Digital Re-print - May | June 2012

Mould control in grain and feed preservation

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872


oulds are ubiquitous and unavoidable contaminants in all animal feeds. Virtually all animal feeds contain moulds and viable mould spores which continue to pose a threat to grain quality.

in grain and feed preservation

by André Meeusen, application manager and Yvonne van der Horst, technical manager, Kemira ChemSolutions b.v., The Netherlands


Development of moulds in feed depends on the interaction of several factors, including the Moulds are fungi which are distinguished presence of spores, the availability of nutrients, by the formation of mycelium (a network storage time, temperature and moisture. Water of filaments or threads), or by spore masses. activity, i.e. the presence of free water, is the Conditions that favour moulds include moisture most important factor in the growth of moulds. levels higher than 12 percent, warm temperaIndeed, microbial spoilage of food and feeds tures, the presence of oxygen, and prolonged occurs at different levels of moisture and the storage time. water activity (aw) concept describes the water Many moulds are toxigenic and produce available for microbial growth. mycotoxins, a secondary metabolite created by Most feed mills optimise or maximise moismoulds that is toxic to organisms other than the ture levels during feed production to commould itself. The growth of moulds and producpensate for losses that occur during grinding, tion of mycotoxins by these moulds in feed pelleting and cooling processes. Moreover, a ingredients can cause significant ecosufficient moisture level reduces the nomic losses. They consume valuable energy usage during the pelleting feed nutrients such as vitamins and process and results in better pellet amino acids and they convert energy quality. The drawback of increasing into water and CO2 and can cause moisture levels is that increasing levels of free water creates ideal conditemperature increase as a result of tions for rapid mould growth and the their carbohydrate metabolism (see development of mycotoxins. Moulds below) and yeast grow at aw > 0.75 and aw > C6H12O6 + 6 O2 => 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Heat 0.85 respectively. Products that protect feeds against Mould growth depletes the nutrimould growth and at the same time ent density and affects feed palatabillower the aw are based on calcium ity and consequently decreases feed intake. Moulds cause lipid oxidation or sodium propionate. Propionic acid and pigment deterioration and are is reacted with calcium or sodium to detrimental to animal health, performproduce a salt with high propionic acid ance and reproduction. The most level, 76-78 percent depending on Fig 1: Assessing the activity of Kemira Mould Control frequently found mycotoxins are aflathe salt form. The acid is completely SP1 (calcium propionate) using a CO2 test on mash toxins and ochratoxin produced by buffered, has a good solubility, is safe feed. (Kemira ChemSolutions, Tiel, The Netherlands). Aspergillus, the latter are also produced to use and easy to handle. Their by Penicillium and zearalenone and efficiency in shelf life extension when trichothecenes produced by Fusarium used in feeds is dose related and can moulds. be easily demonstrated by an in vitro accelerated method, increasing moisture content and storage temperature, Toxin binders vs. organic by measuring the CO2 production acids over time. An efficient preservative Animal feed is susceptible to mould effect is obtained up to the moment growth. The microbiological quality of that CO2 production starts to increase feed is a comparatively unexplored area but is receiving more attention (Figure 1). due to the recognition of mycotoxins Fig 2: Aspergillus niger growth inhibition efficacies as a widespread economic threat. Grain preservation of organic acids on ground whole wheat grains. The use of toxin binders in feed is Animal feeds generally contain
18 | may - June 2012 Grain

a widespread application, however, this is not an efficient way to tackle the problem as they damage the nutritional quality of feeds. These toxin binders, which usually contain different types of clay minerals, are not that efficient and may even compromise nutrient digestibility. Moreover, mycotoxin contaminated feeds can impair the animals’ health and productivity due to loss of appetite, feed refusal, allergic reactions, reproductive failure, suppression of the immune system and even mortality. Contamination by moulds and consequently, the production of mycotoxins, can be greatly reduced by using organic acids as inhibitors. Organic acids effectively inhibit the growth of moulds, yeast and bacteria in different types of feedstuffs and prevent recontamination after production of the compound feed. This extends

shelf life, maintains nutritional value, and prevents formation of mycotoxins.

Mould and moisture

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Table 1: Mould inhibiting and killing-off effect of Propionic acid (Kemira Mould Control LP1) and formic – propionic (Kemira Mould Control LF1) buffered products in highly challenged conditions (Wessling 2011)

Name % Mould cfu/g 3.5∙104 1.0∙103 8.5∙102 2.2∙105 2.0∙104 1.0∙102 <50

Positive control: ASPERGILLUS inoculated Kemira Mould Control LP1 nc Kemira Mould Control LF1 Kemira Mould Control LP1nc Kemira Mould Control LF1 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4

Positive control: FUSARIUM inoculated

Negative control

mould spores which originate from raw materials used. The three genera of moulds - Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium cause most cases of mycotoxin contamination in many grains and their byproducts and in vegetable proteins. Their optimal growth is mostly influenced by temperature and this determines their global presence. Aspergillus and Penicillium species will grow better in warmer-tropical climates whereas Fusarium moulds prefer cooler temperate climates. Moulds are obligate aerobe and their proliferation can thus be controlled by oxygen free storage, such as silage. They consume carbohydrates and provoke fat hydrolysis leading to nutritionally low quality grains. Organic acids
Table 2: Mould counts in freshly harvest rolled wheat after three weeks storage with and without treatment (Aberystwyth University) Treatment Mould count (cfu/g)

of propionic acid to overcome the odour and corrosion problems. RESULTS To enter into the mould cell, the Mould cfu/g Mould cfu/g acids have to pass a double barrier, the cell membrane and 4.7∙105 2.0∙107 the outer cell wall of <50 <50 these moulds. Inside <50 <50 the moulds the organic acids dissoci3.6∙105 6.4∙106 ate decreasing the 1.0∙102 <50 intracellular pH and <50 <50 compromising the <50 <50 cell metabolism. The three-dimensional structure and the lipophilic character of propionic acid seems to play an important role for the acids to pass through this double barrier. Kemira has developed several mould control products containing appropriately buffered acids avoiding the typical drawbacks of straight acids. The organic acids in the liquid Kemira Mould Control product range are buffered with ammonium or sodium, ensuring reduced corrosivity and volatility and a long lasting preservation effect. Ammonium buffering has the advantage of delivering a proton H+ supporting a more effective mould inhibitory effect. The inclusion of a lipophilic compound assures a better surface contact with grains and an easier penetration into meals and feeds. It will also improve the water binding capacity of feed materials and lower the water activity of feeds. This extends the shelf life, maintains the nutritional quality, and prevents the formation of mycotoxins in feeds and feedstuffs.

Kemira Mould Control LP1 nc Kemira Mould Control LF1 Untreated

227 40 >1,500,000

Formic acid based mould inhibitor
Traditionally propionic acid is used against mould and mycotoxin formation. The relative shelf life depends to a great extent on the propionic acid content. Indeed, the lowest survival rates for Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus niger were achieved with the highest actual propionic acid contribution, irrespective of the type of mould inhibitors tested. As the leading global producer of formic acid-based products for the animal feed industry, Kemira has developed a new liquid mould inhibitor for grain preservation based on formic and propionic acid with an excellent ammoniumsodium buffering system to minimise volatility and corrosivity and ensuring proper handling properties. It is activated by lipophilic compounds. Formic acid does not have this lipophilic characteristic but it contains the highest antimicrobial properties as this is the smallest molecule of all the organic acids and has a > 60 percent higher number of active organic radicals per kilogram of pure substance. The efficacy of such a novel ammoniumsodium buffered formic acid based product (Kemira Mould Control LF1) on reduction of Aspergillus niger in grinded whole wheat grains was assessed in a laboratory study done in the Kemira R&D center in Espoo-

are known in the feed industry as an effective and affordable tool to control mould growth in grains and their byproducts during transport and storage. Anaerobic preservation of grains usually applies when moisture is very high, from 25 – 45 percent. Grains are crimped before ensiling with formic acid based products. Aerobic preservation is usually done with whole grains with moisture content between 15 – 25 percent. Typically, blends of different acids or acids with other active compounds are used, with propionic acid being the principle active component. The level of propionic acid needed under local conditions depends on kernel quality, initial mould counts, storage conditions and time.

Straight vs. buffered acids
The mechanism of inhibition of growth of moulds by organic acids is generally not considered a pH phenomenon. It is the propionate ion or radical (CH3CH3CO0-) that is the active mould inhibiting ingredient in propionic acid, so attempts have been made to use salts
20 | may - June 2012

Finland and compared to ammonium buffered propionic acid (Kemira Mould Control LP1 NC). Figure 2 shows that the initial inoculation with Aspergillus niger in grains without preservatives resulted in significant growth during the first week. Both Kemira Mould Control LP1 NC and Kemira Mould Control LF1 at 0.2 w/w-%, inhibited growth of Aspergillus niger in grinded whole wheat grains over a 2 weeks period and total kill off was obtained with both products at 0.4 w/w-%. The same laboratory tests have been repeated in Wessling Laboratories. Also here the inclusion of 0.4 percent with both products showed to be efficient in killing off both types of moulds during a two weeks incubation period. The Fusarium moulds seemed somewhat more sensitive to the formic acid based mould inhibitor with total kill off at seven days already (Table 1). The efficacy of Kemira Mould Control LF1 was further assessed in a simulated field trial at Wageningen UR, The Netherlands. The trial measured mould and temperature development of fresh harvested grains during a four month storage period at ambient temperature and results were compared to Kemira Mould Control LP1nc. The treatment with the formic acid based Kemira Mould Control LF1 at 0.7 percent showed the biggest effect in preventing the temperature to increase. It was significantly (P<0.05) lower than both the positive control (propionic acid based) and negative control. Moreover, results showed that Kemira Mould Control LF1 at 0.4 percent is as effective in inhibiting mould growth and preventing temperature increase in freshly harvested grains with high moisture content (17.6%) as the propionic acid based Kemira Mould Control LP1nc. Mould growth was reduced from 5 log platable fungal colonies per gram in the non-treated grains down to 1.34 log/gram and 1.15 log/gram respectively. This was also confirmed in a field trial in UK, monitored by Aberystwyth University in which freshly harvested wheat with a moisture content of 17.9 percent was rolled and treated with different dosages of the ammonium-sodium buffered formic-propionic acid based product or with the ammonium buffered propionic acid only and stored for eight months in 10 ton bins. At nine litres per ton of grains, both products allowed easy storage without any temperature increase in the bins during the eight months. Initial mould counts at three weeks showed both products to be effective, compared to an untreated sample. This makes Kemira Mould Control LF1, a formic acid based blend with a novel ammonium – sodium buffering and activated by lipophilic compounds, an interesting alternative to the traditional propionic acid based products, assuring the fast killing of any mould that appears on grains and assuring a save and long preservation. More

Kemira ChemSolutions b.v.

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May - June 2012


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may - June 2012 | 3

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