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1

Logical Foundations of Geometry

Prof. P. C. Joseph
Revised and Edited by

Prof. Sebastian Vattamattam

Cover designed by

K. R. Suresh

ii

Copyright

2011 Ms. Rosemary M. George

All rights reserved

Acknowledgement Mrs. Rosamma Joseph

Prof. P. C. Joseph(1909 - 1973)

Professor P. C. Joseph was born on 18 February 1909. His school education was in St. Berchmans English School, and he passed Intermediate from St. Berchmans College, Changanassery. In 1930 he took B. A. (Hons) in Mathematics from Maharajas College of Science, Trivandrum. Then he joined the Mathematics Department of St. Berchmans College, where he continued teaching for sixteen years. During this period, he took M. A. (Hons) in Mathematics from Madras University. In 1946 Prof. Joseph left Kerala to join St. Philominas Science College, Mysore. There he worked for four years as Assistant Professor and Head of the Department of Mathematics. In 1950 he returned to Kerala and joined St. Thomas College, Palai as the rst Professor and Head of the Department of Mathematics. He continued in this position for two decades until his retirement in 1970. Throughout his teaching career, Prof. Joseph was immersed in exploring new vistas of knowledge. In 1961 he went to Calcutta to attend a Summer Course (Advanced) in Statistics, at Indian Statistical Institute. One of his research papers was published in the prestigious journal, American Mathematical Monthly.1 Prof. Joseph was one of the founding members of Kerala Mathematical Association. Though Mathematics was very close lo his heart, Prof. Joseph had an unusual fascination for learning languages. Let me quote Rev. Fr. Thomas William, former principal of St Berchmans College, Mr. P. C. Joseph has impressed me as a man of versatile talents. He is a linguist of the rst order and knows Malayalam,
1 A Generalization of Hjemslevs Theorem, American Mathematical Monthly, Vol.74, No.5, May 1967

iv Kannada, English, French, German, Sanskrit, and Hindi. In the last one, he has taken the Rashtra-Bhasha-Visarad Degree. He is a good speaker in Malayalam and English. Besides the various branches of Mathematics, he has acquired prociency also in Politics and Economics. All this intellectual achievement has for its background a very unassuming personality. Mr. P. C. Joseph is a very simple outspoken gentleman.2

2 Extract

from a letter dated 24 March 1948

Preface

Professor P. C. Joseph was my Guru. I was in a batch of about sixteen students he taught in the last four years of his career. His only daughter, Rosemary, too was one among us. Our beloved Professor died on 21 December 1973, leaving behind a couple of unpublished manuscripts. They were handed over to me by his wife, Mrs. Rosamma Joseph. This book is the edited and completed version of one of those manuscripts. This book introduces all the fundamental principles of Euclidean Geometry, at the school level, in a comprehensive, logical way. Working to bring out this book, is my gurupooja.

Sebastian Vattamattam

vi

viii Glossary

/ d(A, B) or dist AB AB or disp AB |x| < > seg AB ray AB A mA st = or if f = ar ABC R AB f :AB G(f ) or or p or p

subset of intersection belongs to does not belong to distance between A and B displacement from A to B absolute value of x less than greater than line segment AB ray AB union triangle angle A measure of angle A straight angle congruent to if and only if corresponds to not equal to parallel to perpendicular to similar to area of ABC set of real numbers Cartesian product of A and B empty set function f from A to B graph of f implies implies and is implied by not p equivalent to and or

Contents
1 Points and Lines 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Elements of Set Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points and Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incidence Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance and Ruler Axiom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rays or Half-lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 3 5 8 11 13 15 15 17 20 27 28 29 29 30 31 39 41 41

2 Convexity, Half-planes and Angles 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Convex Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Protractor Axiom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pencils and Quadrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Congruent Figures 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introducing Congruence Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congruence of Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Triangles and Parallel Lines 4.1 Exterior Angle Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x 4.2 4.3 4.4

CONTENTS Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44 54 54 57 57 62 64 70 73 73 82 91 93 93 93

5 Symmetric Figures and Circles 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Euclids Ratio Theorem. 6.1 6.2 6.3 Harmonic Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Euclids Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Similar Triangles 7.1 7.2 7.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Similarity of Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 103

8 Chords and Secants of a Circle 8.1 8.2 8.3

Angles Subtended by Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Intersecting Chords of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 113

9 Geometric Constructions 9.1 9.2 9.3

Construction of the Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Homothetic Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 125

10 Collinearity and Concurrency

10.1 Concurrency Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 10.2 Collinearity Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

CONTENTS 11 Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

xi 135

11.1 Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 11.2 Locus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 11.3 Trigonometric Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 11.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

12 Mathematical Logic 12.1 Logical Statements

12.2 Connectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 12.3 Relations Between the Connectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 12.4 Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 12.6 Requirements for a Valid Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 12.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

xii

CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Points and Lines


1.1 Elements of Set Theory

In Geometry we deal with entities like lines, triangles, and circles each of which is a set of points. A dot is a model of a point, which has no concrete existence. In fact a point cannot be dened. We can think of a set as a collection of objects. But no formal denition can be given to a set.1 Such terms that we accept without formal denition, are called primitive terms. We shall start with examples of sets. Example 1.1.1 A = {a, b, c} is the set of elements a, b, c. For a is an element of A we write a A. x A means x is not an element of A. / Denition 1.1.1 Empty Set: A set with no element is called an empty set, denoted by . A set with only one element is called a singleton set. Denition 1.1.2 Subset: If every element of a set P is an element of a set Q, then we say, P is a subset of Q and write P Q. In example 1.1.1, B = {a, b} is a subset of A.
1 A set, suppose, can be dened. Then, can a set be its own element ? Whatever be your answer, let S denote the set of sets none of which is an element of itself. Now, is the set S an element of itself or not ? Whether you answer yes or no, you will reach a contradiction. This is what is called Russells Paradox, and it shows the impossibility of dening a set. There is a similar paradox, which is more popular: In a town, there is a barber who shaves all those, and only those, who do not shave themselves. Now the question is, Does the barber shave himself or not ? Try to answer this question.

Points and Lines

Denition 1.1.3 Union and Intersection: If A, B are two sets, then the set of elements in A or B or in both, is called the union of A an B, denoted by A B. The set of elements in both A an B is called the intersection of A an B, denoted by A B. Example 1.1.2 If A = {a, b, c} and B = {b, c, d, e}, then A {a, b, c, d, e} and A B = {b, c} See the gure 1.1, called Venn diagram, representing A B and A B =

B.

Figure 1.1: Union and Intersection

Denition 1.1.4 Disjoint Sets: Two sets A and B are disjoint if they contain no common element, i.e. if A B = Denition 1.1.5 Partition of a Set: Suppose a set X is the union of a collection of mutually disjoint non-empty subsets of itself. Then the collection of subsets is called a partition of X. Example 1.1.3 If X = {a, b, c}, then the collection {{a, b}, {c}} of its subsets is a partition of X. {{a}, {b}, {c}} is another partition.

1.2

Points and Lines

In this chapter we present some axioms, denitions, and theorems on points and lines. It is impossible to dene every term using only previously dened terms. Terms which are undened are called primitive terms.

1.3 Incidence Relations

We intend to prove every proposition.2 But some of the earlier propositions cannot be proved. They are only assumptions accepted without proof. Such assumptions are called axioms. Every proved proposition is called a theorem. The proof of a theorem depends on the axioms, denitions, and previous theorems. We choose set, point, line, plane and distance as our primitive terms. The student will readily accept that a line or a plane is a set of points. Lines and planes are subsets3 of the set of all points, which is called space. A tightly stretched string and a ray of light are models of a line. A sheet of paper spread on a drawing board, the ruler, and the sharp tip of a pencil are models of plane, line, and point respectively. In what follows, the formal statements of some axioms, denitions, and theorems are given. Many of the theorems are stated without proof.

1.3

Incidence Relations

In this section we list the rst group of axioms and a few theorems and denitions. Axiom 1.3.1 Given two distinct points, there is a unique line containing (or joining or passing through) them. In other words, the line, regarded as a set of points, is uniquely determined by two members of the set. This is only a formal statement of our experience. We can draw only one straight line joining two dots on a sheet of paper; there is only one straight path from one place to another; only one beam of light, from a given source A, can illuminate a given object B. Denition 1.3.1 Collinear Points: A set of points is said to be collinear, if there exists a line containing all the points of the set. Axiom 1.3.2 There exist non-collinear points.
2 See 3 See

Defn. 12.1.1 Defn. 1.1.1

Points and Lines

This is an assertion that all the points of space are not in a single line.4 Axiom 1.3.3 Given any three non-collinear points, there exists one and only one plane containing the given points. In other words, a plane, regarded as a set of points, is uniquely determined by three non-collinear points. A table with only three legs can be in equilibrium even if all its legs are of unequal length. This is because the feet of the three legs determine a plane. But a four-legged table can be in equilibrium only if all the legs are of equal length. In other words, the foot of each leg should be in the plane determined by those of the other three legs. Axiom 1.3.4 If two distinct points are in a plane, then the line containing these points is also in the same plane. Denition 1.3.2 Coplanar Points: A set of points is said to be coplanar if there exists a plane containing all the points of the set. Axiom 1.3.5 There exist non-coplanar points. This means that all the points of space are not in a single plane. Axiom 1.3.6 If two distinct planes intersect, then their intersection is a line. If walls are taken as models of planes, we observe that two adjacent walls of a room meet along a line. The following are some theorems that follow from the above axioms. Theorem 1.3.1 Two distinct lines do not intersect in more than one point. That is, considering two lines as sets of points, their intersection will be either an empty set or a singleton set.5
4 A line, being a set of points, it is only natural to say that a point is in a line. But we are used to say that a point is on a line. 5 See denitions 1.1.3 and 1.1.1

1.4 Distance and Ruler Axiom

Theorem 1.3.2 Given a line and a plane, only one of the following is possible: 1. The line lies in the plane. 2. The line and the plane intersect at a single point. 3. The line and the plane have no point in common. Mathematical statements can be made more precise by using symbols. It is necessary that students get acquainted with the symbolic language of Mathematics. With this in mind, we restate the above theorem using symbols.6 Restatement. Given a line l and a plane P, only one of the following is possible: 1. l P. 2. l 3. l P is a singleton set. P = .

Theorem 1.3.3 Given a line and a point not on the line, there is exactly one plane containing both the line and the point. Restatement. Given a line l and a point A l, there is exactly one / plane P such that l P and A P. 7

1.4

Distance and Ruler Axiom

A positive number called distance is associated with every pair of points in space. This is stated as the next axiom. Axiom 1.4.1 To every pair of points P, Q in space, there corresponds exactly one non-negative number, denoted by dist P Q or d(P, Q) such that 1. dist P Q > 0 if P and Q are distinct 2. dist P Q = dist QP , and 3. dist P Q = 0 i P and Q are the same. [dist P Q is the distance between the points P and Q] We measure distance between two points by means of a scale or graduated
6 Such 7 For

restatements can be skipped without any loss of continuity. the meaning of see Defn. 1.1.1 /

Points and Lines

straight edge. The essentials of a scale are a straight edge and marks along the edge with numbers denoting the marks such that for any two marks A, B with numbers a, b, dist AB = |b a|. The symbol |x| denotes the absolute value of x, dened by the rule: x if x 0, |x| = x if x < 0 Thus for marks A and B on the scale denoted by the numbers 5 and 1 respectively, dist AB = |1 5| = 4. Although we can use only scales of nite length, we can think of scales of innite lengths also. We often measure distances along a line from a chosen point O in either of two opposite directions. To distinguish between the two directions we call one of them the positive direction and the other the negative direction. We sum up our experience of measurement and our idea of a scale of innite length, in the axiom given below. Axiom 1.4.2 Birkho s Ruler Axiom8 Any given line, regarded as a set of points, can be placed in one-one correspondence9 with the set of real numbers such that 1. to every point in the line, there corresponds exactly one real number, 2. to every real number there corresponds exactly one point on the line, 3. a given point O on the line corresponds to 0, 4. another given point A corresponds to a positive number, and 5. the distance between any two points is the absolute value of the dierence of the corresponding numbers. Denition 1.4.1 Coordinate System: The correspondence described in the above axiom 1.4.2 is a one-one correspondence and it is called a coordinate system for the line. The number that corresponds to a point may be called its coordinate.

8 Garrett 9 See

Birkho (1911-1996), American mathematician. denition 3.1.4

1.4 Distance and Ruler Axiom

The point O with coordinate 0, in a coordinate system, is called the origin. The coordinate x of a point P is also called the directed distance or displacement of P from O, abbreviated as disp OP or OP .10 Denition 1.4.2 Displacement: The directed distance of a point B from a point A is called displacement AB, denoted disp AB. disp AB = disp OB disp OA = OB OA If a and b are the coordinates of the points A and B respectively, then, disp AB = b a Theorem 1.4.1 If A, B, C are three collinear points, then, disp AB = disp AC + disp CB Proof Let O be the origin of a coordinate system for the line containing the given points. disp AC disp CB = disp OC disp OA = disp OB disp OC (1.1) (1.2)

Adding (1.1) and (1.2) we get disp AC + disp CB = disp OB disp OA = disp AB Note. dispAP = dispP A, for x a = (a x) Example 1.4.1 We shall suppose that gure 1.2 satises the Ruler Axiom 1.4.2. Then, dist OP disp OP dist AB = = = = = = = disp AB
10 Note

|x 0| |x| x0 x | 2 2.5| | 4.5| 4.5 2 2.5 4.5

= =

for teachers: The directed line segment OP is the position vector of P in the one-dimensional vector space with O as the origin. Also OP = x, the coordinate of P. The sign of x determines the direction of the vector OP .

Points and Lines

Figure 1.2: Distance and Displacement

1.5

Choosing a Coordinate System

Any number of coordinate systems can be chosen for a given line. But there is a simple relation between any two of them.

Theorem 1.5.1 Any two coordinate systems for a line are connected by a relation of the form x = x a, where a is a given number, and x, x are the coordinates of the same point in the two systems.

Restatement Let O and O be the origins of two coordinate systems where the coordinate of O in the rst system is a. If P is a point on the line having the coordinate x in the rst system, then its coordinate x in the second system is either x + a or x a. Proof [Figure 1.3] Let b and x be the coordinates of O and P respec-

Figure 1.3: Two Coordinate Systems

1.5 Choosing a Coordinate System tively, in the second system with origin O . Then, disp OO disp OP disp O O disp O P x = a = x = b = x = disp OP = disp O P disp O O = x b disp OO disp O O dist OO = a, = b = |a| = dist O O = |b| Therefore, b = a From (1.3) and (1.4), we get x = x+b = xa

(1.3)

(1.4)

Denition 1.5.1 Betweenness: A point B is said to be between the points A and C if A, B, C are distinct collinear points and dist AB + dist BC = dist AC We have two obvious inferences from the Ruler Axiom 1.4.2 and the denition of betweenness. Theorem 1.5.2 Let A, B, C be three collinear points with coordinates a, b, c, respectively. Then B is between A and C i a < b < c or a > b > c.
11

Theorem 1.5.3 Given three distinct points on a line, one and only one is between the other two. Theorem 1.5.4 Let two points A and B be on a line, and P be any other point on the same line. Then one and only one of the following statements is true:
11 For

the meaning of i see denition 12.1.2

10 1. P is between A and B 2. B is between A and P 3. A is between B and P

Points and Lines

If B is between A and P we may say P is beyond B, and if A is between B and P , P is beyond A. Denition 1.5.2 Open Segment: The set of points between A and B is called the open segment AB.12 The set formed by adjoining A and B to this open segment is called the closed segment AB. The distance between A and B is called the length of the segment AB, whether it is closed or open. A point M is called a midpoint of AB if M is between A and B and distAM = distM B. Theorem 1.5.5 Every segment has exactly one midpoint. Proof Let a and b be the coordinates of A and B, respectively, referred to some coordinate system. Let M be the point whose coordinate is a+b . 2 Then, a < a+b < b or a > a+b > b. Therefore M is between A and B. 2 2 Further, dist AM = = dist M B = = Hence M is a midpoint of AB. Next, let us show that the point M is unique. If N is a midpoint having the coordinate n, then, a < n < b or a > n > b and dist AN |n a| = dist N B = |b n| a+b a 2 ba 2 a+b b 2 ba 2

12 The set of real numbers, corresponding to this set of points, is called an open interval, denoted by (a, b) where a, b are the coordinates of A, B.

1.6 Rays or Half-lines This means that n a = b n or n a = n b But, n a = n b since a = b Therefore, na n = bn a+b . = 2
a+b 2 ,

11

(1.5) (1.6) by the Ruler Axiom 1.4.2.

There is only one point with coordinate Hence there is only one midpoint.

1.6

Rays or Half-lines

A point A on a line divides the line excluding the point A into two disjoint subsets R and L such that 1. if P , Q are two points in R or P, Q are points in L, then A is not between P and Q, and 2. if P is in R and Q is in L, then A is between P and Q.

Figure 1.4: Half-lines

R can be regarded as the set of points whose coordinates are greater than the coordinate of A, and L the set of points whose coordinates are less than the coordinate of A. Denition 1.6.1 Ray or Half-line: The two subsets R and L of the line, given above, are called rays or half-lines. A is called their origin or initial point. Each of the two rays in a line having the same origin is said to be the opposite of the other. Let A and B be two points on a line. Then B belongs to one of the two rays into which the line is divided by A. That ray, containing B, is

12

Points and Lines

called ray AB. The opposite ray may be called BA-produced. It may also be described as the set of points beyond A on line AB. By a geometric gure we mean a set of points. A pair of points determines six geometric gures: 1. lineAB 2. segAB, either open or closed 3. rayAB 4. rayBA 5. ABproduced 6. BAproduced. Figure (5) is the ray opposite to gure (4), and gure (6) is opposite to gure (3). Theorem 1.6.1 Given two points A, B and a ray with origin C, there exists exactly one point D on the ray such that dist CD = dist AB. [Figure 1.5]

Figure 1.5: Line Segment and Ray This is an inference from the Ruler Axiom 1.4.2 and the axiom 1.4.1 of distance.

1.7 Exercises

13

1.7

Exercises

1. Given that the coordinates of P and Q are 5 and 7 respectively, nd (a) dist P Q (b) dispP Q (c) dispQP (d) the coordinate of the midpoint of P Q 2. P and Q are two points on the lines AB, CD respectively such that dist AP = dist CQ and dist P B = dist QD. Can you assert that dist AB = dist CD ? Why ?

14

Points and Lines

Chapter 2

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles


2.1 Convex Set

We intuitively know that the interior of a triangle or an angle is convex.1 In this section we give a formal denition of the concept of the interior of geometric gures, such as a segment, an angle and a triangle. We start with the interior of a line segment and what is called half-planes. Denition 2.1.1 Interior of a Segment: The open segment AB 2 is called the interior of seg AB. If seg AB itself is open, its interior is seg AB itself. A gure which has no indent or notch in its boundary is said to be convex in common parlance. Many geometric gures, like triangle, circle and square, are regarded as convex. The truth of it depends on the way we dene convexity. A formal denition of convexity is given below. Denition 2.1.2 Convex Set: A set of points S is said to be convex if for any two points P and Q in S, seg P Q lies in S. In symbols, S is a convex set if for any two points P, Q S, seg P Q S. Some examples of convex sets are segment, ray, an angle and its interior, and a triangle and its interior. We are yet to dene interior. For its
1 See 2 See

denitions 2.2.2 and 2.2.1 denition 1.5.2

16 denition we require an axiom.

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

Axiom 2.1.1 Axiom of half-planes: A line l in a plane divides the plane, excluding the line, into two disjoint subsets such that 1. each subset is a convex set, and 2. if P is in one of the subsets and Q in the other, then seg P Q intersects the line l. Denition 2.1.3 Half-plane: The two subsets of the plane, described in the axiom 2.1.1, are called half-planes. The line l is called the boundary of each of the half-planes. The half-planes are said to be on opposite sides of their common boundary. The following theorem is an immediate inference from the above axiom. Theorem 2.1.1 If three points A, B, C and a line l are in a plane such that the line does not pass through any of the three points, then either l intersects two of the three segments seg AB, seg BC, seg CA or it does not intersect any of them. [Figure 2.1] For, either all the three points A, B, C are in one of the half-

Figure 2.1: Points in Half-planes planes bounded by l, or two of them are in one of the half-planes and the third in the other. Theorem 2.1.2 Intersection of two convex sets is convex.

2.2 Geometric Figures

17

Figure 2.2: Intersection of Convex Sets

Proof [Figure 2.2] Let S1 and S2 be two convex sets and P and Q be any two points in their intersection S1 S2 . By denition 1.1.3 of intersection, P, Q Since S1 is convex, seg P Q Similarly,seg P Q By (2.1) and (2.2), seg P Q By denition 2.1.2, S1 S1 S2 (2.3) S1 S1 S2 (2.1) (2.2)

S2 is a convex set.

2.2

Geometric Figures

Just as a set may be regarded as the union of two or more sets,3 a gure may be regarded as the union of two or more gures called sub-gures. Now, we give formal denitions of some of the familiar geometric gures. Denition 2.2.1 Angle: A gure formed by the union of two rays, with a common origin, is called an angle. The common origin is called the vertex and the rays are called the sides of the angle. If the rays are opposite to each other, then the angle is called a straight angle. If the rays are the same, the angle is called a null angle.
3 See

Defn. 1.1.5

18

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

Notation. AOB denotes the angle whose vertex is O and sides are ray OA, and ray OB. In symbols, AOB = ray OA ray OB

Denition 2.2.2 Triangle: A gure formed by the union of three noncollinear points and the segments joining them is called a triangle. The three points are called the vertices and the segments are called the sides of the triangle. If A, B, C are the vertices, CAB, ABC, and BCA are called the angles of the triangle which are briey denoted by A, B, C, respectively. In symbols, ABC = seg AB seg BC seg CA

Mathematicians insist on a precise denition of the interior of a geometric gure like the angle or triangle, though a layman may not see any need for that. We shall dene the interior of an angle in terms of half-planes. Denition 2.2.3 Interior of an Angle: Let AOB be an angle which is not straight nor null. The point B is in one of the half-planes bounded by line OA and A is in one of the half-planes bounded by line OB. Let S1 denote the half-plane in which B lies and S2 denote the half-plane in which A lies. The intersection S1 S2 is called the interior of AOB.[Figure 2.3]

Figure 2.3: Interior of an Angle

2.2 Geometric Figures

19

Since half-planes are convex sets, the interior of an angle is a convex set. Any angle is the boundary of its interior. If P and Q are two points in the interior of an angle, then seg P Q, ray OP and ray OQ lie in the interior. Denition 2.2.4 Interior of a Triangle: The interior of a triangle is the intersection of the interiors of its angles. A triangle is the boundary of its interior. Let A, B, C, D be four points in a plane, no three of which are collinear. The four points can be connected by six segments as in gure 2.4. In (b)

Figure 2.4: Segments Joining Four Points

of these gures no two of the six segments intersect, except at an end point. In (a) two segments AC, BD intersect. Out of the six segments we can always select four such that they form a closed chain of segments without crossing one another. Denition 2.2.5 Quadrilateral: Let A, B, C, D be four points such that 1. no three of these are collinear, and 2. no two of the four segments AB, BC, CD, DA intersect, except at an end point. Then the union of the four segments is called quadrilateral ABCD. In gure 2.5, gures (a) and (b) are quadrilaterals. Figure (c) is not a quadrilateral.

20

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

Figure 2.5: Quadrilaterals

A Note on the Convexity of a Quadrilateral According to our denition 2.2.5 of a quadrilateral as the union of four segments, no quadrilateral can be convex. But sometimes it is called convex if its interior is convex. In this sense, in Figure 2.5, the quadrilateral (a) is convex and (b) is not. Problem 2.2.1 Five points in a plane can be connected by ten segments joining them in pairs [Figure 2.6]. Can you choose ve points in a plane such that no two of the ten segments joining them intersect, except at an end Point ?

2.3

The Protractor Axiom

We have already dened an angle and its interior. Let AOB be an angle which is not a straight angle nor a null angle. Let P be any Point in the open segment AB. [Figure 2.7] Then ray OP is in the interior of AOB. On the other hand, if Q is any point on AB-produced or on BAproduced, then ray OQ is in the exterior of the angle. Also, if ray OC is in the interior of AOB then it will intersect the open seg AB. Angles are usually measured in degrees with a protractor. The basic axioms regarding the measurement of angles are given below.

2.3 The Protractor Axiom

21

Figure 2.6: Pentagon

Figure 2.7: Angles and Rays

Axiom 2.3.1 Protractor Axiom To every angle AOB, there corresponds a nonnegative number, called the measure of the angle, denoted by mAOB such that 1. mAOB > 0, if AOB is not null, 2. mAOB = 0 i AOB is null, and 3. mAOB = mBOA. Axiom 2.3.2 All straight angles have the same measure. Notation: Measure of a straight angle is denoted by m st.

22

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

Axiom 2.3.3 If ray OC is in the interior of AOB, then mAOC + mCOB = mAOB.[Figure 2.8]

Figure 2.8: Sum of Angles

Axiom 2.3.4 If AOA is a straight angle, and ray OB is any ray, then mAOB + mBOA = mAOA = m st, which is a constant by axiom 2.3.2.[Figure 2.9]

Figure 2.9: Straight Angle

Axiom 2.3.5 Given AOB and a line O A , there exists one and only one ray O B , in a given half-plane of which the line O A is the boundary, such that mAOB = A O B .[Figure 2.10]

2.3 The Protractor Axiom

23

Figure 2.10: Equal Angles

We infer from the above axioms that the measure of an angle is never greater than the measure of a straight angle.4 We can choose the measure of a straight angle as a convenient number, which, of course, xes the unit of angle. Two dierent measure numbers of a straight angle are in common use. They are 180 and ( = 3.1416, correct to 4 decimals). The corresponding units of angle are called the degree, and the radian. Thus m st = 180 degrees = radians . Notation. 180 degrees is denoted by 180o and radians by c . Radian measure is called circular measure also. Denition 2.3.1 Supplementary Angles: If ray OA and ray OA are opposite rays and ray OB is any other ray, then AOB and BOA are said to form a linear (supplementary) pair.[Figure 2.11] If the measures of two angles are equal, the angles are said to be equal. Hereafter, it is in this sense that we make statements like A = B. If the sum of two angles is equal to the measure of a straight angle, then the angles are said to be supplementary and each is called a supplement of the other. Denition 2.3.2 Right angle: If the angles of a linear pair are equal,
4 This assertion is true only in the present context. An extended denition of angle measure is given in the next section

24

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

each is called a right angle. An angle less than a right angle is called acute, and an angle greater than a right angle is called obtuse. If the sum of two angles is equal to a right angle, the angles are said to be complementary. Two angles are said to be adjacent if they have the same vertex and a common side and if the remaining sides of the angles are in opposite halfplanes bounded by the common side. In gure 2.8, AOC and BOC are adjacent. Two angles are said to be vertically opposite, if the sides of one are the rays opposite to the sides of the other. In gure 2.11, AOB and DOC are vertically opposite. Theorem 2.3.1 Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure.

Figure 2.11: Vertically Opposite Angles

Given. In gure 2.11, AOB and DOC are vertically opposite. Conclusion. mAOB = mDOC Proof [Figure 2.11] AOB and BOD form a linear pair, and so mAOB + mBOD Similarly,mDOC + mBOD The conclusion follows from (2.4) and (2.5). Denition 2.3.3 Perpendicular Lines: Lines AB and P Q meeting at O are perpendicular if AOP is a right angle. If O is the midpoint of seg AB also, then line P Q is called the perpendicular bisector of seg AB. = = 180o 180
o

(2.4) (2.5)

2.3 The Protractor Axiom Types of Angles Let mAOB = o , then AOB is 1. an acute angle if 0 < < 90o 2. a right angle if = 90o 3. an obtuse angle if 90o < < 180o 4. a straight angle if = 180o

25

Theorem 2.3.2 Equality of Line Segments and Angles. Given seg AB and seg CD, there exists just one point E on ray AB such that AE = CD5 Also, 1. AB > CD if E is between A and B 2. AB = CD if E coincides with B 3. AB < CD if E is beyond B [Figure 2.12]

Figure 2.12: Equality of Line Segments

Theorem 2.3.3 Let A, B, C be three collinear points and O be a point not on the line containing them. Then ray OC is between the rays, ray OA and ray OB, i C is between A and B.[Figure 2.13]
5 Here AE stands for dist AE. Hereafter we may stick to this practice when there is no room for confusion

26

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

Figure 2.13: Betweenness of Rays and Points

Example 2.3.1 In Figure 2.14, lines XY and M N intersect at O. If P OY = 90o and a : b = 2 : 3, nd c.

Figure 2.14: Example 2.3.1

Since a : b = 2 : 3, let 1. a = 2x, b = 3x. Since mP OY = 90o , 2. mP OX = 90o [Linear pair]

2.4 Pencils and Quadrants From steps (1) and (2), a+b 5x x a b = = = = = 90o 90o 18o 36o , and 54o

27

Since XOM and XON form a linear pair, b+c = c = = 180o 180o 54o 126o

2.4

Pencils and Quadrants

Consider several angles with the same vertex. Their sides form a set of rays with the same origin. Denition 2.4.1 Pencil at a Point: Let O be a point in a plane P. The set of all the rays in P with O as origin is called the pencil determined by O in P. The point O is called the vertex of the pencil. Any subset of the pencil at O is often referred to as a pencil at O. Denition 2.4.2 Quadrants: Let OX, OY be two perpendicular rays of a pencil and OX , OY be their opposite rays. These four rays divide the plane of the pencil, excluding the four rays, into four subsets known as quadrants. They also divide the pencil at O, excluding the four rays, into four quarter pencils lying in the four quadrants.[Figure 2.15] Let us call ray OX the initial ray of the pencil. Let ray OP be any other ray of the pencil. Then ray OP may be regarded as the terminal position of a ray which started rotating about O from the initial ray ray OX. The rotation may be in one of two opposite directions. The direction of rotation from ray OX to ray OY through the interior of the right angle XOY is said to be positive or anti-clockwise. The opposite direction is said to be negative or clockwise. Usually ray OX is taken as horizontal and directed to the right and ray OY as vertical and directed upward.

28

Convexity, Half-planes and Angles

Figure 2.15: The Four Quadrants

2.5

Exercises

1. Given that AOB and BOC are adjacent angles, prove that mAOB + mBOC = mAOC

Chapter 3

Congruent Figures
3.1 Relations

Denition 3.1.1 Cartesian Product: If A, B are two sets, then the set of ordered pairs 1 (a, b) of elements a A and b B is called the Cartesian Product of A an B, denoted by A B. Example 3.1.1 If A = {a, b, c} and B = {c, d}, then A B = {(a, c), (a, d), (b, c), (b, d), (c, c), (c, d)} Denition 3.1.2 Relation: A subset R of A B is called a relation from A to B. If (a, b) R, we say a relates to b or b is related to a. Denition 3.1.3 Function: The relation R is a function from A to B if every element in A relates to a unique element in B, and we usually write f for R. If (a, b) f, we write b = f (a) and call b the image of a. Function f is one-one(or injective) if distinct elements in A have distinct images. Function f is onto(or surjective) if every element in B is an image of some element in A. Notation. A function f from A to B is written as f : A B. Example 3.1.2 If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25}, then R = {(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9), (4, 16)} is a relation from A to B.
1 When we write {a, b}, the order in which the elements are written is insignicant. But in the ordered pair (a, b), a and b cannot be interchanged.

30

Congruent Figures

In this example, if (x, y) R then you may note that y = x2 and hence the relation can be written as R = {(x, x2 ) : x A}. Since every element in A relates to a single element in B, the relation is a function f , say. Thus f : A B is given by the formula f (x) = x2 , x A. The function f is one-one since no two distinct numbers in A have the same square. It is not onto since 25 B is not the image(or square) of any element in A. Denition 3.1.4 One-one Correspondence or Bijection: A function f : A B is bijective if it is one-one and onto. If there is a bijective function from A to B, we call it a one-one correspondence or bijection between A and B. Example 3.1.3 1. In example 5.1.1 if the element 25 is excluded from the set B, i.e. if B = {1, 4, 9, 16}, then the relation becomes a one-one correspondence between A and B. 2. There is a one-one correspondence between the set of students in your class and the set of roll numbers allotted to them. 3. Birkho s Ruler Axiom establishes a one-one correspondence between the set R of real numbers and the set of points on a line.

3.2

Introducing Congruence Relation

When we say that two gures are congruent, we mean that they have the same shape and the same size, as the gures in 3.1. What do we mean by the same shape and the same size? We assert that 1. two segments are congruent if they have the same length, and 2. two angles are congruent if they have the same measure. But the idea of congruence is not so simple when each gure consists of many simple parts like segments and angles. A natural suggestion is to break up the gures into simple parts and to compare the parts of one with the parts of the other. This brings in the idea of matching up the parts of one with the parts of the other. The parts must agree in number, in kind and in size. This matching up scheme is called a one-one correspondence. [Defn. 3.1.4] In the light of the above discussion, we shall dene congruence for gures consisting of line segments and angles only.

3.3 Congruence of Triangles

31

Figure 3.1: Congruent Figures

Denition 3.2.1 Congruent Figures: Two gures are congruent if there is a one-one correspondence of the parts of the gures such that corresponding parts are congruent. Now let us consider two triangles ABC and DEF . For congruence, there should be a one-one correspondence of the vertices. Such a correspondence induces a correspondence of the angles and the sides of the triangles.

3.3

Congruence of Triangles

Denition 3.3.1 Congruent Triangles: Two triangles ABC and DEF are said to be congruent if there is a one-one correspondence ABC DEF such that AB = DE, BC = EF, CA = F D. and A = D, B = E, C = F . The notation ABC DEF means that the correspondence ABC = DEF is a congruence. Hence the equivalence:2 ABC DEF AB = DE, AC = DF, BC = EF, A = D, B = = E, C = F The six equations on the right of the above equivalence are not independent of each other. The theory of congruence of triangles is a study of
2 For

the meaning of equivalence, see denition 12.1.2

32

Congruent Figures

the modes of dependence of those equations. Now we require an axiom. Axiom 3.3.1 SAS Congruence Axiom A correspondence between two triangles is given. If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to the corresponding parts of the other, then the correspondence is a congruence. Given. ABC DEF and AB = DE, AC = DF, A = D Conclusion. ABC DEF 3 = Theorem 3.3.1 ASA Congruence Theorem. A correspondence between the vertices of two triangles is given. If two angles and the included side of one triangle are equal to the corresponding parts of the other, the correspondence is a congruence. Given. ABC DEF, A = D, B = E, AB = DE Conclusion. ABC DEF = Proof [Figure 3.2] Let P be a point on ray AC such that AP = DF

Consider the correspondence ABP DEF. Since AB = DE, A = D, AP = DF , by SAS Axiom 3.3.1 ABP ABP E In ABC,ABP DEF = = E[Correspondingangles] = B[Given] = ABC (3.2) (3.1)

If AP < AC [Figure 3.2(a)], then ray BP divides internally ABC, and hence ABP < ABC,

a contradiction of (3.1). If AP > AC [Figure 3.2(c)], then ray BC divides internally ABP , and hence ABP
3 SAS

>

ABC,

stands for side-angle-side.

3.3 Congruence of Triangles

33

Figure 3.2: ASA Congruence

again a contradiction of (3.1). Therefore AP P = AC = C (3.3)

The conclusion follows from (3.1) and (3.3). The following theorem is stated without proof. Theorem 3.3.2 AAS Congruence Theorem. A correspondence between the vertices of two triangles is given. If two angles and any side of one triangle are equal to the corresponding parts of the other, the correspondence is a congruence. Theorem 3.3.3 Angles opposite to equal sides of an isosceles triangle are equal. Given. ABC, AB = AC Conclusion. B = C

34

Congruent Figures

Figure 3.3: Angles Opposite to Equal Sides

Proof [Figure 3.3] Let the bisector of A meet BC at D. Consider BAD CAD AB Since ray AD bisects A, BAD = = AC[Given] CAD

Side AD is common. By the SAS theorem 3.3.1, BAD ABD Hence the conclusion. Theorem 3.3.4 Converse of Theorem 3.3.3 The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal. Given. ABC, B = C. Conclusion. AB = AC CAD = = ACD

3.3 Congruence of Triangles Proof [Figure 3.3] Let ADBC. Consider BAD CAD B = C[Given]

35

Since ADBC, BDA = CDA Side AD is common. By the AAS Congruence Theorem 3.3.2, BAD AB = = CAD AC

Example 3.3.1 In Figure 3.4, AD = BC, DAB = CBA. Prove that 1. ABD = BAC 2. BD = AC 3. ABD = BAC.

Figure 3.4: Example 3.3.1

Proof Consider the correspondence ABD BAC AD and DAB AB = BA[Common side] = BC = CBA[Given]

36 By SAS Congruence Axiom 3.3.1, ABD BD ABD = = = BAC

Congruent Figures

AC[Corresponding sides] BAC[Corresponding angles]

Next we state two congruence theorems without proof. Theorem 3.3.5 SSS. Congruence Theorem. A correspondence between two triangles is given. If the corresponding sides are equal, the correspondence is a congruence. Theorem 3.3.6 RHS Congruence Theorem. A correspondence between two right triangles is given. If the hypotenuse and one side of a triangle are equal to the hypotenuse and the corresponding side of the other, the correspondence is a congruence. Congruent gures can be given a general denition as follows: Two gures are congruent if 1. there is a one-one correspondence of the gures regarded as sets of points, and 2. the distance between any two points of the rst gure is equal to the distance between the corresponding points of the second gure. When these conditions are satised, corresponding angles are equal. Theorem 3.3.7 Congruence is an equivalence relation on the set of triangles [Denition 12.1.2]. In symbols, if , 1 , 2 , 3 are triangles then, 1 = , 2. 1 2 2 1 ,, and = = 2 and 2 3 1 3 3. 1 = = = Theorem 3.3.8 Any point on the perpendicular bisector of seg AB is equidistant from A and B. The student is advised to draw the gure. Proof Let M be the midpoint of seg AB and P be any point on the perpendicular bisector of seg AB. Consider the correspondence AM P BM P Since line P M is the perpendicular bisector of seg AB, AM P AM = = BM P BM [Given],

3.3 Congruence of Triangles

37

and P M is the common side. Therefore, by SAS Congruence Axiom 3.3.1, AM P AP BM P = = BP [Corresponding sides]

The converse of this theorem is stated and proved in Chapter 11.[Theorem 11.2.1] Example 3.3.2 ABC and DBC are isosceles, on the same base BC as in Figure 3.5. Segment AD is extended to intersect BC at P . Show that 1. ABD ACD = ACP 2. ABP = 3. ray AP bisects A and D 4. line AP is the perpendicular bisector of seg BC. Solution 1. Consider ABD ACD By hypothesis, AB = AC, BD = CD AD common side. By SSS congruence theorem 3.3.5, ABD 2. Consider ABP ACP AB = AC [Given] AD common side. By (3.4), BAP = CAP By SAS congruence 3.3.1, ABP = ACP (3.5) = ACD (3.4)

3. By (3.4) ray AP bisects A and D 4. By (3.5) BP A and BP = CP Therefore line AP is the perpendicular bisector of seg BC. = = CP A 90o (3.6) (3.7)

38

Congruent Figures

Figure 3.5: Example 3.3.2

Example 3.3.3 Let us consider two congruent gures consisting primarily of four points each. What is the meaning of f ig ABCD f ig P QRS = ? It means that 1. A, B, C, D correspond to P, Q, R, S, respectively and 2. corresponding segments are equal in length, i.e. AB = P Q, AC = P R, AD = P S, etc. As a consequence of the above two conditions, corresponding angles are equal, i.e. ABC = P QR, BDA = QSP etc. If f ig ABCD f ig P QRS, we can infer that = 1. ABC = P QR

3.4 Exercises 2. seg AD seg P S = 3. ACD P RS, = and similar results.

39

If two gures are congruent, corresponding sub-gures are congruent. In particular we choose segments and angles as sub-gures. Correspondence is a fundamental concept in mathematics. Congruence is correspondence with equality of corresponding parts. If a congruence of two gures is given or established, any sub-congruence (as equality of segments, angles) can be written without any further examination of the gures.

3.4

Exercises

Prove the following: 1. If segAB segA B and X is a given point on line AB, there = is one and only one point X on line A B such that f igABX = f igA B X 2. If ABC A B C and X is a point on line AB, there is one = and only one point X on line A B such that (a) f igABX f igA B X and = (b) f igABCX f igA B C X = 3. If two triangles are congruent, their corresponding medians and attitudes are equal.

40

Congruent Figures

Chapter 4

Triangles and Parallel Lines


4.1 Exterior Angle Theorem.

In this section we study a basic theorem which is the source of all inequalities in geometry. It is also a basis for the introduction of parallel lines. Note. Hereafter we may write AB for seg AB, dist AB, disp AB, and lineAB wherever the meaning is obvious from the context. Denition 4.1.1 Exterior Angle: An angle forming a linear pair with an angle of a triangle is called an exterior angle. In gure 4.1, ACD is an exterior angle of ABC.

Theorem 4.1.1 Exterior Angle Theorem. Each exterior angle of a triangle is greater than each of the remote (opposite) interior angles. Restatement Consider ABC. If BC is produced to D, then ACD > A Proof [Figure 4.1] Let E be the midpoint of AC. Then AE = EC

Let F be the point on BE-produced such that BE = EF

42

Triangles and Parallel Lines

Figure 4.1: Exterior Angle

Consider the correspondence AEB CEF. By theorem 2.3.1, AEB By the SAS axiom 3.3.1, = A = AEB CEF ECF (4.1) (4.2) = CEF

Since ray CF lies in the interior of ACD, ECF By (4.2) and (4.3), A < ACD (4.3) < ACD

Note. In Figure 4.1, BF and CF are added to the gure representing the data. This additional part of the gure is called construction. Construction is part of the proof and so there is no need to give a separate heading for construction, as it is sometimes done.

4.1 Exterior Angle Theorem.

43

Corollary 4.1.2 An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of interior remote angles. In gure 4.1, ACD = A + B Corollary 4.1.3 If a triangle has a right angle or an obtuse angle, then the other two angles are acute. Corollary 4.1.4 There cannot be more than one perpendicular to a line from an external point. Theorem 4.1.5 If one side of a triangle is longer than another side, then the angle opposite to the longer side is bigger than the angle opposite to the shorter side. Theorem 4.1.6 Converse of Theorem 4.1.5 If one angle of a triangle is bigger than another angle, then the side opposite to the bigger angle is longer than the side opposite to the smaller angle. The proof of this theorem depends on the exterior angle theorem 4.1.1. Theorem 4.1.7 Triangle Inequality. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. Given. ABC Conclusion. AB + AC > BC

Proof [Figure 4.2] Produce BA to D such that AD = AC ACD, (4.5) (4.6) (4.4)

By the Converse of Theorem 3.3.3, in ADC Then, BCD By Theorem 4.1.5, BD BA + AD BA + AC > > >

= ACD > ACD = BDC, by (4.5)

BC BC BC, by (4.4)

44

Triangles and Parallel Lines

Figure 4.2: Triangle Inequality

4.2

Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom

If we draw two lines on a sheet of paper, they usually meet at a point, provided the paper is big enough. This means that two coplanar lines are often intersecting. Are there non-intersecting coplanar lines? Yes, the lines in a ruled note book, you may say, are non-intersecting. This answer is only suggestive. Lemma 4.2.1 If two coplanar lines are perpendicular to a given line, then they are non-intersecting. Given. Two coplanar lines l and m are perpendicular to a given line P Q at two points A and B.

4.2 Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom Conclusion. Lines l and m are non-intersecting.

45

Figure 4.3: Non-intersecting Lines

Proof [Figure 4.3] Suppose the lines l and m intersect at C. In ABC, exterior angle P AC and the remote interior angle CBA are right angles and therefore equal. This contradicts Theorem 4.1.1. Therefore our supposition is false. i. e. the two lines are non-intersecting. Denition 4.2.1 Parallel Lines: Two lines are said to be parallel, if they are co-planar and do not intersect. Theorem 4.2.2 Given a line and a point not on the line, there exists another line through the given point and parallel to the given line. Proof [Figure 4.4] Let A be the given point and m be the given line. Draw seg AB perpendicular to m. Draw line l perpendicular to AB at

46

Triangles and Parallel Lines

Figure 4.4: Parallel Line Through a Point

A, and lying in the plane of A and m. Then l and m are parallel, as they are both perpendicular to AB. i. e. l is parallel to the given line m through the given point A.[By Lemma 4.2.1] An axiom called Euclids Parallel Axiom or Euclids Fifth Postulate is stated below. Many important theorems in Euclidean geometry cannot be proved without this axiom. Axiom 4.2.1 Euclids Parallel Axiom.1 Through a given point there is at most one line parallel to a given line. Combining this axiom with the theorem proved above, we state the following theorem. Theorem 4.2.3 Given a line and a point not on the line, there is one and only one line through the point and parallel to the line. Denition 4.2.2 Transversal of Lines: Let a line EF cut two given lines AB and CD at two distinct points, as in the gure 4.5. Line EF is called a transversal of lineAB and lineCD. The eight angles in the gure, at the points of intersection, can be classied as outer and inner angles with reference to the lines AB and CD.
1 Euclid of Alexandria (300 BC), a Greek mathematician known as the Father of Geometry.

4.2 Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom

47

Figure 4.5: Transversal

The four angles lying between the lines AB and CD shall be called inner angles, and the remaining four shall be called outer angles. If we count the inner angles in a cyclic order 1 2 3 4 1, then 1, 3 are alternate in the counting, so also are 2, 4. The angles counted alternately are called alternate angles. A pair of alternate angles are non-adjacent inner angles on opposite sides of the transversal. Each inner angle corresponds to an outer angle. A pair of corresponding angles are non-adjacent angles on the same side of the transversal, one being inner and the other outer.

Thus in the gure 1, 3; 2, 4 are pairs of alternate angles: 1, 1 ; 2, 2 ; 3 are pairs of corresponding angles. Axiom 4.2.2 Corresponding Angles Axiom If a transversal cuts two parallel lines, then any two corresponding angles are equal. Theorem 4.2.4 Converse of Axiom 4.2.2 If a transversal cuts two

48

Triangles and Parallel Lines

coplanar lines such that a pair of corresponding angles are equal, then the two lines are parallel. Though in some books this converse is stated as an axiom, here we state and prove it as a theorem.

Figure 4.6: Corresponding Angles

Given. Transversal P S cuts coplanar lines AB and CD at Q and R respectively. P QB = QRD Conclusion. Lines AB and CD are parallel.

Proof [Figure 4.6] Suppose lines AB and CD are not parallel. Let the lines intersect at a point, say T . By the Exterior Angle Theorem 4.1.1 applied to RT Q, P QB = QRD

This contradicts the hypothesis. Therefore, lines AB and CD are parallel.

4.2 Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom

49

Theorem 4.2.5 If a transversal cuts two parallel lines, then any two alternate angles are equal. Given. Lines AB and CD are parallel. Line P S cuts AB and CD at Q and R, respectively. Conclusion. BQR = CRQ, AQR = DRQ

Figure 4.7: Alternate Angles

Proof [Figure 4.7] By Axiom 4.2.2, CRQ By Theorem 2.3.1, BQR From (4.7) and (4.8), BQR Similarly,AQR = = = = AQP AQP CRQ DRQ (4.7) (4.8)

Theorem 4.2.6 Converse of Theorem 4.2.5 If a transversal cuts

50

Triangles and Parallel Lines

two coplanar lines such that two alternate angles are equal, then the two lines are parallel. Given. Line P S cuts AB and CD at Q and R respectively. BQR = CRQ Conclusion. Lines AB and CD are parallel. Proof [Figure 4.7] By hypothesis, BQR By Theorem 2.3.1,BQR Therefore,CRQ = CRQ = AQP = AQP

The conclusion follows from the Converse of Axiom 4.2.2. Note. Another proof, similar to that of Theorem 4.2.4, can also be given to the above theorem. Theorem 4.2.7 The sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. Given. ABC Conclusion. A + B + C = 180o Proof [Figure 4.8] Let line P Q BC, pass through A as in Figure 4.8. Since the transversal lineAB cuts the parallel lines BC and P Q, B Similarly, C Since PQ is a line, P AB + BAC + QAC = 180o = = P AB [Alternate angles] QAC

The conclusion follows from the above three steps. No two sides of a triangle can be parallel. But a quadrilateral can have parallel sides. Dierent types of quadrilaterals are listed below. 1. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its opposite sides are parallel. 2. A parallelogram is a rhombus if all its sides are equal. 3. A parallelogram is a rectangle if all its angles are right angles. 4. A rectangle is a square if all its sides are equal. 5. A quadrilateral is a trapezium if it has a pair of parallel sides.

4.2 Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom

51

Figure 4.8: Sum of Angles of a Triangle

Theorem 4.2.8 A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two congruent triangles. Given.Parallelogram ABCD. Diagonal AC. Conclusion. ABC CDA =

Proof [Figure 4.9] Consider ABC CDA. Since BC AD and lineAC is a transversal, BCA = DAC [Alternate angles] Since AB DC and lineAC is a transversal, (4.10) = CA, Common side(4.11) (4.9)

BAC = DCA [Alternate angles] AC

52

Triangles and Parallel Lines

Figure 4.9: Diagonal of a Parallelogram

The conclusion follows from (2), (3), (4) and ASA Congruence Theorem 3.3.1. The following corollaries can be proved as in the above theorem. Corollary 4.2.9 Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal. Corollary 4.2.10 If opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram. Corollary 4.2.11 Opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal. Corollary 4.2.12 If opposite angles of a quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram. Theorem 4.2.13 If two opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal and parallel, then it is a parallelogram. Theorem 4.2.14 The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

4.2 Parallel Lines and Euclids Axiom

53

Figure 4.10: Diagonals of a Parallelogram

Given.Parallelogram ABCD. The diagonals AC and BD meet at O. Conclusion.AO = CO and BO = DO

Proof [Figure 4.10] Consider the correspondence AOB COD Since AB DC and line AC is a transversal, BAO Similarly, ABO AB = = CDO DC Opposite sides of a parallelogram (4.13) (4.14) = DCO [Alternate angles] (4.12)

By ASA Congruence Theorem 3.3.1, AOB AO BO COD = = CO = DO Corresponding sides (4.15) (4.16) (4.17)

54 Hence the conclusion.

Triangles and Parallel Lines

Example 4.2.1 In Figure ??, P Q P S, P Q 65o . Find x and y. 1. In P QS, SP Q = 90o [Given]

SR, SQR = 28o , and QRT =

2. Since the sum of angles of a triangle is 180o , x + y = 90o 3. Since P Q SR, and line SQ is a transversal, RSQ = x SRQ, T RQ = RSQ +

4. Since QRT is an exterior angle of 28o 65o = x + 28o x = 37o . 5. Substituting in (2), y = 53o

4.3

Polygons

Let Ai , i = 1, 2, n, n > 2 be n points in a plane, no three of which are collinear. The union of the n line segments A1 A2 , A2 A3 , An A1 is called a polygon with n sides (or n-gon) if no two of them intersect except at the end points. A triangle is a 3 gon, a quadrilateral a 4 gon, and a pentagon a 5 gon. In a polygon, the points are called vertices and the line segments are called the sides. Two vertices are adjacent (or consecutive) if they are joined by a side. Two sides are adjacent(or consecutive) if they have a common endpoint. The segment joining two non-consecutive vertices is called a diagonal. A triangle has no diagonal. A quadrilateral has two, and a pentagon has 5 diagonals. A polygon is regular if all its sides are equal and all its angles are equal.

4.4

Exercises

1. If a transversal cuts two parallel lines, and if a pair of alternate angles are equal, show that (a) the second pair of alternate angles also are equal, and (b) any pair of corresponding angles are equal.

4.4 Exercises

55

2. If a transversal cuts two parallel lines, and a pair of corresponding angles are equal, show that (a) any pair of corresponding angles also are equal, and (b) any pair of alternate angles are equal.

56

Triangles and Parallel Lines

Chapter 5

Symmetric Figures and Circles


5.1 Introduction

We know that mammals, birds, and shes have bilateral symmetry. This seems to be a requirement for balance in rapid motion. Bilateral symmetry is maintained in the construction of cars, planes and ships. Some of the slow moving animals of the lower order, such as starsh and jellysh and many owers and plants have radial symmetry. In plane geometry the typical examples of gures having bilateral and radial symmetries are the isosceles triangle and the regular polygons. This will be clear when we formulate the concept of symmetry. Let us study a few examples. Example 5.1.1 Isosceles triangle. A triangle is isosceles if two of its sides are equal. If ABC is isosceles with AB = AC, we can see that ABC ACB = [Figure 5.1] 1. Consider the correspondence ABC ACB A A, B C. 2. Since AB = AC, AC = AB, and BC = CB, this correspondence is a congruence, by the SSS theorem 3.3.5. ABC ACB =

58

Symmetric Figures and Circles

Figure 5.1: Isosceles Triangle

In the congruence ABC ACB, A remains unaltered, B is car= ried to C and C is carried to B so that the midpoint of BC, say M remains unaltered. A rotation of the triangle about the line AM through 180o brings it back to its original position. For this reason line AM is called an axis of symmetry of the triangle. This type of symmetry is called axial symmetry. Also ABM is the mirror image of ACM in the line AM . In this example we have taken AB = AC and hence the median(or altitude) through A is the axis of symmetry. Let D, E, F be the midpoints of the sides BC, CA, AB of Then, ABC is isosceles i one of the following is true: 1. 2. 3. ABC = BCA = CAB = ACB [Line AD is the axis of symmetry.] BAC [Line BE is the axis of symmetry.] CBA [Line CF is the axis of symmetry.] ABC.

5.1 Introduction

59

This example shows that the congruence of a gure to itself and the property of symmetry are closely related. This leads to the denition Denition 5.1.1 Symmetry of Figures: Any congruence of a gure to itself is called a symmetry of the gure. Every symmetry of a gure is a one-one correspondence of the gure to itself, which is also a congruence. Any gure is congruent to itself under the correspondence which carries each point to itself. Such a congruence is called the identity congruence or identity symmetry. This is also included among the symmetries by our denition. But we shall say that a gure is symmetric only if it has a symmetry dierent from the identity symmetry. Example 5.1.2 Equilateral Triangle. A triangle is equilateral if all its sides are equal. Each of the altitudes of an equilateral triangle is an axis of symmetry.

Figure 5.2: Equilateral Triangle

60

Symmetric Figures and Circles

[Figure 5.2] The triangle ABC is equilateral. It coincides with its original position (let us say, coincides with itself), when it is rotated about its centre through 120o or 240o . This means that the rotation carries A to B, B to C and C to A, or A to C, C to B and B to A. The gure has three axial symmetries and two cyclic symmetries. Each symmetry can be expressed as a congruence. For example, ABC ACB means = that the triangle is symmetric about the median (or altitude) from A. It is an axial symmetry. And ABC BCA means that the triangle = has cyclic symmetry about its centre O. The non-identity symmetries of the equilateral triangle in gure 5.2 are listed below. 1. Cyclic Symmetries (a) (b) ABC = ABC = BCA [Rotation through 120o about the centre] CAB [Rotation through 240o about the centre]

2. Axial Symmetries (a) (b) (c) ABC = ABC = ABC = ACB [Symmetric about line AD] CBA [Symmetric about line BE] BAC [Symmetric about line CF ]

Example 5.1.3 Square A quadrilateral is a square if its sides are equal and its angles are equal. [Figure 5.3] A square coincides with itself when it is rotated about its centre through 90o , 180o , or 270o . It also coincides with itself when it is rotated thorough 180o about each of its diagonals or each of the lines bisecting the pairs of opposite sides. In gure 5.3, l is the line bisecting the opposite sides AB, CD and m is the line bisecting the opposite sides AD, BC. The square has 7 non-identity symmetries, each dened by a congruence. They are listed below. 1. Cyclic Symmetries (a) ABCD BCDA [Rotation through 90o about the centre O.] = (b) ABCD = CDAB [Rotation through 180o about the centre O.] (c) ABCD DABC [Rotation through 270o about the centre = O.]

5.1 Introduction

61

Figure 5.3: Square

2. Axial Symmetries (a) ABCD ADCB] [About line AC] = (b) ABCD CBAD [About line BD] = (c) ABCD BADC [About line l] = DCBA [About line m] (d) ABCD = Including the identity, an isosceles triangle has two, a square has eight, an equilateral triangle has six, and a rectangle has four symmetries. Symmetries of more complicated gures can be studied on the basis of the above denition. The physicists and the chemists are interested in the symmetries of the atoms and the molecules.1
1 Note for Teachers: Groups of symmetries are important in Group Theory. The group of symmetries of an equilateral triangle is isomorphic to the permutation group S3 and that of a square is isomorphic to the Octic Group D4 .

62

Symmetric Figures and Circles

5.2

Types of Symmetry

Denition 5.2.1 Axial Symmetry: A plane gure has axial symmetry about a line L, if it coincides with itself when rotated through 180o about L. Example 5.2.1 Have a look at Figure 5.4. The gure can be regarded as being divided by L into two parts, so that each part is the mirror image of the other in the line L. If P is a point of the gure, there is another point P of the gure such that seg P P is bisected at right angles by L.

Figure 5.4: Axial Symmetry The gure fg504 is the graph [Defn. ??] of the function f (x) = x2 . The y-axis is the line of symmetry. This symmetry makes the function even. Denition 5.2.2 Central Symmetry: A plane gure has central symmetry about a point O, if it coincides with itself when rotated through 180o about O.

5.2 Types of Symmetry

63

Example 5.2.2 Have a look at Figure 5.5. If P is a point of the gure, there is another point P of the gure such that seg P P is bisected at O.

Figure 5.5: Central Symmetry The gure 5.5 is the graph of f (x) = x3 . It is symmetric about the origin. This symmetry makes the function odd.[Defn. ??] Denition 5.2.3 Cyclic Symmetry: A plane gure has cyclic symmetry about a point O, if it coincides with itself when rotated through 360 o about O, where n is a positive integer. n is called the period of the n symmetry. A regular polygon with n sides has cyclic symmetry with period n.

64

Symmetric Figures and Circles

Among the above examples, equilateral triangle and square are regular polygons. If the period of a cyclic symmetry is 2, it is a central symmetry. Symmetries occur in geometry and algebra, in nature and in the world of ideas. The student should make the maximum use of symmetries.

5.3

Circles

A circle is the most symmetric of all the plane gures. It has axial symmetry about any line passing through its centre. Rotation about the centre through any angle makes a circle coincide with itself. So, it has innite number of cyclic symmetries also. A precise denition of a circle is necessary before we study more of its properties. Denition 5.3.1 Circle: A circle is the set of all points in a given plane each of which is at a given distance from a given point of the plane. The given point is called the centre and the given distance the radius of the circle. Let O be the centre and r the radius of the circle. The points of the plane fall into three disjoint sets: 1. The set of points of the circle. 2. The set of points at a distance less than r from O 3. The set of points at a distance greater than r from O. The rst set is the circle, the second is called the interior or inside of the circle, and the third its exterior. Denition 5.3.2 Chord of a Circle: A chord of a circle is a segment whose end points are points of the circle. The line containing a chord is called a secant. On any line through the centre O, there are just two points at a distance r from O. The segment determined by the two points is a diameter. A diameter is a chord through the centre. A radius is a segment whose end points are the centre and a point of the circle. All the radii are of equal length, and that length is the radius that is dened in 5.3.1. Let O be the centre of a circle of radius r. Let F be the foot of the perpendicular from O to a line l in the plane of the circle. [Figure 5.6] There are three possibilities:

5.3 Circles

65

Figure 5.6: Tangent & Secant

1. OF > r. Then every point of the line is outside the circle.(Prove) 2. OF = r. Then the circle and the line have just one point in common. Every other point of the line is outside the circle (Prove). The line is then said to be tangent to the circle at F . It is perpendicular to the radius OF . 3. OF < r. Then the line and the circle intersect at two points, say A and B. (Does this not require a proof ?) Line AB is a secant and seg AB is a chord. Theorem 5.3.1 The tangent at any point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact. Proof [The student is advised to draw the gure.] Let O be the centre of the circle, P be the point of contact of the tangent l. Then OP = r, the radius of the circle. Suppose Q is any point on l other than P . In

66 the light of the above discussion, OQ So, OP

Symmetric Figures and Circles

>

(5.1)

This means that OP is the shortest distance from O to the tangent l. l (5.2)

Theorem 5.3.2 The lengths of tangents from an external point to a circle are equal.

Figure 5.7: Tangents from an External Point Proof [Figure 5.7] Let O be the centre of the circle, P the external point, and Q, R the points of contact of tangents from P .[The student is advised to draw the gure.] Consider the correspondence P QO P RO By Theorem 5.3.1, P QO and P RO are right angles. The radii, OQ = OR P RO = P Q = P R Corresponding sides (5.3)

seg P O is a common hypotenuse. By RHS Congruence Theorem 3.3.6, P QO (5.4) (5.5)

5.3 Circles Hence the conclusion.

67

In a circle, the triangle formed by a chord and the radii joining its end points, is isosceles. Many properties of a circle can be derived from this simple fact. This is the source of the symmetry of the circle. Denition 5.3.3 Arcs and Angles: An angle at the centre of circle, called a central angle, cuts the circle at two points. Consider a central angle AOB cutting the circle at A, and B. [Figure 5.8]

Figure 5.8: Arcs and Angles

Part of the circle is in the interior of AOB and part is in the exterior. The part in the interior together with the points A, B is called the minor arc AB or simply arc AB. The part in the exterior of AOB together with A, B is called the major arc AB. AOB is said to be the angle subtended at the centre by arc AB. A and B are the end points of arc AB.

68

Symmetric Figures and Circles

Denition 5.3.4 Semicircle: If seg AB is a diameter of a circle with centre O, there are two arcs with end points A and B neither of which can be called major or minor. Each is called a semicircle. Denition 5.3.5 Cyclic Quadrilateral: Let A, B, C, D be four points on a circle such that no two of the four segments seg AB, seg BC, seg CD, seg DA interest except at the end points. Then the gure ABCD is said to be a cyclic quadrilateral.

Figure 5.9: Cyclic Quadrilateral BAD is said to be inscribed in the arc BAD, and subtended by arc BCD at the circumference.[Figure 5.9] Theorem 5.3.3 The angle subtended by an arc at the circumference is equal to half the angle subtended at the centre. Given. arc P Q subtends P AQ at the circumference of a circle with centre O.

5.3 Circles Conclusion. P AQ = 1 P OQ 2

69

Figure 5.10: Angles Subtended by an Arc

Proof [Figure 5.10] Extend seg AO to a point B. Since BOQ is an exterior angle of AOQ, and OA = OQ, by Corollary 4.1.2, BOQ = OAQ + OQA = Similarly, BOP = 2 OAP (5.8) 2 OAQ (5.6) (5.7)

Adding (2) and (3) we get the conclusion. Corollary 5.3.4 Angles inscribed in an arc are equal. This is a direct consequence of the previous theorem.

70

Symmetric Figures and Circles

Corollary 5.3.5 Any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. Corollary 5.3.6 If BAC is a right angle, then A is on the circle with BC as diameter. A few more theorems are stated without proof. Theorem 5.3.7 Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. Theorem 5.3.8 An angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite exterior angle. Theorem 5.3.9 The angle between a tangent to a circle and a chord through the point of contact, is equal to the angle subtended by the chord at the centre of the circle. Theorem 5.3.10 If a quadrilateral ABCD is circumscribed to a circle, then AB + CD = BC + DA.

5.4

Exercises
(a) a rectangle (b) a regular hexagon

1. Study the symmetries of

2. A gure consists of ve co-planar points A, B, C, D, O and the segments joining them. The gure has a symmetry given by the congruence f ig ABCDO f ig BCDAO. Show that f ig ABCD is a = square and O is its centre. 3. A, B, C, D are four coplanar points. The gure formed by joining the points in pairs, has a symmetry given by the congruence f ig ABCD f ig BADC. Show that the gure is an isosceles = trapezoid or a parallelogram. 4. If a gure has cyclic symmetry of period 4, 6, 8, , show that it has central symmetry. Consider the square, the regular hexagon, regular octagon etc. 5. Show that a regular pentagon has no central symmetry.

5.4 Exercises 6. Show that all regular polygons have axial symmetry.

71

7. Show that a non-rectangular parallelogram has central symmetry but no axial symmetry. 8. If a gure has two perpendicular axes of symmetry, show that it has central symmetry. 9. Draw the pair of tangents to a given circle from a given point using ruler and compasses. 10. Draw the common tangents to two given circles.

72

Symmetric Figures and Circles

Chapter 6

Euclids Ratio Theorem.


6.1 Harmonic Division

We assume that you have already learnt some properties of ratios in algebra and arithmetic. Here we are concerned with the applications of ratios to geometry. Let P, A, B be distinct collinear points. The position of P on the line AB can be described in several ways. Some of them are: 1. In terms of the coordinate of P referred to a coordinate system for the line AB. [Denition 1.4.1]. 2. In terms of distances of P from A and B and the distance between A and B. 3. In terms of a ratio referred to A and B. Note: In this section, we denote disp AB by AB and dist AB by AB.
AP If the distances AP, P B, and AB are given, the ratio P B and the betweenness relations of P with respect to A and B (i. e. whether P is AP between A and B or not) can be determined. Conversely, if the ratio P B and the betweenness relations of P relative to A and B are given, the position of P can be determined.

Denition 6.1.1 Position Ratio: If A, B and P are three collinear disp AP AP points, the ratio disp P B = is called the position ratio of P relative to
PB

A and B. The numerical value of the ratio is

AP PB

74

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

Figure 6.1: Position Ratio

The position ratio is positive if P is between A and B, and it is negative if P is not between A and B. Let us introduce a coordinate system in the line. It does not matter what the origin is. Let a, b, x be the coordinates of A, B, P, respectively. Then AP = x a and P B = b x by denition... Therefore, position ratio of P = xa bx There is some advantage if we choose A as the origin. Then AP PB x0 bx x = bx = , say, = (6.1) (6.2) (6.3)

where is the value of the position ratio. If = 1, then we get b = 0, which is not possible since points A and B are distinct. Therefore = 1. Let us determine x in terms of . x = ba x = (1 + )x x i. e. AP = x =
b 1+ , 1

(b x)

(6.4) (6.5) (6.6) (6.7)

= b b = 1+

+=0

Thus we have expressed the position ratio of P in terms of the coordinate x of P and conversely the coordinate in terms of the position

6.1 Harmonic Division ratio.1

75

Denition 6.1.2 Internal and External Division: Let A, B and P disp AP be distinct collinear points, and disp P B = . 1. When the ratio is positive, seg AB is said to be divided internally in the ratio ||. 2. When the ratio is negative, seg AB is said to be divided externally in the ratio ||. Combining the two cases, we may say that seg AB is divided in the ratio . It becomes external division when is negative. The fundax mental fact is the relation bx = , which connects position ratio and coordinates. Theorem 6.1.1 Given a segment AB and a ratio , there exists one and only one point P dividing seg AB in the ratio , provided = 1. Proof Let us suppose that there is a point P dividing seg AB in the ratio . Let b, x be the coordinates of B, P with A as the origin. Then, = = AP PB x bx x bx (6.8) (6.9)

(6.10)

Equation (3) has one and only and solution x = b , 1+ (6.11)

provided 1 + = 0. Therefore there is one and only one point P dividing b seg AB in the given ratio and its coordinate is 1+ referred to the origin A. Note
b 1. The solution x = 1+ is meaningless when 1 + = 0 i.e. when = 1. There is no point on the Euclidean line AB dividing seg AB in the ratio 1.
1 The

theory of ratio, in geometry, is essentially algebraic.

76 2. The ratio B.
AP PB

Euclids Ratio Theorem. =


x bx

is not dened when x = b i. e. when P is at

3. We have proved the unique existence of a point P dividing seg AB in the given ratio . Theorem 6.1.2 If P divides seg AB in the ratio l AB AP = l+m , P B = mAB l+m
l m,

then,

We present two proofs, the rst without using and the second using the coordinates. Proof(1) Let O be the origin of a coordinate system for the line AB. Since AB = disp AB, we have by Denition 1.4.2 AB By Theorem 1.4.1, AB By hypothesis, AP PB Since
a b

OB OA

(6.12)

= AP + P B

(6.13)

l m

(6.14)

c d

a a+b

c c+d ,

AP AP + P B AP AB AP Similarly, PB =

= = =

l l+m l l+m l AB l+m

(6.15) (6.16) (6.17)

m AB l+m

(6.18)

Proof(2) Choose A as the origin, and let b and p be the coordinates of

6.1 Harmonic Division B and P respectively. AB AP PB p bp mp (l + m)p p AP The rest of the proof is evident. = = = = = = = = b p bp l m l(b p) lb lb l+m lAB l+m

77

(6.19) (6.20) (6.21) (6.22) (6.23) (6.24) (6.25) (6.26)

In this context l, and m may be positive or negative, provided only l l + m = 0 or m = 1. The student should also have a physical picture of the above solution. AP l When = m , l > 0, m > 0 we may regard seg AB as being divided into PB l + m equal parts of which segAP contains l parts and segP B contains m parts. In this physical picture we have restricted l, m to be positive integers. Denition 6.1.3 Harmonic Division: If a segment AB is divided at C and D internally and externally (or externally and internally) in the same ratio, then seg AB is said to be divided harmonically at C and D, or (AB, CD) is called a harmonic range. In this case we may simply say that (AB, CD) is harmonic. In other words, (AB, CD) is a harmonic range if AC AD = [Figure 6.2]
CB DB

Theorem 6.1.3 If (AB, CD) is harmonic, then 1. (BA, CD) is harmonic, and 2. (CD, AB) is harmonic. Proof

78

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

Figure 6.2: Harmonic Division

1. AC CB CB AC BC CA = = = AD Given DB DB AD BD , [P Q = QP ] DA (6.27) (6.28) (6.29)

(BA, CD) is a harmonic range. 2. AC CB AC AD CA AD (CD, AB) is a harmonic range. Note. When (AB, CD) is harmonic, the same relation is sometimes stated as (ACBD) is harmonic. In the rst notation, there is a comma separating the four letters into two pairs. In the second notation, the pairs are interlocked without a comma. Theorem 6.1.4 If (AB, CD) is harmonic, then, 2 1 1 = + , and the converse.
AB AC AD

= = =

AD DB CB DB CB BD

(6.30) (6.31) (6.32)

6.1 Harmonic Division

79

Note. This means that AB is the harmonic mean between AC and AD, and hence the name harmonic range. Proof Choose A as the origin. Let the coordinates of B, C, D be b, c, d, respectively. Since (AB, CD) is harmonic AD AC = (6.33) CB DB c d = (6.34) bc bd AC = disp AC (6.35) = c c(b d) + d(b c) bc + bd 2cd Dividing each term in (3) by bcd, 2 b 2 AB = = 1 1 + c d 1 1 + AC AD (6.39) (6.40) = = 0 0 (6.36) (6.37) (6.38)

The converse of the theorem holds, since the steps are reversible. Two direct proofs of the converse is given below, rst without using and then using coordinates. Theorem 6.1.5 Converse of theorem ?? If A, B, C, D are collinear 1 2 points such that = + 1 , then (AB, CD) is harmonic.
AB AC AD

Proof(1) By hypothesis, 2 AB = 1 1 + AC AD (6.41)

Multiplying each term of (1) by AB, AB AB 2 = + AC AD AC + CB AD + DB = + AC AD CB DB = 1 + + 1 + AC AD

80 CB DB + AC AD Therefore, AC CB =

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

(6.42)

AD DB

(6.43)

By (3) and the denition 6.1.3 of harmonic range, (AB, CD) is harmonic. Proof(2) Choose A as the origin. Let b, c, d be coordinates of B, C, D respectively, i. e. AB AC AD By hypothesis,
2 b

= = =

b c d

(6.44) (6.45) (6.46)

1 c

+ 2

1 d

Multiplying each term by b, b b + c d bc+c bd+d + c d bc bd +1+ +1 c d CB DB + + 2 AC AD

= = = =

Hence the conclusion Theorem 6.1.6 If (AB, CD) is harmonic and O is the mid point of seg AB, then OA2 = OB 2 = OC OD, and the converse. Proof(1) Since O is the mid point of seg AB, OA = OB and AO = OB By hypothesis, AC CB = AD DB (6.49) (6.47) (6.48)

6.1 Harmonic Division By Theorem 1.4.1, AO + OC CO + OB By (1) and (3), OB + OC OC + OB OB + OC OB OC Since


a b

81

AO + OD DO + OB

(6.50)

= =

OB + OD OD + OB OD + OB OD OB

(6.51) (6.52)

c d

a+b ab

c+d cd ,

OB OC OB 2 OA2

= = = =

OD OB OC OD OB 2 OC OD

(6.53) (6.54) (6.55) (6.56)

Proof(2) Choose O as the origin of a coordinate system. Let a, b, c, d be the coordinates of A, B, C, D respectively. Sice AC = c a etc. ca bc = = But a = b and hence, c+b bc b c OB OC Hence the conclusion. The converse is true, since the steps are reversible. = = = d+b bd (6.57) (6.58) (6.59) da bd ad bd

d b OD OB

82

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

6.2

Euclids Theorem.

In a ruled note book the lines are parallel and are equally spaced. By this we mean that if a line is drawn perpendicular to the system of parallel lines, the line is divided into equal segments by the parallel lines. But it may be observed that oblique lines are also divided into equal segments by the above system of parallel lines. This observation is the basis of the theory of ratio and proportion in geometry. Theorem 6.2.1 Intercept Theorem. If three or more parallel lines intercept equal segments on one transversal, they intercept equal segments on any transversal. Given: A set of parallel line l1 , l2 , l3 , l4 intersect a transversal t1 at A, B, C, D, respectively, such that AB = BC = CD. They intersect another transversal t2 , at E, F, G, H respectively. Conclusion: EF = F G = GH Proof [Figure 6.3] Proof [Figure 6.3] Through A, B, C draw lines parallel to t2 meeting l2 , l3 , l4 at L, M, N respectively. 2 By the ASA theorem 3.3.1, ABL = = BCM CDN (6.60) (6.61)

By step (2), AL = BM = CN (6.62) (6.63)

By hypothesis and step (1), ALF E, BM GF, CN HG are parallelograms. Since opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal, AL = EF BM CN By steps (3) and (5), EF
2 There

(6.64) (6.65) (6.66)

= FG = GH

= =

FG GH

(6.67) (6.68)

is no restriction on the number of parallel lines. For convenience we have chosen only four lines.

6.2 Euclids Theorem.

83

Figure 6.3: Equal Segments

Theorem 6.2.2 Euclids Ratio Theorem. 3 If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle intersecting the other two sides in distinct points, then, it divides the other two sides proportionally. Given: A line is drawn parallel to the side BC of a triangle ABC cutting the lines AB, AC, at P, Q respectively. AQ AP Conclusion: =
PB QC

AP Proof(1) [Figure 6.4] Let us assume that = m , where m, n are positive integer n PB Taking the absolute values on both sides,

AP PB

m n

(6.69)

Divide seg AP into m equal parts and seg P B into n equal parts. Then on the line AB a number of equal segments are formed of which m are on
3 This

theorem is called The Basic Proportionality Theorem also

84

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

Figure 6.4: Line Parallel to One Side

seg AP and n are on seg P B. Through the points of division and through A draw lines parallel to line BC. The intercepts, cut by the parallel lines on the line AC are equal, by intercepts theorem 6.2.1. Of these seg AQ will contain m and seg QC will contain n intercepts. Therefore AQ QC By (1) and (6), AP PB = AQ QC (6.71) = m n (6.70)

Since segments AB, AC are both divided internally or both divided externally at P, Q, AP PB = AQ QB (6.72)

6.2 Euclids Theorem.


85

AP Note. We have assumed that the ratio = m , that is rational. n PB This is a limitation of this proof. We shall have a second proof, avoiding this limitation. Let us use the following lemmas, stated without proof.

Lemma 6.2.3 If seg AD is an altitude of BC AD, where ar stands for area.

ABC then ar ABC =

1 2

Lemma 6.2.4 If seg AD and seg P S are altitudes of triangles ABC and P QR respectively, and AD = P S, then ar ABC = AD ar P QR PS Proof(2) of theorem 6.2.2 [Figure 6.4] AP Q with base AP and P BQ with base P B have the same vertex Q and hence equal altitudes. By Lemma 6.2.4, ar AP Q ar P BQ = AP PB (6.73)

AQP with base AQ and QCP with base QC have the same vertex P and hence equal altitudes. By Lemma 6.2.4, ar AQP ar QCP P BQ and BC. So, = AQ QC (6.74)

QCP with common base P Q have equal altitudes since ar P BQ = ar QCP (6.75)

PQ

The conclusion follows from (2), (4) and (5). Theorem 6.2.5 Converse of Theorem 6.2.2. If a line cuts the sides AQ AP AB, AC of a triangle ABC at P, Q such that = then line P Q is PB QC parallel to line BC. Given: In ABC,
AP PB

AQ QC

Conclusion: P Q

BC

Proof Either P Q BC or P Q is not parallel to BC. Let us assume that line P Q is not parallel to line BC. Let the line parallel to BC through P meet line AC at Q dierent from Q. By the ratio theorem 6.2.2, AP PB = AQ QC (6.76)

86

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

Figure 6.5: Theorem 6.2.5

By hypothesis, AP PB By (4) and (5), AQ QC = AQ QC (6.78) = AQ QC (6.77)

Q and Q are the same, for a segment cannot be divided in the same ratio at two dierent points. Steps (3) and (7) form a contradiction. Therefore step (2) is false. i. e. PQ BC (6.79)

Theorem 6.2.6 The line segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side.

6.2 Euclids Theorem. This follows directly from the above theorem.

87

Theorem 6.2.7 The line through the midpoint of one side of a triangle, parallel to another side, bisects the third side. Theorem 6.2.8 In at P and Q, then, ABC if a line parallel to BC meets AB and AC AP AB AQ AC PQ BC

= =

(6.80) (6.81)

Figure 6.6: Theorem 6.2.8 Proof [Figure 6.6] By the ratio theorem 6.2.2, AP AQ = PB QC

(6.82)

88

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

By step (1) and a theorem in ratio and proportion, AP AP + P B Since AP + P B = AB etc. , AP AB Similar to step (2), AP + P B PB AB PB = AQ + QC QC AC QC (6.86) = AQ AC (6.85) (6.84) = AQ AQ + QC (6.83)

(6.87)

Draw seg QR parallel to seg AB meeting seg BC at R. By (5) and a step similar to (4), AQ AC = BR BC (6.88)

Since f ig P QRB is a parallelogram, BR = PQ (6.89)

Steps (3),(6) and (7) lead to the conclusion. Example 6.2.1 In Figure 6.6, if LM AN AM AB = AD . CB and LN CD, prove that

AL Solution In ABC, LM CB AM = AC (1) In ADC, LN AB AN AL CD AD = AC (2) The result follows from (1) and (2).

Theorem 6.2.9 The internal (or external) bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally (or externally) in the ratio of the sides containing the angle.

6.2 Euclids Theorem.

89

Figure 6.7: Example 6.2.1

Given: ray AD is the internal (or external) bisector of A of ABC meeting line BC at D. Conclusion: BD = AB
DC AC

Case(1) ray AD is the internal bisector of A. D is between B and C and hence the ratio BD is positive. To prove BD = AB Proof Draw the line through C parallel to DA. It DC AC will meet line AB, for AB is not parallel to DA. Let it meet line AB at E. By Euclids Ratio Theorem 6.2.2 applied to BCE,
DC

BD DC

BA AE

(6.90)

90

Euclids Ratio Theorem.

Figure 6.8: (a) Internal Division (b) External Division in Theorem 6.2.9

Four angles 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 are marked in the gure 6.8. They Are only short names for ACE, CAD, DAB, CEA respectively. 1 = 2 , alternate angles = 3 , angle A is bisected = 4 , corresponding angles 1 = 4 . (6.91)

Since sides opposite to equal angles are equal, AC = AE From steps (2) and (4), BD DC = AB AC (6.92)

Case(2) ray AD is the external bisector of A. D divides seg BC externally and hence the ratio BD is negative. DC Conclusion: BD DC = AB AC (6.93)

The proof is essentially the same as in Case(1).

6.3 Exercises

91

Theorem 6.2.10 Converse of Theorem 6.2.9. If the side BC of a triangle ABC is divided at D in the ratio AB then ray AD is the internal AC or external bisector of A. Proof Draw ray AD If it is not the bisector of A, let the bisector meet line BC at D . By theorem 6.2.9, BD DC But BD DC Therefore BD DC D=D = BD DC (6.96) = AB AC (6.95) = AB AC (6.94)

6.3

Exercises

1. (AB, CD) is a harmonic range. M, N are the midpoints of AB, CD respectively. Prove that AB 2 + CD2 = 4M N 2 (Choose M as the origin of coordinates) 2. seg AB, seg CD are diameters of a circle S. (AB, P Q), (CD, RS) are harmonic ranges. Prove that P, Q, R, S are concyclic. Denote the circle containing P, Q, R, S by S. If S cuts any diameter EF of S at T and U then show that (EF, T U ) is harmonic. 3. If a side of a triangle is trisected (divided into three equal parts) and if lines are drawn through the points of trisection parallel to another side, show that they trisect the third side. 4. Draw a line segment. Divide the segment
3 (a) in the ration 1 ,

(b) in the ratio 3 , using a pair of compasses and set square for 1 drawing parallel lines, but not a scale.

92

Euclids Ratio Theorem. How will you divide a segment in the ratio l/m, where l, m are integers? 5. Show that a side of a triangle is divided harmonically by the internal and external bisectors of the opposite angle. 6. In trainable ABC, AB = AC. The internal bisectors of B and C meet the opposite side at E, F respectively. Prove that EF BC. 7. AD is a median of triangle ABC. The bisectors of ADB, ADC meet AB, AC at E, F respectively. Prove that EF BC. 8. In a quadrilateral ABCD, the bisectors of angles A, and C meet at a point in BD. Prove that AB CD = BC DA 9. In a triangle ABC, AD is the bisector of A. The bisector of AI angle B meets AD at I. Prove that ID = b+c , where a, b, c are a BC, CA, AB, respectively. Hence prove that the bisector of C passes through I.

10. Can you give an instance of a triangle such that the external bisector of an angle of the triangle does not meet the opposite side produced.

Chapter 7

Similar Triangles
7.1 Introduction

Shape and size are two important geometrical ideas. We say that two gures are similar if they have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. A typical example is the similarity of a photograph and its enlargement. One of the simplest and, at the same time, the most important example is the similarity of two triangles. This is important because all gures composed of a number of segments can be built out of triangles. Denition 7.1.1 Similar Figures. Two geometric gures are similar, if there is a one-one correspondence 1 between the gures such that 1. corresponding segments are proportional, and 2. corresponding angles are equal.

7.2

Similarity of Triangles

Denition 7.2.1 Similar Triangles: A correspondence ABC A B C between two triangles ABC and A B C is called a similarity if AB BC CA = = AB BC CA and A = A , B = B , C = C
1 See

Defn. 3.1.4

94 Then we write ABC ABC

Similar Triangles

Hence the equivalence: ABC and A = A , B = B , C = C The conditions on the right side of this equivalence are not all independent. The basic theorems on similarity give the various relations among those conditions. Theorem 7.2.1 Similarity is an equivalence relation on the set of triangles [Denition ??]. In symbols, if , 1 , 2 , 3 are triangles then, ,(Reexivity) 1 2 2 1 ,(Symmetry) and 1 2 and 2 3 1 3 (Transitivity) Denition 7.2.2 Equiangular Triangles: A correspondence between two triangles is given. If corresponding angles are equal, then the triangles are said to be equiangular. The next theorem asserts that equiangular triangles are similar. Theorem 7.2.2 AAA Similarity Theorem. A correspondence between two triangles is given. If corresponding angles are equal, then the correspondence is a similarity. Given. ABC DEF and A = D, B = E, C = F Conclusion: ABC DEF Note The equality of corresponding angles will hold if AB BC CA DE = EF = DF Proof [Figure 7.1] Let G and H be the points on ray AB and ray AC such that AG = DE, and AH = DF (7.1) (7.2) ABC BC CA AB = = AB BC CA

Join GH. Consider AGH DEF A = D [Given] (7.3)

7.2 Similarity of Triangles

95

Figure 7.1: AAA Similarity

By (7.2), (7.3) and SAS Congruence Theorem 3.3.1, AGH By (7.4) and the hypothesis, AGH = = E B DEF = (7.4)

Since AGH = B, by the converse of theorem 6.2.2, GH BC (7.5)

By (7.5) and Euclids Ratio Theorem 6.2.2, AB AG By (7.6) and (7.2), AB DE = AC DF (7.7) = AC AH (7.6)

96 Similarly, AB DE By steps (8) and (9), AB DE = = Therefore, ABC DEF BC EF AC DF = BC EF

Similar Triangles

(7.8)

Example 7.2.1 P, Q, R, S are the midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral taken in order. Show that P QRS is a parallelogram.

Figure 7.2: Midpoints of the Sides [Figure 7.2] In the gure draw seg AC. In midpoints of BA and BC. By theorem 6.2.2, PQ AC ABC, P and Q are the

7.2 Similarity of Triangles Similarly, RS AC

97

Since the relation parallel tois transitive, PQ Similarly, SP Hence the conclusion. In a correspondence ABC DEF , if two pairs of corresponding angles are equal, the third pair must also be equal, for the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. Hence the following theorem. Theorem 7.2.3 AA Similarity Theorem. A correspondence between two triangles is given. If two pairs of corresponding angles are equal, the correspondence is a similarity. Theorem 7.2.4 SAS Similarity Theorem A correspondence between two triangles is given. If two pairs of corresponding sides are proportional and the included angles are equal, then the correspondence is a similarity.
AB Given: ABC DEF, A = D, DE = Conclusion: ABC DEF AC DF

RS

RQ

Proof [Figure 7.1] Let G and H be the points on ray AB and ray AC respectively such that AG = DE, and AH Join GH. By hypothesis, AB DE = AC DF (7.11) = DF (7.9) (7.10)

Substituting (7.9) and (7.10) in (7.11), AB AG = AC AH (7.12)

98

Similar Triangles

By (7.12) and the converse of Euclids Ratio Theorem 6.2.2, GH AGH and AHG = BC ABC = ACB[Corresponding angles ]

By AAA Similarity Theorem 7.2.2, ABC A AGH (7.13) (7.14)

= D[Given]

By steps (7.11), (7.14) and the SAS Congruence Axiom 3.3.1, AGH = DEF (7.15)

Since congruence implies similarity, AGH DEF (7.16)

By (7.13), (7.16) and since similarity is a transitive relation, ABC DEF

Note. In the proof we have used the fact that congruence implies similarity. But the converse is not true. Theorem 7.2.5 SSS Similarity Theorem. A correspondence between two triangles is given. If corresponding sides are proportional, then the correspondence is a similarity.
AB Given:ABC DEF and DE = Conclusion: ABC DEF BC EF

CA FD

Proof [Figure 7.1] Let G and H be the points on ray AB and ray AC such that AG = DE, and AH Join GH. By hypothesis, AB DE = AC DF (7.19) = DF (7.17) (7.18)

7.2 Similarity of Triangles By substituting (1) in (2), AB AG = AC AH

99

(7.20)

By step (3) and the converse of Euclids Ratio Theorem 6.2.2, GH Consider ABC AGH By (), ABC ACB = = AGH, and AHG[Corresponding angles] (7.22) (7.23) BC (7.21)

By (), (), and the AAA similarity 7.2.2 ABC AB AG Since AG = DE, AB DE By () and (), BC GH GH BC EF = EF = = BC GH (7.26) = AGH BC GH (7.24) (7.25)

(7.27)

In the correspondence AGH DEF , AG = DE AH GH = DF = EF

By () and SSS Congruence Theorem 3.3.5, AGH AGH = DEF DEF (7.28)

The conclusion follows from () and ().

100

Similar Triangles

Figure 7.3: Right Triangle

Example 7.2.2 If ABC is a triangle right angled at A and seg AD is the perpendicular on the hypotenuse BC, then prove that ABC DBA DAC.[Figure 7.3] Consider the correspondence ABC DBA. ABC BAC = = DBA[The same angle] BDA[Right angles as given] (7.29) (7.30)

By (), (), and AA Similarity Theorem 7.2.3, ABC Similarly, ABC DBA DAC

Note. Similar triangles are congruent triangles if the ratio of a pair of corresponding sides is equal to 1.

7.2 Similarity of Triangles

101

The student should never ignore the order of correspondence in any proof involving similar or congruent triangles. Example 7.2.3 If AD and P M are medians of triangles ABC and AB AD P QR, respectively, where ABC P QR, prove that P Q = P M Hence deduce that, in similar triangles, corresponding medians are also proportional.[Figure 7.4]

Figure 7.4: Medians Solution Since ABC P QR, AB PQ But BC QR Substituting in (), AB PQ = BD QM (7.32) = = 2 BD, 2 QM = BC QR (7.31)

102 Consider the correspondence ABD P QM ABD

Similar Triangles

= P QM Corresponding angles

(7.33)

By steps (), (), and () and SAS Similarity Theorem 7.2.4, ABD AB PQ = P QM AD PM

The deduction is left to the student.

7.3

Exercises

1. Show that the two statements ABC P SM and ABC M SP do not mean the same. Write down the meaning of each statement. 2. In ABC a line is drawn parallel to BC meeting AB, AC at P, Q respectively. Show that (a) AP = r, AQ = s, P B = x and QC = 1 x = (c) AP = 1, AQ = t, P B = x and QC = 1 x =
r s

(b) AP = m, AQ = 1, P B = x and QC = n x = mn
1 t

3. AP, BQ are perpendicular to AB at A and B, and they are on the same side of AB. The lines AQ, BP intersect at R. C is the foot of the perpendicular from R to AB. If x, y, z stand for AP, BQ, CR 3 1 1 1 3 prove that x + y = 1 or x + y = z 4. Given a correspondence between two triangles, if corresponding sides are parallel or corresponding sides are perpendicular prove that the triangles are equiangular and hence similar. 5. In two similar triangles, show that corresponding medians have the same ratio as corresponding sides. So also corresponding altitudes have the same ratio as corresponding sides.

Chapter 8

Chords and Secants of a Circle


8.1 Angles Subtended by Chords

Theorem 8.1.1 Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre. If AB, CD are the chords, and O is the centre, the radii OA, OB, OC, OD are all equal, and hence using Theorem 3.3.5, one can show that AOB = Therefore, AOB = COD. Theorem 8.1.2 If two chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre, then the chords are equal. The proof is left to the student. Theorem 8.1.3 The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. Proof [Figure 8.1] Let seg AB be a chord of the circle with centre O and seg OM be the perpendicular from the centre to the chord. OA = OM A = OB[ Radii] OM B [Right angles] COD.

104

Chords and Secants of a Circle

Figure 8.1: Perpendicular to a Chord

OM common side. By the RHS congruence theorem 3.3.6, OAM AM Hence the conclusion. We state the following theorems without proof. Theorem 8.1.4 If a line through the centre of a circle bisects a chord, then it is perpendicular to the chord. Theorem 8.1.5 Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. Theorem 8.1.6 Chords equidistant from the centre of a circle, are equal in length. = = OBM BM

8.2 Intersecting Chords of a Circle

105

8.2

Intersecting Chords of a Circle

Sometimes a gure may have two or more similar triangles as its parts. Then the similarity relations of such triangles or the consequences of such relations can be expressed as properties of the original gure. One type of applications is the study of similarity or congruence relations within the same gure. Another type is the study of such relations connecting two gures. Theorem 8.2.1 If two chords AB and CD of a circle intersect at O within the circle, them OA OB = OC OD.

Figure 8.2: Midpoints of the Sides Proof [Figure 8.2] Join AC and BD and consider OAC, and ODB Consider the correspondence OAC ODB Angles subtended by arc CB at the circumference, OAC Similarly,OCA = ODB = OBD (8.1) (8.2)

By (), () and AA Similarity Theorem 7.2.3, OAC OA OD OA OB ODB OC = OB = OC OD

106 Remarks

Chords and Secants of a Circle

1. In similar triangles, the ratios of sides are primarily ratios of lengths, and consequently signless. If a sign is attached to such a ratio in a particular instance, it must be explicitly mentioned. OA, OB, OC, OD in the above theorem are introduced as distances and not as displacements. But the nal result is true even if they are considered as displacements. 2. As already mentioned, the student should always have in mind the order of correspondence in any congruence or similarity which he considers. That order must be maintained when a congruence or similarity is written. Suppose that the chords AB and CD do not intersect, but the secants AB and CD intersect at a point O outside the circle. Will we have a similar result? The answer is given in the following theorem. Theorem 8.2.2 If two secants AB and CD of a circle intersect at O outside the circle, then OA OB = OC OD.

Figure 8.3: Intersecting Secants Proof [Figure 8.3] Join AC and BD Consider the correspondence OAC ODB By Theorem 5.3.8, OAC Similarly, OCA = = ODB OBD

8.2 Intersecting Chords of a Circle By AA. Similarity 7.2.3, OAC OA OD OA OB ODB OC = OB = OC OD

107

Theorem 8.2.3 If a secant OAB and a tangent OT are drawn to a circle from a point O, then OA OB = OT 2 .

Figure 8.4: Intersecting Secant and Tangent Proof [Figure 8.4 There is one and only one circle, say S, passing through the points A, B, C. The circle S cuts line OC at C and therefore it will cut line OC again at another point, say D . By theorem 8.2.2, OA OB By hypothesis, OA OB By steps (), and (), OC OD OD Hence the conclusion. = = OC OD OD = OC OD (8.4) = OC OD (8.3)

108

Chords and Secants of a Circle


1

Theorem 8.2.4 Apollonian Circle Theorem.

Given the base and the ratio of the other two sides of a triangle, the locus of the vertex is a circle. Given. ABC is a triangle such that the base BC is xed and the ratio AB is a constant , say. Conclusion. The locus of AC A is a circle.

Figure 8.5: Apollonian Circle

Proof [Figure 8.5] Let A be a position of the variable vertex of the triangle. Let the internal and external bisectors of BAC meet line BC at P and Q. By Theorem 6.2.9, BP PC BQ QC AB AC = and, = = AB AC (8.6)

(8.5)

= .

Since B and C are xed and is a constant, P and Q are xed points on the line BC. Since AP and AQ are the bisectors of A, P AQ = 90o . From () and () and the corollary 5.3.6, the locus of A is the circle on P Q as diameter. Theorem 8.2.5 If AB is a diameter of a circle and CD is a perpendicular chord meeting AB at O, then OC is the geometric mean between AO and OB.

8.2 Intersecting Chords of a Circle

109

Figure 8.6: A Diameter and a Chord

Proof [Figure 8.6] By Theorem 8.2.1, OA OB Since CD is bisected at O, AO OB Hence the conclusion. There are several problems in geometry reducible to an example of geometric mean. The following is a fundamental theorem. Theorem 8.2.6 If ABC is a triangle right angled at A and seg AD is the perpendicular on the hypotenuse BC, then ABC AD2 AB 2 AC
1 Apollonius

= OC OD

OC 2 .

DBA DAC and (8.7)

= BD DC, = BC BD, = CB CD (8.8)

of Perga (262 BC190 BC)was a Greek geometer and astronomer.

110

Chords and Secants of a Circle

Proof Part (8.7) is proved in Example 7.2.2. Part (8.8) Since ABC DBA, AB DB AB 2 Similarly, since ABC BC BA = BC BD =

(8.9)

DAC, AC 2 = CB CD (8.10)

Since

DBA

DAC, DB DA AD2 DA DC = BD DC =

Theorem 8.2.7 Pythagoras Theorem. In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of squares of the other two sides. Given. ABC is a triangle right angled at A Conclusion.AB 2 + AC 2 = BC 2 This can be obtained by adding equations (8.9) and (8.10) in the above proof. It is left to the student. Theorem 8.2.8 Converse of Pythagoras Theorem 8.2.7 In a triangle, if the square of one side is equal to the sum of squares of the other two sides, then the angle opposite the rst side is a right angle. Given. In triangle ABC, AB 2 + AC 2 = BC 2 Conclusion. A is a right angle. Proof [Figure 8.7] Draw a right angle RP Q such that AB AC Join QR. In 8.2.7, = = P Q, PR

P QR, P is a right angle and hence by Pythagoras theorem QR2 = P Q2 + P R2 (8.11)

8.3 Exercise

111

Figure 8.7: Converse of Pythagoras Theorem

By hypothesis and (8.11), BC 2 BC By SSS congruence theorem 3.3.5, ABC Since P is a right angle, so is A Corollary 8.2.9 If seg AB is perpendicular to line l, containing B, then, AB is the shortest distance from A to l. Proof Let C be a point other than B on l. Then ABC is right angled at B. Since AC is the hypotenuse, by Pythagoras theorem 8.2.7 AB < AC. Hence the conclusion. Theorem 8.2.6 is applied, in the next chapter, for the construction of the geometric mean of two given lengths. Note that AB is the geometric mean between BC and BD, and AD is the geometric mean between BD and DC. = P QR = QR2 = QR

8.3
.

Exercise

1. Prove theorem 8.2.3 by showing that the triangles OAT and OT B are similar.

112

Chords and Secants of a Circle

2. O is a point on seg AB or BA-produced. T is a point outside the line AB such that OT 2 = OA OB. Prove that OT touches the circle through A, B and T.

Chapter 9

Geometric Constructions
9.1 Construction of the Means

Denition 9.1.1 Arithmetic and Harmonic Means. The arithmetic mean of two numbers a and b is a+b 2 and the harmonic mean is 2ab . a+b

Denition 9.1.2 Geometric Mean. If a, b, c are positive numbers and a b b = c , then b is the geometric mean or mean proportional between a and c. The following statements are equivalent: 1. b is the mean proportional between a and c. b 2. a = . b c 3. b = ac Note. There is no dierence in meaning between a : b and

a b.

Construction 9.1.1 Construct a line segment whose length equals the geometric mean of two given positive numbers. Method 1

114

Geometric Constructions

Figure 9.1: Construction 9.1.1, Method 1

Let a, b, a > b be the given numbers. Draw a segment BC equal to a. From BC cut o BD equal to b. Draw a semicircle on BC as diameter. Draw DA perpendicular to BC to cut the semicircle at A. Then AB is the geometric mean between a and b. Proof [Figure 9.1] BAC is a right angle, since it is in a semicircle. By Theorem 8.2.6, AB 2 = BC BD = ab Method 2

Figure 9.2: Construction 9.1.1, Method 2

9.1 Construction of the Means

115

Draw BD = a and produce BD to C so that DC = b. Draw a semicircle on BC as diameter. Draw the perpendicular to BC at D to cut the semicircle at A. Then AD is equal to the geometric mean between a and b. Proof [Figure 9.2] By construction, BAC By Theorem 8.2.6, AD2 = BD DC = ab Construction 9.1.2 Construct line segments whose lengths are equal to the Geometric, Arithmetic and Harmonic Means of two given positive numbers. Let a, b be two given positive numbers. Draw a line and cut o segments OA, OB such that OA = a, OB = b and A, B are on the same side of O. Draw the circle on seg AB as diameter. Its centre, say M , is the midpoint of seg AB. Let OP, OQ be the tangents from O to the circle. Cut o OG = OP from OM . Join P Q to cut OM at H. Then OM, OG, OH are the arithmetic, geometric and the harmonic means of OA and OB. = 90o

Figure 9.3: Construction 9.1.2

116 Proof Since M is the midpoint of AB, OM

Geometric Constructions

OG2

1 (OA + OB) 2 1 = (a + b) 2 = OP 2 [Construction] = = OA OB, [ Theorem 8.2.3] = ab

(9.1)

Therefore, OG = ab, the Geometric mean of a, b Join M P . Then OP M is right angled at P and seg P H is its altitude from P . Therefore, OH OM = OP 2 [Theorem 8.2.6] = OA OB [Theorem 8.2.3] = ab So, by (9.1) and (9.2), OH = = OM = ab OM 2ab a+b 1 (a + b), 2 ab and 2ab a+b (9.2)

OG = OH =

We know that the area of a triangle is half the product of its base and altitude. Therefore, if two triangles have the same altitude, their areas are proportional to their bases. Theorem 9.1.1 Areas of two similar triangles are proportional to the squares of corresponding sides. Given. ABC Conclusion. DEF

ar ABC BC 2 = ar DEF EF 2

9.1 Construction of the Means

117

Figure 9.4: Theorem 9.1.1

Proof [Figure 9.4] Draw the altitudes seg AX, seg DY ar ABC ar DEF = = AX DY BC AX EF DY
1 2 BC 1 2 EF

(9.3)

Consider the correspondence ABX DEY By hypothesis, ABX By construction,AXB By AA Similarity 7.2.3, ABX AX Therefore, DY = DEY = DY E = = By steps (9.3) and (9.4), ar ar ABC DEF = BC 2 EF 2 DEY AB DE BC [Given] EF

(9.4)

Construction 9.1.3 Draw a square equal in area to a given rectangle. If a, b are the sides of the rectangle and x is the side of the square, then x2 = ab. Therefore x is the geometric mean between a and b. Draw a segment of length x, using Construction 9.1.1. Complete the square with that segment as a side, using the construction for geometric mean.

118

Geometric Constructions

Construction 9.1.4 Divide a given triangle ABC in the ratio l : m by a line parallel to BC. Note. By dividing a triangle we mean dividing its area. Construction

Figure 9.5: Construction 9.1.4

[Figure 9.5] Divide seg AB in the ratio AP =

l m

at P , so that

l AB l+m

Construct the geometric mean between AP and AB as indicated in the gure and cut o AX from AB equal to the geometric mean. Through X draw XY parallel to BC to cut AC at Y . Then XY divides ABC l in the ratio m . Proof By construction, AP Therefore, AX 2 lAB l+m = AP AB lAB 2 = l+m l = l+m =

AX 2 AB 2

(9.5)

9.1 Construction of the Means Consider AXY ABC. Since XY BC, AXY AY X By AA Similarity Theorem 7.2.3 , By Theorem 9.1.1, ar AXY ar ABC = = ar AXY ar ABC ar AXY ar AXY ar BCY X Hence the conclusion. = = AX 2 AB 2 l , by (9.5) l+m l m l m AXY = ABC, = ACB ABC

119

Construction 9.1.5 Divide a given triangle ABC in the ratio line perpendicular to BC.

l m

by a

Figure 9.6: Construction 9.1.5


l Construction[Figure 9.6] Divide seg BC at P in the ratio m . Draw seg AD seg BC. Let us assume that P is between B and D. Cut o

120

Geometric Constructions

BX from BC equal to the geometric mean between BP and BD. Draw XY BC to cut AB at Y . Then XY divides the ABC in the ratio l m. The proof is left to the student.

9.2

Homothetic Constructions

Denition 9.2.1 Homothetic Transformation. Choose a point O in a plane and call it the origin or center. Let c be a positive real number. 1 If P is any point in the plane, then a point P on ray OP is called its homothetic image if OP = c OP. Homothetic transformation (or dilatation) about O is the function which maps every point in the plane to its homothetic image. Construction using homothetic transformation is called homothetic. Note. Consider a homothetic transformation given by OP = c OP.
If c = 1, then, P = P and the transformation is the identity function. If c > 1, then, P is beyond P and the transformation is called an extension. If c < 1, then, P is between O and P and the transformation is called a contraction.

Let F be a geometric gure and F be the set of homothetic images of points on F. Then, F is called a homothetic image of F. Theorem 9.2.1 Homothetic image of a segment AB is a segment parallel to AB. Proof [Figure 9.7] Let O be the centre of the homothetic transformation and c > 0. Let A and B be the images of A and B. By denition 9.2.1, OA OA
1 Generally,

= =

OB OB c

c could be negative also. We need only the positive case.

9.2 Homothetic Constructions

121

Figure 9.7: Theorem 9.2.1

In

OA B , by the converse of theorem 6.2.2, OA OA AB = OB OB AB

Hence the conclusion. Corollary 9.2.2 Homothetic image of a polygon is a polygon similar to the given polygon. Proof Let ABC be a polygon and A B C be its homothetic image. By the previous theorem, AB A B , BC B C Thus the two polygons have corresponding sides parallel and hence the conclusion. Construction 9.2.1 Inscribe a square in a given triangle ABC, such that two of the vertices of the square are on BC. Analysis. The square to be inscribed is such that two of the vertices are on BC, one on AB, and the other on AC. We can easily construct a square satisfying two of the three conditions. Then by homothetic transformation about a suitable point, the third condition may be satised. Construction [Figure 9.8] Construct square P QRS such that P is on AB and Q and R are on BC. Join BS and let BS produced meet

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Geometric Constructions

Figure 9.8: Construction 9.2.1

AC at S . Draw S R BC, S P BC, P Q BC. Then P Q R S is the homothetic image of P QRS about the point B. It is the required square. Proof Let BS BS BS In BS P P S P S and hence BP BP BP In BR S RS R S and hence BR BR BR In BQ P , P Q P Q and hence BQ BQ BQ = BP BP = c = c BQ = BS BS = c = c BR = BS BS = c = c BP = c = c BS

9.3 Exercises

123

Thus, P , Q , R , S are the homothetic images of P, Q, R, S, respectively. Therefore, P Q R S is the required square. Denition 9.2.2 Similar Polygons Two polygons are said to be similar, if there is a 1 1 correspondence between the vertices and the sides of the polygons such that 1. corresponding sides are proportional, and 2. corresponding angles are equal. For example, the polygons ABCDE and A B C D E are similar under the correspondence ABCDE A B C D E if AB BC CD DE EA = = = = AB BC CD DE EA and A = A , B = B , C = C , D = D , E = E . When these conditions are satised we shall write f ig ABCDE f ig A B C D E . Construction 9.2.2 Construct a polygon similar to a given polygon. Construction Let ABCD be a given polygon. Join A, B, C, D, to a point O and c > 0. Construct points A , B , C , D , on ray OA, ray OB, ray OC such that OB OA = = = c OA OB Then the polynomial A B C D is a homothetic image of ABCD and hence it is similar to the latter. [Corollary 9.2.2]

9.3

Exercises

1. Draw a triangle ABC such that AB = 3 , BC = 4 , CA = 3.5 . Trisect the triangle (a) by lines parallel to BC (b) by lines perpendicular to BC.

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Geometric Constructions

Chapter 10

Collinearity and Concurrency


10.1 Concurrency Theorems

Two or more lines are said to be concurrent if there is a single point through which all of them pass. We state, without proof, some theorems on concurrency. Theorem 10.1.1 In a triangle, 1. The medians are concurrent. [The point of concurrence is called the centroid of the triangle.] 2. The medians trisect each other. 3. The bisectors of the angles are concurrent. [The point of concurrence is called the in-centre. 4. The internal bisector of one angle and the external bisectors of the other two angles are concurrent. [The point of concurrence is called an ex-centre. 5. The perpendicular bisectors of the sides are concurrent. [The point of concurrence is called the circumcentre.] 6. The altitudes are concurrent. [The point of concurrence is called the orthocentre.]

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Collinearity and Concurrency

Denition 10.1.1 Pedal Triangle. A pedal triangle is obtained by projecting a point onto the sides of a triangle. Consider a triangle ABC, and a point P other than the vertices A, B, C. Draw perpendiculars P L, P M, P N from P to the lines BC, CA, AB. Then LM N is a pedal triangle. When P is on the circumcircle, the pedal triangle degenerates into a line, called the pedal line, or the Simson line after the mathematician Robert Simson.1

10.2

Collinearity Theorems

We have seen that, if a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle, it divides the other two sides in the same ratio [Theorem 6.2.2]. What would happen if the lines were not parallel to any of the sides of the triangle? Perhaps Euclid and some of his students might have posed the question. But an answer of great signicance was given by Menelaus about four centuries later. Menelaus (Menelaus of Alexandria) lived about the year 100 AD. That was the beginning of Modern Geometry. Note. In this chapter AB stands for the directed distance from A to B. i. e. disp AB = AB = AB. This is just to follow the usual practice. It creates no problem as here we do not use the coordinates. Theorem 10.2.1 Menelaus Theorem. If a transversal cuts the sides BC, CA, AB of a triangle ABC at D, E, F respectively, then BD CE AF = 1 DC EA F B Note. A line cutting the sides or sides produced of a triangle, but not passing through any of the vertices is called a transversal. This is a fundamental theorem and a generalization of Euclids ratio theorem 6.2.2. Proof [Figure 10.1] Either all the points of intersection of the transversal are external points of division of the sides or two are internal and one is external. 2 In any case the product of the ratios is negative. Draw AG parallel to the transversal to meet BC at G. In CAG, DE AG and so, by Euclids theorem 6.2.2, CE EA
1 Robert 2 For

CD DG

(10.1)

Simson (1687 - 1768) was a British mathematician. the meaning of internal or external division see Defn. 6.1.2

10.2 Collinearity Theorems

127

Figure 10.1: Theorem 10.2.1

In

ABG, DF

AG and so, AF FB = GD DB (10.2)

By (10.1) and (10.2), BD CE AF DC EA F B = = But BD DB CD DC GD = DB = 1 = BD CD GD DC DG DB BD CD GD DB DC DG

Hence the conclusion. Theorem 10.2.2 Converse of Menelaus Theorem. If D, E, F are points on the sides BC, CA, AB or those sides produced, of a triangle ABC, such that BD CE AF = 1, DC EA F B then D, E, F are collinear.

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Proof By Theorem 6.2.1, there is no point D on segment BC such that BD DC = 1. Therefore, BD DC By (10.3) and hypothesis, CE AF EA F B Therefore, AF FB = AE EC = 1 = 1 (10.3)

By Theorem 6.2.2, EF is not parallel to BC. Let EF cut BC at D By Menelaus Theorem 10.2.1, BD CE AF DC EA F B By (10.4) and hypothesis, BD DC Therefore, BD BD + D C BD BC D Therefore D, E, F are collinear. Theorem 10.2.3 Cevas Theorem. 3 If the lines joining the vertices A, B, C of a triangle, to a point not on any of the sides, meet the opposite sides in D, E, F respectively, then BD CE AF = +1. DC EA F B
3 Giovanni

(10.4)

BD DC

BD BD + DC BD = BC = D =

Ceva (pronounced, Chayva)

10.2 Collinearity Theorems

129

Figure 10.2: Theorem 10.2.3

Proof [Figure 10.2] Since COF is a transversal of BC DO AF FB CD OA Since BF O is a transversal of ADC, = 1 DB CE AO OD BC EA By (10.5) and (10.6), AF BC DO AO DB CE FB CD OA OD BC EA Hence the conclusion. = 1

ABD, (10.5)

(10.6)

+1

If O is inside the triangle the sides are divided internally at D, E, F so that the product of the ratios is positive. If O is outside, two of the sides are divided externally and the third internally, so that in this case also the product is positive. This is an additional explanation regarding the sign of the product. The above proof is independent of this explanation. We have proved Cevas theorem using Menelaus. But Menelaus theorem cannot be derived from Cevas. The practice of placing Cevas theorem before Menelaus in text books is not sound either on historical order or on scientic ground. Menelaus

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theorem was discovered in the rst century A.D. and the other in the fourteenth century. Next, we give an example which shows that the converse of Cevas theorem is not true. Example 10.2.1 If a set of three parallel lines, one through each of the vertices A, B, C of a triangle meet the opposite sides at D, E, F then AF BD CE = +1 DC EA F B

Figure 10.3: Example 10.2.1 Proof [Figure 10.3] In theorem 6.2.2, CAD, BE CE EA AC CE Similarly, in AF C, BE AD and hence by Euclids ratio CB and BD DC CB

= =

(10.7) (10.8)

F C and hence AF FB = AC CE (10.9)

10.2 Collinearity Theorems By (10.7), (10.8) and (10.9), AF BD CE DC EA F B = = BD CB DC DC BD CB 1

131

The sign of the product is clearly positive, since two of the three ratio are negative and the third positive. The above example shows that the converse of Cevas theorem is not true in Euclidian geometry. But it is possible to get a partial converse of the theorem. Theorem 10.2.4 Partial Converse of Cevas Theorem. If D, E, F are points on the sides BC, CA, AB of a ABC or on those sides produced such that BD CE AF = +1 DC EA F B then AD, BE, CF are either concurrent or parallel. Proof If the lines AD, BE, CF are not parallel, at least two of them intersect. Let BE, CF intersect at O. Join AO and produce it to cut BC at D . By Cevas theorem, CE AF BD DC EA F B By hypothesis, BD CE AF DC EA F B By (10.10) and (10.11), BD DC = BD DC = +1 (10.11) = +1 (10.10)

D coincides with D. By steps (2) and (6), AD also passes through O. By steps (1) and (7), either AD, BE, CF are concurrent or they are parallel. Theorem 10.2.5 If from a point O, in the plane of a triangle ABC, segments OD, OE, OF are drawn perpendicular to BC, CA, AB respectively, then BD2 DC 2 + CE 2 EA2 + AF 2 F B 2 = O, and the converse.

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Proof [Figure ??] Applying Pythagoras theorem to the triangles BDO, CDO, CE we have BD2 + OD2 CD2 + OD2 CE 2 + OE 2 AE + OE
2 2

= OB 2 ............(1) = OC 2 ............(2) = OC 2 ............(3) = OA2 ............(4) = OA2 ............(5) = OB 2 ............(6) (10.12) (10.13) (10.14)

AF 2 + OF 2 BF 2 + OF 2 BD2 CD2 CE EA
2 2

= OB 2 OC 2 [Eqn (1)-(2)] = OC OA [Eqn (3)-(4)] = OA2 OB 2 [Eqn (5)-(6)]


2 2

AF 2 F B 2

Adding the equations (7), (8), (9) we get the required result. Theorem 10.2.6 Converse of 10.2.5 If D, E, F are points on the sides BC, CA, AB of ABC such that BD2 DC 2 + CE 2 EA2 + AF 2 F B 2 = O, then the perpendiculars to the sides at D, E, F are concurrent.

Figure 10.4: Theorem 10.2.6

10.2 Collinearity Theorems Proof

133

[Figure 10.4] Let the perpendiculars at E and F meet at O. Draw OD BC. By theorem 10.2.5, BD 2 D C 2 + CE 2 EA2 + AF 2 F B 2 By hypothesis, BD2 DC 2 + CE 2 EA2 + AF 2 F B 2 By (10.15) and (10.16), BD2 DC 2 = BD 2 D C 2 (10.17) = O (10.16) = O (10.15)

Since BD = BD + D D, DC = D C D D, BD2 DC 2 = (BD + D D)2 (D C DD )2 (10.18) = BD 2 D C 2 + 2BD D D + 2D C DD = BD 2 D C 2 + 2BC DD By (10.17) and (10.18), 2 BC D D DD D Hence the conclusion. There is an interesting theorem called nine-point circle theorem. It is regarding a circle that can be constructed for any given triangle. It passes through nine signicant points, six lying on the triangle itself (unless the triangle is obtuse). The nine points are: 1. The midpoint of each side of the triangle. 2. The foot of each altitude. 3. The midpoint of the segment joining each vertex to the orthocenter. We state the theorem without proof. Theorem 10.2.7 The Nine Point Circle Theorem. In a triangle, the feet of the altitudes, the midpoints of the sides, and the midpoints of the segments joining the orthocenter to the vertices are concyclic. The circle passing through these nine points is called the Nine Point Circle. Its centre N is the midpoint of OS where O is the orthocentre and S is the circumcentre. Also (OG, SN ) is a harmonic range. Exercises = = = 0 0 D

134 1. If O is the orthocenter of of OBC

Collinearity and Concurrency ABC, show that A is the orthocenter

2. If I is the in-centre of ABC and I1 , I2 , I3 are the ex- centres, show that I is the orthocenter of I1 I2 I3 . 3. If D, E, F are the feet of the attitudes of a triangle ABC and O is its orthocentre, prove that OD, OE, OF are internal or external bisectors of the angles of DEF. What are the other bisectors? 4. Prove that the distance of the orthocenter of a triangle from any vertex is twice the distance from the circumcentre. 5. Prove that the centroid G of a triangle lies on the line joining the circumcentre S and orthocentre O and it is a point of trisection. 6. If DEF is a pedal triangle of ABC and O is the orthocenter, show that O, A, B, C are the incentre and ex-centres of DEF . (The incentre is one of the four points O, A, B, C, not necessarily O.) 7. If A , B , C are the midpoints of the sides BC, CA, AB of ABC, show that the circumcentre of ABC is the orthocenter of A B C .

Chapter 11

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry


11.1 Cartesian Coordinates

The word Cartesian is derived from Ren Descartes (Pronounce: dekarth) e (1596 - 1650). A French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer, Descartes is the founder of Cartesian Geometry. We have seen that there is a one-one correspondence between the set of points on a line and the set of real numbers. It leads to the setting up of a coordinate system on the line. Next we want to establish a coordinate system for a plane. Consider the Cartesian product R R, where R is the set of real numbers.[Defn. ??] It is denoted by R2 also. R2 = {(x, y) : x, y R} In the pencil in Denition 2.4.1, the lines X X and Y Y are such that 1. they are perpendicular and meet at O, 2. they divide the rest of the plane into four quadrants. Call line X X the x-axis and line Y Y the y-axis. Let us x coordinate systems on these lines such that O is the origin for both, and OX and OY contain the points with positive coordinates.

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Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Now, let P be a point in the plane. 1. If P is on the x-axis with coordinate x, let us denote P by (x, 0) R2 . 2. If P is on the y-axis with coordinate y, let us denote P by (0, y) R2 . 3. If P is in any of the four quadrants, let P M X X and P N Y Y. [Figure 11.1] If M on the x-axis has coordinate x and N on the y-axis has coordinate y, then denote P by (x, y) R2 .

Figure 11.1: Cartesian Coordinates Thus corresponding to every point in the plane there is a unique ordered pair of real numbers. To get the converse, take (x, y) R2 . Let M be the point on the xaxis with coordinate x and N be the point on the y-axis with coordinate y. Suppose the line through M perpendicular to the x-axis meet the line through N perpendicular to the y-axis at P . Then P is a unique point in the plane corresponding to the ordered pair of real numbers. Theorem 11.1.1 There is a one-one correspondence between the set of points in a plane and the set R2 of ordered pairs of real numbers. If (x, y) is the pair corresponding to the point P , x and y are called the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate of P , respectively. The plane having

11.1 Cartesian Coordinates this coordinate system is called a Cartesian plane. The x-axis is line X X = {(x, 0) : x R} and the y-axis is line Y Y = {(0, y) : y R} Note. P (x, y) stands for the point P with coordinates (x, y). Three Types of Lines

137

1. A line (or segment) is said to be horizontal if it is parallel to the x-axis. In this case the y-coordinates of its points will be equal. For example, let b be the y-coordinates. Then the line is {(x, b) : x R} This line passes through (0, b) on the y-axis, parallel to the x-axis, and it can be represented by the equation y = b. 2. A line (or segment) is said to be vertical if it is parallel to the yaxis. In this case the x-coordinates of its points will be equal. For example, let a be the x-coordinates. Then the line is {(a, y) : y R} This line passes through (a, 0) on the x-axis, parallel to the y-axis, and it can be represented by the equation x = a. 3. A line (or segment) is said to be oblique if it is neither horizontal nor vertical. If it passes through (a, 0), a = 0 on the x-axis and (0, b), b = 0 on the y-axis, then it can be represented by the equation x y + =1 a b Example 11.1.1 In Figure 11.2, line AP is vertical and its equation is x = 2, line BP is horizontal and its equation is y = 3, line AB is oblique and its equation is x y + =1 2 3 i. e. on simplication, 3x 2y + 6 = 0

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Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Figure 11.2: Three Types of Lines

In general, any line in the cartesian plane can be represented by the equation ax + by + c = 0, a = 0 or b = 0 (11.1) Because of this, the equation 11.1 is called linear. If a = 0, the line is horizontal. If b = 0 it is vertical. The line is oblique if a b = 0. Given the linear equation 11.1, we can draw the line as follows. 1. For y = 0, nd x. This gives us a point A(a, 0) of the line on the x-axis. 2. For x = 0, nd y. This gives us a point B(0, b) of the line on the y-axis. 3. Draw the line AB, which is the required line. Denition 11.1.1 Projection of a Segment. The projection of a line segment seg P Q on a line l is LM if seg P L and seg QM are perpendicular to line l where L and M are on l. If P Q l then P LM Q is a rectangle and so, P Q = LM, the projection. In Figure 11.1,

11.1 Cartesian Coordinates 1. OM = |x| is the projection of seg OP on the x-axis. 2. ON = |y| is the projection of seg OP on the y-axis. 3. OM = N P is the projection of seg N P on the x-axis.

139

Lemma 11.1.2 If P (x1 , y1 ) and Q(x2 , y2 ) are two points in the Cartesian plane, the projection of seg P Q is 1. |x2 x1 | on the x-axis, and 2. |y2 y1 | on the y-axis.

Figure 11.3: Lemma 11.1.2 In Figure 11.3, L(x1 ) and M (x2 ) are the feet of perpendiculars from P and Q, respectively, on the x-axis. Therefore, LM = |x2 x1 |. Similarly, ST = |y2 y1 |. Hence the conclusion. Theorem 11.1.3 Distance Formula The distance between the points P (x1 , y1 ) and Q(x2 , y2 ) is (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 Proof [Figure 11.4] If seg P Q is horizontal, then y1 = y2 , and P Q = |x2 x1 | (11.2)

140

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Figure 11.4: Theorem 11.1.3

If seg P Q is vertical, then x1 = x2 , and P Q = |y2 y1 | (11.3)

If seg P Q is oblique, let the horizontal line through P and the vertical line through Q meet at R. Since seg P R is horizontal, R has the y-coordinate y1 . Since QR is vertical R has the x-coordinate x2 . i. e. R is (x2 , y1 ). Therefore, PR QR = |x2 x1 | and = |y2 y1 |

P QR is right angled at R. By Pythagoras theorem 8.2.7, P Q2 = = P R2 + QR2 (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2

Note that (11.2) and (11.3) also give the same result. Hence the conclusion. Example 11.1.2 Check whether (5, 2), (6, 4) and (7, 2) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.

11.2 Locus Solution Let A(5, 2), B(6, 4) and C(7, 2) be the given points. AB BC = = = = Since AB = BC, (6 5)2 + (4 + 2)2 37 (7 6)2 + (2 4)2 37

141

ABC is isosceles.

Example 11.1.3 Find the point on the x-axis which is equidistant from (2, 5) and (2, 9). Solution Let A(2, 5) and B(2, 9) be the given points and P (x, 0) the required point on the x-axis. AP AP 2 (x 2) + (0 + 5)2 On simplication, we get x = 7
2

BP

= BP 2 = (x + 2)2 + (0 9)2

So, P (7, 0) is the required point.

11.2

Locus

Denition 11.2.1 Locus of a Point The set of points P (x, y) is called the locus of P if x and y satisfy certain conditions. A line is the locus of a linear equation of the form 11.1. The equation gives the condition. Theorem 11.2.1 Converse of Theorem 3.3.8 The locus of a point equidistant from two given points is the perpendicular bisector of the segment joining the given points. Given. A and B are two xed points. P (x, y) is a variable point such that AP = BP . Conclusion. The locus of P is a line l such that l bisects seg AB, and l AB.

142

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Proof Let M be the midpoint of seg AB. Since AM = BM, M is on the locus l of P . Consider the correspondence AM P BM P AP AM = BP Given = BM

and P M is the common side. Therefore by SSS Congruence Theorem 3.3.5, AM P AM P BM P = = BM P = 90o Equal angles of a linear pair (11.4)

This lead to the conclusion. Example 11.2.1 Derive the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the segment joining A(2, 3) and B(3, 2). Let P (x, y) be a variable point such that AP = BP . AP AP 2 Using distance formula 11.1.3, (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = (x 3)2 + (y 2)2 (11.5) = = BP BP 2

On simplication, we get the required equation, y = 5x (11.6)

Note. When x = 0, y = 0 and hence the line passes through the origin (0, 0). The general equation of the line through the origin is y = mx. Theorem 11.2.2 Section Formula If P (x, y) divides the segment joinl ing A(x1 , y1 ) and B(x2 , y2 ) in the ratio m , then x= lx2 + mx1 ly2 + my1 and y = l+m l+m

Proof We prove only one case where x2 > x1 , y2 > y1 . The proof is similar for the other cases. [Figure 11.5] Let the horizontal through A meet the vertical through P at L. L is (x, y1 ). Let the horizontal through

11.2 Locus

143

Figure 11.5: Theorem 11.2.2

A meet the vertical through B at M . M is (x2 , y1 ). Let the horizontal through P meet the vertical through B at N . N is (x2 , y). Therefore AL = x x1 , LM BN NM In ABM, P L BM Therefore, AP PB l i.e. m In ABM, P N AM Therefore, AP PB l i. e. m = = MN NB y y1 y2 y = = AL LM x x1 x2 x = x2 x, = y2 y, = y y1 P L = y y1 ,

(11.7)

(11.8)

From (11.4) and (11.5) we get the required result.

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Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Example 11.2.2 Find the ratio in which the line segment joining A(1, 5) and B(4, 5) is divided by the x-axis. Also nd the point of division. Solution Let P (x, 0) be the point on the x-axis and P divides seg AB. By theorem 11.2.2, 0 = = 5 5 +1 1
1

the ratio in which

Thus the ratio of division is 1 : 1 Now, since the ratio is 1 : 1, P is the midpoint of seg AB. So, x = = The point of division is P ( 3 , 0). 2 We close this section by stating a theorem without proof. It is illustrated with an example. Theorem 11.2.3 Given the vertices A(x1 , y1 ), B(x2 , y2 ), C(x3 , y3 ) of a triangle, ar ABC = 1 [x1 (y2 y3 ) + x2 (y3 y1 ) + x3 (y1 y2 )] 2 14 2 3 2

Example 11.2.3 Find the area of the quadrilateral with vertices A(1, 1), B(2, 2) taken in the same order. Solution Draw AC. Using the formula in theorem 11.2.3, ar ABC = 1 [1(2 + 3) 2(3 1) 3(1 2)] = 8 2

ar ACD =

1 [1(3 + 4) 3(4 1) + 4(1 + 3)] = 16 2

ar ABCD = ar ABC + ar ACD = 24 square units

11.3 Trigonometric Ratios

145

11.3

Trigonometric Ratios

The sides and angles of a triangle are not independent of each other as is evident from the theorems of congruence and similarity. The fundamental relations among them are the following. Let mA = A, mB = B, mC = C, and AB = c, BC = a, CA = b. 1. A + B + C = 180o 2. a2 = b2 + c2 , if A = 90o (Pythagoras theorem) 3. The ratios of sides of a triangle depend only on the angles. These relations form the basis of Trigonometry. Denition 11.3.1 Trigonometric Ratios Consider ABC, right anb b c gled at B [Figure 11.6]. The six ratios a , c , a , a , c , a are called the sine, b b c cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent of A. In symbols, sin A cos A = = a b c b a c b a b c c b

tan A = csc A = sec A = cot A =

Generalized Angle Measure. First let us have a fresh look at angles of any measure using the tools of Coordinate Geometry. There is an alternative denition of radian measure. Denition 11.3.2 If AOB is the angle subtended at O by an arc AB, l of length l and radius r, then the radian measure of AOB is equal to r . If AOB is a right angle, then l = 2r and hence mAOB = 4 i. e. 90o = , radians, 2
l r

2.

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Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Figure 11.6: Trigonometric Ratios

as we have seen already. In Defn. 11.3.2, if r = 1, then the radian measure of AOB is equal to the length of arc AB. Now, consider the unit circle (radius 1) with centre at the origin O. It cuts the x-axis at A (1, 0), A(1, 0) and the y-axis at B (0, 1), B(0, 1). Let P be a point on the unit circle. Then AOP can be considered as obtained by rotating ray OP about O, in the anti-clockwise (positive) or clockwise (negative) direction, beginning from ray OA. Then the radian measure of AOP is dened as the distance travelled by P from A along the circle. If the rotation is positive, the angle is said to be positive and its measure will be taken as positive. If the rotation is negative, the angle is said to be negative and its measure will be given a negative sign. Angles of Positive Rotation Suppose ray OP rotates in the positive direction. 1. If ray OP makes less than half a rotation, then 0 < mAOP < and P is on the upper semicircle. 2. If ray OP makes more than a half, and less than one rotation, then < mAOP < 2 and P is on the lower semicircle.

11.3 Trigonometric Ratios

147

3. If ray OP makes n and a fraction of a rotation, and arcAP is the length of arc AP in the positive direction, then mAOP = 2n + arcAP. For example if ray OP makes one and quarter of a rotation, then mAOP = 2 + and P coincides with B. 2

Figure 11.7: Generalized Angle Measure

Angles of Negative Rotation Suppose ray OP rotates in the negative direction. 1. If ray OP makes less than half a rotation, then 0 > mAOP > and P is on the lower semicircle. 2. If ray OP makes more than a half, and less than one rotation, then > mAOP > 2 and P is on the upper semicircle. 3. If ray OP makes n and a fraction of a rotation, and arcAP is the length of arc AP in the negative direction, then mAOP = 2n arcAP. For example if ray OP makes one and quarter of a rotation, in the positive direction, then mAOP = 2 + and P coincides with B. If the 2 direction is negative, then mAOP = 2 and P coincides with B . 2

148

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Trigonometric Ratios of any Angle Let AOP be as in Figure 11.7, where (x, y) are the coordinates of P. If mAOP = , then x = y The other ratios are tan cot sec csc Trigonometric Identities = = = = y x x y 1 x 1 y = cos and sin (11.9) (11.10)

sin2 + cos2 1 + tan2 1 + cot2 sin() cos() sin(90 ) cos(90 ) sin(90 + ) cos(90 + ) sin(180 ) cos(180 ) sin(180 + ) cos(180 + )

= = = = = = = =

1 sec2 csc2 cos cos sin cos sin

= sin

= sin = cos = sin = cos

Example 11.3.1 The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from two points distant a and b from the base and in the same straight line with it, are complementary. Prove that the height of the tower is the geometric mean between a and b.

11.3 Trigonometric Ratios

149

Figure 11.8: Example 11.3.1

Solution [Figure 11.8] In the gure OT is the tower and A and B are the points distant a and b respectively from O. Let OT = h and T AO = T BO = 90 [Given] From T AO, tan = = From T BO, tan(90 ) = = cot We know that tan cot = 1 = OT OB h b h b OT OA h a

(11.11)

(11.12)

From this and (11.11) and (11.12) we get h2 Hence the conclusion. = ab (11.13)

150

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Using trigonometric ratios, next we state and prove the extension of Pythagoras theorem. Theorem 11.3.1 Extended Pythagoras Theorem.1 In any triangle ABC, a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A

Figure 11.9: Theorem 11.3.1

Proof [Figure 11.9] BC 2 = = = = BD2 + CD2 [Pythagoras Theorem] (AB AD)2 + CD2 , [AB = AD + BD] AB 2 2AB AD + AD2 + CD2 AB 2 2AB AD + AC 2 , [AD2 + CD2 = AC 2 ](11.14) ADC, = = AD AC AC cos A

From the right angled triangle cos A AD

(11.15)

Substituting (11.15) in (11.14), we get the result. In Trigonometry, the above result is usually known as the Cosine Rule.
1 Pythagoras of Samos - born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC -a Greek mathematician

11.3 Trigonometric Ratios

151

We state, without proof, the Sine Rule also. It asserts that the sides of a triangle are proportional to the sines of the opposite angles. Theorem 11.3.2 The Sine Rule. In any triangle ABC, b c a = = sin A sin B sin C These results are useful in nding distances between special points of a triangle. Example 11.3.2 Find the lengths of the medians of a triangle in terms of the sides.

Figure 11.10: Example 11.3.2 Let D be the midpoint of side BC of triangle ABC. Then AD is one of the medians. Let AD = x, and ADC = BD = DC = a , AB = c, AC = b 2 From ADC, by theorem 11.3.1, a a 2 b2 = x 2 + 2 x cos (11.16) 2 2 From ADC, a a c2 = x2 + ( )2 2 x cos(180 ) 2 2 a 2 a 2 = x + ( ) + 2 x cos (11.17) 2 2

152

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

[cos(180 ) = cos ] Adding (11.16) and (11.17), b2 + c2 x2 = = = So, the median AD = 2b2 + 2c2 a2 2 2x2 + a2 a2 + 4 4 1 2 a2 (b + c2 ) 2 2 2b2 + 2c2 a2 4

(11.18)

If y, z are the lengths of the other medians BE, CF, then, y2 z2 = = 1 2 (c + a2 2 1 2 (a + b2 2 1 2 b ) and 2 1 2 c ) 2

Apollonian theorem is a generalization of the above problem, where D is taken as any given point on BC. Theorem 11.3.3 Apollonian Theorem. If the side BC of triangle ABC is divided at D in the ratio m , then n nAB 2 + mAC 2 (m + n)AD2 + nBD2 + mDC 2 mn = (m + n)AD2 + BC 2 m+n mn 2 = (m + n)AD2 + a m+n =

i.e mb2 + nc2

In proving this theorem we shall use only Pythagoras theorem and the concept of displacements on the line BC Proof [Figure 11.11] Draw AX BC Then by Pythagoras theorem, applied to ABX, AB 2 = AX 2 + BX 2 ACX, AX 2 + XC 2 (11.20) (11.19)

By Pythagoras theorem, applied to AC 2 =

11.3 Trigonometric Ratios

153

Figure 11.11: Theorem 11.3.3

By Pythagoras theorem, applied to AD2 (11.19) (11.21) AB 2 AD2 = = = (11.20) (11.21) AC 2 AD2 = = = Multiplying (11.22) by n, nAB 2 =

ADX, AX 2 + DX 2 (11.21)

BX 2 DX 2 (BD + DX)2 DX 2 BD2 + 2BD DX (11.22)

XC 2 DX 2 (DC DX)2 DX 2 DC 2 2DC DX (11.23)

= nAD2 + nBD2 + 2nBD DX

(11.24)

Multiplying (11.23) by m, mAC 2 (11.24) + (11.25) nAB 2 + mAC 2 = (m + n)AD2 + nBD2 + mDC 2 + 2(nBD mDC)DX (11.26) = mAD2 + mDC 2 2mDC DX (11.25)

154 But, by hypothesis,

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

BD DC BD DC By (11.26) and (11.27), nAB 2 + mAC 2 By (11.27) and (11.28), nAB 2 + mAC 2 mb2 + nc2 = = =

= = =

m BC and m+n n BC m+n

m n

(11.27)

(m + n)AD2 + nBD2 + mDC 2

(11.28)

(m + n)AD2 +

mn BC 2 m+n mn a2 (m + n)AD2 + m+n

Example 11.3.3 The internal bisector of A of ABC meets BC at D. The internal bisector B meets AD at I. Find the lengths of AD and AI.

Figure 11.12: Example 11.3.3

11.3 Trigonometric Ratios Solution Since AD is the bisector of A, BD DC = = By step (1), BD = = Since BI is the bisector B, AI ID From (2) and (3), AI ID Therefore, AI AI + ID AI AD By theorem 8.2.4, bAB 2 + cAC 2 = (b + c)AD2 + bc BC 2 b+c bca2 (b + c)AD2 + b+c = = b+c a+b+c b+c a+b+c = b+c a = AB BD c BC b+c ca b+c AB AC c b

155

(11.29)

(11.30)

(11.31)

bc2 + b2 c = Therefore, AD2 = bc = = AI 2 = =

bca2 (b + c)2 bc ((b + c)2 a2 ) (b + c)2 bc (a + b + c)(b + c a) (b + c)2 b+ca bc a+b+c bc(s a) , where, 2s = a + b + c. s

156

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Example 11.3.4 G is the centroid of a triangle ABC and P is any point on the plane of the triangle. Prove that P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 = 1 3P G2 + GA2 + GB 2 + GC 2 = 3P G2 + 3 (a2 + b2 + c2 ). Proof [Figure 11.13] Let AG meet BC at D. Then BC is bisected at D and AD is trisected at G.

Figure 11.13: Example 11.3.4

By Apollonian theorem on P B2 + P C 2 By Apollonian theorem on P A2 + 2P D2 By Apollonian theorem on GB 2 + GC 2 = =

P BC, 2P D2 + BD2 + DC 2 P AD, 3P G2 + GA2 + 2GD2 (11.33) (11.32)

GBC, = 2GD2 + BD2 + DC 2 (11.34)

Adding (11.32) and (11.33) and subtracting (11.34) from the sum, P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 = 3P G2 + GA2 + GB 2 + GC 2

11.4 Exercises By Apollonian Theorem on AB + AC


2 2

157 ABC, 2AD2 + BD2 + DC 2 1 1 = 2AD2 + a2 + a2 4 4 1 2 1 2 2 (b + c a = 2 2 =

c2 + b2 AD2 Since AG = 2 AD 3 AG2 = = =

(11.35)

4 AD2 9 1 4 1 2 (b + c2 a2 ) 9 2 2 1 2 2 2 (2b + 2c a ) 9 1 2 (a + b2 + c2 ) 3

(11.36)

AG2 + BG2 + CG2 By (11.35) and (11.36), P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 =

1 3P G2 + (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 3

11.4
1.

Exercises

ABC is an equilateral triangle and P is any point on its circumcircle. Show that P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 = 6R2 , where R is the radius of the circum-circle.

2. The median AD of ABC meets the circum-circle of Prove that AB 2 + AC 2 = 2AD.AE

ABC at E.

3. ABCD is a Parallelogram. Prove that AB 2 + BC 2 + CD2 + DA2 = AC 2 + BD2 . 4. ABCD is a rectangle and P is any point. Prove that P A2 + P C 2 = P B 2 + P D2 5. AB, CD, EF are three diameters of a circle and P is any point. Prove that P A2 + P B 2 = P C 2 + P D2 = P E 2 + P F 2 .

158

Coordinate Geometry and Trigonometry

Chapter 12

Mathematical Logic
12.1 Logical Statements

In geometry we come across a number of theorems and their proofs. For proper understanding of them we need a good foundation in Mathematical Logic. A theorem and its proof form a sequence or succession of sentences. Such a sequence should satisfy certain requirements for the validity of the proof. We shall learn in this section what those requirements are. First of all, it must be possible to decide whether a sentence is true or false. A sentence may be true or false or neither true nor false. We shall not consider sentences which are neither true nor false. 1 Denition 12.1.1 Statement or Proposition. A sentence which is either true or false but not both is called a statement or proposition. Truth and falsity are ascribed as values (Truth-Values) of propositions. Every proposition has one of them as its truth-value. We shall not dene truth and falsity, but we assume that these are contradictory notions. To every statement one and only one of two truth values - Truth or Falsity - can be assigned. The following are some examples of statements.
1 Consider the sentence I am a liar. Whoever says it, it is neither true nor false. Suppose Abu makes this claim. If it is true, then Abu is a liar and hence what he says must be false. On the other hand, if it is false, then Abu is not a liar and hence what he says must be true. Either way we get into a contradiction.

160 1. 2 3 = 6 2. 2 + 3 = 6 3. x2 + 4x 5 = 0 4. John and James are brothers. 5. John and James are Professors.

Mathematical Logic

Statement (1) is true; (2) is false. Statement (3) is true when x = 1 or x = 5. Otherwise it is false. Such a statement, that depends on a variable like x, is called an open statement. We can decide whether (4) and (5) are true or false, if we know John and James. For convenience of reference we shall denote the set of all the statements by S and statements by letters p, q, r, . Conditional and Biconditional The sentence if p, then q is called a conditional or an implication. It is written in symbols as p q or p q(read p implies q) In this implication, neither p nor q is asserted. It means that if p is true, then q is true. The sentence p q is false only when p is true and q is false. In p q p is called antecedent (or hypothesis) and q is called consequent (or conclusion). The implication is true in three cases:1. When p and q are true, 2. When p is false and q is true, 3. When p is false and q is false. This can be given by a table, called Truth-Table. Truth-Table for Implication p T T F F q T F T F pq T F T T

In a truth-table, the rst row is a set of propositions. Each of the remaining rows is a consistent assignment of truth-values to the propositions. T , F denote the truth-values, truth, falsity.

12.1 Logical Statements Example 12.1.1

161

1. If x is an odd number, then x2 is an odd number.

2. If 2 is an odd number, then 4 is an odd number. 3. If there are fty prime numbers less than 100, then 5 is a prime number. These examples illustrate the dierent shades of implication. In (1) both the antecedent and the consequent are open statements. They become true or false only when x is given a value. In (2) both the antecedent and the consequent are false, and hence it is true. In (3) the antecedent is false and the consequent is true, and hence it is true. If p q, we say, p is a sucient condition for q or q is a necessary condition for p. Denition 12.1.2 Biconditional. A sentence of the form p if and only if q, denoted by p q, or p q is called a biconditional or equivalence. It means that p q and q p. In that case p and q are said to be logically equivalent, and we write p q (Read, p is equivalent to q). Negation. The negation of a statement p is a statement which is false when p is true, and true when p is false. It is formed by writing the word not or an equivalent phrase, it is not the case that or it is false that or the symbol before the whole sentence or formula. Truth-Table of Negation p T F p F T

The negation of John and James are brothers is John and James are not brothers. The negation of x2 + 4x 5 = 0 is x2 + 4x 5 = 0. Let us call these statements p and p.i.e. p : x2 + 4x 5 = 0 and p : x2 + 4x 5 = 0. For any given number x, one of them is true and the other is false. When x = 1 or x = 5, p is true and p is false. When x is any number dierent from both 1 and 5, p is false and p is true.

162

Mathematical Logic

What is the negation of John and James are Professors. ? One might say that the negation is John and James are not Professors. We shall show that this is not the negation. Let p: John and James are Professors. q: John and James are not Professors. r: John is not a Professor and James is a Professor. p means John is a Professor and James is a Professor. q means John is not a Professor and James is not a Professor., according to the common usage in English. When p is true q is false, and when q is true p is false. This is not enough ground for us to say that q is the negation of p. For, when r is true both p and q are false. Hence q is not the negation of p. This shows that the negation of a statement cannot be obtained in all cases by adding the word not to the predicate of the statement. The actual negation of p, we shall see later. It is obvious that we can identify a statement p with the negation of the negation of p. Thus we have the Law of Double Negation p p

Atomic and Molecular Statements Some statements can be split into simpler statements and some cannot be. John and James are professors. can be split into John is a professor. and James is a professor. But the statement John and James are brothers. cannot be split. Why? Denition 12.1.3 A statement is said to be atomic if it cannot be split up into simpler statements. We shall introduce connectives through the following examples. Example 12.1.2 Suppose a, b, c, d denote four lines. Let us split the following sentences to atoms. 1. a and b are perpendicular to c. 2. a and b are perpendicular to c and d. 3. a and b are perpendicular to c and d respectively. The atoms of statement (1) are ac and bc, where is an abbreviation for is perpendicular to. The atoms of statement (2) are ac, ad, bc, and bd. The atoms of statement (3) are ac and bd.

12.2 Connectives

163

Molecular statements are built up from atomic statements by using a few words known as connectives in logic and conjunctions in English grammar. We can easily understand atomic statements. But to understand a molecular statement, we must learn the laws of connectives.

12.2

Connectives

There are many connectives in English or in any other language. Without being biased by the grammar, and idioms of any particular language, logicians have chosen ve connectives and have symbolized them with precise and invariable meanings. Those symbolic connectives are not mere translations of English or French connectives. On the other hand, we have only almost exact, not always quite exact, translations of those symbols in any literal language. Those ve connectives are: Symbol English equivalent Connective 1 not negation 2 and conjunction 3 or disjunction 4 implies conditional or implication 5 if and only if biconditional or equivalence Conjunction Denition 12.2.1 If p and q are statements, then p and q is called their conjunction. The connective word and is denoted by the symbol . p q (Read, p and q) becomes a statement only when there is a rule which assigns a truth value to it, when p and q have given truth values. The rule is that p q is true if and only if both p and q are true. The table given below, is a tabular description of this rule. Truth-table of Conjunction p T T F F q T F T F p T F F F q

Example 12.2.1 1. Find the truth-value of the sentence, John and James are present given that James is present has the truth-value

164

Mathematical Logic F . Solution The given sentence is the conjunction of the atoms John is present, and James is present. The truth value of an atomic sentence cannot be determined by any logical analysis. It has to be determined by factual analysis. The conjunction of two atoms is true only when both are true. But it is given that James is present is false. Therefore the given conjunction is false. It is not necessary to determine the truth value of the second atom.

2. John and James are Professors is the conjunction of John is a Professor and James is a Professor. 3. seg AC and seg BD bisect each other at right angles is the conjunction of (a) seg AC bisects seg BD (b) seg BD bisects seg AC and (c) seg AC is perpendicular to seg BD. 4. a = b = c is the conjunction of a = b and b = c. Repetition through conjunction will not change the meaning of a statement. In symbols, p p p

Disjunction Denition 12.2.2 If p and q are statements, then p or q is called their disjunction. The connective word or is denoted by the symbol . Note. In logic, p q means p or q or both p and q. It is said to be used in non-exclusive sense. But outside logic, the word or is also used in the exclusive sense, i.e. one of the sentences connected by or is true but not both. Truth-table of Disjunction p T T F F Example 12.2.2 istry lab. q T F T F p T T T F q

1. I will be in the library or I will be in the Chem-

12.3 Relations Between the Connectives 2. I will receive a distinction in Mathematics or in Physics.

165

3. I will be qualied for admission to engineering, if I receive a distinction in Mathematics or in Physics. The rst is an example of exclusive disjunction. The second and the third are examples of inclusive disjunction. Repetition through disjunction will not change the meaning of a statement. In symbols, p p p

12.3

Relations Between the Connectives

Let S be the set of statements. Theorem 12.3.1 If p, q S, (p q) p q (12.1)

The proof depends on the following table. p q and p q p T T F F q T F T F p T T T F q p F F F T q

From this we infer that p q is true (or false), whenever p q is false (or true). So, the negation of p q is p q. Hence the conclusion. Theorem 12.3.2 If p, q S, (p q) p q (12.2)

Proof Since p, q are any two propositions, we can substitute p and q for p q respectively in equation 12.1. (p (p (p (p q) p q q) q) q

q) p q) q) (p (p

166

Mathematical Logic

The equations 12.1 and 12.2 are known as De Morgans laws. Now let us consider the negation of the sentence John and James are present. It is the conjunction of the atoms John is present and James is present. It has the symbolic form p q. We have learnt that (p q) p q Hence the negation of our sentence is John is not present or James is not present. The word or is not so precise as the symbol , for or has two shades of meaning, as mentioned earlier. Tautology and Contradiction. Denition 12.3.1 A statement is called a tautology if it is always true. It is a contradiction is it is always false. An example of a tautology and an example of a contradiction are given in the following theorem. Theorem 12.3.3 If p S, then p contradiction. p is a tautology and p p is a

The proof follows from the following Truth-Table. p T F p F T p p T T p p F F

The statement p p is always true. This is called the principle of the excluded middle. The sentence p p is always false. This is known as the principle of contradiction. Example 12.3.1 The sentence (p q) r contains three atoms. Each atom may be true or false. Hence there are 23 = 8 possible assignments of truth-values to the atoms. For each assignment the truth-value of the sentence can be determined from its structure. p T T T F T F F F q T T F T F T F F r T F T T F F T F q) p T T F F F F F F q (p q) F F T T T T T T (p q) T F T T T T T T r

The sentence (p false.

r is false only when p and q are true and r is

12.4 Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive Theorem 12.3.4 If p, q S, p q p q.

167

In the Truth-Table given below, p q and p bution of truth-values. So, they are equivalent. p T T F F q T F T F pq T F T T p q T F T T

q have the same distri-

12.4

Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive

Most propositions in Mathematics are stated in the form if p, then q. There are two important transformations of this form. 1. Interchanging p and q. 2. Substituting p and q for p and q respectively. Applying these transformations to if p, then q we get three more propositions: if q, then p, if p, then q, and if q, then p, which are respectively called the converse, the inverse and the contrapositive of the given proposition. Denition 12.4.1 Converse, Inverse, and Contrapositive. Given the proposition p q, 1. q p is the Converse 2. p q is the Inverse, and 3. q p is the Contrapositive. Example 12.4.1 Let us consider the proposition: If the quadrilateral ABCD is a square, then seg AC, seg BD bisect each other. Converse If seg AC, seg BD bisect each other, then the quadrilateral ABCD is a square.

168

Mathematical Logic

Inverse If the quadrilateral ABCD is not a square, then seg AC, seg BD do not bisect each other. Contrapositive If seg AC, seg BD do not bisect each other, then the quadrilateral ABCD is not a square. Here the proposition and its contrapositive are true. But the converse and the inverse are false. When a conditional proposition is true, its contrapositive is also true, but the converse and inverse may not be true. If the converse is true the inverse is also true. The Truth-table for the converse, inverse, and contrapositive is given below. p q, and its converse, inverse, and contrapositive Proposition pq T F T T converse qp T T F T inverse p q T T F T contrapositive q p T F T T

p T T F F

q T F T F

From the table we infer that 1. a proposition and its contrapositive are equivalent, 2. converse and inverse are equivalent. Hence we have pq q p

By an inference or argument we mean a statement drawn in accordance with the laws of logic, from a set of statements called premises. A more precise denition follows. Argument Denition 12.4.2 Suppose one or more statements P, Q, lead to a conclusion A. This can symbolically be written as P, Q, A and it is called an argument. P, Q, are called the premises or hypothesis. Every theorem in Mathematics is an argument. The Given part of it is the premises.

12.5 Summary

169

12.5

Summary

The following is a list of important laws of logic, many of which are proved in the text. p p q q p q (p (p q) q) (q p)

pq p, p q p q, q r p p p pq (p (p p p q p q) q) q q p p q p p (q r) p q, q p p (q (q r) r)

q [Modus Ponens] p r [syllogism] p [ Double Negation] p is a tautology pis a contradiction q p [Law of Contrapositive] p p q q q [De Morgans Law] q[De Morgans Law] p and p [Commutative Laws]

p q [Denial of the Antecedent] q [Armation of the consequent] p p p p (p (p q) q) (p (p r) r) q qr

12.6

Requirements for a Valid Inference

As mentioned above, every theorem is an inference. In a theorem there should be a set of well formed formulas A1 , A2 , Am forming the premises. Then if B is the conclusion, there should be a nite sequence of well

170

Mathematical Logic

formed formulas B1 , B2 , , Bm where Bn B, such that each Bi is drawn in accordance with the laws of logic from the As and the earlier Bs. The sequence B1 , B2 , Bn is said to be a proof of the last well formed formula B ( Bn ) as a conclusion from the premises A1 , A2 , Am . For the validity of the proof, each Bi must be well formed and derived from the previous formulas.

12.7

Exercises
(a) John is present.

1. Give the negations of

(b) James is present. (c) John and James are present. (d) John is present and James is absent. 2. State the converse, inverse and contrapositive of each of the following. In each case, state whether the converse is true or false. (a) If ABCD is a rectangle, the diagonals bisect each other. (b) If P is on the perpendicular bisector of seg AB, then P is equidistant from A and B. (c) If x y = 3, then x > y.