STONSKE ZIDINE STON CITY WALLS

Ljubo Gamulin

Društvo prijatelja dubrovačke starine Dubrovnik, 2011.

Ljubo Gamulin
STONSKE ZIDINE STON CITY WALLS

Društvo prijatelja dubrovačke starine Dubrovnik, 2011.

Svaki povijesni spomenik pretpostavlja psihološki i estetski dodir s pojedincem i društvom u cjelini te najočitije otkriva uvijek nova pitanja o odnosima umjetnosti i društva. Poznato je da arhitektura oblikuje prostor oko nas, no možda je ipak bolje reći da arhitektonsko djelo otvara prostor. Jedna od funkcija povijesnog spomenika, koja prelazi granice isključivo estetskih kriterija, jest urbanistička funkcija, koja podržava senzibilan i dinamičan odnos s krajolikom ili urbanom okolinom, što jasno svjedoči primjer stonskih zidina. Povijest arhitekture zapravo nam se otkriva kao razvoj svijesti i mišljenja o prostoru i u prostoru, odnosno svijesti o duhovnom biću prostora stvaranoga od nas i za nas, o djelu koje je uvijek poticala najobičnija funkcija življenja. Gradnja Stona i Malog Stona prvi su zahvati prostornog planiranja koje je Dubrovnik poduzeo izvan samoga grada, ostvarena za čovjeka i po mjeri čovjeka, ujedinjujući funkcionalne i estetske zahtjeve. Tako je estetska komponenta uočljiva i u samom oblikovanju gradskih utvrda jer stonski zidovi i kule nemaju samo utilitarnu nego i simboličnu funkciju kao izričaj posebnosti tog dijela Dubrovačke Republike.1 Grad Ston, naime, smješten je na najpovoljnijem mjestu uz Prevlaku, odnosno uz ulaz na poluotok Pelješac, a najveća je vrijednost Stona upravo u njegovoj planiranoj urbanoj koncepciji. Grad je koncipiran iz tri dijela, koja čine jedinstvenu cjelinu, upravo kako bi se što povoljnije iskoristile sve prostorne danosti i osigurala potpuna dominacija čitavim prostorom. Južna luka Broce omogućivala je stalni promet i trgovinu Jadranom, što je bilo od vitalnog značenja za Republiku, posebice i kao glavna veza i komunikacija s Dubrovnikom jer je zaleđe bilo nesigurno. Mali Ston je, pak, osmišljen i planiran na strateški najvažnijemu mjestu sa zadaćom istaknute utvrde grada Stona, luke i trgovišta sa zaleđem, „unutarnjim” morem i Neretvom.2 U tom utvrđenom tripartitnom sustavu srednjovjekovnoga grada Mali Ston preuzima ulogu citadele, ali i „vrata” Pelješca.3 Vjerojatno je već u razdoblju kasne antike izgrađen obrambeni zid poprečno postavljen na polje u dolini sela Zamaslina, na samom spoju poluotoka Pelješca i kopna.4 Izgrađen poprečno na udolinu, taj obrambeni zid branio je pristup gradu s istoka, što upućuje na to da je i u tom ranom razdoblju stonski prostor bio značajna zajednica koja ima potrebe za obranom i zaštitom suprotstavljajući se nesigurnostima svakidašnjeg života. Osvojivši široko agrarno područje izvan grada, od Župe do Pelješkoga kanala, Dubrovčani su 1335. godine izradili projekt fortifikacijske zaštite čitavog poluotoka Pelješca, te je u 14. stoljeću nastao najmonumentalniji urbanistički zahvat gotike na hrvatskom tlu regionalnog značenja i dimenzija: Veliki i Mali Ston.5 Jedinstveni kompleks jakih utvrda sastoji se od gradskih zidina grada Stona, smještenoga uz obalu na padini južne strane prevlake, i Velikog zida (dugačkoga oko 5,5 km) koji je sagrađen preko brijega, te spaja obje gradske utvrde, a povezan je i snažnom tvrđavom Podzvizd, smještenom na istoimenom vrhuncu koji dominira cijelom prevlakom. Perimetralne zidine, pojačane kulama, okružuju Ston u tlocrtnoj liniji peterokuta, a Mali Ston u tlocrtnoj liniji izduženog pravokutnika. Obrana Stona dodatno je bila ojačana s morske strane utvrdom Veliki kaštio, a Mali Ston branio se utvrdom Koruna, koja s kopnene strane nadvisuje gradske zidine.6 Značenje utvrđivanja grada Stona zrcali se i u činjenici što su na tim poslovima bili angažirani najvještiji majstori koji u to vrijeme

rade u Dubrovniku.7 U razdoblju između 1461. i 1464. godine na stonskim utvrdama radio je i firentinski arhitekt Michelozzo po narudžbi Dubrovačke Republike. Ipak, najzanimljiviji je rad općinskog inženjera Paskoja Miličevića, koji je sagradio oblu sjeveroistočnu kulu uz srednjovjekovni Veliki kaštel. Na stonskim zidinama vrlo su rano primijenjene i okrugle kule (1455. g.), i to ponajprije na potezu zida istočno uz Podzvizd. Vrlo lijepu okruglu kulu – Toljevac, koja brani luku Malog Stona, također pripisuju Paskoju Miličeviću.8 Stonske utvrde sastoje se od zidina Stona i Malog Stona, Velikog zida s navedenim trima tvrđavama, a zidine i tvrđave bile su flankirane sa 10 okruglih i 31 četvrtastom kulom te 6 polukružnih bastiona. Složeni obrambeni stonski korpus oblikovao se gotovo četiri stoljeća, prilagođujući se terenu i razvoju naoružanja. Dio velikog zida, koji je zatvarao istočnu stranu grada i vodio do Velikoga kaštela, porušen je 1874. godine. Od kule Minčeta na sjeverozapadu pa do Velikoga kaštela bilo je ispred gradskog zida bastionirano predziđe koje se djelomično vidi i danas, a počinje poluokruglim dvotarasnim bastionom Sokolić i spušta se do jugozapadnog ugla grada, gdje je poluokrugli presvođeni bastion Arcimon, od kojega se to predziđe protezalo do Velikoga kaštela.9 Nažalost, 1667. godine urušilo se oko 0,5 km zidina u katastrofalnom potresu, a zidine su znatno oštećene i u potresima 1979. i 1996. godine. Tijekom 19. stoljeća, za austrijske vlasti, stonske zidine bile su prilično zapuštene i tek su u drugoj polovici 20. stoljeća istinski valorizirane, što je potpuno realizirano 2009. godine otvaranjem većeg dijela ponovno uređenih stonskih zidina za upotrebu posjetitelja. Stonske zidine posebne su po svojoj dužini (smatra se da su to najduže srednjovjekovne zidine na europskom kontinentu), sačuvanosti te jednostavnoj i uzvišenoj ljepoti.10 Cjeloviti ansambl Stona i Malog Stona s obrambenim zidinama tvori jedinstvenu kreaciju fortifikacija koje su srasle s konfiguracijom terena. Naposljetku, Ston se nije oblikovao samo kao puka tvrđava već i kao likovno osmišljen grad. Riječ je o utvrdnom urbanističkom sklopu na pelješkoj prevlaci koji je iznimno ostvarenje ljudskog društvenog posredovanja u prostoru i vremenu. Naš je odnos prema vlastitom kruženju estetičan, i kao takav estetski je čin bitna karakteristika ljudske egzistencije. Pritom je indikativno prisjetiti se riječi Victora Hugoa, koji je napisao 1825. godine: „Dvije su stvari vezane za neku građevinu: korištenje njome i njezina ljepota. Korištenje njome pripada vlasniku, a njezina ljepota pripada svima.”11 Sandra Uskoković

C. Fisković, O Stonu i stonskim spomenicima, Horizonti, 4/1970., 109 – 114. P. Glumičić, Iz prošlosti grada Stona XIV-XIX vijeka, Spomenik SAN, ser. 13, Beograd, 1961., 54. 3 Lukša Beritić, Stonske utvrde, Anali Historijskog instituta JAZU u Dubrovniku Iii, 1954., 27. 4 Marin Zaninović, Zid kod Zamasline, Zbornik radova u čast 650. obljetnice planske izgradnje Stona i Malog Stona, Ston, 1987., 19 – 22. 5 Radovan Ivančević, Umjetničko blago Hrvatske, ITP Motovun, 1993., 89. 6 Andro Mohorovičić, Graditeljstvo u Hrvatskoj, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1992., 71.
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Lukša Beritić, Stonske utvrde, Anali Historijskog instituta JAZU u Dubrovniku Iii, 1954., 43. Maja Planić Lončarić, Organizacija prostora, Urbanizam, Zlatno doba Dubrovnika XV i XVI stoljeće, 1987., 289 – 324. 9 Ante Dračevac, Dva važna arheološka nalaza za povijest Stona. Dubrovački horizonti, 2(1970)5, str. 35 – 39... 10 Maja Planić Lončarić, Organizacija prostora, Urbanizam, Zlatno doba Dubrovnika XV i XVI stoljeće, 1987., 289 – 324. 11 François Choay, The Invention of the Historic Monument, Cambridge University Press, 2001., 68.
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Each historic monument represents psychological and aesthetic encounter with the individual and the society in large, while simultaneously revealing new questions about relationship between art and society. The architecture forms space around us, but it might be more appropriate to say that each architectural work reveals space. One of the monument’ functions that is surpassing the limits of aesthetic criteria, is its urban function that supports sensible and dynamic relationship with the landscape or urban environment, that city walls of Ston unambiguously illustrate. History of architecture can be defined as the development of the ideas about space and in space and that is actually the awareness about space created by ourselves and for ourselves, and about architectural work that has always been fostered by simple function of living. The city of Ston is the example of the first urban planning that Dubrovnik undertook beyond its city’ walls, and that was shaped by the human measure, thus unifying functional and aesthetic requirements. Therefore, aesthetic component is equally represented in the design of the city walls that are not only conceived as utility’ building but also have a symbolic function as the expression of the specific position and role of that area within the Republic of Dubrovnik.1 The city of Ston is located at the most suitable place close to Prevlaka, that is at the entrance to the peninsula Pelješac. The most important value of the city is recognized in its urban planning layout. The city was composed of three parts in order to benefit from spatial context and to archive complete domination over the land. The southern port of Broce has been securing the constant traffic and trade along the Adriatic coast what had been of vital significance to the Republic of Dubrovnik, and also had the role as the main communication link to Dubrovnik with the respect to the turbulent hinterland. On the other hand, Mali Ston was conceived and planned at the most important strategic location within the fortification’ system of Ston, along with its harbor and trading routes with hinterland and the adjacent region of Neretva.2 Such location enabled Mali Ston to take the role of the citadella and the „main entrance” of the peninsula Pelješac.3 Old defense wall that is laid out across the Ston’ field in the village Zamaslina was probably already built in the late antiquity.4 This wall defended the access to the city from the East, and thus evidence today that in this early time period Ston was important community that had the need to defense and protect itself against insecurities of everyday life. The Republic of Dubrovnik has conquered vast agrarian land from Župa to peninsula Pelješac, and consequently during 1335 built fortification’ system around peninsula Pelješac, thus creating the most monumental urban achievement during Gothic period in Croatia: Ston and Mali Ston.5 The unique fortification’ system consists of city walls of Ston, that are located along the coast on the southern part of Prevlaka, and the Big Wall (5,5 km long) that was built across the hill and has been connected with the massive fortress Podzvizd, located on the hill that dominates this area. The perimeter of city walls enforced by towers, encircles Ston in the shape of the pentagon, and Mali Ston in the shape of the elongated rectangle. The defence of Ston was additionally strengthened on the sea side with the fortress Veliki kaštio, while Mali Ston has been defending itself with fortress Koruna located above city walls.6 The significance

of the city walls of Ston is furthermore recognized through historical records that indicate the most skillful builders of that time engaged in the design of fortification’ system of Ston.7 During 1461 -1464 famous florentine architect Michelozzo was engaged as the fortification’ builder by the Republic of Dubrovnik. The most interesting work was done by the local engineer Paskoje Miličević who designed north-eastern fortress along the medieval fortress Veliki kaštel. Rounded towers were designed as well already in 1455 along eastern wall close to Podzvizd. Elegantly shaped rounded tower Toljevac that defended the harbor of Mali Ston had also been designed by Paskoje Miličević.8 The fortification system’ of Ston is composed of city walls of Ston and Mali Ston, Big Wall, and numerous towers and bulwarks along the defence walls. The complex fortification system has been designed during the entire four centuries while adapting itself to the land’ configuration and the development of the arms. The part of the Big Wall that was enclosing the eastern part of the city was destroyed in 1874. Between fortress Minčeta located in northern part of city walls and the fortress Veliki kaštio on the south , there was another city wall whose remains are still partially visible today and that was laid out close to the bulwark Sokolić spreading towards the southwestern part of the city and the bulwark Arcimon.9 Unfortunately during the major earthquake in 1667 about 0,5 kilometers of the city walls have collapsed, and then again city walls have been damaged during the earthquakes in 1979 and 1996. During the 19th century under the Austrian Empire rule, the city walls of Ston were mostly neglected and it was not before second half of the 20th century that they have gained full valorisation what was furthermore emphasized with the opening of the major part of the city walls for the public in 2009. The city walls of Ston are exceptional because of its length (they are considered to be the longest medieval city walls in Europe), its state of preservation and its simple but outstanding beauty.10 The whole complex of Ston and Mali Ston with defense walls forms unique creation of fortification that have been grew together with the landscape. Finally, the city of Ston was not built and designed just as a fortification but also as a visually appealing urban formation. Designed as a fortified urban complex at the peninsula Pelješac, this city represents extraordinary achievement of the human social interaction with the space and time. Our relationship towards the surrounding environment is an aesthetic one, what is the important characteristic of human existence. It is indicative thus to recall the words of Victor Hugo who wrote in 1825: „ There are two things related to a building: its use and its beauty. Its usage belongs to the owner, while its beauty belongs to all of us “11. Sandra Uskoković

C. Fisković, O Stonu i stonskim spomenicima , Horizonti, 4/1970, 109 –114. P. Glumičić, Iz prošlosti grada Stona XIV-XIX vijeka, Spomenik SAN ser.13, Beograd 1961, 54. 3 Lukša Beritić, Stonske utvrde, Anali Historijskog instituta JAZU u Dubrovniku III, 1954, 27. 4 Marin Zaninović, Zid kod Zamasline, Zbornik radova u čast 650. obljetnice planske izgradnje Stona i Malog Stona, Ston 1987., 19 – 22. 5 Radovan Ivančević, Umjetničko blago Hrvatske, ITP Motovun, 1993, 89. 6 Andro Mohorovičić, Graditeljstvo u Hrvatskoj, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1992, 71.
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Lukša Beritić, Stonske utvrde, Anali Historijskog instituta JAZU u Dubrovniku Iii, 1954, 43. Maja Planić Lončarić, Organizacija prostora, Urbanizam, Zlatno doba Dubrovnika XV i XVI. stoljeće, 1987, 289 –324. 9 Ante Dračevac, Dva važna arheološka nalaza za povijest Stona, Dubrovački horizonti, 2(1970)5, 35 – 39... 10 Maja Planić Lončarić, Organizacija prostora, Urbanizam, Zlatno doba Dubrovnika XV i XVI. stoljeće, 1987, 289 – 324. 11 Francois Choay, The Invention of the Historic Monument, Cambridge University Press, 2001, 68.
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Ljubo Gamulin također je dozvano dobro. Nitko kao on, Dubrovčanin, ne bi tako prozirao tvrdoću kamena. Nitko kao on, majstor klasične slike, ne bi tu klasičnu dimenziju znao učiniti istodobno tako lirskom i tako dramatičnom. Istina je, stonske su zidine velike. Ali u fotografijama Ljuba Gamulina one nisu samo velike. Kraja im nema. Željka Čorak Ljubo Gamulin is himself an evoked good. Nobody like him, a native from Dubrovnik, could perceive through the hardness of stone. Nobody like him, master of the classical photography, could make that classical dimension which is at the same time: lyrical and dramatic. The truth is the Walls of Ston are great. But in the photos of Ljubo Gamulin it is not just greatness we see, it all continues to infinity. Željka Čorak

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