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Bonding

Chemical Bonding:
Chemical bonding is the attraction between forces that occurs between atoms, ions and molecules.

Types:
i. ii. iii. Metallic bonding Ionic bonding Covalent bonding

All these are ONLY type primary chemical bonds. They bond by exchange or share electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration.

Metallic Bonding:
Only between metals A metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and the delocalized valance electrons (delocalized: no longer attached to a particular atom)

Properties: Good electrical conductors because the delocalized valance electrons are free to move Good conductors of heat because the delocalized valance electrons are free to move Malleable and ductile High melting and boiling points because the there is strong electrostatic bond between positive metals and the negative electrons Dense Lustrous because the delocalized valance electrons reflected light

Covalent Bonding:
Covalent molecular substances or covalent bonding Covalent bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the shared electrons and the positive nuclei Covalent bonding occurs between non- metals and most compounds consisting of NONMETALS only The substances are made up of molecules

Properties: Low melting and boiling points because it is coming over a weak intermolecular force between the molecules (van der Waals force secondary bond) Non- conductor of electricity in all states because the localised in the bond or the atom meaning there have no freedom to move aka they cant create electricity Solids are soft because of the weak secondary bond

Covalent Networks:
Include substances like carbon (diamonds and graphite) and silicon (silicon monoxide and silicon dioxide glass) These substances are made up of covalently bonded atoms in a three demonical network

Properties: Non- conductors of heat and electricity because there are no electrons that are localized within the bond Very high melting and boiling points Very hard and brittle Insoluble in water and must other solvents strongly bonded within the bond

Allotropes of Carbon: Some other elements can exist in different forms e.g. carbon and sulphur For carbon diamonds and graphite Diamonds: i) Non-conductors of heat and electricity ii) Hardest substance known Graphite: i) Conducts electricity- because the 4th Carbon atom is delocalized ii) Excellent lubricant because of the weak secondary bond in-between the layers

Ionic Bonding:
Electrostatic attraction between the positive and negative ions Metals have a few valence electrons and form positive ions Non- metals have many valence electrons and form negative ions Ionic compounds are formed when metals transfer valance electrons to the non-metals

Properties: Poor electrical conductors in a solid phase electrons there are no valence electrons that are free to move Good electrical conductors in a molten state- this is because the ions are free to move Good electrical conductors in an aqueous solution Hard electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions Brittle electrostatic repulsion (breaks in chunks rather than gold dust) High melting and boiling points electrostatic attraction the positive and negative ions