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CHAPTER 12 PART 2 ESOPHAGUS Distensible muscular tube extending between pharynx and stomach Shortest in fishes and neckless

ss tetrapods

degeneration and are shed as a holocrine secretion o Holocrine secretion pigeons milk regurgitated along with partially digested food and fed to nestlings

Fishes: It serves as a sphincter that closes the

passageway to the stomach during the phase of respiration when water is being forced across the gills. Conducts foodstuffs to the stomach. w/ glands in its linings that secrete only mucus Striated muscle (cephalic end of a long esophagus) gradually becomes smooth muscle further down (except in ruminants) o Ruminants: striated muscle continues onto the walls of the rumen of the stomach o Lining of rumen similar to lining of esophagus; produces no digestive enzymes Lined by a stratified squamous epithelium o Terrestrial turtles, birds, few mammals: cornified epithelium, enabling the lining to withstand abrasion caused by roughage in the diet o Marine turtles: esophagus in lined by horny papillae that are directed backward, preventing regurgitation while making it easy to swallow slippery seaweed o Paired or unpaired membranous diverticulum or sac found chiefly in grain eaters (used for hoarding seeds and grains until stomach is empty) o Stimulus (prolactin of pituitary) cells of the glandular area of the lining of sac undergo fatty

Vampire bats: esophagus has a very narrow lumen

only for fluid passage (sanguinivorous diet!) STOMACH A muscular chamber or series of chambers that: o Serves as a receiving site for recently ingested foods o Secretes digestive enzymes and lubricatory mucus Mucus and enzymes partially liquefies solid foods before they are injected into the small intestine o Macerates food while mixing it with the gastric juices

Terminates at the pylorus

o Opening from the stomach leading to the duodenum o Surrounded by a ring of smooth muscles pyloric sphincter Craniates other than amphibians and living agnathans: o First chamber usually serves as temporary holding site for recently ingested food epithelium similar to that of esophagus (many mucus glands and no gastric glands) sometimes develop flexures to produces J- or Ushaped stomachs

Birds: may crop

o lesser curvature concave border o greater curvature convex border mammals: the embryonic dorsal border
connected to the coelomic roof by the dorsal mesentery, mesogaster (draped like a curtain between ventral body wall and the intestines)

o o o

Sharks J-shaped Teleosts stomach is one large cecum Chimaeras and lungfishes no definite stomach or poorly differentiated and lacks digestive glands.

Frogs: stomach is not distinguished grossly from

esophagus (both structures are capable of enormous distension)

The mesogaster constitutes the greater

omentum double walled

Crocodilians and Birds: stomach is divided into two


Lesser peritoneal cavity a small part of

the coelom w/n the greater omentum; it remains continuous w/ the main abdominal coelom via a small passageway, epiploic foramen

o o

Mammals: stomachs + part of dorsal mesentery undergo torsion in addition to development of flexures so that they are positioned more or less crosswise in the trunk

Proventriculus secretes digestive enzymes Gizzard lined w/ a horny membrane; a grinding mill that makes a mash of food mixed w/ gastric secretions Swallowed pebbles stay in the gizzard and assist in food maceration. Carnivorous birds: proventriculus and gizzard are less well differentiated

Living agnathans: no definite stomach

o Digestive tract is a long tube from mouth to vent w/o gross differentiation of esophagus, stomach or intestine Epithelium is a single layer of cells including goblet cells that secrete mucus and flaskshaped cells that synthesize proteolytic (protein-splitting) enzymes. The bases of these cells are in contact w/the underlying vascularized layer of mucosa from w/c they receive nourishment.

Humans: o Cardiac portion region at the base of o

esophagus Fundus lateral to the cardiac portion, characterized by a specific array of gastric glands Body of the stomach region between the greater and lesser curvatures Pyloric portion preceding the pylorous; it houses the pyloric canal The orientation of the stomach in life is less transverse than in cadavers. The shape varies with posture, volume of contents, and activity of intestines on which the stomach rests.

o o o

Fishes: o Stomachs display a wide variety of shapes o Epithelium is sometimes ciliated o Gar almost straight stomach

Fundic glands elongated simple tubular glands,

many w/ 2 tubules that open into a single terminal duct. They contain several types of cells in their epithelium: o Zymogenic/Chief cells synthesize and release the preenzyme pepsinogen o Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid o Goblet cells found mostly in the neck of the tubule o Hydrochloric acids splits pepsin from pepsiongen and pepsin initiates protein digestion to yield absorbable amino acids. o Mucous cells lubricate the lining and provide a vehicle for the accumulating products of digestion.

The cardiac and pyloric regions of the human stomach

can be distinguished from other regions based on histology of their glands neither have zymogenic cells. o Mucosa (cardiac region) resembles that of the lower end of esophagus.

glands are compound tubular w/ many

goblet cells a few parietal cells are also present. Pyloric glands are simple branched tubular glands. They extend deeper into the mucosa than other types. Have many goblet cells and relatively few parietal cells. Between fundus and pyloric region, the mucosa exhibits typical gastric glands like

those of the fundus, w/ a gradual shift toward a pyloric mucosa in the lower third of the organ. Stomach is divided into several distinct chambers in animals whose food requires prolonged processing. o Ruminant adapted for processing cellulose: o Mouth manipulated and swallowed w/o processing o Esophagus o Rumen food becomes mixed with mucus and cellulase Cellulase is secreted by a multitude of anaerobic bacteria that live in the rumen. o Reticulum where mucus, enzyme and vegetation pass in intervals from the rumen. Its lining is reticulated by ridges and deep pits Cellulose fermentation continues Small boluses or cuds of fermenting pulp are regurgitated for further maceration by the teeth o Omasum - a temporary holding site where thoroughly masticated mash is passed o Abomasum true glandular stomach where gastric enzymes are added to the mash.

The lining of other chambers are much

like that of the esophagus. A few components of the diet (other than water) of craniates are absorbed in the stomach. o Chyme soupy mixture, accumulating product of the stomach o Low chyme pH is detected by visceral receptors and they trigger a reflex arc that

relaxes the pyloric sphincter for the injection of chyme into the duodenum. INTESTINE Begins at the pyloric sphincter and ends at its entrance into the cloaca or anus.


Duodenum first segment of the small intestine and is short and curved The remainder of the intestine is coiled (except in urodeles and apodans)

Lizards, birds (low) and mammals (tall):

lined w/ fingerlike or leaflike villi. Crowding makes it look velvety. The villi greatly increase the absorptive surface of the intestine.

Fishes: no differentiation between small and large

segments of the intestine o Living agnathans, chondricthyes, and basal bony fishes intestine is quite straight o Few teleosts (eg killfish) exhibit intestinal coiling; rare! o Fishes other than teleosts with spiral intestine has a spiral valve or typhlosole suspended w/n its lumen

Lacteals dead end lymph vessels in

which digested lipids absorbed in the villi enter. Lacteals pump chyle (milky fluid) into larger lymphatics that eventually empty into the bloodstream. o Mammals: the part of the intestine beyond the duodenum is divided into two parts: jejunum and ileum Division is based on: Shape of villi Nature of epithelial lining Size of lymph nodules in the mucosa Small nodules common throughout the length of the intestine

Postvalvular instestine beyond the

spiral intestine w/c leads to the cloaca

Living agnathans have typhlosole

pero parang projections lang and only makes a few spirals Intestinal ceca major adaptations for increasing the absorptive area of teleost intestine

Pyloric ceca most common;

diverticula near the pylorus Mackerel have up to 200 pyloric ceca Sharks - rectal gland cecum-like and fingershaped duct w/c empties into the short postvalvular intestine No digestive function. It extracts and excretes excess sodium chloride from the blood.

Peyers patches large masses of

small nodules in the ileum

Ileocolic sphincter terminates the

small intestine of amniotes. It regulates the ejection of the contents of ileum into the large intestine. o The small intestine is the chief site of digestion and absorption of nutrients.

Tetrapods: Small Intestine

o The final stage of digestion that results in absorbable nutrients takes place in the small intestine in the presence of intestinal juice and pancreatic enzymes.

between its ascending and descending portions.

Humans: descending colon ends in a sigmoid flexure

Intestinal juice secretes enzymes

that are secreted by lands in the epithelial lining of the crypts and by compound alveolar glands near the pylorus. The enzymes split:

Rectum straight terminal portion in o

pelvic cavity Ceca are common in the large intestine. Ceca are uncommon in fishes and amphibians. Ileocolic ceca just beyond ileocolic sphincter; common in amniotes. Two in birds. Abbreviated in carnivores.

Polypeptides amino acids Disaccharides monosaccharides

Pancreatic juices contribute: Amylase acts on carbs Lipase digests lipids yielding
absorbable fatty acids and glycerol Proteolytic enzymes continue the digestion initiated by pepsin o The digestive process reaches a crescendo in the small intestine. Pagdating sa ileocolic sphincter, water + undigestibel roughage na lang yung natira coz all recoverable nutrients were already absorbed. Tetrapods: Large Intestine o The large intestine is rarely coiled but ceca are common. o Mammals, some reptiles, birds: large intestine is divided into:

Koala: cecum may reach 6 ft where cellulose is converted for more than a week into absorbable carbohydrates as in rumen of ungulates.

Low nutritional value of diet (eucalyptus leaves, bark, buds and unripened woody fruits), large gut capacity

Colon commences at ileocolic

sphincter and in mammals, has flexures

Hyrax feeds on seeds, fruits, and leaves. Has ileocolic cecum, colic flexures, bicornuate cecum, & intestinal coil before reaching the rectum. o Appendix terminates the cecum in anthropoids, rodents, and many mammals. Its lumen and histology is similar to that of ceca

o The colon in all tetrapods recovers water from the residual contents (feces) of intestine. Important to prevent dehydration LIVER AND GALLBLADDER

The two ligaments constitute the

lesser omentum serves as a bridge that conducts the common bile duct to the duodenum and the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein to the liver.

The embryonic mesentery ventral to the liver remains

as the falciform ligament. o The shape of the liver conforms to the space available in the coelom. The liver has many roles. o Produces bile (alkaline fluid containing bile salts) Emulsifies lipids in small intestine Imparts alkalinity necessary for digestion o Phagocytose aging red blood cells Splits the hemoglobin molecule, freeing Fe

The liver arises from the midventral aspect of the

midgut as a hollow cecumlike diverticulum, the liver bud. o Gives rise to numerous sprouts liver and gallbladder o Coronary ligament anchors the cephalic pole of the liver to the embryonic transverse septum Drainage: o Adult liver is drained by several hepatic ducts. o Gallbladder is drained by a cystic duct. o Common bile duct site of convergence of hepatic and cystic ducts. Bile from liver can pass through the cystic duct to be stored in the gallbladder. o Ampulla of Vater constituted by a short terminal segment of the common bile duct embedded in the wall of the duodenum. Most of the embryonic ventral mesentery disappears during development but the part ventral to the duodenum and stomach remains as: o Hepatoduodenal ligament connects the duodenum and liver o Gastrohepatic ligament connects the pyloric stomach and liver

The rest of the molecule is converted to

bilirubin (red) and biliverdin (green pigment) that are excreted as part of the bile. Removes excess glucose from circulation

Glucose is converted to glucose-6phosphate and stored in the liver as glycogen, w/c is converted back to glucose when needed. Removes dietary amino acids from the hepatic portal system and deaminates them.

By-products of deamination: ammonia,

o uric acid and urea excreted in urine. Manufactures several blood proteins

Fibrinogen and prothrombin

essential for blood clotting. The gallbladder develops in most craniates. o Lampreys, few teleosts, birds, perissodactyls, whales and some rodents no gallbladder o Pag little fat in diet, no gallbladder!


The pancreas consists of two histologically distinct

and functionally independent components (always part of the same organ): o Exocrine pancreas produces digestive enzymes in the alveoli (acini) that are transported via pancreatic ducts to the duodenum. o Endocrine pancreas bears islands of Langerhans, lacks ducts, and thus secretes its products insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Varies from diffuse to compact. o Teleosts and many other craniates diffuse pancreatic tissue is distributed along the blood vessels in the ventral mesentery of the stomach and duodenum. o Compact may consist of several lobes o Living agnathans no definitive pancreas, the exocrine and endocrine components are spatially separated and many exocrine cells remain in the intestinal epithelium. pancreas arises as: o one or two ventral pancreatic buds from the liver bud invade the ventral mesentery of the duodenum and stomach that coalesce to form the body of the pancreas

single dorsal pancreatic bud from foregut immediately caudal to stomach becomes the tail of the pancreas o Sharks: pancreas arises entirely from dorsal bud o Mammals: pancreas arises from one ventral and one dorsal bud Craniates may have as many pancreatic ducts as buds but often one or more ducts loses its connection w/ bile duct or gut from w/c it evaginated.

Accessory pancreatic duct refers to the smaller of

the ducts when one is bigger than the other. CLOACA Latin sewer Common chamber into which the digestive, urinary, and genital tracts empty and vents to the exterior.

Fishes and most mammals other than therians:

present cloaca

Lampreys, chimaeras, living female coelacanths, and

ray-finned fishes: embryonic cloaca becomes increasingly shallow or disappears as development proceeds and the digestive tract eventually opens independently to the exterior.

Therian mammals: cloaca becomes partitioned into

two or three separate passageways, including the rectum leading to an anus.