a
comprehensive view of the regional variation, the importance of program quality, and the
socioeconomic gaps in early child education in Brazil. It further examines existing public and
private initiatives in Brazil, and it discusses how they can be leveraged to effectively and efciently
provide quality pre-school and creche care. A central aim of the book is to provide decision makers
with specic policy recommendations to improve the quality and equity of the early child education
experience in Brazil. Given the difculty of reaching children in remote areas and the need to
expand coverage to the poorest segments of the population, Brazil must invest strategically in new
centers and allocate existing spaces to the poorest people and areas. Municipal policy makers
should designate public creche spaces in a transparent manner, provide guidelines to institutions,
and monitor adherence to those guidelines. Teachers need guidance on the best activities to use to
improve child outcomes. The use of participatory budgeting could potentially improve access and
equity by involving the poor directly in the budgeting process. Increased cross-sectoral
coordination could improve child welfare in cost-effective ways, and public-private partnerships
could stretch existing resources further and expand coverage more quickly.
World Bank Studies are available individually or on standing order. This World Bank Studies
series is also available online through the World Bank e-library (www.worldbank.org/elibrary).

ISBN 978-0-8213-8931-7

SKU 18931