Top
Average
x,f xf ( = 1.5)
xf (
)
( = 1.45)
xf (
)
TBA 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.4950 0.4950 -0.9900 -1.1000
PO 4.2098 1.0255 2.6177 0.4950 1.2957 1.1593 1.1097
Acetone 0.0000 0.4540 0.4540 0.0100 0.0045 -0.0043 -0.0046
total 1.000 0.165 0.0051
= 1.45 acceptable because this value will approximately xf ( ) = 0.
Table 1.3: Calculation value of Rm
Component xd
xd
(xd ) / (
)
TBA 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
PO 0.9844 2.6177 2.5768 2.2068
Acetone 0.0156 0.4540 0.0071 -0.0071
Total 1.0000 2.1997
Hence,
The minimum reflux ratio
Rm + 1 = 2.2
Rm = 1.2
Reflux ratio (R) = 1.2
The liquid and vapor streams in the column
Above the feed point:
Vapour flow rate:
Vn = D (R+1)
D = distillate molar flowrate
R = Reflux ratio
Hence,
Vn = 721.2491 (1.2 + 1)
= 1586.7480 kmol/hr
Liquid down flow:
Ln = Vn D
= 1586.7480 - 721.249
= 865.4990 kmol/hr
Below the feed point:
Liquid flow rate:
Lm = Ln + F
F = feed molar flowrate
Hence,
Lm = 865.4990 + 1430.119
= 2295.618 kmol/hr
Vapour flow rate:
Vm = Lm W
W = bottom molar flowrate
Hence,
Vm = 2295.618 - 708.8699
= 1586.7481 kmol/hr
The equation for the operating lines below the feed plate:
Ym = (Lm / Vm )(Xm +1) (W / Vm) (Xw)
= (2295.618 / 1586.7481) ( Xm + 1) (708.8699 / 1586.7481)
(0.0011)
= 1.45 ( Xm + 1) 0.00049
The equation for the operating lines above the feed plate:
Yn = (Ln / Vn) (Xn + 1) + (D / Vn) Xd
= (865.499 / 1586.7480) (Xn + 1) + (721.2491 / 1586.7480)
(0.9844)
= 0.55 (Xn + 1) + 0.4475
1.2.22 CALCULATE BUBBLE POINT AND DEW POINT
Using Antoine equation
To get the partial pressure for each component and the value
Log P = A - B / (T+ C)
Ki = Po / P total
Table 1.4: The value of coefficient
Component A B C
TBA 16.8548 2658.29 -95.5
PO 15.327 2107.58 -64.87
HO (Acetone) 16.6513 2940.46 -35.93
Bubble point at the feed
T= 51
0
C or 324k and the operating pressure = 760mmHg
Table 1.5: Calculation for bubble point Temperature
Component Xf = xi Pi (mmHg) Ki yi = Ki xi
TBA 0.4950 194.7734 0.2563 0.1269
PO 0.4950 1373.3030 1.8070 0.8945
HO (Acetone) 0.0100 651.4247 0.8571 0.0086
1.0000 1.0299
yi = Ki xi value is close to 1.0, accept this temperature. Hence, the bubble point
temperature is 51
0
C.
Dew point (Top column)
T= 35
0
C or 308k and the operating pressure = 760mmHg.
Table 1.6: Calculation for dew point Temperature
Component Yi = xd = xi Pi (mmHg) Ki xi = yi / ki
PO 0.9844 779.3566 1.0255 0.9600
HO (Acetone) 0.0156 345.0077 0.4540 0.0344
1.0000 0.9943
xi = yi / ki value is close to 1.0, accept this temperature. Hence, the dew point
temperature is 35
0
C.
Bubble point (Bottom column)
T= 83
0
C or 356k and the operating pressure = 760mmHg
Table 1.7: Calculation for bubble point temperature
Component Xi = xw Pi (mmHg) Ki yi = Ki xi
TBA 0.9989 772.9635 1.0171 1.0159
PO 0.0011 3254.1653 4.2818 0.0047
1.000 1.0206
yi = Ki xi value is close to 1.0, accept this temperature. Hence, the bubble point
temperature is 83
0
C.
1.2.23 CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF STAGES
Using the Connells Correlation, equation 11.67 (Coulson & Richardsons) vol.6
page 549. This equation only considered the viscosity and volatility of each
component to determine the plate efficiency.
Eo = 51 -32.5 Log ()
= viscosity (mNs/m2)
= relative volatility for light.
Viscosity at average temperature
= (T at top + T at bottom) / 2
= (35 + 83) / 2
= 59
0
C = 332 K
Log (viscosity) = (VISA) x { (1/T) (1/VISB) }
Table 1.8: Viscosity of TBA, PO and Acetone.
Component VISA VISB
TBA 972.10 363.38 1.79
PO 377.43 213.36 0.23
HO (Acetone) 367.25 209.68 0.23
Molar average viscosity of feed, = 0.495 (1.79) + 0.495(0.23) + 0.01(0.23)
= 1.0022 mNs/m
2
.
Relative volatility for light key
= K light key / K heavy key
Here, the light key is PO and the heavy key is TBA
Table 1.9: Relative volatility
PO Top column Bottom column
ki 1.0255 4.2818
1.0255 4.2098
Average relative volatility = (1.0255 + 4.2098)/ 2
= 2.618
Hence, the plate efficiency
Eo = 51 -32.5 Log ()
= 51 -32.5 log (1.0022 x 2.618)
= 0.37
Minimum number of stages:
Fenske equation, equation 11.58 (Coulson & Richardsons) vol.6 page 524
Nm = Log [x LK / x HK] d [x HK / x LK] b
Log LK
= log [0.9844] [0.9989/0.0011]
Log (2.618)
= 7 stages
The actual stages
= 2Nm 1
Eo
= 2(7)-1
0.37
= 35 stages
Determination of Feed Point Location
In order to find the feed point location, estimation can be made by using the Fenske
equation to calculate the number of stages in the rectifying and stripping section
separately, but this requires an estimate of the feed point temperature. As an
alternative approach, here I use the empirical equation given by Kirkbride (1944) as
a matter for the same objective.
Log [Nr/ Ns] = 0.206 log [ ( B/D) ( Xf, HK / Xf, LK) (Xb, HK / Xb, HK)
2
]
Where,
Nr = number of stages above the feed, include the condenser
Ns = number of stages below the feed, include the reboiler
B = molar flow bottom product
D = molar flow top product
Xf, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed
Xf, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed
Xd,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product
Xb, LK = concentration of the light key in the bottom product
Hence,
Xb, HK =1/ B = 1/ 708.8699
= 0.00014
Xb, HK =1/ D = 1/ 721.2491
= 0.00013
So,
Log [Nr/Ns]= 0.206log[708.87/ 721.25) (0.495/ 1.2957) (0.00014/0.00013)
2
]
Log [Nr/ Ns] = 0.206 log (0.4355)
[Nr/ Ns] = 0.0744
Nr = 0.0744Ns
From previous calculation, number of stages, excluding the reboiler = 35
Nr + Ns = 35
Ns = 35 Nr = 35 0.0744Ns
1.0744Ns = 35
Ns = 35 / 1.0744
= 32.58
Hence, we take the location of feed point is at stages 33.
1.2.24 PRESSURE DROP
Pt = (l) x g x ht x number of real stages (N)
Assume pressure drop 200 mm liquid per plate
( l ) at bottom column =0.9989 (787) + 0.0011(829)
= 787.1 kg/m
3
g = 9.81m2/s
ht = 200 x 10
-3
m
N = 35
Hence, pt = 787.1 x 9.81 x 200 x 10
-3
x 35
= 54050.157 N/m
2
or Pa
Top pressure 1 bar = 100 x 10
3
pa
Estimated bottom pressure = 100 x 10
3
+ 54050.157
= 154050.157 Pa
= 1.54 bar
1.2.25 CALCULATION FOR DENSITY AND RELATIVE MOLAR MASS
Table 1.10: Properties of TBA, PO and Acetone
Component Molecular
weight
Feed
Mol
fraction
Top
product
Mol
fraction
Bot.
product
Mol
fraction
Liquid
density
TBA 74 0.4950 - 0.9989 787.0
PO 58 0.4950 0.9844 0.0011 829.0
HO(acetone) 58 0.0100 0.0156 - 790.0
Calculation for relative molar mass
Feed = 0.495 (74) + 0.495 (58) + 0.010 (58)
= 66.0 kg/kmol
Top product = 0.9844 (58) + 0.0156 (58)
= 58 kg/kmol
Bottom product = 0.9989 (74) + 0.0011(58)
= 74.0 kg/kmol
Calculation for density ( )
Bottom product:
Liquid density (L) = 0.9989 (787) + 0.0011(829)
= 787.1 kg/m
3
Vapour density (v) = (74 / 22.4) (273 / 356) (1.54 / 1.00)
= 3.90 kg/m
3
Top product:
Liquid density (L) = 0.9844 (829) + 0.0156 (790)
= 828.4 kg/m
3
Vapour density (v) = (58 / 22.4) (273 / 308) (1.0 / 1.0)
= 2.30 kg/m
3
1.2.26 CALCULATION SURFACE TENSION ()
Using Sugden (1924), equation 8.23 (Coulson & Richardsons) vol.6 page 334
= [ {Pch (L v)} / M ]
4
x 10
-12
Where,
= surface tension, MJ/ m
2
Pch = Sugdens parachor
L = liquid density
v = Vapour density
M = relative molecular weight
For mixture
m = 1x1 + 2 x2
Table 1.11: The Sugdens Parachor for TBA, PO and Acetone
Component Formula Pch
contribution
Top product
Mol fraction
Bot. product
Mol fraction
TBA
C4H10O
184.4 - 0.9989
PO
CH3(CHCH2)O
137 0.9844 0.0011
HO(acetone)
CH3COCH3
137 0.0156 -
Pch at top = 0.9844 (137) + 0.0156(137)
= 137
Pch at bottom = 0.9989 (184.4) + 0.0011 (137)
= 184.3
Hence,
Surface tension at top Column,
m = {[137 (828.4 - 2.30)] / 58}
4
x 10
-12
= 14.5 dyne /cm or 14.5 x 10
-3
N/m
Surface tension at bottom column,
m = {[184.3 (787.1 -3.90)] / 74}
4
x 10
-12
= 14.5 dyne / cm or 14.5 x 10
-3
N/m
1.2.27 COLUMN DIAMETER
F LV = Lm,n { v / L)
0.5
Vm,n
Where, FLV is a liquid flow factor.
FLV (Top) = 0.55 {2.30 / 828.4)
0.5
= 0.029
Where, 0.55 is the distillate operating line.
FLV (Bottom) = 1.45 {3.90 / 787.1)
0.5
= 0.102
Where, 1.45 is the bottom operating line.
Assume initially 0.9m of tray spacing, to know that flooding occurred or not.
From figure 11.27 (Coulson & Richardsons, Vol. 6 page 567) we get the value of Ki.
(Please refer APPENDIX A-1)
Hence,
Bottom Ki = 1.04 x 10
-1
Top Ki = 1.05 x 10
-1
Take hole active area 10 %,
Bottom Ki = 1.04 x 10
-1
x 1.0 = 0.104
Top Ki = 1.05 x 10
-1
x 1.0 = 0.105
Correction for surface tension,
= K
1
x ( / 0.02)
2
Which, liquid surface tension is 0.02 N/m
Bottom Ki = (14.5 x 10
-3
/ 0.02)
0.2
x 0.104 = 0.098
Top Ki = (14.5 x 10
-3
/ 0.02)
0.2
x 0.105 = 0.099
Flooding velocity,
Uf = Ki (L v) / v
Bottom Uf = 0.098 (787.1-3.9) / 3.9 = 1.39 m/s
Top Uf = 0.099 (828.4 2.3) / 2.3 = 1.87 m/s
The flooding percentage was assumed to be 90%, this is based on flooding velocity
for design, a value of 70 % to 90 %.
Bottom Uf = 1.39 m/s x 0.9 = 1.25 m/s
Top Uf = 1.8 m/s x 0.9 = 1.68 m/s
Maximum volumetric flow rate,
Bottom = { Vm ( RMM)} / v
RMM = Relative molecular mass
Bottom = 1586.7481 x 74 = 8.36 m
3
/s
3.90 x 3600
Top = { Vn ( RMM)} / v
= 1586.7480 x 58 = 11.12 m
3
/s
2.30 x 3600
Net area required = Volumetric flow rate / flooding velocity
Bottom = 8.36 / 1.25 = 6.69 m
2
Top = 11.12 / 1.68 = 6.62 m
2
As first trial, take downcomer area as 10% of total column cross sectional area
Bottom = 6.69 / 0.90 = 7.43 m
2
Top = 6.62 / 0.90 = 7.36 m
2
Column Diameter
Hence, Column cross sectional area, A = ( diameter / 2)
2
Bottom = (7.43 x 4) / = 3.08 m
Top = (7.36 x 4) / = 3.06 m
For the design take the whole diameter as 3.00 m.
1.2.28 PROVISIONAL PLATE DESIGN
Column diameter Dc = 3.00 m
Column area Ac = 7.07 m
2
Downcomer area Ad = 0.10 x 7.07 (at 10%) = 0.707 m
2
Net area An = Ac Ad = 7.07 0.707 = 6.36 m
2
Active area Aa = Ac 2Ad
= 7.07 2(0.707) = 5.66 m
2
Hole area Ah = 0.566 m
2
(take 10% of Aa as first trial)
Weir length
(Ad / Ac) x 100% = 0.707/ 7.07 x 100% = 10%
(From figure 11.31, Coulson & Richardsons, vol. 6 page 572),
(Please refer APPENDIX A-2)
Iw = 0.73 x Dc
= 0.75 x 3.00 = 2.19m
Take weir height, hw = 50mm
Hole diameter, dh = 5mm
Plate thickness = 5mm
1.2.29 EVALUATION DESIGN
Check weeping (enough vapour to prevent liquid flow through hole).
Max. Liquid flowrate = 2295.618 kmol/hr x 74 kg/kmol
3600 s
= 47.19 kg/s
Minimum Liquid rate = 0.7 x 47.19 kg/s (70% turn down ratio)
= 33.03 kg/s.
Weir Liquid crest
how = 750 (Lw / (L x Iw)
2/3
Where, Iw = weir length
Lw = liquid flow rate, kg/s
L = Liquid density
Maximum, how = 750 {47.19 / (787.1 x 2.19)}
2/3
= 68.13 mm liquid
Minimum, how = 750 {33.03 / (787.1 x 2.19)}
2/3
= 53.17 mm liquid
At minimum rate, clear liquid depth,
how + hw = 53.71 + 50 = 103.71 mm liquid.
From figure 11.30, Coulson & Richardsons, vol. 6, page 571)
(Please refer APPENDIX A-3)
When, how + hw = 103.71 mm liquid
k2 = 31.0
Weep point
The purpose to calculate this weep point is to know the lower limit of the operating
range occurs when liquid leakage through the plate holes becomes excessive.
Minimum vapour velocity through the holes based on the holes area.
Uh (min) = k2 - 0.9(25.4 dh)
(v)
1/2
= 31- 0.9 (25.4 5)
(3.9)
1/2
= 6.40 m/s
Actual minimum Vapour velocity,
= minimum vapour rate / Ah
= (0.7 x 8.36) / 0.566
= 10.34 m/s
So, minimum operating rate will above weep point.
Plate pressure drop
Dry plate drop ( hd)
Maximum vapour velocity through holes
Uh (Max.) = volumetric flow rate / hole area (Ah)
= 8.36 / 0.566 = 14.77 m/s
From figure 11.34, (Coulson & Richardsons), Vol 6 page 576.
For the thickness / hole diameter = 1
Ah / Ap = Ah / Aa = 0.566 / 5.66
= 0.1
(Please refer APPENDIX A-4)
So, (Orifice coefficient) Co = 0.84
hd = 51(Uh / Co)
2
(v/ L)
= 51(14.77/0.84)
2
(3.9/ 787.1)
= 78.13 mm liquid
Residual head ( hr) = (12.5 x 10
3
) / L
= (12.5 x 10
3
) / 787.1
= 15.88 mm liquid
Pressure drop per plate ( ht) = hd + (hw+how) + hr
= 78.13+ (50+68.13) + 15.88
= 212.14 mm liquid
Note: 200 mm liquid was assumed to calculate the bottom pressure. The calculation
could be repeated but the small change in physical properties will have effect on the
plate design. Hence, 212.14 mm liquid per plate is considered acceptable.
Down comer liquid backup
Downcomer pressure loss.
Take hap = hw - 10mm
= 50 - 100 = 40 mm
Where, hap is the height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate.
Area under apron, Aap = hap x Iw
= 40 x 10
-3
x 2.19 m
2
= 0.0876 m
2
Where, Aap is the clearance area under downcomer.
As this less than Ad = 0.707 m
2
hdc = 166 ( Lwd / L Am)
2
Where, hdc = head loss in downcomer, mm
Lwd = liquid flow-rate in downcomer, kg/s
Am = either the downcomer area Ad / the
clearance area under the downcomer
Aap, whichever is the smaller.
Hdc = 166 (47.19 / 787.1 x 0.0876)
2
= 77.76 mm.
Back up in the downcomer, (hb),
Hbc = hw + how + hf + hdc
= 50 + 68.13 + 212.14 + 77.76
= 408.03 mm liquid @ 0.408 m.
Check,
0.408 1/2 (plate spacing + weir height)
1/2 (0.9 + 0.05) m
0.475 m
So, tray spacing is acceptable, (to avoid flooding).
Residence time, t
Sufficient residence time must be allowed in the downcomer for the entrained
vapour to disengage from the liquid stream, to prevent heavily aerated liquid being
carried under the downcomer. A time at least 3 seconds is recommended.
Check residence time:
tr = (Ad x hbc x L ) / Lwd
= (0.707 x 0.408 x 787.1) / 47.19
= 4.81 s.
tr is greater than 3.0 which recommended so tr here is satisfactory.
Check Entrainment.
Actual velocity, Uv = Uf( max.) / An(net area)
= 8.36m
3
/s / 6.36m
2
= 1.31 m/s
% Flooding, = Un actual velocity (based on net area)
Uf
= (1.31 / 1.39) x 100
= 94%
Flv (bottom) = 0.102
From figure 11.29 (Coulson & Richardsons), Vol.6 page 570
(Please refer APPENDIX A-5)
value = 0.071
value is below 0.1, so the column diameter, which is proposed earlier, is
acceptable.
Trial Layout
Use cartridge type construction.
Allow 50 mm unperforated
50 mm wide calming zone.
50 mm
Iw=2.19
Dc = 3.0m
50 mm
Figure 1.1: Trial layout of plate
Perforated area:
From figure 11.32 (Coulson & Richardsons), Vol.6 page 573.
At Iw / Dc = 2.19 / 3.00
= 0.73
c = 96
0
Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strips
= 180 98
= 84
0
Mean length, unperforated edge strips
= (3.00 50 x 10
-3
) x x 84/180
= 4.32 m
Area of unperforated edge strips,
= 50 x 10
-3
x 4.32m
= 0.216 m
2
Area of Claming zone,
= 2 x 50 x 10
-3
(3.00 - 50 x 10
-3
) sin (98/2)
= 0.22 m
2
Total area available for perforation, Ap:
Ap = Active area - (area of unperforated edge + area of calming)
= 5.66 - (0.216 + 0.220)
= 5.22 m
2
Ah / Ap,
= 0.566 / 5.22 = 0.11
From figure 11.33, (Coulson & Richardsons) vol.6 page 574.
(Please refer APPENDIX A-6)
Ip / dh,
= 2.85
Satisfactory, range normally within 2.5 4.0
Number of holes:
Area of one hole = 1.964 x 10
-5
(with diameter 5mm)
Number of holes = 0.566 / 1.964 x 10
-5
= 28819
Plate Specification
50 mm
Iw=2.19m Dc =3.0m
50 mm
Figure 1.2: Plate specification.
Plate no. = 1 (from bottom column)
Plate ID = 3.00
Hole size diameter = 5 mm
Hole pitch = 12.5
Active holes = 28,819
Turn down ratio = 70% at max.Liquid
Plate Material = stainless
Downcomer material = stainless
Plate spacing = 0.9 m
Plate thickness = 5 mm
Plate pressure drop = 212 mm liquid.
1.2.30 PLATE EFFICIENCY ( EMV)
Using Van Winkle correlation, equation 11.69 (Coulson & Richardsons) vol.6 page
551
Emv = 0.07 Dg
0.14
Sc
0.25
Re
0.08
Where,
Emv = Plate efficiency
Dg = surface tension number = L / (
L
V)
V
= superficial vapour velocity
L
= liquid surface tension
L
= liquid Viscosity
Sc = liquid schimdt number =
L
/ (
L
D
LK
)
L
= liquid density
DLK = Liquid Diffusivity, Light Key Component
Re = Reynols number = (hw uv v) / (L FA)
Hw = weir height
v = Vapour density
FA = fractional area = area of holes
Total column cross sectional area
To calculate liquid diffusivity (for light key component)
Using equation develop by Wilke and Chang (1955), to predict the liquid diffusivity.
DL = 1.173 x 10
-13
( M)
0.5
T
Vm
0.6
DL = liquid diffusivity
= an association factor for solvent
(Take as 1.0 for unassociated solvent)
M = Molecular weight of solvent
= viscosity of solvent
T = temperature, K
Vm = molar volume of solute at its boiling point, m
3
/ kmol
Here, solvent is TBA.
To estimate Viscosity of solvent (TBA)
Estimation based at temperature 83
0
C or 356 K (bottom column temperature)
Log (viscosity) = (VISA) x { (1/T) (1/VISB) }
= 972.1 x { 1/356 1/363.8)
= 0.0586
Viscosity = 1.14 mNs/m
2
.
Actual viscosity,
= 1.14 x 0.9874
= 1.1256 mNs/m
2
.
Molecular weight of TBA at bottom column = 74.0 kg / kmol.
Note: reference for viscosity calculation from physical property data, C&R,vol 6
To estimate the molar (Vm) of the solute (PO) at its boiling point
This can be estimated from the group contributions given in table 8.6 (C & R),Vol. 6
page 333.
Propylene oxide, (PO),
Formula : C3H6O
Table 1.12: Calculation of molar volume PO
Atom Volume Number of Volume x Number of
C 0.0148 3 0.0444
H 0.0037 6 0.0222
O 0.0074 1 0.0074
total 0.0740
Therefore, actual molar volume ( Vm) of PO = 0.0011 x 0.0740
= 8.14 x 10
-5
m
3
/ kmol
Liquid diffusivity, DL
DL = 1.173 x 10
-13
x (1.0 x 74)
0.5
x 356
1.1256 x (8.14 x 10
-5
)
0.6
= 9.07 x 10
-8
m
2
/s
To calculate liquid viscosity (at bottom )
Log (viscosity) = (VISA) x { (1/T) (1/VISB) }
Using the T = 356 K (Bottom Temperature)
Table 1.13: Viscosity of TBA and PO at 356 K temperature
Component VISA VISB
TBA 972.10 363.38 1.145
PO 377.43 213.36 0.195
Liquid viscosity mixture ( L)
L = 0.9989 (1.145) + 0.0011 (0.145)
= 1.144 mNs/m
2
Superficial vapour velocity ( Uv)
Uv = vapour volumetric flow rate
Total column cross sectional area
= 8.36 m
3
/s / 7.07 m
2
= 1.18 m/s
FA (Fractional area),
= hole area
Total column cross sectional area
= 0.566 m
2
/ 7.36 m
2
= 0.0769
Liquid surface tension L = 14.6 x 10
-3
N/m
Dg = surface tension number
= L / (L V)
= 14.5 x 10
-3
1.18 x 1.144 x 10
-3
= 10.74
Sc (Liquid Schmidt number) = L / (
L
DLK)
= 1.144 x 10
-3
/ (787.1 x 9.07 x 10
-8
)
= 16.02
Reynoldss number = (hw uv v) / (L FA)
50 x 10
-3
x 1.18 x 3.9
0.0769 x 1.144 x 10
-3
= 2615.56
Therefore, plate efficiency,
Emv = 0.07 Dg
0.14
Sc
0.25
Re
0.08
= 0.07(10.74)
0.14
(16.02)
0.25
(2615.56)
0.08
= 0.37 x 100
= 37%
1.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN
Column design specification
Total column height = tray spacing x no. of stages
= 0.9 x 35
= 31.5 m
Allow, 2 m for clearance height
= 31.5 + 2
= 33.5 m
Internal Diameter, Dc = 3.00 m
Operating pressure,
Top column = 1.0 bar
Bottom column = 1.39 bar
Take column operating at = 1.39 bar
Material of column = stainless steel
Operating temperature = 35
0
C to 83
0
C
Tray type = sieve tray (35 trays)
Material of type = stainless steel
Insulation column = mineral wool 75 mm thick
Design stress ( des) = 175 N/mm
2
Take design pressure as 10% above operating pressure,
= 1.39 x 1.1
= 1.529 bar 0r 0.1529 N/mm
2
Minimum thickness required for pressure loading (t),
t = (P x Dc) / (2 des P)
= 0.1529 x 3.00x 10
3
2 (175) 0.1529
= 8.57 mm.
A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind and
dead weight load. As a trial, divide the column into two sections with the thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 8 and 12 mm with mean thickness 10 mm.
1.3.11 Dead weight of vessel.
Wv = 240 x Cv x Dm x ( Hv + 0.8 Dm ) t x 10
-3
kN
Where,
Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as
plates
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and
internal supports. (In this case for distillation column take Cv as 1.15).
Dm = mean diameter of vessel ( Dc + t x 10
-3
) m
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m
Note: (Equation above applies strictly to vessel with uniform thickness, but it can
be used to get rough estimation of the weight of the vessel.)
First try take,
T = 10 mm or 10 x 10
-3
m.
Cv = 1.15
Dm = (3.00 + 10 x 10
-3
) = 3.01m
Hv = 33.5 m
Wcv = 240 x 1.15 x 3.01 (33.5 + 0.8(33.5)) x 10 x 10
-3
= 500.9 kN
1.3.12 Weight of plates.
Plate area = ( / 4) x 3
2
= 7.07m
2
Weight of plate = 1.2 x 7.07 = 8.48 kN.
(Where, 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading in
kN/m
2
)
For 35 plates = 35 x 8.48
= 296. kN
1.3.13 Weight of insulation.
Mineral wool density = 130 kg/m
3
.
Approximate volume of insulation = x 3.0 x 33.5(75 x 10
-2
)
= 23.68 m
3
.
Weight = 23.68 x 130 x 9.81
= 30199.1 N or 30.20 kN.
Double this value to allow for fitting = 60.4 kN.
Total weight ( Wv ),
Shell = 500.9 kN
Plates = 296.8 kN
Insulation = 60.40 kN
Total = 858.1 kN
1.3.14 Wind Loading.
Dynamic wind pressure = x Cd x a x Uw
2
For smooth cylinder = 0.05 U
w
2
Design for 160 km/hr = 0.05 x (160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 3.0 + 3.0 (10+75) x10
-3
.
= 3.26 m
Loading per unit length, Fw = 1280 x 3.26
= 4172.8 N/m.
Bending moment at bottom tangent line, Mx :
Mx = o
x
Fwxdx
Where x = Hv = 33.5 m (column height).
Mx = Fw (x
2
/ 2)
= 4172.8 {(33.5)
2
/ 2}
= 2,341,462.4 N/m.
1.3.15 Analysis of stresses at bottom.
At bottom tangent line:
Pressure stresses:
L = PD / 4t
Where P = operating pressure = 0.1529 N/mm
2
D = column diameter = 3.00 m
T = thickness = 12 mm.
L = 0.1529 x 3x10
3
/ (4 x 12)
= 9.56 N/mm
2
h = PD / 2t
= 0.1529 x 3x10
3
/ (2 x 12)
= 19.11 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress
w = Wv
( Di + t ) t
= 858.1
x ( 3x10
3
+ 12) 12
= - 7.56 N/mm
2
(- ve sign because compressive stress)
Bending stress
b = t M / Iv ( Di / 2 + t )
Where Iv is the second moment of area,
Iv = / 64 (Do
4
- Di
4
)
Do = 3000 + 2 x 12 = 3024 mm
Di = 3000 mm
Iv = / 64 x (3024
4
-3000
4
) =1.29 x 10
11
mm
4
b = t 2,341,462.4 x 10
3
x (3000/ 2 + 12)
1.29 x 10
11
= t 27.44 N/mm
2
.
The resultant longitudinal stress is
z = L + w t b
w is compressive stress and therefore ve sign.
z (upwind) = 9.56 - 7.56 + 27.44
= 29.44 N/mm
2
z (downwind) = 9.56 - 7.56 - 27.44
= - 25.44 N/mm
2
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principle stresses will be z and h. The
radial stress r is negligible.
Check failure against greatest difference of the principle stresses:
i.e 19.11 - (- 25.44) = 44.55 N/mm
2
Design stress = 175 N/mm
2
. ( stainless steel ).
Failure is well below the design stress.
Check elastic stability (buckling).
Critical buckling stress, c :
c = 2 x 10
4
( t / Do) N/mm
2
= 2 x 10
4
( 12 / 3024)
= 79.37 N/mm
2
.
When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur)
= w + b
= 27.44 + 7.56 = 35.0 N/mm
2
.
The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Hence, design is
satisfactory.
1.8 DESIGN OF STIFFNESS RING
Take Rings = 75 mm wide.
Rings = 10 mm deep.
Plate spacing = 0.9 m.
Take design pressure as 1 bar external or 10
5
N/m
2
.
The load each ring :
Fr = PcLs
Where, Pc = External pressure
Ls = Spacing between the rings
So, the load per unit length on the ring
Fr = 10
5
N/m
2
. x 0.9 m
= 0.9 x 10
5
N/m.
Taking E (youngs modulus) for the steel at temperature 83
0
C (column maximum
operating temperature) as 150.000 N/mm
2
or 1.5 x 10
11
N/m
2
and using a factor of
safety of 6, the second moment of area of the ring to ovoid buckling is given:
PcLs = 24 E Ir
Dr
3
x factor of safety
Where, Ir = second moment of area of the ring cross-section
Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the shell outside
diameter) = 3.00 m.
0.9 x 10
5
N/m = 24 x 1.5 x 0.9 x 10
11
Ir
3
3
x 6
Ir = 4.5 x 10
-7
m
4
For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:
I = breath x depth
3
12
So, Ir for the support rings = 10 x (75) x
3
10
-12
12
= 3.5 x 10
-7
m
4
And the support rings is adequate size to be considered as a stiffening
Ring,
L
= 0.9 / 3 = 0.3
Do
Where L = plate spacing
Do = internal diameter
D
o = 3000 / 10 = 300
t
Where t = column shell mean thickness (10 mm).
From figure 13.16, (Coulson & Richardsons), vol.6 pg. 825,
(Please refer APPENDIX A-7)
Kc = 101
From equation 13.52, (Coulson & Richardsons), vol.6 pg. 751,
Pc = Kc x E x (t / Do)
3
.
= 101 x 1.5 x 10
11
x (10 / 3000)
3
.
= 5.6 x 10
5
N/m
2
.
This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.0 x 10
5
N/m
2
. So, design of the
support rings to support the plate is satisfied.
1.9 DESIGN OF DOMED END.
Taken an standard ellipsoidal head, ratio major: minor axes = 2 : 1.
This type of head is chosen because it would be the most economical.
Material of construction is stainless steel.
e = Pi Di
2 J f 0.2 P
i
Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, 0.1529 N/mm
2
Di = internal diameter, 3.00 m
f = design stress , 175 N/mm
2
J = Joint factor ( for ellipsoidal head J= 1 )
Therefore, minimum thickness required,
e = 0.1529 x 3.0 x 1000
2 x 1x 175 - 0.2 (0.1529)
= 1.31 mm
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance = 3.31 mm. say 4.0 mm.
So, thickness for the Domed End with ellipsoidal head is 4 mm.
1.6 DESIGN FOR THE SKIRT SUPPORT.
Design for a straight cylindrical skirt, ( s - 90
0
)
Material of construction stainless steel
Design stress = 175 N/mm
2
Youngs modulus = 150,000 N/mm
2
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full with
TBA.
Approximate weight = / 4 x 3.02 x 33.5 x 787.1 x 9.81
= 1828420.65 N = 11828.42 kN.
Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 858.1 kN.
Total weight = 1828.42 + 858.1
= 2686.52 kN
Wind loading from previous calculation = 4.17 kN
Take skirt support height as 1 m,
Bending moment at base skirt=4.17 x (Column height+skirt support height)
2
2
= 4.17 (33.5 + 1)
2
/ 2
= 2481.67 kNm.
As a first trial, take skirt thickness as the same that of the bottom section of the
vessel, 12 mm. The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead weight
loads and bending moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the
pressure vessel.
The resultant stresses in the skirt will be :
s (tensile) = bs - ws
and s (compressive) = bs + ws
where bs = bending stress in the skirt
ws = dead weight stress in the skirt
bs = 4 Ms
( Ds + ts ) ts Ds
Where, Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the
base of the skirt (due to the wind, seismic and
Eccentric loads)
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness
bs = 4 x 2481.67 x 10
3
x 10
3
(3000 + 12) 3000 x 12
= 29.14 N/mm
2
ws (test) = W
( Ds + ts ) ts
= 1828.42 x 10
3
(3000 + 12) 12
= 16.10 N/mm
2
ws (operating) = 858.1 x 10
3
(3000 + 12) 12
= 7.56 N/mm
2
Maximum s (compressive) = 29.14 + 16.10
= 45.24 N/mm
2
Maximum s (tensile) = 29.14 - 7.56
= 21.58 N/mm
2
Take joint factor as 0.85,
Criteria for design:
s (maximum, tensile) < fs J sin
21.58 < 0.85 x sin 90
o
21.58 < 148.7
s (maximum, compressive) < 0.12 E ( ts / Ds ) sin
45.24 < 0.125 x 150000 x (12/3000) sin 90
45.24 < 75
Both criteria are satisfied. Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance.
Therefore for the design thickness = 14 mm.
REFERENCES
R. K. Sinnott. 2000. Chemical Engineering Design. Volume 6. Third Edition. Great
Britain. Butterworth Heinmann.
H. Perry and W.Green, 1998. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, Seventh
Edition, United State.
Douglas, James M., 1988,Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, Singapore,
McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Elvers B.,1989, Ullmans Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Volume 13,
Germany, VCH Verlagsgesellschuft.
Scott, Doug and Crawley Frank. 1992, Process Plant design and Operation,
Warwickshire, UK, Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Fogler, H.Scott, 1999, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Third Edition,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc.
Ludwig, E. Ernest, 1964, Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Vol. 1, Houston, Gulf Publishing Company.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
Dimensions in M, L, T
Aa Active area of plate L
2
Aap Clearance area under apron L
2
Ac Total column cross sectional area L
2
Ad Downcomer cross - sectional area L
2
Ah Total hole area L
2
An Net area available for vapour liqud disengagement L
2
Ap Perforated area L
2
Co Orifice coefficient -
D Mols of distillate per unit time MT
-1
Dc Column diameter L
dh Hole diameter L
Emv Plate efficiency -
g Gravitational acceleration -
hap Apron clearance LT
-2
hb Height of liquid back up in down comer L
hbc Down comer back up in term of clear liquid head L
hd Dry plate pressure drop, head of liquid L
hdc Head loss in down comer L
how Height of liquid crest over down comer weir L
hr Plate residual pressure drop L
ht Total plate pressure drop L
hw Weir height L
K1 Constant -
Lm Molar flow rate of liquid per unit area ML
-2
T
-1
Lw Liquid flow rate L
2
T
-1
Lwd Liquid mass flow rate MT
-1
Ip Pitch of holes (distance between centre) L
Iw Weir length L
Nm Minimum number of stages -
NT Theoretical number of stages -
pt Total plate pressure drop ML
-1
T
-2
P
o
Partial pressure ML
-1
T
-2
q Heat to vaporize one mol of feed divided by molar latent heat -
R Universal gas constant L
2
T
2
-1
R Reflux ratio -
Rm Minimum reflux ratio -
Ua Vapour velocity based on active area LT
-1
Uf Vapour velocity through holes LT
-1
Uv Superficial velocity (based on total cross sectional area) LT
-1
V Vapour flow rate per unit time MT
-1
Vw Vapour mass flow rate MT
-1
xi Mole fraction of component I -
xd Mole fraction of component in distillate -
yi Mole fraction of component I -
L Liquid viscosity -
Viscosity of solvent ML
-1
T
-1
L Liquid density ML
-1
T
-1
v Vapour density ML
-3
Surface tension MT
-2
Dm Mean diameter L
E Young Modulus ML
-1
T
-2
Hv Height between tangent L
Pi Internal pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Mx Bending moment at base of the skirt ML
-1
T
-2
Ms Bending moment at point x from free end column ML
2
T
-2
t Thickness of plate (shell) L
ts Skirt thickness L
J Joint factor -
b Bending stress ML
-1
T
-2
w Dead weight stress ML
-1
T
-2
cw Compressive stress ML
-1
T
-2
ws Stress in skirt due to weight of vessel ML
-1
T
-2
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN NOOR HARYANI BINTI MUSTAPHA
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 2:
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 2 HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
2.1. INTRODUCTION 34
2.2 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 35
Selection of Shell-And-Tube-Type
Of Heat Exchanger 35
2.3 BASIS DESIGN PROCEDURE
OF HEAT EXCHANGER 39
2.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF FLOATING
HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER 41
2.4.1 Design Specification 41
2.4.2 Properties Of Steam And TBA 42
2.4.3 Heat Load 45
2.4.4 Heat Transfer Area 45
2.4.5 Number Of Tubes 46
2.4.6 Tubes Arrangement (Pitch) 47
2.4.7 Diameter Of Shell 48
2.4.8 Tube Side Coefficient, Hi 49
2.4.9 Shell Side Coefficient, Hs 50
2.4.10 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uo 52
2.4.11 Tube Side Pressure Drop 53
2.4.12 Shell Side Pressure Drop 54
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF
HEAT EXCHANGER 56
Design Specification 57
DESIGN PRESSURE
AND TEMPERATURE 57
2.7 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 58
2.8 DESIGN STRESS 59
2.9 WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY 60
CORROSION ALLOWANCE 60
2.11 DESIGN CRITERIA 60
TITLE PAGE
2.11.1 Minimum Thickness Of
Cylindrical Of The Shell 61
2.12HEADS AND CLOSURE 62
Design of Domed
Ends-Ellipsoidal Heads 62
2.13DESIGN LOAD 63
2.14DESIGN OF NOZZLES 64
Shell Side Nozzles 64
2.14.2 Tubes Side Nozzles 65
The selected tube size nozzle 66
2.14.4 Shell side nozzles 67
2.15BOLT-FLANGED JOINTS 67
BAFFLES 68
2.17SUPPORT DESIGN SADDLES
SUPPORT 69
CHAPTER 2
CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER
2.1. INTRODUCTION
Heat exchanger is a device that provides the flow of thermal energy between 2
or more fluids at different temperature. Heat exchanger are used in a wide variety of
application which include power production; process, chemical and etc. In
production of MTBE, heat exchanger is one of the important equipment to design, in
spite of distillation column, reactor and separator. The purpose of this equipment is
to increase or decrease the mixture to the desired temperature that is from
temperature 82
o
C to temperature 316
o
C. Type of heat exchanger that has been
chosen is the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
The shell and tube heat exchanger is the most common of the various types of
unfired heat transfer equipment used in industry. Although it is not especially
compact, it is robust and its shapes make it well suited to pressure operation. Shell-
and-tube heat exchanger gives a lot of advantage, which may include;
a) Good mechanical layout; a good shape for pressure operations.
b) It can provide a large transfer area in a small space.
c) It also can be constructed from a wide range of materials.
d) It can clean easily.
e) It used well-established fabrication technique and design procedure.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are built of round tubes mounted in long
cylindrical shell with the tubes axis parallel to that of the shell. One fluids stream flow
through the tube while the other flows on the shell side, across or along the tubes. A
number of shell-and-tube flow arrangements are used in shell-and-tube heat
exchanger depending on heat duty, pressure drop, pressure level, fouling
manufacturing technique and cost, and cleaning problems. Shell-and-tube heat
exchanger is design on a custom basis for any capacity and operating condition and
this is contrary to many heat exchanger types.
2.2 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT
Basically there are three types of heat exchanger used in industries, which are
a) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger
b) Plate heat exchanger
c) Spiral heat exchanger
Among the three types of exchanger, the one that have been chosen is shell-
and-tubes heat exchanger because it is the most widely used and can be designed
for virtually application. Besides, it also relatively cheaper than other heat exchanger
with a sufficient in its applications.
Selection of Shell-and-Tube-Type of Heat Exchanger
There are various types of heat exchanger used in industries; each one of it can
give its own advantages and disadvantages. Table 2.1 shows the advantages and
disadvantages of each type of heat exchanger:
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Types of Heat
Exchanger
Construction Advantages Disadvantages
Non-
removable
Bundle,
Fixed Tube
Sheet
Less costly
Give maximum
heat transfer
surface per given
size of shell and
tubes
Shell side can be cleaned only
by chemical means.
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages Of Each Types Of Heat Exchanger
(Continue)
Construction Advantages Disadvantages
Provides multi-
tube pass
arrangement
Removable Bundle,
Packed Floating Tube
Sheet
Shell side can be
mechanically
cleaned
Bundle can be
easily replaced or
Shell side fluids
limited to non
volatile
Tube side
arrangement
repair
Less costly than
pull, internal
floating head
types
Maximum surface
per given shell
and tube size
limited to one or 2
passes
Tubes expand as
a group, not
individually, so
sudden shocks
should be
avoided
Limits design
pressure and
temperature
Removable Bundle,
Internal Clamp ring,
Types Floating head
cover.
Good for
handling
flammable or
toxic fluids
High surface per
given shell and
tubes size
Provides multi
tubes pass
arrangement
More costly than
fixed tube sheet
or U tube heat
exchanger design
Shell cover,
clamp ring and
floating head
cover must be
removed prior to
removing the
bundle. Results
Table 2.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Types of Heat Exchanger
(Continue)
Construction Advantages Disadvantages
in higher
maintenance cost
Removable Bundle U
tube
Less costly than
floating head or
packed floating
tube sheet design
Provides multi
tube pass
arrangement
High surface area
Tube side only
can be cleaned
by chemical
means
Individual tube
replacement is
not practical
Cannot made
single tube pass
Capable of
withstanding
thermal shock
Draining tube
side difficult in
vertical position
TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association) give classification of heat
exchanger. Table 2.2 give the types of heat exchanger that have been chosen and
reasons why it being selected.
Table 2.2: Selection of Heat Exchanger
Type Reasons of Selection
Front End
Stationary
Head Types
Type A
Channel and
removable
cover
Good for frequent cleaning of
tubes
Shell Types Type E
One pass
shell
The most commonly used in
industries
More cheaper and simple
Table 2.2: Selection of Heat Exchanger (Continue)
Type Reasons of Selection
Rear Ends Head Types Type T
Pull through
floating head
Give a smaller
number of tubes
Reduced
maintenance time
because the
bundle can be
withdrawn from
the shell without
removing shell or
floating-head
covers
2.3 BASIS DESIGN PROCEDURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER
An algorithm for the design of shell-and tube exchanger is shown in figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1: Design Procedure of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
Step 1
Specification
Define duty
Make energy balance if needed
to calculate unspecified flow
rates of temperature
Step 2
Step 10
Decide baffle spacing and
estimate shell-side heat transfer
coefficient
Calculate overall heat transfer
coefficient including fouling
factors, Uo, calc
Estimate tube and shell-side
pressure drop
Set Uo, ass = Uo, cal
NO
Step 11
Step 12
Collect physical properties
Step 3
Assume value of overall
coefficient Uo, ass
Step 4
Decide number of shell and
tubes passes. Calculate
lm
T
,
correction factor, F, and
lm
T
Step 5
Determine heat transfer area
required:
lm ass o o
T U q A
,
/
Step 6
Calculate number of tube
ass o
ass o calc o
U
U U
,
. ,
% 30 0
Estimate cost of heat
exchanger
YES
Step 8
Decide type, tube size, material layout.
Assign fluids to shell or tube side
Pressure drop
within
specification?
Step 13
YES
NO
YES
(Sources: Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6, 2002)
2.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN OF FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER
2.4.1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Fresh feed TBA to the plant is 52385.26 kg per hour. The stream
specification at the vaporization stage can be obtained from the material and energy
balance. At this stage, the first heat exchanger is used to heat up the TBA stream
from 82
o
C to 316
o
C before entering the first reactor. The process operation is shown
above;
Calculate shell diameter
Step 9
Estimate tube side heat transfer
coefficient
Can design be
optimized to
reduce cost?
NO
Accept design
Step 7
Step 14
Figure 2.2: Process Operation Of Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger
But because the temperature used to heat up the TBA is 316
o
C, then, 2 units of heat
exchanger are needed to get the desired temperature. The process operation will
becomes as follows;
Figure 2.3: Heat Exchanger Is Separate Into 2 Heat Exchanger In Series
2.4.2 PROPERTIES OF STEAM AND TBA
Assumption
1) Heat losses are negligible
2) The rate of each fluid flow is constant.
3) The specific heat of each flux flow is constant
4) All steam have been condensed
Flow rate of steam
= 2500 kg/hr
= 0.69 kg/s
E-101
T
in
= 82
o
C
T
out
= 316
o
C
E-101
T
in
= 82
o
C
T
out
= 316
o
C t
out
= 250
o
C
t
in
= 110
o
C
E-101
Properties of Steam at Temperature = 250
o
C & 110
o
C
Temperature
Item Units T=250
o
C T=110
o
C
Flow rate kg/s 2500 2500
Specific Heat, cp kJ/kg.
o
C 1.9898 2.06
Dynamic viscosity,
kg/m
3
0.4245 0.5863
Latent heat kJ/kg 1716 2230
Properties of Steam at Mean Temperature Tm= 180
o
C
Item Units Temperature (180
o
C)
Flow rate kg/s 0.6944
Specific Heat, cp kJ/kg.
o
C 1.98
Dynamic viscosity,
kg/m.s 1.525E-05
Thermal conductivity, k W/m.K 0.0299
Density of fluids,
kg/m
3
0.4902
Latent heat kJ/kg 2015
(Source: Incropera Dewitt, 2002) (Refer APPENDIX 13)
Properties of TBA
Temperature (
o
C)
Item Units 82 119
Flow rate kg/h 52385.26 52385.26
Specific Heat kJ/kg.
o
C 3.50 2.44
Dynamic viscosity kg/m.s 1.5500E-03 7.06E-06
Thermal conductivity, k W/m.K 0.11 0.1018
Density of fluids kg/m
3
705.00 650.00
(Source: R.W.Gallant, Vol.1, 1992)
Mean Temperature
Mean temperature different
m
T
:
m
T =
lm t
T F (2.1)
where;
m
T
= True temperature different
Ft = temperature correction factor
lm
T
= Logarithmic mean temperature
lm
T =
( ) ( )
,
_
1 2
2 1
1 2 2 1
ln
t T
t T
t T t T
(2.2)
where;
t1 = inlet shell-side fluid temperature
t2 = outlet shell-side temperature
T1 = inlet tube-side temperature
T2 = outlet tube-side temperature
( ) ( )
,
_
82 110
119 250
ln
82 110 119 250
lm
T
= 66.8
o
C
Using Figure 12.19 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6) the temperature correction
factor can be obtained
1 2
2 1
t t
T T R
(2.3)
( )
( ) 82 119
110 250
= 2.7
,
_
1 1
1 2
t T
t t
S (2.4)
( )
( ) 82 250
82 119
= 0.22
From figure 12.19 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6) (Refer APPENDIX B-1)
Ft = 0.92
Substitute value above into equation 1.1
lm t m
T F T
= 0.92
(66.8)
= 61.5
o
C
2.4.3 HEAT LOAD
Shell side Q = w. Cp (t2 - t1) (2.5)
= (52385.2586/3600) x (3.5) x (119-82)
= 1.88 kW
Tube side Q = w. Cp (t2 - t1)
= (2500/3600) x (1.98) x (250-110)
= 192.5 kW
2.4.4 HEAT TRANSFER AREA
Types of heat exchanger = Shell and tube with floating head
Passes = 1 shell pass & 2 tube passes
The tube layout and tube size of shell and tube heat exchanger with pull-through
floating head are shown above:
Table 2.3: Layout & Tube Size Of Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger
Unit Dimension
Tube Length, L m 4.8
Outer Diameter, OD mm 20
Inside Diameter, ID mm 16
Pitch, Pt mm 25
Birmingham wire gage
(BWG)
- 14
Birmingham wire gage (BWG) with value 14 is chosen because it can give
moderate flow area and wall thickness to withstand significant pressure drop.
The hot fluids used is TBA and cold fluids is steam, then from Figure 12.1 assume
the Overall Coefficient,
Uo, ass = 400 W/m
2
.
o
C (Refer APPENDIX B-2)
Start with one shell pass and 2 tubes pass
Heat transfer area in tubes:
Area needed, Ao
(2.6)
Ao = 8.38E+06/(900*147.9)
= 62.94 m
2
2.4.5 NUMBER OF TUBES
Standard pipe are taken from Table 12.3 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol. 6)
Inside diameter, di = 16 mm
Outside diameter, do = 20 mm
Length of the tubes is assumed as
Length, L = 4.8 m
For a given surface area, the use of longer tubes will reduce the shell
diameter, which will result lower cost of exchanger.
Using a floating head exchanger for efficiency and ease of cleaning
Area of one tube: neglecting thickness of tubes sheets Area,
( )
m o
T U Q A
2.7)
a = 3.142 X 0.02 X 4.8
= 0.3016 m
2
Number Of tubes,
Nt = Ao/a
Nt = 245.67
say = 246
So for 2 passes, tube per pass = 246/2
= 123
2.4.6 TUBES ARRANGEMENT (PITCH)
Bundle and Shell diameter: the tube in a heat exchanger arranged in triangular
patterns because it give a low-pressure drop.
The tubes pitch (distance between tubes center) = 1.25
Pt = 1.25 x do (2.8)
= (1.25) x (0.02)
= 0.03 m
Figure 2.4: Triangular pattern
DL a Area ,
Flow
P
t
2.4.7 DIAMETER OF SHELL
From Table 14.2 for 2 tubes per pass (Refer APPENDIX B-3)
K1 = 0.249
n1 = 2.207
Bundle diameter
Db = do X (Nt/Kt)
1/n1
(2.9)
= 0.02*(246/0.249)
1/2.207
Db = 0.4547 m @ 454.67 mm
For a pull-through floating head exchanger, the typical shell clearance from figure
12.10 is 90 mm (Refer APPENDIX B-4)
Bundle diameter clearance = 90 mm
Shell diameter, Ds
Ds = 0.4547+0.09
= 0.5447 m @ 544.67 mm
2.4.8 TUBE SIDE COEFFICIENT, hi
Parameter Units Value
Mean temperature of the
tube t mean
o
C = 180
Cross sectional area m
2
= 3.142 x d
2
= 2.0109E-04
Tube per pass tube/pass = 246/2
= 123
Total flow rate area m
2
= (Cross sectional area) x (tube/pass)
= 2.0109E-04 x 123
= 0.0247
Steam mass velocity, Gt kg/m
2
.s =(Steam flow rate)/(total flow rate area)
= (2500/3600)/0.0247
= 28.1142
Steam linear velocity, ui
m/s = (Gt) / (steam density)
= 28.1142 x 0.4902
= 57.3526
Reynolds Number, Re
=
i
d
(2.10)
= (0.4902) x (57.3526) x (0.016)/1.525E-05
= 2.4131x104
Prandtl number, Pr
=
f
p
k
C
(2.11)
= (1.98 x 1.525E-05)/0.0299
= 1.0099
Heat transfer factor (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6)
Ratio of L/di = 300
Reynolds Number, Re = 2.9497E+04 (Refer APPENDIX B-5)
jh = 3.70E-03
Tube side coefficient, hi can be calculated using equation below
hi = (2.12)
= (3.7E-03 x 0.0299 x 2.9497E+04 x 1.0099)/0.016
= 204.6164 W/m
2
.
o
C
2.4.9 SHELL SIDE COEFFICIENT, hs
Parameter Formula Value Units
Take baffle spacing
as 1/5 from the shell
diameter, Baffle
spacing,
IB = Ds/5
= 0.5447/5 = 0.1089
m
Tube pitch, Pt Pt = 1.25 x do
= (1.25) x (0.02)
= 0.025 m
Flow area, As
=
( ) ( ) ( )
t
B s o t
P
I D d P
= (0.025-0.02) x (0.5447) x 0.1089
=0.0119 m
2
Mass velocity, Gs = Ws / As
= (52385.2586/3600)/0.0119
=1226.2667 kg/m
2
s
Shell side velocity, us
=
s
G
(2.13)
= 1226.2667/705
= 1.7394 m/s
Shell side equivalent diameter for triangular pitch arrangement
de =
( )
2 2
917 . 0
10 . 1
o t
o
d p
d
(2.14)
i
f h
d
k j
33 . 0
Pr Re
= (1.10/0.02) x (0.0252 0.917 x 0.02
2
)
= 0.0142 m
Calculate Reynolds number, Re
Re =
TBA
e s
d G
(2.15)
= (1226.2667 x 0.0142)/1.55 E-03
= 22368.0704
Prandtl number, Pr
Pr =
f
TBA
TBA
p
k
C
(2.16)
= (3.5 x 1.55E-03)/0.109
= 21.9377
Choose baffle cut of 25%
REASON: Because generally a baffle at this percentages will be the
optimum, giving good heat transfer rate, without excessive drop
From figure 12.20 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6), we can obtained
jf = 4.00E-03 (Refer APPENDIX B-6)
Assume that the viscosity correction is negligible
hs =
e
f f
d
j k
3
1
Pr Re
(2.17)
= 0.109 x4.00E-03 x 22368.0704 x 21.9377
1/3
= 1817.06
2.4.10 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT, Uo
From table 12.6, the conductivity of metals at temperature
Material of construction = Stainless Steel
Reason = The material, steam in the tube more
corrosive than TBA in the shell. Its also can
corrode the tube wall
Thermal conductivity of
the tube Wall, kw = 16 W/m
o
C
(Refer APPENDIX B-7)
From Table 12.2 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6) take dirt Coefficient as
(Refer APPENDIX B-8)
hid = 10000 W/m
2o
C
hod = 5000 W/m
2o
C
i i
o
id i
o
w
i
o
o
od s o
h d
d
h d
d
k
d
d
d
h h U
1 1
2
ln
1 1 1
+ +
,
_
+ +
(2.18)
o
U
1
= 0.00711
Uo = 1/0.00711
= 140.6185 W/m
2o
C
2.4.11 TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP
Reynolds number, Re
=
i
d
= (0.4902) x (57.3526) x (0.016)/1.525E-05
= 2.4131x104
From figure 12.24 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6), we can obtained
(Refer APPENDIX B-3)
jf = 5.50E-01
Neglecting the viscosity correction term
(2.19)
= 2 8(5.5E-01)(4.8/0.016)+2.5 x ((0.4902 x 57.3426
2
)/2)
= 2132432.078 N/m
2
= 2132.4321 kPa
= 21.0455 Psi
= 0.0002 Bar
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
2
5 . 2 8
2
i i
m
w i
f p t
u
d
L
j N P
(2.15)
= (1226.2667 x 0.0142)/1.55 E-03
= 22368.0704
From figure 12.3 (Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6), we can obtained
(Refer APPENDIX B-9)
jf = 4.00E-03
Shell side pressure drop can be calculated using equation below
14 . 0
2
8
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
w
s
B e
s
f
u
I
L
d
D
j P
(2.20)
= 8(4.00E-03) x (0.5447/0.0142) x (4.8/0.1089) x ((705x1.7394)/2)
= 33158.6806 N/m
2
= 33.1587 kPa
= 0.3273 psi
= 0.3316 Bar
2
f = design stress (From Table 13.2, Coulson &
Richardson, Vol. 6)
f = 85
J = welded joint efficiency
= 1
e = (1.21 x 0.5447)/(2(85)-1.21)
= 3.9 mm @ 0.0039 m
Adding corrosion allowance = 2 mm
e = 3.9 + 2
= 5.9 mm
Round up the number of the thickness
e = 6 mm
So the minimum thickness of the cylindrical shell after adding corrosion allowance is
5.9 mm
2.12HEADS AND CLOSURE
Heads closes the end of a cylindrical heat exchanger. The typical used of heads are
as follows:
Table 2.7: Types of Heads and its applications
Types of heads The applications
1) Flat plates & formed flat heads
Used as covers for many man
ways, and as the channel
covers of heat exchanger
Limited to low-pressure and
small-diameter vessel
1) Hemispherical heads
The strongest shape
Higher cost
Used for high pressure
1) Ellipsoidal heads
Most economical for operation
above 15 bar
1) Torispherical
Most common for operation up
to 15 bar
Design of domed ends-ellipsoidal heads
These types of heads have been chosen because it gives economical evaluation
compared to other heads and since it save cost the minimum thickness of the heads
is calculated
The minimum thickness of torispherical head can be calculated by equation
(2.22)
Where
e = minimum thickness
Pi = design pressure
Di = shell diameter
f = design stress
= 70.00 N/mm
2
e = (1.21x 544.6667)/2(1)+0.2(1.21)
= 4.7 mm
Adding corrosion allowance
= 4.7 + 2
e = 6.7 mm
The minimum thickness of domed ends is 6.7 mm
2.13DESIGN LOAD
The major sources of dead weight loads are as follows
1) The vessel shell and tubes
2) The fluids to fill the vessel (TBA)
3) The fluid to fill the tubes (steam)
i f
i i
P J
D P
e
2 . 0 2 +
4) The insulator
Dead weight of vessel
Weight of the shell
(2.23)
Wv = 1580.56 N
A) Weight of tubes
(2.24)
Wt = 34190.24 N
B) Weight of insulation
Approximate volume of insulation
V = (3.142 x d x L) x t (2.25)
= 0.41m
3
Material used Mineral Wool insulation
Density, kg/m
3
130
Length, m 4.8
Thickness of insulator, mm 50
Shell diameter, m 0.54
( )
3
1 0 8 . 0
+ t D H g D C W v
m v m m v
( ) g L d d N W
m i o t t
2 2
Weight
Wi = V
g (2.26)
= 523.79 N
Total weight of heat exchanger
WT = Wv + Wt + Wi
= 36294.59 N
= 36.29 kN
2.14DESIGN OF NOZZLES
There are four opening or known as nozzles in one heat exchanger for steam
inlet and outlet and also for TBA inlet and outlet. Designing tube side and shell side
nozzles are based on TEMA heat exchanger standard.
Shell Side Nozzles
Pipe size for TBA at inlet
Material of construction = Carbon steel
Density TBA inlet = 705.00 kg/m3
Flow rate of TBA, GTBA = 14.55 kg/s
Diameter pipe for TBA inlet, DTBA
(2.27)
DTBA = 107.00 mm
Pipe size for TBA at outlet
Material of construction = Carbon steel
Density TBA inlet = 705.00 kg/m3
Flow rate of TBA, GTBA = 14.55 kg/s
Diameter pipe for TBA inlet, DTBA
37 . 0 53 . 0
293
G D
TBA
37 . 0 53 . 0
293
G D
TBA
(2.28)
DTBA = 107.00 mm
2.14.2 Tubes Side Nozzles
Pipe size for inlet steam
Material of construction = Aluminium Brass
Density Steam inlet = 0.33 kg/m3
Flow rate of Steam, Gsteam = 0.69 kg/s
Diameter of the pipe for steam inlet
(2.29)
D steam, in = 365.21 mm
Pipe size for outlet steam
Diameter of the pipe for steam outlet
Material of construction = Aluminium Brass
Density Steam inlet = 0.37 kg/m3
Flow rate of Steam, Gsteam = 0.69 kg/s
Diameter of the pipe steam outlet
(2.30)
Dsteam,out = 348.85 mm
The selected tube size nozzle
Fluid: Steam
By taking D = 107 mm (4.21)
37 . 0 53 . 0
,
293
G D
in steam
37 . 0 53 . 0
,
293
G D
out steam
Table 2.8: Standard Nozzle for Tube size
Nominal
pipe size, in
Outside
diameter, in
Schedule
No.
Wall
thickness, in
Inside
diameter, in
4 4.5
(114.3 mm)
40ST 0.237
(6.02mm)
4.026
(102.26mm)
2.14.4 Shell side nozzles
Fluid: TBA
By taking D = 365.21 mm (14.38), the selected shell size nozzle
Table 2.9: Standard Nozzles for Shell Side
Nominal
pipe size, in
Outside
diameter, in
Schedule
No.
Wall
thickness, in
Inside
diameter, in
14 14
(355.6 mm)
ST 0.375
(9.53 mm)
13.250
(336.55mm)
(Source: Robert H. Perry, 1998)
(Refer APPENDIX B-10)
2.15 BOLT-FLANGED JOINTS
A flanged joint are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanged joints are also used to connect pipes to other equipment, such as pump
and valves. There are several types of flanges used for various applications
(Coulson & Richardson, Vol.6, 1999).
For the design, standard flanges are specified. The standards are adapted
from the British standard (BS 4504) with nominal pressure of 6 bars. Type of flange
chosen is full neck welding neck flange.
Table 2.10: Steel Welding Neck Flanges
Nominal
pipe
Pipe,
o.d
d1
Flanged Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h1 d4 f No d2 k d3 h2 r
100 114.3 210 16 45 148 3 M16 4 18 170 130 10 8
350 355.6 490 22 62 415 4 M20 12 22 445 385 15 12
(All units in mm) (Refer APPENDIX B-11)
d4
k
D
de
d3
d1
Figure 2.3: Typical standard Flange Design
Baffles
Have two fuction:
To support the tubes for structural rigidity, preventing tube vibration and
sagging
To divert the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher heat transfer
coefficient
Types = Transverse baffle
Baffles thickness = 5.5 mm
Diameter of tubes holes in baffles, Dh
Dh outer diameter of tube = 5.5
= 20 + 5.5
= 25.5 mm
= 0.03 m
Baffles spacing, IB
Ds = 544.67 mm
= 0.5447 m
= Ds/5 mm
IB = 0.11 m
Baffles cut = 25%
No. of Baffles = L/Ds (2.31)
= 8.81
Round up to = 9 Baffles
2.17SUPPORT DESIGN SADDLES SUPPORT
The methods used to support a vessel will depend on
Design temperature and temperature
Internal and external fitting and attachment
Size and shape
Weight of the vessel
Vessel location and arrangement.
Heat exchanger is mounted with two-saddle support, which must be designed to
carry the weight of the vessel and contents and any super imposed loads such as
wind load.
Table 2.11: Dimension of Selected Standard Steel Saddle.
(Refer APPENDIX B-12)
Table 2.12 above show the summaries of calculation on mechanical design of shell
and tube heat exchanger
Table 2.12: Summary Of Mechanical Engineering Design Of Heat Exchanger
Parameter Value
Shell Side Tube Side
Design pressure, Pi 12.1 bar 1.1 bar
Design temperature, TD 275
o
C 130.9
o
C
Material of construction Carbon Steel Stainless Steel
Corrosion allowance 2 mm 2 mm
Thickness 6 mm 4 mm
Nozzle diameter 107 mm 365.21 mm
Type of flange Welding neck
Head and closer
Domed and type
Thickness
Ellipsoidal
6.7 mm
Insulation Thickness 31.24 mm
Support type Saddle
Total weight 36294.59 N
Vessel Maximum Dimensions (m) mm
Diameter, m Weight, kN V Y C E J G t2 t1 Bolt diam. Bolt holes
0.6 35 0.48 0.15 0.55 0.24 0.19 0.095 6 5 20 25
REFERENCES
R.K Sinnott.. Chemical Engineering Design. Vol.6. Butterworth Heinemann 1999.
E. AD Saunders, Heat Exchanger Selection, Design and Construction. Longman
Scientific & Technical1988.
J.P Gupta. Working with Heat Exchanger. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.ical
Industry 1990.
Green W. Don & Perry Robert H. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook.
Seventh Edition Kansas. McGraw Hill, 1997.
Sadik Kakac, Hong Tan Liu. Heat Exchanger, Selection, Rating and Thermal
Design. CR C Press.
Dr.Brian Spulding,J.Tab Orela, Heat exchanger Theory and Design Handbook,
McGraw-Hill, 1990
R.W. Gallent and Jay M. Railey, Physical Properties of Hydrocarbon Volume 2
and Volume 1, Gulf Publishing Company, 1992
Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach,
Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998
www.yahoo.com
www.google.com
www.altavista.com
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR ROHIZAD BIN JAMEL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 3:
ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 3 ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
3.1 INTRODUCTION 71
3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN 72
3.2.1 Selection of Catalyst 74
3.2.2 Effective Diffusivity, De 74
3.2.3 Tube Specification 76
3.2.4 Heat Transfer Calculation 78
3.2.5 Tube Side Coefficient 78
3.2.6 Shell Side Coefficient 80
3.2.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 82
3.2.8 Tube Side Pressure Drop 83
3.2.9 Shell Side Pressure Drop 83
MECHANICAL DESIGN 85
3.3.1 Design Pressure 85
3.3.2 Design Temperature 85
3.3.3 Material of Construction 85
3.3.4 Corrosion Allowance 86
3.5.5 Thickness of Cylindrical Shell 86
3.3.6 Head and Closures 86
3.3.7 Weight Load 87
3.3.8 Wind Loading 89
3.3.9 Analysis of Stresses 90
3.3.10 Elastic Stability 91
3.3.11 Vessel Support Design 92
3.3.12 General Consideration for
The Design 94
CHAPTER 3
ISOBUTYLENE REACTOR
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The high purity isobutylene can be economically produced by dehydrating tertiary
butyl alcohol (TBA). Vapor phase TBA dehydration have been developed in an
isothermal fixed bed reactor using a silica alumina cracking catalyst. Increased
demand for oxygenates in reformulated gasoline has focused the attention of the
petrochemical industry on isobutylene etherification. Potential sources of isobutylene
are dehydrogenation of isobutene and dehydration of TBA. TBA is a major
byproduct of the process for propylene oxide manufacture from propylene and
tertiary hydroperoxide. TBA can be converted into Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
(MTBE) which is environmentally accepted blending component for reformulated
gasoline by a two-step process. In the two-step process, TBA is first dehydrated to a
high purity isobutylene and water and then isobutylene is reacted with methanol to
produce MTBE. Furthermore, it was decided that the heat of reaction to be supplied
by flue gas and that in order to achieve 98% conversion, the temperature and
pressure in the reactor is kept maintain at 316C and 20 psig (3 bars) respectively.
Table 3.1: Reactor mass balance for input stream
Components Mass flowrate
(kg/h)
Mass
fraction
(w/w)
Molar flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole fraction
(kmol/kmol)
TBA 52385.2586 0.9989 707.9089 0.9986
Propylene oxide 55.7380 0.0011 0.9610 0.0014
Total (Gm) 52440.9966 1.0000 708.8700 1.0000
Table 3.2: Reactor mass balance for output stream
Components Mass flowrate
(kg/h)
Mass
fraction
(w/w)
Molar flowrate
(kmol/h)
Mole fraction
(kmol/kmol)
TBA 1047.7069 0.0200 14.1582 0.0200
Propylene oxide 55.7380 0.0011 0.9610 0.0011
Isobutylene 38850.0392 0.7408 693.7507 0.7408
Water 12487.5126 0.2381 693.7507 0.2381
Total (Gm) 52440.9966 1.0000 1402.6206 1.0000
3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN
Chemical design is carried out to determine the dimensions of the reactor as shown
in following sections. The reactor volume, combination of shell and tubes
dimensions, heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are determined.
Dehydration of TBA is characterized by endothermic reaction and from the energy
balance the heat required for the reaction is 2.379x10
7
kJ/h. For isothermal fixed
bed reactor and first order reaction, the reaction rate constant for TBA dehydration is
given by equation below, (Journal of Hydrocarbon Processing, please refer to
APPENDIX C1):
Reaction involved:
C4H10O C4H8 + H2O
TBA Isobutylene Water
X
X LHSV
K
)
1
1
ln( 2 (3.1)
K = Reaction rate constant
X = Fraction of TBA converted
LHSV = Ratio of feed rate and the amount of catalyst
X = 0.98 (TBA conversion)
98 . 0 )
98 . 0 1
1
ln( 2
LHSV
K
= 6.844
At 20 psig (3 bars), the equation relating reaction rate constant and temperature is
given by:
ln K = 21.7483 17992/T (3.2)
T = Temperature in degree Rankine, 316C = 1060R
ln K = 21.7483 17992/1060
K = 118.48 h
844 . 6
48 . 118
LHSV
h
LHSV
0578 . 0
1
v
V
LHSV
1
(3.3)
Where,
V = Volume of catalyst
v = Feed volume flowrate
Volume flowrate of TBA = mass flowrate of TBA x specific gravity of TBA
= 52385.2586 kg/h x 1.2706x10
-3
m
3
/kg
= 66.5632 m
3
/h
Volume of catalyst, Vc
LHSV
v
1
(3.4)
= 66.5632 m
3
/h x 0.0578 h
= 3.8474 m
3
Volume of reactor, VR = Vc/ (1 ) (3.5)
= 3.8474 / (1-0.4)
= 6.4123 m
3
3.2.1 Selection of Catalyst
A catalyst is a substance that increases a rate of reaction by participating chemically
in intermediate stages of reaction and is liberated near the end in a chemically
unchanged form. Over a period of time, however, permanent changes in the catalyst
such as deactivation may occur. Many catalysts have specific actions in that they
influence only one reaction or group of definite reactions. The catalyst that used for
the fixed bed reactor is silica alumina cracking catalyst. The properties of catalyst
are shown below (Perrys Handbook, 1997).
Surface area SA: 0.35x10
6
m
2
/kg
Diameter of particle, dp: 3 mm
Pore diameter, d: 6.1 nm
Porosity of particle, p: 0.56
Particle density, p: 1062 kg/m
3
Specific surface area, Sg:1840 m
2
/m
3
Tortuosity, : 2
Voidage, : 0.4
Bulk density, B = (1-)(p) (3.6)
= (1- 0.4)(1062 kg/m
3
)
= 637.2 kg/m
3
Weight of catalyst, Wc = (Vc)(B) (3.7)
= (3.8474 m
3
)(637.2 kg/m
3
)
= 2451.56 kg
3.2.2 Effective Diffusivity, De
The resistance to diffusion in a catalyst pore is due to collisions with other molecules
and with the walls of the pore. The corresponding diffusivities are called bulk
diffusivity and Knudsen diffusivity DK. The actual diffusivity in common porous
catalysts usually is intermediate between bulk and Knudsen. Moreover, it depends
on the pore size distribution and on the true length path. The effective diffusivity, De
is given by the equation below:
D
D
e
(3.8)
Where,
= particle porosity
= Tortuosity of the pores
D = Dk + DB (3.9)
Where,
Dk = Knudsen Diffusivity
DB = Bulk Diffusivity
Neglecting DB term, hence D = Dk, Knudsen diffusivity (m
2
/s) in a straight cylindrical
pore can be expressed (based on the kinetic theory of gases) as:
p
t
k
r
m
RT
D 0638 . 1
(3.10)
Where,
rp = the pores radius = dp/2 = 6.1 nm/2 =3.05 nm
T = temperature in K = 589 K
mt = the mean molecular weight of tube side material
= 54.445 kg/kmol
445 . 54
589
) 10 05 . 3 )( 97 (
9
k
D
= 9.73x10
-7
m
2
/s
Therefore,
s m D
e
/
2
) 56 . 0 )( 10 73 . 9 (
2
7
= 2.72x10
-7
m
2
/s
3.2.3 Tube Specification
In order to decide the tube length and tube diameter used in this design, the
following criteria is followed:
Square pitch arrangement is chosen for ease of cleaning (Kern, 1965).
From table 12.3 (Colson & Richardsons, Chemical Engineering), we take standard
tube of:
Inside diameter, di = 44.5 mm
Outside diameter, do = 50.8 mm
Length of tube, L = 1.22 m
Area of the tube can be calculated using equation below.
Assumed thickness of the tube is negligible.
Cross sectional area of tube,
As =
4
) (
2
o
d
(3.11)
=
2
2
4
) 0508 . 0 (
m
= 2.0268x10
-3
m
2
Number of tube, Nt = L A
V
s
c
(3.12)
=
) 22 . 1 )( 10 0268 . 2 (
8474 . 3
2 3
3
m m x
m
= 1556 tubes
Residence time, =
v
V
(3.13)
=
h m
s m
/ 5632 . 66
3600 8474 . 3
3
3
= 208.08 s
= 3.47 minutes
Flow through each tube, Vt = Vf / Nt (3.14)
= s m /
1556
7306 . 4
3
= 3.0402x10
-3
m
3
/s
Superficial velocity, uc =
S
t
A
V
(3.15)
= s m
x
x
/
10 0268 . 2
10 0402 . 3
3
3
= 1.51 m/s
Tube side mass flowrate per unit area,
t s
m
t
N A
G
G
(3.16)
s m kg
s m kg
x
2
2
3
/ 62 . 4
/
) 1556 )( 10 0268 . 2 )( 3600 (
9966 . 52440
Fixed bed reactor is designed as the shell and tube heat exchanger which catalysts
are in the tube.
Approximate tube bundle diameter, Db
Db =
1
/ 1
1
n
t
o
k
N
d
,
_
(3.17)
Where,
k1 and n1 are constants,
for square pitch, pt = 1.25do
for 1 pass, k1 = 0.215
n1= 2.207
Therefore, Db =
207 . 2 / 1
215 . 0
1556
8 . 50
,
_
= 2846 mm
Square pitch is chosen, pt = 1.25do (3.18)
hence, pt = 1.25(50.8) mm
= 63.5 mm
Allow 50 mm for shell-inside diameter to bundle diameter
Therefore, approximate shell diameter, Ds = (2846 + 50) mm
= 2896 mm
3.2.4 Heat Transfer Calculation
From energy balance, heat required for the process is 2.379x10
3
h.
Assuming overall heat transfer calculation, Uo = 0.06kW/m
2
K
Heat transfer area available, A
A = NtL(do + di) / 2 (3.19)
= 1556 x 1.22 x (0.0505 + 0.0445) / 2 m
2
= 283.2780 m
2
By using Q = UoAT for isothermal condition.
T =
A U
Q
o
(3.20)
= K
x x
x
2780 . 283 06 . 0 3600
10 379 . 2
7
= 389 K
3.2.5 Tube Side Coefficient
The temperature profile in the bed is constant which is not likely to happen. For the
worst condition, the temperature profile in the bed is parabolic, and to ensure that
the design is in the safe region, therefore the resistance in the bed should be
considered.
The tube side coefficient is split into two parts to account for the resistance in the
region very near the wall and for the resistance in the rest of the packed bed.
Wall coefficient, hw,
Rec =
p c
d u
(3.21)
=
3
10 0152 . 0
003 . 0 51 . 1 384 . 1
x
x x
= 412
Pr =
k
C
p
(3.22)
=
0424 . 0
10 0152 . 0 10 469 . 2
3 3
x x x
= 0.89
k
d h
N
p w
u
= 1.6(Re)
0.51
(Pr)
0.33
(3.23)
p
w
d
k
h
33 . 0 51 . 0
(Pr) (Re) 6 . 1
(3.24)
= K m W
x x
2
33 . 0 51 . 0
/
003 . 0
) 89 . 0 ( ) 412 ( 0424 . 0 6 . 1
= 469 W/m
2
K
Bed coefficient, hbed,
r
k
h
e
bed
4
(3.25)
Where ke = effective thermal conductivity of bed
r = radius of the inside tube
Pr Re 1 . 0 5 +
k
k
e
(3.26)
Hence ke = k(5 + 0.1RePr)
ke = 0.0424(5+0.1(412)(0.89)) W/m
2
K
ke = 1.77 W/m
2
K
K m W h
bed
2
/
) 2 0445 . 0 (
) 77 . 1 ( 4
318 W/m
2
K
Tube side coefficient, hi,
bed w i
h h h
1 1 1
+
(3.27)
=
318
1
469
1
+
i
h 190 W/m
2
K
Correcting this coefficient to the heat transfer area corresponding to the centre of
the tube wall.
Tube side heat transfer coefficient, hiw
o i
i i
iw
d d
d h
h
+
2
(3.28)
0505 . 0 0445 . 0
) 0445 . 0 )( 2 )( 190 (
+
= 177 W/m
2
K
3.2.6 Shell Side Coefficient
The source of heating medium is flue gas. It is assumed that the flue gas is available
at 760 K, therefore temperature of flue gas at outlet is 371 K.
Table 3.3: Properties of flue gas
Property Value
Heat capacity, Cps
Viscosity, s
Thermal conductivity, ks
Density, s
1.195 kJ/kgK
0.0255x10
-3
Ns/m
2
0.0287 W/m
2
K
0.78 kg/m
3
Mass flowrate of flue gas required, ms =
T Cp
Q
s
(3.29)
= s kg
x x
x
/
) 371 760 ( 3600 195 . 1
10 379 . 2
7
= 14.22 kg/s
Take baffle spacing as 1/5 from the shell diameter.
Baffle spacing, Ib = Ds/5 (3.30)
= 2896/5 mm
= 579.2 mm
Tube pitch, pt = 1.25do (3.31)
= 1.25(0.0508 m)
= 0.0635 m
Cross flow area, Ac = (pt do)IbDs/pt (3.32)
= (0.0635 0.0508) m (0.5792 m) (2.896 m)/0.0635m
= 0.3355 m
2
Mass velocity, Gs = m/Ac (3.33)
= 14.22 kg/s / 0.3355 m
2
= 42.3845 kg/m
2
s
Reynolds number,
s
o s
d G
Re
(3.34)
84436
10 0255 . 0
) 10 8 . 50 )( 3845 . 42 (
3
3
x
x
From figure 12.31 (Coulson & Richardson, 1999, please refer to APPENDIX C2),
heat transfer factor for cross flow tube bank, jh = 3.7x10
-3
Prandtl number,
s
s s
k
Cp
Pr
(3.35)
=
0287 . 0
) 10 0255 . 0 )( 10 195 . 1 (
3 3
x x
= 1.06
14 . 0 3 / 1
) ( Pr Re
w
h
s
o s
j
k
d h
(3.36)
neglecting
14 . 0
) (
w
term,
o
h s
s
d
j k
h
3 / 1
Pr Re
(3.37)
K m W
K m W
x
2
2
3 / 1 3
/ 180
/
0508 . 0
) 06 . 1 )( 84436 )( 10 7 . 3 )( 0287 . 0 (
(3.38)
=
K m W
2
/
) 0445 . 0 058 . 0 (
) 058 . 0 )( 2 )( 180 (
+
= 192 W/m
2
K
3.2.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Scale factor, Organic vapor, his = 5000 W/m
2
K
Flue gas, hos = (2000 5000) W/m
2
K
Take mean value = 3500 W/m
2
K
Tube type is stainless steel and its thermal conductivity at 600C, kw = 36 W/m
2
K
Hence,
Overall heat transfer coefficient:
K m W U
U
U
h h d
d
k
d
d
d
h h U
o
o
o
is iw i
o
w
i
o
o
os ow o
2
/ 82
0123 . 0
1
5000
1
177
1
5 . 44
8 . 50
) 36 ( 2
5 . 44
8 . 50
ln 0508 . 0
3500
1
192
1 1
1 1
2
) ln(
1 1 1
1
]
1
+ +
,
_
+ +
1
]
1
+ + + +
(3.39)
3.2.8 Tube Side Pressure Drop
Hougan and Watson equation will be used to calculate tube side pressure drop
7 . 1
2
2
ge
v fG
z
P
(3.40)
Where,
Z = length of tube (1.22 m)
V = S(1-e)
= 1840(1-0.4)
= 1102
Where f = 2.6(Re)-0.13 for 150>Re>10 and f = 1.23(Re)-015 for 300>Re>150
Re =
) 10 0152 . 0 )( 1102 (
62 . 4
3
x v
G
t
(3.41)
= 276
Therefore, f = 1.23(276)
-0.15
= 0.53
2
7 . 1
2
/
) 4 . 0 )( 81 . 9 )( 384 . 1 (
) 1102 ( ) 62 . 4 )( 53 . 0 )( 2 )( 22 . 1 (
m N P
t
= 10637 N/m
2
= 10.6 kPa
3.2.9 Shell Side Pressure Drop
From figure 12.36 (Coulson & Richardson`s, 1999, please refer to APPENDIX C3)
at Re = 84436, for 1.25 pitch, jf = 4.8x10
-2
Shell side flue gas velocity,
s
s
s
G
u
(3.42)
= s m/
78 . 0
38 . 42
= 47.4 m/s
14 . 0
2
) (
2
) ( 8
w
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P
(3.43)
Neglecting viscosity term,
2
) ( 8
2
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P (3.44)
)
2
4 . 47
)( 78 . 0 )(
2 . 579
22 . 1
)( 2896 )( 10 9 . 4 )( 8 (
2
2
x
= 2095 N/m
2
= 2.1 kPa
Table 3.4: Chemical Design Specification Data
Parameter Value
Volume of catalyst 3.8474 m
3
Weight of catalyst 2451.56 kg
Volume of reactor 6.4123 m
3
Residence time 3.47 minutes
Length of vessel 8 m
Tube OD 50.8 mm
Tube ID 44.5 mm
Number of tube 1556 mm
Tube pitch 63.5 mm
Tube bundle diameter 2846 mm
Shell diameter 2896 mm
Tube side heat transfer coefficient 190 W/m
2
K
Shell side heat transfer coefficient 192 W/m
2
K
Tube side pressure drop 10.6 kPa
Shell side pressure drop 2.1 kPa
.
MECHANICAL DESIGN
The mechanical design is a function of the equipment, operating pressure and
temperature, material of construction and equipment dimensions. This mechanical
design for the fixed bed reactor is carried out based on the approach to Sinnot,
(Coulson & Richardsons,1999).
3.3.1 Design Pressure
A reactor must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely
to be subjected for operation. The operating pressure for this reactor is10 bar. For
safety reason, the design pressure of this reactor is taken as 10% above the
operating pressure
Design pressure, Pi = (10 1) x 1.1
= 9.9 bar
=0.99 N/mm
2
3.3.2 Design Temperature
The design temperature at which the design stress is valuated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material. For this reactor the design
temperature is 500C.
3.3.3 Material of Construction
The material used is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, 304). This material is good for creep
resistance, intergranular cracking and last longer. For this material, the design
stress at 500C (Coulson & Richardsons,1999, please refer to APPENDIX C4).
Design stress, f = 90 N/mm
2
Tensile strength = 510 N/mm
2
3.3.4 Corrosion Allowance
Corrosion and erosion or scaling will cause material lost, so an additional thickness
of material is needed and it is corrosion allowable. The recommended corrosion
allowance is 2 mm.
3.6.5 Thickness of Cylindrical Shell
A minimum thickness is required to ensure that the vessel is sufficiently rigid to
withstand its own weight and any incidental load.
i
s i
P f
D P
e
2
(3.45)
Where,
e = minimum thickness
Pi = design pressure
Ds = Diameter of shell
f = Friction factor
e =
) 99 . 0 ( ) 90 )( 2 (
) 2896 )( 99 . 0 (
= 16.20
Add corrosion allowance = 2 mm
e = (16.20 + 2) mm
= 18.20 mm, take thickness as 19 mm
3.3.6 Head and Closures
The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. There are
three types of commonly used domed head:
1) Hemispherical head
2) Ellipsoidal head
3) Torispherical head
Torispherical head had been choosing for this reactor. The selection of head
depends on the cost and the thickness required for the head. The design equation
and chart for the various types of domed heads are given in the codes and standard
BS 5500 used in this design.
Take, crown radius, Rc = Di = 2.896 m
Knuckle radius, Rk = 6%Rc = 0.174 m
A head for this size would be form by pressing: no joints, so J = 1.0
Cs =
,
_
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
(3.46)
=
,
_
+
174 . 0
896 . 2
3
4
1
= 1.771
Therefore, minimum thickness:
e =
) 2 . 0 ( 2
s i
i i
C P Jf
D P
(3.47)
=
) 2 . 0 771 . 1 )( 99 . 0 ( ) 90 )( 1 )( 2 (
) 2896 )( 99 . 0 (
= 16 mm
Add corrosion allowance = 2 mm
e = (16 + 2) mm
= 18 mm
3.3.7 Weight Load
Dead weight of vessel, Wv
For a steel vessel,
t D H D C W
m v m V v
) 8 . 0 ( 240 + (3.48)
Where,
Dm = mean diameter, m (Di + t)
Cv = a factor, take 1.15
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness
Wv = (240)(1.15)(2.915)(1.22+0.8(2.915))19
= 50991.77 N
= 51 kN
Weight of tubes, Wt
W
t
N
t
d
o
2
d
i
2
( )
L
m
g
(3.49)
= 1556(0.0508
2
-0.0445
2
)(1.22)(3000)(9.81)
= 105376.31 N
= 105 kN
Weight of insulation
Material used = mineral wool insulation
Insulation thickness = 50mm = 0.05m
Density = 130kg/m
3
Approximate volume of insulation
V H
v
(r +r
1
)
2
r
2
[ ]
(3.50)
= (1.22)[(0.38 + 0.05)
2
(0.38)
2
]
= 0.16 m3
W
i
Vg
(3.51)
= (0.16)(130)(9.81)
= 197.96 N
= 0.2 kN
Weight of catalyst, Wc
Wc = (mc)(g) (3.52)
Where; mc is weight of catalyst
Wc = (2451.56 kg) (9.81m/s
2
)
= 24049.8 N
= 24 kN
Total weight of vessel
Wt = Wv + Wt +Wi + Wc (3.53)
= 51 kN + 105 kN + 0.2 kN + 24 kN
= 156.2 kN
3.3.8 Wind Loading
A vessel must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to be
encountered at the site throughout the life span of the plant. A wind speed of 160
km/h is used for the preliminary design studies.
Pw = 0.05Uw
2
(3.54)
= 0.05(160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
Loading per unit length of reactor, Fw
Fw = PwDeff (3.55)
Where,
Deff = Effective reactor diameter
= Diameter shell + 2(tshell + tinsulation)
= 2896 + 2(19 + 50)
= 3034 mm
= 3.034 m
Therefore,
Fw = (1280)(3.034)
= 2973.32 N/m
Bending Moment
Mx = Fw (X)
2
/2 (3.56)
Where,
X = Distance measure from the free end
= 5 m
Therefore,
Mx = 2973.32(5)
2
/2
= 37166.5 Nm
= 37.17 kNm
3.3.9 Analysis of Stresses
Longitudinal pressure stress,
t
PD
i
L
4
(3.57)
= (0.99)(2896)/4(19)
= 37.72 N/mm
2
Circumferential pressure stress,
t
PD
i
h
2
(3.58)
= (0.99)(2896)/2(19)
= 75.45 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress,
t t D
W
i
w
) ( +
(3.59)
19 ) 19 2896 (
10 2 . 156
3
+
x
= 0.8977 N/mm
2
Bending stress,
,
_
+ t t
D
I
M
i
v
b
2
(3.60)
Where,
M = total bending moment
Iv = ( )
4 4
64
i o
D D
(3.61)
Iv = second moment of area
Where,
Di = 2896 mm
Do= (2896 + 2(19))
= 2934 mm
so,
Iv ( )
4 4
2896 2934
64
= 1.848x10
11
mm
4
Therefore,
,
_
+ 19
2
2896
10 848 . 1
1000 5 . 37166
11
x
x
b
= 0.30 N/mm
2
The resulted longitudinal stress, z is,
z(upwind) = L w + b (3.62)
= 37.72 0.8977 + 0.30
= 37.12 N/mm
2
z(downwind) = L w - b (3.63)
= 37.72 0.8977 + 0.30
= 36.52 N/mm
2
3.3.10 Elastic Stability
Critical bulking stress
,
_
o
D
t
4
1
10 2 (3.64)
=
,
_
2934
19
10 2
4
= 129.52 N/mm
2
Maximum compressive stress will occurs when the vessel not under pressure, max
= w + b (3.65)
= 0.8977+ 0.30
=1.1977 N/mm
2
This is below critical bulking stress, so acceptable.
3.3.11 Vessel Support Design
The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of
the vessel, design pressure and temperature and vessel location and arrangement.
Since reactor is vertical vessel, skirt support is used in this design. A skirt support
consists of a cylinder or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel.
Type of support :Straight cylindrical skirt
s :90
Material construction :Carbon steel
Design stress, fs :135 N/mm
2
Skirt height :1.0 m
Young modulus :200, 000 N/mm
2
Approximate weight,
Wapprox = g H D
L v i
2
4
(3.66)
= /4(2.896)
2
(1.44)(1000)(9.81)
= 93050.45 N
= 93.1 kN
Weight of vessel = 180.2 kN
Total weight = 93.1 kN + 180.2 kN
= 273.3 kN
Wind load,
Fw = 2973.32 N/m
= 2.97 kN/m
Bending moment at skirt base,
Ms =
1
]
1
+
2
) (
2
skirt v
w
H H
F (3.67)
=
1
]
1
+
2
) 1 44 . 1 (
97 . 2
2
= 8.84 kNm
As a first trial, take skirt thickness as same as the thickness of the bottom section of
the vessel, ts = 19 mm.
Bending stress in skirt,
] ) ( [
4
s s s s
s
bs
D t t D
M
+
(3.68)
Where,
Ms = maximum bending moment (at the base of the skirt)
ts = skirt thickness
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt base
= 2.896 m
Therefore,
)] 2896 )( 19 )( 19 2896 ( [
) 1000 )( 1000 )( 84 . 8 ( 4
+
bs
= 7.07 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress in the skirt,
] ) ( [
s s s
ws
t t D
W
+
(3.69)
Therefore,
)] 019 . 0 )( 019 . 0 896 . 2 ( [
) 1000 )( 05 . 930 (
) (
+
test
ws
= 5.35 N/mm
2
)] 019 . 0 )( 019 . 0 896 . 2 ( [
) 1000 )( 2 . 156 (
) (
+
operating
ws
= 0.90 N/mm
2
Thus, the resulting stress in the skirt, s:
Maximum s (compressive) = bs - ws(test) (3.70)
= 7.07 + 5.35
= 12.42 N/mm
2
Maximum s (tensile) = bs + ws(operating) (3.71)
= 7.07 0.90
= 6.17 N/mm
2
3.3.12 General Consideration for the Design
Take the joint factor as J as 0.85,
s (tensile) < fs J sin s
s (compressive) < 0.125 E
s
s
s
D
t
sin
Where,
fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material (135 N/mm
2
)
J = weld joint factor
s = base angle of a conical skirt
E = modulus Young (200, 000N/mm2)
Therefore,
s (tensile) < 135 x 0.85 sin 90
6.17 N/mm2 < 113.08 N/mm2
s (compressive) < (0.125)(200, 000) 90 sin
2896
19
12.42 N/mm2 < 161.53 N/mm2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, give design thickness of 21 mm.
3.3.13 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts
Assume pith circle diameter = 3.0 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 4000
Bolt stress design, fb = 125 N/mm2
Recommended spacing between bolts = 600 mm
Minimum number bolt required, Nb =
600
4000
= 20.9
Closest multiple of 4 = 12 bolts
Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = 80.8 kNm
Total weight of vessel, W = 273.3 kN
Area of bolt,
Ab =
,
_
W
D
M
f N
b
s
b b
4 1
(3.72)
=
,
_
) 1000 )( 3 . 273 (
3
) 1000 )( 8 . 80 ( 4
) 125 ( 9 . 20
1
= 580.25 mm
2
Bolt root diameter,
) 4 (
b
A
d (3.73)
) 4 ( 25 . 580
= 27.18 mm
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
1
1
]
1
+
s
s
s
b
D
W
D
M
F
2
4
(3.74)
=
1
]
1
+
) 3 (
) 1000 ( 25 . 249
) 0 . 3 (
) 1000 )( 8 . 80 ( 4
2
= 37.88 kN/m
Assuming that a pressure of 5 N/mm
2
is one of the concrete foundation pad, fc so
minimum width of the base ring,
3
10
1
c
b
b
f
F
L
(3.75)
3
3
10 5
10 88 . 37
= 7.58 mm
3.3.14 Pipe Size Selection for the Nozzle
Material of construction = Stainless steel
Density of TBA = 787 kg/m
3
Flowrate of TBA = 14.55 kg/s
Diameter pipe for TBA
DTBA = 260 G
0.52
-0.37
(3.76)
= 260 (14.55)
0.52
(787)
-0.37
= 88.75 mm
3.3.15 Standard Flanges
Flanges used in this design are chosen from the standard flanges. Here standard
flanges are adapted from the British standard (BS 4504), nominal pressure of 6 bar.
(Please refer to APPENDIX C5).
Table 3.5: Mechanical Design Specification Data
Parameter Value
Design pressure 9.9 bar
Design temperature 500C
Material of construction Stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, 304)
Design stress 90 N/mm
2
Tensile stress 510 N/mm
2
Tube thickness 3 mm
Shell thickness 19 mm
Torispherical head thickness 18 mm
Manhole 800 mm [BS470:1984]
Longitudinal pressure stress 37.22 N/mm
2
Circumferential pressure stress 75.45 N/mm
2
Longitudinal stress (upwind) 37.12 N/mm
2
Longitudinal stress (downwind) 36.52 N/mm
2
Critical buckling stress 129.52 N/mm
2
Maximum compressive stress 1.1977 N/mm
2
Type of skirt support Straight cylindrical skirt
Material construction of skirt support Carbon steel
REFERENCES
Coulson, J M and Richardson, J F, 1998, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical
Engineering, Vol. 1 : Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, Oxford,
Pergamon,
Douglas, James M., 1988, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, Singapore,
McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Elvers B. et. al., 1989, Ullmans Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Volume 13,
Germany, VCH Verlagsgesellschuft.
Felder, Richard M. and Rousseau, Ronald W., 1986, Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes, Second Edition, United States, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Fogler, H.Scott, 1999, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Third Edition,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc.
Ludwig, E. Ernest, 1964, Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Vol. 1, Houston, Gulf Publishing Coompany.
Perry R.H., Green D.W., 1997, Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7
th
edition,
USA, McGraw-Hill.
Richardson, J F and Peacock, D G, 1994, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical
Engineering, Vol. 3 : Chemical & Biochemical Reactors & Process Control, Oxford,
Pergamon.
Scott, Doug and Crawley, Frank, 1992, Process Plant Design and Operation,
Warwickshire, UK, Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Sinnott, R.K, 1999, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6 :
Chemical Engineering Design, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smith R., 1995, Chemical Process Design, USA, McGraw-Hill.
Hydrocarbon Processing, 1992, Vol. 71(February).
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES
Ab - By-pass area m
2
Ac - Cross flow area m
2
Ah - Heat transfer area m
2
As - Tube cross-sectional area m
2
Cps - Flue gas heat capacity kJ/kgK
Db - Bundle diameter m
De - Effective diffusivity m
2
/s
Dk - Knudsen Diffusivity m
2
/s
Ds - Shell inside diameter m
di - Inside tube diameter m
do - Outside tube diameter m
dp - Diameter of particle m
e - Thickness m
f - Design stress N/m
2
Gm - Vapor mixture mass flowrate kg/h
Gs - Shell side mass flowrate per unit area kg/m
2
s
GT - Tube side mass flowrate per unit area kg/m
2
s
G - Gravitational acceleration m/s
2
hi - Tube side heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
hs - Shell side heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
hw - Wall heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
hbed - Bed heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
jh - Heat transfer factor -
jf - Friction factor -
k - Reaction rate constant s
L - Tube length m
Ib - Baffle spacing m
Mt - Molecular weight of tube side material kg/kmol
ms - Flue gas flowrate kg/s
Nt - Number of tube -
Pi - Design pressure N/m
2
pt - Tube pitch m
Ps - Shell side pressure drop kPa
Pt - Tube side pressure drop kPa
Q - Heat transfer required W
Rc - Crown radius m
Rk - Knuckle radius m
S - Surface area m
2
ts - Shell thickness m
tt - Tube thickness m
T - Temperature different C
Uc - Superficial velocity m/s
V - Volume of catalyst m
3
v - Feed volume flowrate m
3
/h
x - Fraction of TBA converted -
p - Particle density kg/m
3
s - Flue gas density kg/m
3
s - Flue gas viscosity Ns/m
2
LIST OF FORMULA
X
X LHSV
K
)
1
1
ln( 2 (3.1)
ln K = 21.7483 17992/T (3.2)
v
V
LHSV
1
(3.3)
Vc
LHSV
v
1
(3.4)
VR = Vc/ (1 ) (3.5)
B = (1-)(p) (3.6)
Wc = (Vc)(B) (3.7)
D
D
e
(3.8)
D = Dk + DB (3.9)
p
t
k
r
m
RT
D 0638 . 1 (3.10)
As =
4
) (
2
o
d
(3.11)
Nt = L A
V
s
c
(3.12)
=
v
V
(3.13)
Vt = Vf / Nt (3.14)
uc =
S
t
A
V
(3.15)
t s
m
t
N A
G
G
(3.16)
Db =
1
/ 1
1
n
t
o
k
N
d
,
_
(3.17)
pt = 1.25do (3.18)
A = NtL(do + di) / 2 (3.19)
T =
A U
Q
o
(3.20)
Rec =
p c
d u
(3.21)
Pr =
k
C
p
(3.22)
k
d h
N
p w
u
= 1.6(Re)
0.51
(Pr)
0.33
(3.23)
p
w
d
k
h
33 . 0 51 . 0
(Pr) (Re) 6 . 1
(3.24)
r
k
h
e
bed
4
(3.25)
Pr Re 1 . 0 5 +
k
k
e
(3.26)
bed w i
h h h
1 1 1
+
(3.27)
o i
i i
iw
d d
d h
h
+
2
(3.28)
ms =
T Cp
Q
s
(3.29)
Ib = Ds/5 (3.30)
pt = 1.25do (3.31)
Ac = (pt do)IbDs/pt (3.32)
Gs = m/Ac (3.33)
s
o s
d G
Re
(3.34)
s
s s
k
Cp
Pr
(3.35)
14 . 0 3 / 1
) ( Pr Re
w
h
s
o s
j
k
d h
(3.36)
o
h s
s
d
j k
h
3 / 1
Pr Re
(3.37)
) (
2
i o
o s
ow
d d
d h
h
+
(3.38)
1
]
1
+ + + +
is iw i
o
w
i
o
o
os ow o
h h d
d
k
d
d
d
h h U
1 1
2
) ln(
1 1 1
(3.39)
7 . 1
2
2
ge
v fG
z
P
(3.40)
Re =
v
G
t
(3.41)
s
s
s
G
u
(3.42)
14 . 0
2
) (
2
) ( 8
w
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P
(3.43)
2
) ( 8
2
s
b
s f s
u
I
L
D j P (3.44)
i
s i
P f
D P
e
2
(3.45)
Cs=
,
_
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
(3.46)
e =
) 2 . 0 ( 2
s i
i i
C P Jf
D P
(3.47)
t D H D C W
m v m V v
) 8 . 0 ( 240 +
(3.48)
W
t
N
t
d
o
2
d
i
2
( )
L
m
g
(3.49)
V H
v
(r +r
1
)
2
r
2
[ ]
(3.50)
W
i
Vg
(3.51)
Wc = (mc)(g) (3.52)
Wt = Wv + Wt +Wi + Wc (3.53)
Pw = 0.05Uw
2
(3.54)
Fw = PwDeff (3.55)
Mx = Fw (X)
2
/2 (3.56)
t
PD
i
L
4
(3.57)
t
PD
i
h
2
(3.58)
t t D
W
i
w
) ( +
(3.59)
,
_
+ t t
D
I
M
i
v
b
2
(3.60)
Iv = ( )
4 4
64
i o
D D
(3.61)
z(upwind) = L w + b (3.62)
z(downwind) = L w - b (3.63)
,
_
o
D
t
4
1
10 2 (3.64)
max = w + b (3.65)
Wapprox = g H D
L v i
2
4
(3.66)
Ms =
1
]
1
+
2
) (
2
skirt v
w
H H
F (3.67)
] ) ( [
4
s s s s
s
bs
D t t D
M
+
(3.68)
] ) ( [
s s s
ws
t t D
W
+
(3.69)
s (compressive) = bs - ws(test) (3.70)
s (tensile) = bs + ws(operating) (3.71)
Ab =
,
_
W
D
M
f N
b
s
b b
4 1
(3.72)
) 4 (
b
A
d (3.73)
1
1
]
1
+
s
s
s
b
D
W
D
M
F
2
4
(3.74)
3
10
1
c
b
b
f
F
L
(3.75)
DTBA = 260 G
0.52
-0.37
(3.76)
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
MTBE REACTOR NORMARIAH BINTI ABDULLAH
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 4:
MTBE REACTOR
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 4 MTBE REACTOR
4.1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN
OF REACTOR 97
4.1.1Catalyst 98
4.1.2 Tube side 103
4.1.3 Shell 105
4.1.4 Condition Calculation 106
4.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR 112
4.2.1 Design Consideration 112
4.2.2 The Design of Thin Walled Vessels
Under Internal Pressure 113
4.2.3 Design of Vessels Subject to
Combined Loading 116
4.2.4 Vessel Support 121
4.2.5 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design 124
4.2.6 Bolt Flanged Joint 127
4.2.7 Pipe Sizing 129
4.2.8 Compensation for Opening and
Branch Connections 130
CHAPTER 4
MTBE REACTOR
4.1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OF REACTOR
The major equipment in the MTBE process plant is reactor, where the
conversion of reactant to products takes place. The reactor use is fixed bed reactor
which operates isothermally. The fixed bed reactor consists of a number of tubes
packed with catalyst particles and operated at vertical position. The condition of the
reactor is plug flow reactor where the reactants flow through the tube without back
mixing with concentration changing down the tube as a result of the reaction.
The amount of catalyst required can be determined by calculating the rate of
reaction. The catalyst effectiveness factor must be taken into account in overall rate
constant calculation because the intra- particle diffusion has a great effect on the
rate of reaction.
Feed
Cooling
water inlet
Cooling
Water Outlet
Product
Figure 4.1: Fixed Bed Reactor
4.1.1 Catalyst
The catalyst used for this process is sulfonic ion resin which is having 16000
hours operating life, longer life compared to other catalyst.
Catalyst properties:
Diameter of catalyst (dp) = 0.04 mm
Bulk density (b) = 700 kg/ m
3
Surface area (Sa) = 100 m
2
/ g
Total voidage (b) = 0.54
Void fraction (p) = 0.32
Pore volume (V) = 4.7 x 10
-7
m
3
/ g
Specific surface area (O) = 0.020 m
2
/ g
4.1.1.1 Particle solid density
From Perrys:
p =
1
b
=
32 . 0 1
/ 700
3
m kg
= 1029 kg/ m
3
4.1.1.2 Pore radius of catalyst
Brunauer -Emmet-Teller (BET) showed that the pore radius is related to the
specific surface area, O perunit mass to the pore volume, V by the equation below: (
G.H Osborn, 1961)
r = 2.7
O
V
= 6.35 x 10
-5
m
4.1.1.3 Effective Diffusivity
Knudsen diffusion
Dk =
3
8r
M
RT
2
= 4.68 cm
2
/ s
4.1.1.4 Thiele Modulus
From Levenspiel, Thiele Modulus for sphere is given by: (Octave Levenspiel,
1999)
= 1.1
4.1.1.5 Effectiveness factor,
From Perrys:
=
2
3
,
_
1
tanh
= 0.93
4.1.1.6 Reaction Rate
For a reversible first order reaction on exothermic conditions, the rate of
reaction for the suphonic cation exchange resin catalyst is:
CH3OH + CH3C(CH3)CH2 (CH3)3CH2COCH3
A B C
-rB = k1CB k2Cc A1 = 6.5 x 10
5
R = 8.314 J/ mol.K A2 = 1.36 x 10
8
Tin = 65
o
C = 338 K E1 = 4.74 x 10
4
Tout = 200
o
C = 473 K E2 = 7.04 x 10
4
Pin = 2 bar
Pout = 10 bar
K1 = A1 e
(-E1/ RT)
= 3.07 x 10
-2
hr
-1
K2 = A1 e
(-E2/ RT)
= 2.285 hr
-1
By using ideal gas law for isobutylene :
CBO =
RT
P
BO
= 71.17 mol/m
3
Component Density (kg/m
3
) Volume flowrate (m
3
/hr)
C4H8 600 64.75
CH3OH 791.5 28.04
H2O 998.2 0.23
PO 312 0.18
Input flowrate = 61335.1630 kg/hr
Volume of mixture = 93.20 m
3
/hr
Density of mixture =
V
M
=
hr m
hr kg
/ 20 . 93
/ 1630 . 61335
3
= 658.10 kg/m
3
CCO =
V
F
F = mole flowrate of the feed
V = volume of the feed
CCO =
20 . 93
2048 . 1401
= 15.03 mol/m
3
M =
BO
CO
C
C
= 0.211
-rB = k1CB k2Cc
= k1(CBO CBOXB) k2(MCBO + CBOXB)
= -196.77
4.1.1.7 Weight of catalyst
x
o B
r
dx
F
W
W = weight of catalyst needed
F = molar flowrate of the feed
X = conversion of reactant
x
B
r
dx
F W
0
= ( ) 999 . 0
77 . 196
2048 . 1401
= 7.11 m
3
W = 7.11 m
3
x 700 kg/ m
3
= 4977 kg
4.1.1.6 Pressure Drop
For gas-liquid reaction at high pressure, the change in pressure may effects
the global rate significantly. Also, the pressure drop is needed for designing
pumping equipment which usually estimates the economic structure of a reactor
system. For packed bed, the pressure drop may be estimated from the Ergun
equation as below:
( )
p d
fu
L
dP
'
2
Where:
f = friction factor
( )
,
_
1
]
1
+
3
1
Re
1 150
75 . 1
b
b b
u = superficial linear velocity
= density of fluid
L = depth of the bed
dp = effective particle diameter = 5 x 10
-4
m
i. Superficial linear velocity
L = 4.88 m
D = 2.0 m
U =
A
Q
= ( ) ( )
4
88 . 4 2
/ 20 . 93
3
m m
hr m
= 3.377 x 10
-3
m/s
ii. Reynolds number
Re =
ud
= 658.10 (3.377 x 10
-3
) (5x10
-4
)
1.89 x 10
-3
= 0.59
iii. Friction factor
f =
( )
,
_
1
]
1
+
3
1
Re
1 150
75 . 1
b
b b
f =
( )
,
_
1
]
1
+
3
54 . 0
54 . 0 1
59 . 0
54 . 0 1 150
75 . 1
b
f = 346.76
iv. Pressure drop
( )
p d
fu
L
dP
'
2
= 346.76 (3.377 x 10
-3
)
2
(658.10)
5 x 10
-4
= 5204.90 N/m
3
4.1.1.9 Height of the bed
The preferred lengths of the tubes length are 6 ft, 8 ft, 12 ft, 16 ft, 20 ft and
24 ft ( Coulson and Richardson,1999). The height of the bed is taken as 16 ft
(4.88m). The height of the bed is selected to suit the criteria that the optimum value
of pressure drop is between 5 to 15% of the total pressure.
Pressure drop (- ) dP = 5204.90 N/m
3
x 4.88m
= 25399.95
N/m
2
4.1.1.10 Volume of catalyst bed
Vp =
p
W
=
3
/ 1029
4977
m kg
kg
= 4.84 m
3
4.1.2 Tube Side
4.1.2.1 Total cross section of the tube
= volume of catalyst bed
Height of the bed
= 4.84 m
3
4.88 m
= 0.99 m
2
4.1.2.2 Tube diameter (O.D)
The standard dimensions for steel tube diameter is in the range of 16 mm to
50 mm. The smaller diameters (16 mm to 25 mm) are preferred for most duties.
Larger tubes are easier to clean by mechanical methods and would be selected for
heavily fouling fluids. Therefore the tube diameter of 50 mm is choose as they will
give more compact and therefore cheaper.
4.1.2.3 Wall thickness
A 2.0 mm of wall thickness is the standard wall thickness for 50 mm tube
diameter that are given in BS 3274 used in this reactor.
4.1.2.4 Inside diameter
DI = 50 mm 2(2.0mm)
= 0.046 m
4.1.2.5 Total number of tube
cross section of one tube =
4
2
I D
=
( )
4
046 . 0 142 . 3
2
= 1.66 x 10
-3
m
2
nt = Total cross section of tube
cross section of one tube
=
3
2
10 66 . 1
99 . 0
x
m
= 596 tubes
4.1.2.6 Tube arrangements
The tubes are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular, square or rotated
square pattern. Since this process required high heat transfer to maintain isothermal
condition in the reactor, the triangular arrangement is recommended. (Please refer
APPENDIX D10)
4.1.2.7 Tube pitch
The recommended tube pitch (distance between tube centre) is 1.25 times
the tube outside diameter.
Pt = 1.25 x O.D
= 0.0625 m
4.1.2.8 Tube side passes
Since the inlet flow rate is very high, this exchanger is build with one tube
passes.
4.1.2.9 Bundle diameter
The bundle diameter will depend not only on the number of tubes but also
the number of the tubes passes. For triangular patterns;
1
1
1
n
t
o b
k
N
d D
,
_
where :
Nt = number of tubes
Db = bundle diameter
Do = tube outside diameter
142 . 2
1
319 . 0
596
05 . 0
,
_
b
D
= 1.68 m
4.1.2.10 Holding time
Vtube =
4
x0.046
2
x 4.88
= 8.11 x 10
-3
m
3
Voutlet = 83.77 m
3
/hr
th =
77 . 83
10 11 . 8
3
x
= 0.35 s
4.1.3 Shell
4.1.3.1 Shell types
A single shell pass type is used
4.1.3.2 Shell diameter
The shell diameter must be selected to give as close as fit to the tube bundle
as in practical to reduce bypassing round the outside of the bundle. The clearance
required between the outermost tubes in the bundle and the shell inside diameter
will depend on the type of exchanger and manufacturing tolerances. The split ring
floating head type is used in this reactor.
From figure 12.10 (Coulson & Richardson vol.6);(Please refer APPENDIX
D7)
Ds Db = 100 mm
= 100 mm + 1680 mm
= 1.780 m
4.1.3.3 Baffles
Baffles are used in the shell to increase the fluid velocity and to improve the
rate of the heat transfer. 25% baffles cut is used for this shell.
4.1.3.4 Baffle spacing
The baffle spacing used range from 0.2 to 1.0 shell diameters. The optimum
spacing usually between 0.3 to 0.5 times the shell diameter.
Bs = 0.4 x 1.780 m
= 0.712 m
4.1.3.5 Number of baffles
1 +
b
s
N
B
L
1
712 . 0
88 . 4
+
b
N
Nb = 6 baffles
4.1.3.6 Cross flow area
As =
s s
t
t
B x D x
P
OD P
,
_
=
6
10 712 1780
5 . 62
50 5 . 62
,
_
x x x
= 0.2535 m
2
4.1.3.7 Volume of reactor
VR =
4
2
s
D
x bed height
= 12.15 m
3
4.1.4 Condition Calculation
4.1.4.1 Tube side
Feed = 61335.1630 kg/hr
Outside diameter = 0.050 m
Inside diameter = 0.046 m
Pitch = 0.0625 m
Length = 4.88 m
Number of tubes = 596
Passes = 1
Cross section of one tube = 0.00166 m
2
Total cross section = 0.99 m
2
4.1.4.1.1 Heat transfer coefficient in tube side
Gmax =
min
A
M
Where;
Gmax = maximum mass flowrate
M = total mass flowrate
Amin = total minimum free flow area
Gmax = 61335.1630 kg/hr
0.99 m
2
= 61954.7101 kg/hr
= 17.21 kg/s
Re =
max
DG
Where;
D = outside diameter
= average viscosity
Re =
( )
3
10 89 . 1
21 . 17 050 . 0
x
= 455.29
L/D = 4.88 m / 0.046m
= 106.09
From figure 12.23 (Coulson & Richardson vol.6);
Heat transfer factor, jh = 8 x 10
-3
(Please refer APPENDIX D1)
14 . 0
33 . 0
Pr Re
,
_
w
h
f
i i
j
k
d h
= w
Neglect
,
_
Pr =
f
p
k
C
= 84.45
046 . 0
88 . 4
i
d
L
= 106.09
33 . 0
Pr Re
h
i
f
i
j x
d
k
h
= ( )( ) ( )
33 . 0 3
45 . 84 29 . 455 10 8
x x
0.046
0.21989
= 75.267 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.1.2 Correction for tube heat transfer coefficient
The heat transfer coefficient that calculated is based on the inside diameter.
In order to obtain heat transfer coefficient that based on outside diameter, correction
is;
o
i i
c
D
D h
h
=
050 . 0
046 . 0 39 . 41 x
= 69.247 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.1.3 Tube side pressure drop
From figure 12.24 for Re=3154,
Jf = 1.8 x10
-1
(Please refer APPENDIX D2)
P = 8jf
2
2
t
i
u
d
L
,
_
= 33.981 N/m
2
4.1.4.2 Shell side
Flow area = 0.2535 m
2
Inside diameter = 1.780 m
Baffle spacing = 0.712 m
4.1.4.2.1 Shell side heat transfer coefficient
Shell side mass velocity, Gs
= Ws
As
Ws = fluid flowrate on the shell side
Gs = 61335.1630 kg/hr
0.2535 m
2
= 67.209 kg/m
2
.s
4.1.4.2.2 Shell side equivalent diameter
For an equilateral triangular pitch arrangements,
De =
2
4 2
1
87 . 0
2
4
2
o
o
t
t
d
d
P x
P
,
_
= 0.037 m
4.1.4.2.3 Reynolds Number
Re =
e s
d G
=
( ) ( )
3
10 89 . 1
037 . 0 209 . 67
x
= 2045
4.1.4.2.4 Heat transfer factor
From figure 12.29 (Coulson & Richardson vol. 6)
Jh = 1.5 x 10
-1
(Please refer APPENDIX D3)
4.1.4.2.5 Heat transfer coefficient
14 . 0
3
1
Pr Re
,
_
w
h
f
e s
j
k
d h
Neglect
,
_
3
1
Pr Re
n
e
f
s
j x
d
k
h
= ( )( ) ( ) 3
1
1
45 . 84 73 . 1315 10 5 . 1
037 . 0
21989 . 0
x x
= 5145.90 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.2.6 Overall heat transfer coefficient
The overall heat transfer coefficient can be determined from Fourier
equation. By neglecting the wall effect, the equation is;
i o i
o o i
h h
h h
U
+
0
( ) ( )
90 . 5145 267 . 75
90 . 5145 267 . 75
0
+
U
= 74.182 W/m
2
.K
4.1.4.2.7 Friction factor
From figure 12.30 (Coulson & Richardson vol.6)
Jf = 7.0 x 10
-2
(Please refer APPENDIX D4)
4.1.4.2.8 Pressure drop
Ps = 8jf
14 . 0
2
2
,
_
,
_
,
_
w
s
s e
s
u
B
L
d
D
Neglect
,
_
Ps = 8 (7.0 x 10
-2
)
( )
2
054 . 0 10 . 658
712 . 0
88 . 4
037 . 0
780 . 1
2
,
_
,
_
Ps = 632.139 N/m
2
4.1.4.2.9 Total heat transfer area
A = DoLNt
= (4.88)(596)(0.05)
= 456.922 m
2
4.1.4.2.10 Design overall coefficient
Let dirt factor,Rd = 0.001
d
o d
R
U U
+
1 1
= 001 . 0
182 . 74
1
+
Ud = 69.059 W/m
2
.K
Overall heat transfer,
Q = UdATm
Log Mean Temperature Different (LMTD)
Tm =
2 2
922 . 456 / 059 . 69
/ 17 . 22598
m x K m W
s J
= 716.16 K
TLMTD = T o - T L
ln(To / TL)
By trial and error, outlet temperature of cooling water = 155
o
C
4.1.4.2.11 Reactors cooling system
Cooling water is flow outside the reactor tubes where the reaction took place. This is
to maintain a constant operating temperature and to prevent any excessive heating
happen.
Mass of cooling water enter,
mfCp(T1 T2) = mcCp(t2 t1) = Q
mc = 39.673 kg/s
4.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR
4.2.1 Design Consideration
4.2.1.1 Design pressure
For vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is normally taken
as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This will normally be 5 to 10 percent
above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious operation during minor
process upsets. The design pressure is taken as 10% above the operating pressure.
PD = (PI -Po ) x 1.1
= (10-1 ) x 1.1
= 9.9 bar
4.2.1.2 Design temperature
The maximum allowable design stress is depended on the temperature of
material because the strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature. The
design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated is taken as the maximum
working temperature of the material, that is T = 200
o
C
4.2.1.3 Material
A suitable material must take into account the suitability of material for
fabrication as well as the compatibility of the material with the process environment
since the maximum working temperature at this reactor is
200
o
C because it will oxidize rapidly at high temperature. Stainless steel is
recommended in construction of vessel tubes and shell.
4.2.1.4 Design stress (nominal design strength)
A maximum allowable stress that can be accepted in the material of
construction is necessary to decide for design purpose in which the material could
be expected to withstand without failure under standard test conditions. By using
stainless, the design stress is given as 115 N/mm
2
(Please refer APPENDIX D5)
4.2.1.5 Welded joint efficiency
The strength of a welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality
of the welding. For reactor, the joint factor is taken as 1.0 which implies that the joint
is equally as strong as the virgin plate. This highest category, requires 100% non
destructive testing welds.
4.2.1.6 Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow
for material lost by corrosion and erosion. For carbon and low- alloy steels, where
severe corrosion is not expected, a minimum corrosion allowance of 2.0 mm is used
since the influent and effluent gas of the reactor is not corrosive.
4.2.2 The Design of Thin Walled Vessels Under Internal Pressure
4.2.2.1 Cylinders shell minimum practical wall thickness
A minimum wall thickness is required to ensure that any vessel is sufficiently
rigid to withstand its own weight, and any incidental loads. For a cylindrical shell the
minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure can be determined from
equation below:
Pi Jf
Di Pi
e
2 . 1 4
where:
e = minimum wall thickness, m
Pi = internal pressure, N/mm
2
f = design stress, N/mm
2
J = joint efficiency
Di = internal diameter of shell, mm
e = 1 N/mm
2
(1780mm)
2 (115 N/mm
2
)-1N/mm
2
= 7.773 mm
By adding corrosion allowance of 2 mm,
e
9.773 mm
4.2.2.2 Heads and closure
The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. The
commonly types used are:
i. Domed heads
a. Hemispherical heads
b. Ellipsoidal heads
c. Torispherical heads
ii. Flat heads
Design equations and charts for the various types of domed heads are given
in the codes and standards and values for design constant Cp and the nominal plate
diameter De of flat end closures are given in the design codes and standards for
various arrangements of flat end closures. The selection of head depends on the
thickness required for the head which contributed to cost.
a) Torispherical heads.
The minimum thickness of head can be calculated from equation
below:
( ) 2 . 0 2 +
Cs Pi fJ
Cs Rc Pi
e
where :
Cs = stress concentration factor for torispherical
heads
,
_
+
Rk
Rc
3
4
1
Rc = crown radius = shell outside diameter
Rk = Knuckle radius
Where Rc / Rk should not be less than 0.06 and to avoid buckling;
crown radius Rc should not be greater than diameter of the cylinder
section.
For formed head (no joints in the head), the joint factor J is taken as
1.0.
Rc = 1.78 m
Rk = 0.06 Rc
= 0.1068 m
,
_
+
Rk
Rc
Cs 3
4
1
= 1.771 m
Add corrosion allowance of 2 mm
e
1.773 m
b) Ellipsoidal heads with major and minor axis ratio of 2:1. The minimum
thickness required can be determined by equation below:
Pi Jf
Di Pi
e
2 . 0 2
e = 1 N/mm
2
(1780mm)
2 (115 N/mm
2
)-0.2(1N/mm
2
)
= 7.746 mm
Add corrosion allowance of 2 mm
e = 9.746 mm
c) Flat heads
The minimum thickness required is given by equation below:
f
P
D C e
i
e p
= 134.408
(1780 + 9.773)9.773
= 2.446 N/mm
2
4.2.3.1.3 Bending stress
4.2.3.1.3.1 Wind loads
A vessel installed in the open must be designed to withstand the weight
bending stress caused by wind loading. The wind loading is a function of the wind
velocity, air density and the shape of structure. A wind speed of 160 km/hr is used
for preliminary design.
For a cylindrical column, the following semi-empirical equation can be used to
estimate the wind pressure.
2
07 . 0
w w
U P
where ; Pw = wind pressure, N/m
2
Uw = wind speed, km/hr
w
P = 0.07 (160)
= 1792 N/m
2
The loading per unit length of the column can be obtained from the wind pressure by
multiplying by the effective column diameter
eff w w
D P F
= 3494.40 N/mm
2
where Fw = Loading per unit length
= Pwx(mean diameter including insulation)
Deff = Effecting column diameter, the outside
diameter plus allowance for the thermal
insulation.
= 1.780 + 2(9.773+75)x10
-3
= 1.950 m
4.2.3.1.3.2 Bending moment
For a uniformly loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given
by:
2
2
WX
M
x
= 3494.40 (4.88)
2
2
= 41608.52 Nm
where X = distance measured from the free end (Hv)
W = Fw = load per unit length (N/m)
4.2.3.1.3.3 Calculation for bending stress
The bending stresses will be compressive or tensile, depending on location,
and are given by;
1
]
1
+ t t
D
I
M
i
v
x
b
2
= 0.106 N/mm
2
where Iv = second moment of area of the vessel
about the place of bending
( )
4 4
4
i o v
D D I
= 3.522 x 10
11
mm
4
o
D
Outside diameter of vessel
=
t D
i
2 +
= 1780 + 2(9.7730
= 1799.55 mm
4.2.3.1.3.4 Principle stresses
The resultant longitudinal stress is :
b w L z
t +
w
is compressive and therefore negative
z
(upwind) = 45.534 2.446 +0.106 =43.194 N/mm
2
z
(downwind)= 45.534 -2.446 -0.106 =42.982N/mm
2
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be z and h.
h = 43.406 N/mm
2
The greatest principal stresses that acted on the vessel is 0.212N/mm
2
which is well
below the maximum allowable design stress.
4.2.3.1.3.5 Check Elastic Stability (Buckling)
A vessel design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of
resultant axial stress (compressive) does not exceed the critical value at which
buckling will occur. For steel cylindrical vessels, the critical buckling stress is given
by:
,
_
o
c
D
t
x
4
10 2
= 2 x 10
-4
(9.773/1780)
= 109.81 N/mm
2
The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure.
Maximum compressive stress =
b w
+
= 2.552 N/mm
2
which is well below the critical buckling stress and maximum allowable design
stress.
4.2.4 Vessel Support
The method used to support a vessel will depend on size, shape and weight
of the vessel, the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and
arrangement: the internal and external fittings and attachments.
Since the design reactor is a vertical vessel, a skirt support is recommended
as it does not impose concentrated loads on the vessel shell. Supports will impose
localized loads on the vessel wall, and the design must be checked to ensure that
the resulting stress concentrations are below the maximum allowable design stress.
4.2.4.1 Skirt supports
A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of
vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.
Openings must be provided in the skirt for access and for any connecting pipes.
4.2.4.2 Skirt thickness
The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead weight loads and
bending moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel
pressure.
4.2.4.3 Structure of skirt
The skirt is not required to withstand the pressure in the vessel and in the
condition of the fluid, then the selection of material is not limited to steels permitted
by the pressure vessel codes. A straight cylindrical skirt of plain carbon steel with
design stress 105 N/mm
2
is used.
4.2.4.4 Height of the skirt
The height of the skirt is taken as I m
4.2.4.5 Stresses analysis on skirt
The resultant stresses in the skirt will be:
s(tensile) = bs - ws
s(compressive) = bs + ws
where bs = bending stress in the skirt
=
( )
s s s s
s
D t t D
M
+
4
ws = the dead weight stress in the skirt
=
( )
s s s
t t D
W
+
where Ms = maximum bending moment
W = total weight of the vessel and contents
Ds = inside diameter of skirt
ts = skirt thickness
The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and
dead weight loading the following design criteria not exceeded
( )
s s s
J f tensile sin
( )
s
s
s
s
D
t
E e compressiv sin 125 . 0
,
_
0.85(105) sin 90
o
( ) tensile
s
89.25N/mm
2
( ) sin 125 . 0
,
_
s
s
s
D
t
E e compressiv
( ) e compressiv
s
0.125 (200000)(18/1780)sin 90
o
( ) e compressiv
s
252.81 N/mm
2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, gives a design thickness of 20
mm.
4.2.5 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design
The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the
skirt base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by the wind and other lateral
loads will tend to overturn the vessel: this will be opposed by the couple set up by
the weight of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts.
Since reactor is considered as small vessels, the simplest type rolled angle rings is
recommended.
Scheimans method can be used for preliminary design.
4.2.5.1 Calculation for area of bolt
The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the
bolt area required is given by:
1
]
1
W
D
M
f N
A
b
s
b b
b
4 1
where Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread,mm
2
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolts stress, N/mm
2
:
typical design value 125 N/mm
2
(18,000 psi)
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m
Scheiman gives several guide rule for selecting the anchor bolts.
a. Bolts smaller than 25 mm (1 in) diameter should not be used.
b. Minimum number of bolts 8
c. Use multiples of 4 bolts.
d. Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm (2 ft)
Let the pitch circle diameter = 0.49 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 1540 mm
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
= 1540
600
= 2.57
Since the minimum number of bolts is 8, therefore 8 bolts are used.
Take bolts design stress =125 N/mm
2
Ms = 60408.39 Nm
Take W= operating value = 134.408 kN
1
]
1
W
D
M
f N
A
b
s
b b
b
4 1
( )
( )
1
]
1
3
10 408 . 134
49 . 0
39 . 60408 4
125 8
1
x A
b
= 359 mm
2
From BS 4190 : 1967, M24 bolts with root area of 353 can be used.
Bolt root diameter = (353 x 4/ )
1/2
= 21.20 mm
4.2.5.2 Calculation for minimum thickness of base ring
The base ring must be sufficiently wide to distribute the load to the
foundation. The total compressive load on the base ring is given by:
1
1
]
1
+
s
s
s
b
D
W
D
M
F
2
4
( )
( )
( )
1
]
1
+
780 . 1
10 408 . 134
780 . 1
39 . 60408 4
3
2
x
F
b
= 48304.81 N/m
where Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per
linear metre
Ds = skirt diameter, m
The minimum width of the base ring is given by:
3
10
1
x
f
F
L
c
b
b
where Lb = base ring width, mm
fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the
concrete foundation pad, which will depend on the mix
used, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm
2
(500 to
1000 psi)
Taking bearing pressure as 5 N/mm
2
3
10
1
x
f
F
L
c
b
b
= (48304.81/5) x (1/10
3
)
= 9.66 mm
Actual width required = Lr + ts + 50 mm
= 64 + 18 + 50
= 132 mm
From M24 (BS 4190 : 1967), Lr = 64
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
c
f 48304.81 / 132 x 10
3
= 0.366 N/mm
2
The minimum thickness is given by:
r c r b
f f x L t 3
where tb = Base ring thickness, mm
Lr = The distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge
of the ring, mm
fc = Actual bearing pressure on base , N/mm
2
fr = Allowable design stress in the ring material, typically
140 N/mm
2
r c r b
f f x L t 3
= 64 ((3 x 0.366)/140)
1/2
= 5.67 mm
4.2.6 Bolt Flanged Joint
Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers, and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanges may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance.
4.2.6.1 Selection of Flange
Since the operating temperature of the reactor is to be considered high,
weldingneck flanges are recommended which are suitable for extreme service
conditions such as high temperature. They will normally be specified for the
connections and nozzles on process vessels and process equipment. They have a
long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. This hub provides a
more gradual transition from the flange ring thickness to the pipe wall thickness,
thereby decreasing the discontinuity stresses and consequently increasing the
strength of the tube flange.
4.2.6.2 Selection of Gaskets
Gaskets are used to make a leak-tight joint between two surfaces. It is
impractical to machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required
to make a satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket. Gaskets are made from
semi-plastic materials; which will deform and flow under load to fill the surface
irregularities between the flange faces, yet retain sufficient elasticity to take up the
changes in the flange alignment that occur under load. An Iron or soft steel is
recommended for this vessel since they are normally used for higher temperature.
4.2.6.3 Flange Faces
The raised face, narrow faced which is probably the most commonly used
types of flange are used for all the flanges.
4.2.6.4 Flange Design
The bolts hold the flange faces together, resisting the forces due to internal
pressure and gasket sealing pressure. As these forces offset, the flange is subject to
a bending moment. A flange assembly must be sized so as to have sufficient
strength and rigidity to resist this bending moment.
The total moment
op
M
acting on the flange is given by:
g g t t d d op
h H h H h H M + +
where
g
H
= gasket reaction (pressure force) =
( )
i
mP b G 2
t
H = pressure force on the flange face =
d
H H
H = total pressure force = ( )
i
P G
2
4
d
H = pressure force on the area inside the flange
= ( )
i
P B
2
4
G = mean diameter of the gasket
B = inside diameter of the flange
b 2 = effective gasket pressure width
b = effective gasket sealing width
The minimum required bolt load under the operating condition is given by:
g m
H H W +
1
The moment Matm is given by:
g m atm
h W M
2
where Wmz is the bolt load required to seat the gasket, given by:
Gb y W
m
2
where y is the gasket seating pressure (stress)
The flange stresses are given by:
Longitudinal hub stress,hb = F1M
Radial flange stress, rd = F2M
Tangential flange stress,hb = F3M F4rd
Where M is taken as Mop or Matm, whichever is the greater.F1 and F4 are the
flange type and dimensions, are obtained from equations and graphs given
in BS5500.
The design criteria of flange are:
fo hb
f 5 . 1
fo rd
f
( )
fo rd hb
f + 2 1
( )
fo tg hb
f + 2 1
where
fo
f
is the maximum allowable design stress for the flange material at
the operating conditions.
4.2.7 Pipe Sizing
The pipe diameter can be obtained from the following equation below:
Carbon steel pipe;
doptimum = 293 G
0.53
-0.37
Stainless steel pipe;
doptimum = 260 G
0.52
-0.37
where d = optimum diameter of the pipe, mm
G = flow rate of fluid in the pipe, kg/s
= density of fluid, kg/m
3
Equation below can be used to calculate the thickness where the pipe diameter is
considerably large.
i
i i
P f
D P
t
2
where Di = optimum diameter of pipe.
4.2.7.1 Calculation of Pipe Diameter
i. Feed Stream
Flow rate = 17.04 kg/s
Density of the stream = 658.10 kg/m
3
Stainless steel is recommended for the construction of the pipe.
For stainless steel,
doptimum= 260(17.04)
0.52
(658.10)
-0.37
= 104.06 mm
ii. Inlet and Outlet Stream for Cooling Water
Stainless steel is recommended for the construction of this pipe
For stainless steel pipe,
doptimum = 260 (39.673)
052
(998.20)
-0.37
= 136.92 mm
4.2.8 Compensation for Openings and Branch Connections
The presence of openings and branches weakens the shell and give rise to
stress concentrations. Sufficient reinforcement must be provided to compensate for
the weakening effect of the opening.
The equal area method is chosen because it is the simplest method used
for calculating the amount of reinforcement required and experience has proved it to
be satisfactory for a wide range of application.
I. Feed stream
From Perrys Handbook,
For d = 104.06 mm
Nominal pipe size = 127.00 mm
Outside diameter = 141.30 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 19.05 mm
Minimum thickness of branch , e1 = PiDi
(2f-Pi)
= 0.454 mm
The nominal pipe wall thickness is above minimum thickness of branch,
so no reinforcement of the branch is required.
II. Cooling Water Stream
For d = 136.92 mm
Nominal pipe size = 127.00 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 2.767
Minimum thickness of branch, e1 = 0.60 mm
The nominal pipe wall thickness is above the minimum thickness of
branch, so no reinforcement of the branch is required.
4.2.8.1 Manholes
The maximum length of manhole is dependent on the manhole diameter.
The length is perpendicular distance fro the face of the opening including lining or
any projection of the branch within the vessel.
Type of branch connection: flush nozzle
Inside diameter = 598.50 mm
Nominal size = 600 mm
Outside diameter = 609.60 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 5.54 mm
4.2.8.1.1 Compensation for manholes
Actual thickness
ta = (do di) / 2
= 5.55 mm
Minimum thickness
e1 = PiDi
(2f-Pi)
= 2.614 mm
Distance, N = 2.5 ta
= 13.875 mm
Length, S = di /2
= 299.25 mm
Area removed, X = edi
2
= (7.773)(598.5)
2
= 2326.07 mm
2
Compensation area, Y = Nta Ne1 + Stc
= 40.737 +299.25tc
tc is the thickness for compensation
Area X = Area Y
2326.07 = 40.737 +299.25tc
tc = 7.637 mm
4.2.1.8.2 Flat end closure for manholes
Flat plates are used to blank off flange connections, and as covers for
manholes and inspection parts. Flat end closures are blind flanges, bolted cover
with a full face gasket,
The thickness required will be depend on the degree of constraint at the
plate periphery. The minimum thickness required is given by:
e = CpDe(Pi/f)
1/2
where Cp = design constant = 0.4
De = bolt circle diameter = 490 mm
f = design stress, 115 N/mm
2
Minimum thickness for flat end closures, e = 18.277 mm
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance, e = 20.277 mm
REFERENCES
Coulson and Richardson. 1999. Chemical Engineering Volume 6.
Butterworth Heinemann.
Coulson and Richardson. 1971,Chemical Engineering Volume 3.
Pergammon Press.
Massimo Morbidelli. 2001. Catalyst Design- Optimal Distribution of Catalyst
in Pellets reactors and membranes. Cambridge University Press.
Page 124-130.
M.J Slater. 1992. Ion Exchange Advances-Proceedings of IEXs. Elsevier
Science Publisher Limited.
G.H. Osborn. 1961. Synthetic Ion Exchange. London Chapman and Hall
Limited. Page 1-17.
Robert C. Reid. The Properties of Gases and Liquid. Fourth Edition.
McGraw Hill Inc..Page 433.
James M. Douglas. 1998. Conceptual Design of Chemical Process.
McGraw Hill International Editions. Page 329.
Michael Streat. 1988. Ion Exchange for Industry. Ellis Herwood Limited.
Page 585.
M. Necati Ozisik. 1985. Heat Transfer-A Basic Approach. McGraw Hill Book
Company. Page 385-397
Octave Levenspiel. 1999. Chemical Reaction Engineering. John Wiley and
Sons. Page 367-509.
Robert H. Perry. 1997. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook. 7
th
Edition.
McGraw Hill.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
Dimension
A Total Heat Transfer Area for Tubes L
-2
Ab Area of One Bolt At The Root of the Thread
As Cross section Area of Shell L
-2
At Total Cross Section Area of Tubes L
-2
Bs Baffles Spacing L
Cs Stress Concentration Factor for Torispherical
Head
Cv Account Factor
d Particle diameter
Db Bolt Circle Diameter L
Db Bundle diameter L
2
De Effective diffusivity L
2
T
-1
De Effective Column Diameter L
De Equivalent Diameter of Shell L
2
Dk Knudsen Diffusivity L
2
T
-1
Di Inner Diameter of Tube L
Di Inner Diameter L
Dm Vessel Mean Diameter L
Do Outer Diameter of Tube L
Ds Shell Diameter L
Ds Skirt Diameter L
dc Diameter of Catalyst L
E Youngs Modulus ML
-1
T
-2
e Shell Thickness L
eh Domed Head Thickness L
Fb Compressive Load on the Base Ring MT
-2
Fw Wind Loading MT
-2
fb Maximum Allowable Bolt Stress ML
-1
T
-2
fc Maximum Allowable Bearing Pressure on
Concrete Foundation ML
-1
T
-2
fs Maximum Allowable Design Stress for the
Skirt Material ML
-1
T
-2
fc Actual Bearing Stress on Base ML
-1
T
-2
g Gravitational Acceleration LT
-2
Hs Skirt Height L
Hv Height Between Two Tangent Lines of A Vessel L
Hi Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient MT
-3
-1
Hio Corrected Tube Side Coefficient MT
-3
-1
Hs Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient MT
-3
-1
Iv Second Moment of Area L
4
J Welded Joint Efficiency
jf Shell Side Friction Factor
jHS Shell Side Heat Transfer Factor
jHt Tube Side Heat Transfer Factor
K1,K2 Velocity constant of Reaction T
-1
Kf Thermal Conductivity of Fluid In Tubes MLT
-3
-1
L Length of Tube L
Lb Base Ring Width L
M Mass flowrate
Mx Bending Moment ML
2
T
-2
Nb Number of Bolts
Nc Number of Crosses
nt Total number of Tubes
PD Design Pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Pi Internal Pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Pw Wind Pressure ML
-1
T
-2
P Pressure Drop In the Tube Side ML
-1
T
-1
Pr Prandt Number
Ps Pressure Drop In Shell Side ML
-1
T
-1
Pt Tube Pitch L
Rc Crown Radius L
Re Reynold number
r Pore radius
Sg Total Surface area of Catalyst M
-1
L
2
T Operating temperature
t Wall Thickness L
ts Skirt Thickness L
TLMTD Log Mean Temperature
Ud Design Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient MT
-3
-1
V Volume flowrate M
-2
L
3
Vg Void Volume of Catalyst M
-2
L
3
W Weight of Catalyst M
Wc Weight of Catalyst MLT
-2
W Total Weight MLT
-2
Wt Weight of Tubes MLT
-2
Wi weight of Insulation MLT
-2
Wv Weight of Vessel MLT
-2
X Total Conversion of Reactant
b Voidage of Catalyst
p Internal void fraction
Fluid density ML
-3
p Particle Solid Density ML
-3
Thiele Modulus
Effectiveness Factor
D Design Stress ML
-1
T
-2
L Longitudinal Stress ML
-1
T
-2
b Bending Stress ML
-1
T
-2
h Circumferential Stress ML
-1
T
-2
m Maximum Compressive Stress ML
-1
T
-2
w Dead Weight Stress ML
-1
T
-2
z Resultant Longitudinal Stress ML
-1
T
-2
r Radial Stress ML
-1
T
-2
Fluid viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature ML
-1
T
-2
w Fluid viscosity at the wall ML
-1
T
-2
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN MOHD. NAZRI BIN ISMAIL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 5:
MTBE (C
5
H
12
O) DISTILLATION
COLUMN
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 5 MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN
INTRODUCTION 133
5.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN 134
5.2.1 Determination of Key Components 134
5.2.2 Determination of Bubble Point and
Dew Point 134
5.2.3 Determination Relative Volatility, 136
5.2.4 Determination The Number of
Stages 137
5.2.5 Calculation to Determine Overall
Tray Efficiency, Eo 138
TITLE PAGE
5.2.6 Determination Of Feed Point
Location 138
5.2.7 Estimate or Gather The Physical
Properties 139
5.2.8 Determination Of Maximum And
Minimum Vapor and Liquid Flow
Factor and Flooding Velocity
For The Turn Down Ratio 140
5.2.9 Determination Of Column Diameter 141
5.2.10 Liquid Flow Arrangements 142
5.2.11 Plate Layout 142
5.2.12 Determination of Weir Length, lw 143
5.2.13 Check The Weeping Rate 143
5.2.14 Plate Pressure Drop 145
5.2.15 Downcomer Design 146
5.2.16 Check Entrainment 147
5.2.17 Plate Layout 147
5.2.18 Number Of Hole 148
5.2.19 Column Size 149
MECHANICAL DESIGN 150
5.2.20 Design Pressure 150
5.2.21 Material Construction 151
5.2.22 Vessel Thickness 151
5.2.23 Heads and Closure 152
5.2.24 Column Weight 153
5.2.25 Wind Loads 154
5.2.26 Vessel Support Design
(Skirt Design) 155
5.2.27 General Consideration For Design 157
5.2.28 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts 157
5.2.29 Feed, Top Product, Bottom Product
Piping Sizing 159
CHAPTER 5
MTBE (C5H12O) DISTILLATION COLUMN
Introduction
Basically, the function of distillation is to separate by vaporization, a liquid
mixture of miscible and volatile substances into individual
components or some into groups of components. It also known
as a method used to separate the components of a liquid
solution, which depends upon the distribution of these various
components between a vapor and a liquid phase. All components
are present in both phases. The vapor phase is created from the
liquid phase by vaporization at the boiling point.
In our project design, the MTBE Distillation Column is been
selected as a part of equipment design for objective to separate MTBE
composition from Methanol (CH3OH). This distillation column is important
for the MTBE plant production for recycle back methanol from the MTBE
Distillation Column. Besides that, the equipment design of the MTBE
Distillation Column is also consider the multicomponent distillation method
which means that for this distillation method it consist the feed component
with more than one component. Therefore, the determination of the
minimum number of stages of this MTBE Distillation Column, Nm by using
the Frenske Equation: Overall minimum total trays with total condenser
(Reference: Applied Process Design, Volume 2: Third Edition) has been
selected as a methodology for this equipment design.
The characteristics in chosen types of distillation column are
requirement of separation objective satisfied with this distillation column,
the cost of construction and simplicity in design. The design of a distillation
column can be divided into the following steps:
1. Specify the degree of separation required; set product specifications.
2. Select the operating conditions: batch or continuous; operating
pressure.
3. Select the type of contacting device: plates or packing.
4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium
stages.
5. Size of the column: diameter, number of real stages.
6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing support.
7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal fittings.
5.1 CHEMICAL DESIGN
5.1.1 Determination of Key Components
Firstly, we must determine the key components which involving in this
distillation method. There are 2 main key components in the distillation
method:
1. Heavy Key Component, KHK
2. Light Key Component, KLK
Therefore, the determination of the key components are :
1. Heavy Key Component, KHK = MTBE (C5H12O)
2. Light Key Component, KLK = Methanol (CH3OH)
5.1.2 Determination of Bubble Point and Dew Point
The vapor pressure can be calculated from Antoine equations:
ln P
*
= A -
C T
B
+
Where P
*
= vapor pressure (mm Hg)
A, B and C = The Antoine coefficients (All these value are referred
Appendix D, Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, 1999)
T = Temperature, K
The designing of an evaporation or condensation process, the
most important that we must know that the conditions which the transition
from liquid to vapor and from vapor to liquid takes place. This principle is
also considered in designing other processes such as distillation,
absorption and stripping which requires information on the conditions at
phase transitions occur and on the compositions of the resulting phases.
The bubble point temperature, Tbp is the temperature at which
the first vapor bubble forms when the liquid is heated slowly at constant
pressure. Meanwhile the dew point temperature, Tdp is the temperature at
which the first liquid droplet forms when a gas or vapor is cooled slowly at a
constant pressure.
For bubble point conditions. By using Raoults law for an ideal
liquid solution and contains species such as A, B, C. With known mole
fraction each component, xA, xB, xC. Let assume that the vapor is ideal
(follows the ideal gas equation of state) and since the vapor is in
equilibrium with liquid, therefore the partial pressures of the components
are given by Raoults law,
pi = xipi* (Tbp) (5.1)
Where, pi* = The vapor pressure of component i at bubble point
temperature
i = Components
Therefore, the sum of the partial pressures must be the total
system pressure, P;
P = xA pA*(Tbp) + xB pB*(Tbp) +. (5.2)
This bubble point temperature may be calculated by trial and error
as the value of (Tbp) that satisfies this equation. Once (Tbp) is known, the
composition of the vapor phase can be easily be determined by evaluating
the partial pressures each component from Equation 1 and determining
each vapor phase mole fractions as
yi = pi / P (5.3)
Equation 5.2 can be used to determine such a pressure for an
ideal liquid solution at a specific temperature and mole fractions in the
vapor in equilibrium with the liquid can be determined as
yi = pi / P = xipi* (T) / Pbp (5.4)
For dew point conditions. This calculation is using the similar
method from bubble point temperature estimation. There are suppose a
gas phase contains the condensable components A, B, C and a
noncondensable components at fixed temperature. By assuming applying
Raoults law, the liquid phase mole fractions may be calculated as;
xi =
) ( *
dp
T Pi
yiP
(5.5)
Where, i = components, A, B, Cexcluding noncondensable components
yi
= The mole fraction of component i in the gas
The mole fractions of the liquid components (those that are
condensable) at the dew point of the gas mixture must sum to 1.
xA + xB +xC +.. = 1 (5.6)
From Equation 5.4,
) ( *
dp
T pA
yAP
+
) ( *
dp
T pB
yBP
+.=1 (5.7)
The value of Tdp can be found by trial and error once expressions
for T Pi ( * ) have been substituted. The dew point pressure can be
determined from Equation 5.6 with Tdp replaced by system temperature, T.
From the calculation which are included at Table 5.2 (APPENDIX
E), The Appendix given, the value of the boiling point temperature, Tbp and
the dew point temperature, Tdp:
1). At Feed Stream, Tbp = 400.6 K
2). At Distillate (Top) Stream, Tdp = 335.3 K
3). At Bottom Stream, Tbp = 408.2 K
5.1.3 Determination Relative Volatility,
The determination of relative volatility, of the components can be
determined as the ratio between K values of light key component to heavy
key component:
=
HK
LK
K
K
(5.8)
Where
LK
K = Light key component, Methanol (CH3OH)
HK
K = Heavy key component, MTBE (C5H12O)
For both K values, they are determined as shown in formula below:
K =
i
i
x
y
(5.9)
Where,
i
y
= Mole fraction (liquid) component
i
x
= Mole fraction (vapor) component
Determination of relative volatility, can be referred to Table 5.4
from the Appendix and the values of K can be referred to Table 5.3
(APPENDIX E)
5.1.4 Determination The Number of Stages
The determination of the minimum number of stages of this MTBE
Distillation Column, Nm by using the Frenske Equation :Overall minimum
total trays with total condenser (Reference : Coulson and Richardson,
Volume 6, 1999)
Nm=
LK
b
LK
HK
d
HK
LK
x
x
x
x
log
log
1
1
]
1
1
]
1
1
]
1
(5.10)
Nm=
( ) 1148 . 315 log
0003 . 0
9973 . 0
0073 . 0
4567 . 0
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
Log
Nm=
) 1148 . 315 log(
) 758 . 207975 log(
Nm= 2.1285
In order to the number of theoretical stages by using the Gilliland
Correlations. Normally after using the Fenskes Equation, the value of Nmin
is given by the equation below to get the number of stages, NT,
NT = 2Nm (5.11)
NT = 2(2.1285)
= 4.2570
5 stages
5.1.5 Calculation to Determine Overall Tray Efficiency, Eo
By using OConnell Correlations equation,
Eo =
25 . 0
) (
5 . 0
(5.12)
From calculation,
1. For feed, overall viscosity, = 0.355419cP
2. For Distillate, overall viscosity, = 0.1294 cP
3. For Bottom, overall viscosity, = 0.1998 cP
Average viscosity between distillate and bottom
viscosity, =
2
cP 0.1998 cP 0.1294 +
= 0.1646 cP
From the Excel calculation, the average volatility, or a between distillate
and bottom is 315.1148.
Therefore, Eo =
25 . 0
) (
5 . 0
=
25 . 0
) 1646 . 0 1148 . 315 (
5 . 0
x
Eo = 0.1863
Eo = 18.63 %
Finally, to determine the real number stages of this MTBE
Distillation Column.
Number of real stages =
O
E
1 - stages al theoretic of Number
(5.13)
No of stages =
1863 . 0
1 - stages 5
= 21.4707
22 stages
5.1.6 Determination Of Feed Point Location
In order to find the feed point location, estimation can be made by using the
Fenske equation to calculate the number of stages in the rectifying and
stripping section separately, but this requires an estimate of the feed point
temperature. As an alternative approach, here I use the empirical equation
given by Kirkbride (1944) as a matter for the same objective.
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
,
_
1
]
1
2
,
,
,
,
log 206 . 0 log
HK d
LK b
LK f
HK f
S
r
X
X
X
X
D
B
N
N
(5.14)
Where,
Nr = number of stages above the feed, include the condenser
Ns = number of stages below the feed, include the reboiler
B = molar flow bottom product
D = molar flow top product
Xf, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed
Xf, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed
Xd,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product
Xb, LK = concentration of the light key in the bottom product
( )
s r
s
r
s
r
S
r
N N
N
N
N
N
N
N
0782 . 0
0782 . 0
10 23 . 4 log 206 . 0 log
0.9973
0.0003
0.0813
0.8216
136.3452
632.0166
log 206 . 0 log
6
2
1
]
1
1
]
1
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
,
_
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
01 . 1
66 . 5
335
273
22.4
RMM
(5.15)
,
_
,
_
,
_
01 . 1
66 . 5
335
273
22.4
44.29
3
/ 0296 . 9 m kg
RMM = Relative molecular mass
*Most data evaluate at system temperature and pressure
5.1.8 Determination Of Maximum And Minimum Vapor And Liquid
Flow Factor And Flooding Velocity For The Turn Down Ratio
Liquid-vapour flow factor were determine by using below equation
FLV =
l
V
Vw
Lw
(5.16)
FLV
3 . 667
0296 . 9
1.5364
15.5006
1736 . 1
Assumption were made for initial tray spacing based on value of FLV by
referring to figure 11.27 from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering
volume page 567. The data were used to determine the constant, K1 for
estimation of flooding velocity.
So, Assumption initially 0.5m of tray spacing, the value k1 = 0.080
(constant) and correction factor are used as equation below:
K1 = k1
2 . 0
02 . 0
,
_
(5.17)
= 0.080
2 . 0
02 . 0
0.0132
,
_
= 0.0736
and flooding velocity, Uf determine by equation 5.18.
V
V L
f
K U
1
(5.18)
Uf =
0296 . 9
0296 . 9 3 . 667
0736 . 0
s m/ 6284 . 0
The flooding percentage was assumed to be 85%, this is based on flooding
velocity for design, a value of 80 to 85 %. Therefore, Uv were found by
using below,
UV = 0.80 (Uf) (5.19)
= 0.80 (0.6284 m/s)
= 0.5027 m/s
0.50 m/s
5.1.9 Determination Of Column Diameter
Based on flooding (distillate) consideration by using equation 5.20,
Dc =
v v
m
U
V
4
(5.20)
Dc =
) 5027 . 0 )( 0296 . 9 (
) 1.5364 ( 4
= 0.6582m
0.7 m @ 700mm
5.1.10 Liquid Flow Arrangements
Before deciding liquid flow arrangement, maximum volumetric flowrate
were determined by using,
VL =
v
w
L
(5.21)
VL =
0296 . 9
15.5006
= 1.7166 m
3
/s
Based on value of volumetric flow rate and column diameter, DC. Figure
11.28 from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page
568. Therefore, types of liquid flow found as single pass.
5.1.11 Plate Layout
The value of downcomer area, active area, hole area, hole size, and weir
height were determined based on above value calculated, trial plate layout
column area determine by using below,
Column area, AC =
v
m
U
U
(5.22)
AC =
5027 . 0
0052 . 1
= 2.0000 m
2
Where Um = Velocity at below plate,
Down comer area were found by assume 20% of column area and using
below,
Down comer Area, Ad = 0.2 AC (5.23)
Ad = 0.2(2.0000m
2
)
= 0.4 m
2
Net area and active area were determined by using equation 5.24 and
equation 5.25,
Net Area, An = Ac - Ad (5.24)
= 2.000 0.4000 m
2
= 1.6000 m
2
Active area, Aa = Ac - 2Ad (5.25)
= 2.0000 - 2(0.4000)
= 1.2000 m
2
Hole Area, AH are determine with trial value of 10% active area by equation
5.27,
Hole Area, AH = 0.10(Aa) (5.26)
= 0.10(1.2000)
= 0.1200 m
2
Weir Length, lw calculated by referring figure 11.31 from Coulson
Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 572 which determined
based value the ratio of Ad/Ac to get the ratio of lw/ Dc
5.1.12 Determination of Weir Length, lw
The weir height determine from standard from as below
Weir Height = 50 mm (Standard)
Hole diameter = 5 mm (Standard)
Plate Thickness = 5 mm (Standard)
From figure 11.31,Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6,
page 572,
When Ad/Ac x 100% = 18%, lw/ Dc = 0.85
From calculation,
DC =0.7000 m
lw/ DC = 0.85
lw = 0.85DC
lw = 0.5950 m
5.1.13 Check The Weeping Rate
By using Francis equation from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering
volume 6, page 571 to determine the height over the weir ;
how =
3 / 2
) (
750
,
_
lw
Lw
l
(5.27)
=
3 / 2
) 5950 . 0 ( 3 . 667
5006 . 15
750
,
_
= 86.3114 mm liquid
Where,
lw = Weir length
how = weir crest
Lw = liquid flow rate
So at minimum liquid flow rate determine by adding weir height hw and weir
crest, how. After that, the constant, K2 where find based on the value and
referring to figure 11.30 from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering
volume 6, page 571;
hw + how (mm) = 50 mm + 86.3114 mm
hw + how (mm) = 136.3114 mm (since this value is too big, I use hw + how =
100 mm )
hw + how (mm) 100mm
K2 = 31
Minimum vapor velocity Uh, were determine by equation 5.29
Uh =
5 . 0
2
) 4 . 25 ( 90 . 0
v
d K
h
(5.28)
=
5 . 0
) 0296 . 9 (
) 5 4 . 25 ( 90 . 0 31
= 4.2064 m/s
4.2 m/s
And actual minimum vapor velocity is ratio of Minimum vapor rate / Ah were
determine and comparing to value of weep point. Satisfaction value must
above weep point. Therefore, the calculation as below;
Actual minimum vapor velocity = Minimum vapor rate / Ah (5.29)
=
h
A
Um) ( 7 . 0
=
1200 . 0
) 0052 . 1 ( 7 . 0
= 5.8637 m/s
6 m/s
and minimum vapor velocity is above weep point velocity.
5.1.14 Plate Pressure Drop
Plate pressure Drop was calculated by:
Maximum vapor velocity through hole,
Uh =
h
m
A
U
(5.30)
=
1200 . 0
0052 . 1
= 8.3767 m/s
8.4 m/s
By referring to figure 11.34 from Coulson Richardson Chemical Engineering
volume 6, page 576
Ah/Ap = 0.1
Ah/Ap x 100% = 0.1 x 100% = 10
Plate thickness/Hole diameter = 0.005m/0.005m = 1
Orifice coefficient, Cd = 0.84
Then pressure Drop through dry plate
hd =51
,
_
,
_
l
v
C
U
D
h
2
(5.31)
= 51
,
_
,
_
3 . 667
0296 . 9
84 . 0
4 . 8
2
= 69.0109 mm
70 mm
Residual pressure drop
hr =
L
x
3
10 5 . 12
(5.32)
=
3 . 667
10 5 . 12
3
x
= 18.7322 mm liquid
Total pressure drop,
ht = hd+(hw + how) + hr (5.33)
= 70 + 100 + 18.7322
= 188.7 mm liquid
190 mm liqiuid (H2O)
5.1.15 Downcomer Design
Downcomer pressure drop
hap = hw 10 (5.34)
= 50 10 mm
= 40 mm
Area under downcomer
Aap = hap x lw (5.35)
= 0.04 m x 0.5950m
= 0.0238 m
2
(less than Ad = 0.4 m
2
)
Since Aap is less than Ad so we use Aap to calculate head loss in downcomer
hdc
hdc =
2
) (
166
,
_
m
wd
A l
L
(5.36)
=
2
) 0238 . 0 )( 3 . 667 (
7169 . 0
166
,
_
= 0.33821mm liquid
Where
Lwd = liquid flow rate in downcomer
Am = Ad (downcomer) area or Aap (Area under downcomer) either is
smaller
,hdc = head loss in downcomer
Downcomer backup, hb
hb = (hw +how) + ht + hdc (5.37)
= 100 + 190 + 0.3382
= 290.3382 mm liquid
hb @ > (lt + hw)
Resident time, tr were determined by equation 6.44,
tr =
wd
b d
L
l h A
(5.38)
=
7169 . 0
) 3 . 667 )( 2903 . 0 )( 4000 . 0 (
= 108.08660 second
108 second
The value is relevant and recommended to proceed for another design.
Therefore, plate layout details, calming zones, unperforated area,
and check hole pitch will be decide as below section.
5.1.16 Check Entrainment
Entrainment were checked by determined actual flooding percentage, Uv by
using equation 6.40 and equation 6.41,
Actual % of flooding, Uv
Uv =
Ac
U
m
(5.39)
=
000 . 2
0052 . 1
= 0.5026 m/s
Then determine the percentage of flooding,
% of flooding =
100 x
U
U
f
v
(5.40)
= 100
6284 . 0
5026 . 0
x
= 79.9809%
80%
After that, fractional entrainment was getting based on this percentage and
FLV = 1.1736, by referring figure 11.29 from Coulson Richardson Chemical
engineering volume 6, page 570. So:
Fractional entrainment = 0.08
5.1.17 Plate Layout
Angle subtended by unperforated strip were determine from figure 11.32
from Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 573. An
example likes below:
For, lw/Dc =
7000 . 0
05950
(5.41)
= 0.8500
c = 130
o
So angle = 180
o
130
o
(5.42)
= 50
o
.Mean Length unperforated edge strip = (Dc 0.05)
,
_
180
Angle
(5.43)
Mean Length unperforated edge strip = (0.7000 -0.05)
,
_
180
50
= 0.8727 m
Area of unperforated edge strip = 0.005m x 0.8727m
= 0.0044 m
2
Mean length of claming zone = (Dc 0.05) sin
,
_
2
Angle
(5.44)
= (0.7000 0.05) sin
,
_
2
130
= 0.5891 m
Area of claming zone = 2(0.05)(Mean length of claming zone) (5.45)
= 2(0.05)(0.5891)
= 0.0589 m
2
Total Area available for perforation, Ap
Ap = Aa (Area of unperforated + area of claming zone) (5.46)
= 1.200 (0.044 + 0.0589)
= 1.0971 m
2
Determine ratio
p
h
A
A
(5.47)
p
h
A
A
=
0971 . 1
1200 . 0
= 0.1094
and referring to figure 11.32 from Coulson Richardson Chemical
engineering volume 6, page 574.
h
p
d
l
= 2.8 satisfactory, within 2.5 to 4.0 (5.48)
5.1.18 Number Of Hole
Area of hole
AH =
4
2
h
d
(5.49)
=
4
005 . 0
2
= 0.00001964 m
2
= 1.9635 x10
-5
m
2
Number of Hole =
H
h
A
A
(5.50)
=
5
10 9635 . 1
1200 . 0
x
= 6111.5498unit
6112 units
5.1.19 Column Size
Column Diameter = 0.7000 m
700 mm
Column Height;
= (No stage 1) (tray spacing) + (tray spacing x 2) +
(No stage-1)(thickness of Plate) (5.51)
= (22 1)(0.4)+(0.4)(2) + (22-1)(0.05)
= 8.4 m + 0.8 m +1.05 m
= 10.25 m = 10250 mm
Table 5.5: Summary of Chemical Engineering Design
5.1 Item Value Unit
Column diameter 0.70 m
No of plate 22
Plate spacing 0.4 m
Plate thickness 0.005 m
Total column height 10.25 m
Plate pressure drop 0.07 m
Plate material SS 304
Downcomer area 0.4 m
2
Downcomer material SS 304
Column area 2.0000 m
2
Net area 1.6000 m
2
Active area 1.2000 m
2
Hole area 0.1200 m
2
Number of Hole 6112 Units
Weir Length 0.5950 m
Weir height (standard) 0.005 m
Resident time 108 s
MECHANICAL DESIGN
5.1.20 Design Pressure
In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and
pressure are important properties in order evaluate the thickness and the
stress of material. Therefore, the safety factor is added as precaution and
determined by certain consideration such as corrosion factor, location and
process characteristic.
The operating pressure is 802.5548 kPa or 8.025548 atm or
8.025548 bars and the safety factor is 10% above operating pressure. The
design pressure calculated as below equation.
Design Pressure, Pi = (Operating P 1) x 1.1 (5.52)
= (8.03 1) x 1.1
= 7.733 bar
= 0.7733 N/mm
2
Operating Temp, T = 135.21
o
C
Design Temp. , T = Operating T (C) x 1.1 (5.53)
= 135.21C x 1.1
= 148.731C
5.1.21 Material Construction
The material used is stainless steel (18Cr/8Ni, 304). For this material, the
design stress at 150 C is obtained from table 13.2, page 809 Chemical
Engineering Vol. 6.
Design stress, f = 130 N/mm
2
= 1.30 x 10
8
N/m
2
Diameter vessel, Di = 0.7000 m
Tensile strength, = 510 N/mm
2
= 5.1 x 10
8
N/m
2
5.1.22 Vessel Thickness
The thickness of column and other design are calculated based on
equation below;
e =
Pi f
Di Pi
2
(5.54)
Where, Pi = Design pressure
Di = Column diameter,
,f = joint factor
e =
) 7733 . 0 ( ) 130 ( 2
) 700 )( 7733 . 0 (
= 2.0882 mm
= 2.0882 mm + 2 mm (corrosion allowance)
= 4.0882 mm
For vessel diameter less than 1 m, a minimum thickness required is 5mm,
these values include a corrosion allowance of 2 mm.
As a first trial, divide the column into five sections (courses), with
the thickness increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 mm
to determine the thickness average.
Therefore, average thickness = 7+9+11+13+15 mm / 5 = 11 mm (5.55)
5.1.23 Heads and Closure
Torispherical head had been choose because of operating pressure below
10 bars, and suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high
pressure. The calculations as below with take
Crown radius, Rc = Di = 0.7000m
Knuckle radius, Rk = 6% Rc = 0.0420m
A head of this size would be form by pressing: no joints, so J = 1.0
Cs =
,
_
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
(5.56)
=
,
_
+
0420 . 0
7000 . 0
3
4
1
= 1.7706
Where
Crown radius, Rc = Di
Knuckle radius, Rk = 6% Rc
Therefore, minimum thickness: e =
( ) 2 . 0 2 +
S
S C i
C Pi Jf
C R P
(5.57)
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 . 0 7706 . 1 7733 . 0 130 1 2
7706 . 1 700 7733 . 0
+
= 3.6692mm
For welding purposes, the thickness of head were taken as same as
thickness of the vessel, = 5 mm. Its, matching to joint factor were taken as
1.
5.1.24 Column Weight
1. Dead Weight of Vessel, Wv
For a steel vessel, the equation 6.66 are used
Wv = 240 Cv Dm (Hv + 0.8Dm) t (5.58)
Where, Dm = mean diameter, m
= (Di + t) (5.59)
Cv = a factor, take 1.15 for distillation
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m
To get a rough estimate of the weight of this vessel is by using the average
thickness. 11 mm.
Dm = 0.7000 + 0.011
= 0.7110 m
Hv = 10.25 m
So,
Wv = 240 (1.15) (0.7110) (10.25 + 0.8(0.7110)) 11
= 23353.4 N
= 23.3534 Kn
2. Weight of Plates, Wp
From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take
contacting plates, 1.2 kN/m
2
. The total of weight of plate determine by
multiply the value with number of plate design.
Weight of plate = Ac x 1.2 (5.60)
= 0.3848 x 1.2
= 0.4618 kN
Weight of 22 plates, Wp = 0.4618 x 22 (5.61)
= 10.1596 kN
10.2 kN
3. Weight of Insulation, Wi
The fiberglass was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson
Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 833,
Density, of fiber glass = 100 kg/m
3
Thickness = 50 mm = 0.05 m
Volume of insulation,VI = x Dm x Hv x thickness of insulation (5.62)
= (0.7000) (10.25) (0.05)
= 1.1270m
3
Weight of insulation, WI = Volume of insulation x x g (5.63)
= 1.1270 x 100 x 9.81
= 1105.587 N
= 1.1056 kN
Double this value to allow fittings, so weight of insulation will be = 2.2112
kN
4. Total Weight
Double this value to allow fittings. The total weight is the summation of
dead weight of vessel, weight of insulation, weight of plates,
Total weight = Wv + Wp + WI (5.64)
= 23.3534 + 10.2 + 2.2112
= 35.7646 kN
36 kN
5.1.25 Wind Loads
This factor also is be considered and calculated based on location and
weather surrounding. Since our plant, situated at Teluk Kalong Industrial
Park, near the Kemaman Port, therefore it has higher wind speed. This is
because it is located to the near sea.
Win speed, Uw= 160 km/hr
For a smooth cylindrical column stack, the following semi-empirical
equation can be used to estimate wind pressure using below equation
Pw = 0.05Uw
2
(5.65)
= 0.05(160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
Loading per Unit Length of column, Fw
Fw =Pw Deff] (5.66)
Where, Deff = Effective column diameter
= Diameter + 2(tshell + tinsulation) (5.67)
= 0.7000 + 2(0.011 + 0.03)
= 0.98 m
Fw = 1280 x 0.98
= 1254.4N/m
Bending Moment
Mx =
2
) (
2
X F
w
(5.68)
Where, X = Distance measure from the free end
= 10.25 m
Therefore,
Mx =
2
) 25 . 10 ( 4 . 1254
2
= 65895.2 Nm
5.1.26 Vessel Support Design (Skirt Design)
Type of support : Straight cylindrical skirt
s : 90
Material construction: Carbon steel
Design stress, fs : 135 N/mm
2
at ambient temperature, 20C
Skirt height : 2.5 m
Young modulus: 200, 000 N/mm
2
At this condition of ambient temperature, the maximum dead weight load on
the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of the mixture.
Approximate weight, Wapprox =
4
x DI
2
x Hv x L x g (5.69)
=
4
(0.7
2
)(10.25)(667.3)(9.81)
= 25822.5995N
26 kN
Weight of vessel + insulation + plates = 36kN
Therefore, total weight = Wv + Wp + WI + Wapprox (5.70)
= 62 kN
Wind load, Fw = 1516.42 N/m
= 1.51642 kN/m
Bending moment at skirt base, Ms = Fw
( )
1
]
1
+
2
2
skirt v
H H
(5.71)
= 1.2544
( )
1
]
1
+
2
5 . 2 25 . 10
2
= 101.9593kNm
102kNm
As a first trial, take skirt thickness as same as the thickness of the bottom
section of the vessel, ts = 11 mm
Bending stresses in skirt, bs =
( ) [ ]
s s s s
s
D t t D
M
+
4
(5.72)
Where, Ms = maximum bending moment (at the base of
the skirt)
ts = skirt thickness
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt base
= 0.7 m = 700 mm
Therefore, bs =
( ) [ ] ) 7 . 0 )( 011 . 0 ( 011 . 0 7 . 0
) 102 ( 4
+
= 23721.9270 kN/m
2
=
23.7219 N/mm
2
Dead weight stress in the skirt, ws =
( ) [ ]
s s s
t t D
W
+
(5.73)
Where, W = Total weight of the vessel and content
= 62 kN
Therefore, ws(test) =
( ) [ ] ) 11 ( 11 700
26000
+
= 1.0582 N/mm
2
wbs,(operating) =
( ) [ ] ) 11 ( 11 700
36000
+
= 1.4652 N/mm
2
Thus, the resulting stress in the skirt, s:
Maximum s (compressive) = ws (test) + wbs (5.74)
= 1.0582 +1.4652 N/mm
2
= 2.5234N/mm
2
Maximum s (tensile) = bs - wbs (operating) (5.75)
= 23.7219 1.4652 N/mm
2
= 22.2567 N/mm
2
5.1.27 General Consideration For Design
Take the joint factor J as 0.85,
s (tensile) < fs J sin s (5.76)
s (compressive) < 0.125 E s
s
s
D
t
sin
(5.77)
Where , fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material
= 135 N/mm
2
J = weld joint factor
s = base angle of a conical skirt
E = modulus young
= 200, 000 N/mm
2
Therefore, s (tensile) < 135 x 0.85 sin 90
22.2567 N/mm
2
< 114.75 N/mm
2
s (compressive) < (0.125)(200,000)
90 sin
700
11
2.5234N/mm
2
< 392.8571 N/mm
2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, and give design
thickness = 13mm
5.1.28 Base Rings and Anchor Bolts
Assume pitch circle diameter,Db = 0.9 m
Circumference of bolt circle,Db = 900
= 2827 mm
According to Scheiman (Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume
6, page 848),
Bolt stress design, fb = 125 N/ mm
2
Recommended spacing between bolts = 600 mm
Minimum number bolt required, Nb =
600
900
(5.78)
= 4.7124
8
Bending moment at base skirt, Ms= 102 kN/m
Total weight of vessel, W= 36 kN
Area of bolt, Ab =
,
_
W
D
M
f N
b
s
b b
4 1
(5.79)
=
,
_
36000
9 . 0
) 102000 ( 4
) 125 ( 8
1
= 417mm
2
Bolt root diameter, d =
4 417 x
(5.80)
= 23.04 mm
23 mm
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
Fb =
1
]
1
+
s s
s
D
W
D
M
2
4
(5.81)
=
1
]
1
+
) 9 . 0 (
36000
) 9 . 0 (
) 102000 ( 4
2
= 173066N/m
By assuming that a pressure of 5 N/mm
2
is one of the concrete foundation
pad, fc
Minimum width of the base ring, Lb =
3
10
1
x
f
F
c
b
(5.82)
=
3
10 5
173066
x
= 34.61 mm
With this minimum width, can get actual width
Use M56 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 2030 mm
2
, figure 13.30, page
849, Chemical Engineering Volume 6, 1996.
Actual width required = Lr + ts + 50 (5.83)
= 150 + 11 + 50
= 211 mm
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation
f'c =
width actual
Fb
(5.84)
=
211
066 . 173
= 0.8202 N/mm
2
Actual minimum base thickness, tb = Lr
5 . 0
3
,
_
r
c
f
f
(5.85)
Where , fc= actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm
2
fr= allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm
2
Therefore, tb = 150
( )
140
8202 . 0 3
= 19.8860 mm
20 mm
5.1.29 Feed, Top Product, Bottom Product Piping Sizing
By assuming that the flow of the pipe is turbulent flow, therefore to
determine optimum duct diameter is
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 260G
0.52
-0.37
(For Stainless Steel) (5.86)
Where, G = flow rate, kg/s
= Density, kg/ m
3
Nozzle thickness, t =
Ps
d P
opt s
+ 20
(5.87)
Where Ps = Operating pressure, N/mm
2
= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm
2
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 226G
0.52
-0.37
Where, G = flow rate = 61333.2096 kg/hr
= 17.0370 kg/s
= density = 698.0384 kg/ m
3
Therefore, dopt = 260 (17.0370)
0.52
(698.0384)
-0.37
= 100.7076 mm
125 mm
Nozzle thickness, t =
Ps
d Ps
opt
+ 20
Where Ps = Operating pressure = 8.02 N/mm
2
= Design stress at working temperature = 135 N/mm
2
Therefore, t =
02 . 8 ) 135 ( 20
) 125 )( 02 . 8 (
+
= 0.3702 mm
So, thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.3702 mm
= 2 + 0.3702 mm
= 2.3702 mm
3 mm
For the top vapor output calculated as below,
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 260G
0.52
-0.37
Where, G = flowrate = 5531.1456 kg/hr
= 1.5364 kg/s
= density = 9.0296 m
3
Therefore, dopt = 260(1.5364)
0.52
(9.0296)
-0.37
= 143.9986 mm
= 150 mm
For the bottom liquid output calculated as below,
Optimum duct diameter, dopt,t = 260G
0.52
-0.37
Where, G = flow rate = 55802.0640 kg/hr
=15.5006 kg/s
= density = 667.3 kg/ m
3
Therefore, dopt = 260 (15.5006)
0.52
(667.3)
-0.37
= 97.4890 mm 100 mm
Table 5.6: Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design
Column types Pressure vessel
Column material Stainless steel (SS 304)
Design temperature 135.2
0
C
Operating Pressure 8.02 bar
Design Pressure 7.733 bar (10% of safety factor)
Design Stress 135 N/mm
2
Skirt Height 2500 mm
Total column height 10250 mm
Column head Torispherical head
Column diameter 700 mm
Insulation material Fiberglass
Insulation thickness 50 mm
No of manhole 2
Manhole diameter 500 mm [BS 470: 1984]
REFERENCES
J. M. Coulson, J. F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume Two,
Third Edition, The Pergamon Press, 1977.
R. K Sinnot, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering,
Chemical Engineering Design, Volume Six, Butterworth
Heinemann, 1999.
Robert H. Perry, Don W. green, Perrys Chemical Engineers
Handbook, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
James, M. Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988.
Martyn S. Ray and David, W. Johnston, Chemical Engineering,
Design Project: A Case Study Approach, Gordon and Breach
Science Publishers, 1989.
Carl R. Branan, Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Gulf
Publishing Company, 1994.
Billet, R., Distillation Engineering, Heydon Publishing, 1979.
King, C. J., Separation Processes, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill,
1992.
Kister, H. Z., Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, 1992.
Lockett, M. J., Distillation Tray Fundamentals, Cambridge University
Press, 1986.
Normans, W. S., Absorption, Distillation and Cooling Towers,
Longmans, 1961.
Oliver, E. D., Diffusional Separation Procesess, John-Wiley, 1966.
Robinson, C.S., and Gilliland, E.R., Elements of Fractional
Distillation, McGraw-Hill, 1950.
Smith, R., Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Van Winkle, M., Distillation, McGraw-Hill, 1967.
Micheal J. Barber, Handbook of Hose, Pipes, Couplings and
Fittings, First Edition, The Trade & Technical Press Limited,
1985.
Louis Gary Lamit, Piping Systems: Drafting and Design, Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1981.
David H. F. Liu, Bela. G. Liptak, Wastewater Treatment, Lewis
Publishers, 2000.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
Dimensions in M, L, T
Aa Active area of plate L
2
Aap Clearance area under apron L
2
Ac Total column cross sectional area L
2
Ad Downcomer cross - sectional area L
2
Ah Total hole area L
2
An Net area available for vapour liqud disengagement L
2
Ap Perforated area L
2
Co Orifice coefficient -
D Mols of distillate per unit time MT
-1
Dc Column diameter L
dh Hole diameter L
Emv Plate efficiency -
g Gravitational acceleration -
hap Apron clearance LT
-2
hb Height of liquid back up in down comer L
hbc Down comer back up in term of clear liquid head L
hd Dry plate pressure drop, head of liquid L
hdc Head loss in down comer L
how Height of liquid crest over down comer weir L
hr Plate residual pressure drop L
ht Total plate pressure drop L
hw Weir height L
K1 Constant -
Lm Molar flow rate of liquid per unit area ML
-2
T
-1
Lw Liquid flow rate L
2
T
-1
Lwd Liquid mass flow rate MT
-1
Ip Pitch of holes (distance between centre) L
Iw Weir length L
Nm Minimum number of stages -
NT Theoretical number of stages -
pt Total plate pressure drop ML
-1
T
-2
P
o
Partial pressure ML
-1
T
-2
q Heat to vaporize one mol of feed divided by molar latent heat -
R Universal gas constant L
2
T
2
-1
R Reflux ratio -
Rm Minimum reflux ratio -
Ua Vapour velocity based on active area LT
-1
Uf Vapour velocity through holes LT
-1
Uv Superficial velocity (based on total cross sectional area) LT
-1
V Vapour flow rate per unit time MT
-1
Vw Vapour mass flow rate MT
-1
xi Mole fraction of component I -
xd Mole fraction of component in distillate -
yi Mole fraction of component I -
L Liquid viscosity -
Viscosity of solvent ML
-1
T
-1
L Liquid density ML
-1
T
-1
v Vapour density ML
-3
Surface tension MT
-2
Dm Mean diameter L
E Young Modulus ML
-1
T
-2
Hv Height between tangent L
Pi Internal pressure ML
-1
T
-2
Mx Bending moment at base of the skirt ML
-1
T
-2
Ms Bending moment at point x from free end column ML
2
T
-2
t Thickness of plate (shell) L
ts Skirt thickness L
J Joint factor -
b Bending stress ML
-1
T
-2
w Dead weight stress ML
-1
T
-2
cw Compressive stress ML
-1
T
-2
ws Stress in skirt due to weight of vessel ML
-1
T
-2
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
PROCESS CONTROL AND
INSTRUMENTATION NORMARIAH BINTI ABDULLAH
NOOR HARYANI BINTI
MUSTAPHA
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 6:
PROCESS CONTROL AND
INSTRUMENTATION
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 6 PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION 161
TITLE PAGE
6.2 TYPES OF CONTROL 161
6.2.1 Feedback Control 161
6.2.2 Feed forward Control 162
6.2.3 Cascade Control 162
6.3 CONTROLLING SHELL AND TUBE
HEAT EXCHANGER 163
6.4 FIXED BED REACTOR CONTROL 165
6.5 DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL 167
6.6 PIPING 170
6.6.1 Introduction 170
6.6.2 Material of Construction 170
6.6.3 Pipe Sizing 170
6.6.4 Fluid Velocity 171
CHAPTER 6
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Process control is important in chemical plant that operated under
known and specified conditions. It is important in safety and environmental,
in operability so that plant can achieve desired reaction and in economics
to meet market requirement of purity product.
A chemical plant might be thought of as a collection of tanks in
which materials are heated, cooled and reacted, and of pipes through
which they flow. Such a system will not, in general, naturally maintain itself
in a state such that precisely the temperature required by a reaction is
achieved, a pressure in excess of the safe limits of all vessels be avoided,
or a flow rate just sufficient to achieve the economically optimum product
composition arise.
6.2 TYPES OF CONTROL
There is several control approach that has been applied in the
production plant, the basic concepts of these control are stated below.
6.2.1 Feedback Control
The feedback control system function is to bring the measured
quantity to its required value or set point. The feedback control system uses
direct measurements of the controlled variables to adjust the values of the
manipulated variables. The main advantage of the feedback control is the
corrective actions occur as soon as the controlled variable deviates from
the set point regardless of its source and the type of disturbances. Minimal
knowledge of the process is sufficient to set up this type of control. It is also
both versatile and robust which means that if the process condition
changes, re-tuning will still give a satisfactory result. However, this type of
control also has certain disadvantages, which are, there is no corrective
action taken until after a deviation in the controlled variable occurs. In
addition, it does not provide a predictive control action to compensate for
the effects of known or measurable disturbances. If the process encounters
large and frequent disturbance, the action of the controller will be such that
the process will operate continually in a transient state and never attain the
desired steady state.
6.2..2 Feedforward Control
The basic idea of the feedforward control is to measure the
important load variables and take the corrective actions before they upset
the process. However there are disadvantages of this control technique as
the load disturbances must be measured online and in many applications
this is not feasible. For this technique to be effective, we need to have
some basic knowledge about the process to construct a process model.
Ideal feedforward control theoretically is capable of achieving perfect
control but in reality it may not be physically realizable. There are times
when the combination of both feedback and feedforward control strategies
are required such as in the level control.
6.2.3 Cascade Control
The cascade control uses a secondary measurement point and a
secondary feedback controller in order to improve its dynamic response to
the load changes. The secondary measurement point is located so that it
recognizes the upset conditions sooner than the controlled variable. The
cascade control system utilizes multiple feedback loops in a process. It has
two distinguish features. The first feature is that the output signal of the
master controller serves as the set point of the slave controller. The second
feature is that it consists of two nested feedback control loops with the
secondary loop (slave controller) located inside the primary loop (master
controller). The advantages of cascade control are; 1) the control will
eliminate the effect of disturbance entering the secondary loop, 2) the
control will reduce the response time of the element inn the secondary loop,
which in turn will affect the primary loop, 3) the control will make the closed-
loop less sensitive to model error.
6.3 CONTROLLING SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
6.3.1 INTRODUCTION
The principle of operation for heat exchanger is simple enough: two
fluid of different temperature are brought into close contact and prevented
from mixing by a physical barrier. But, actually shell and tube heat
exchanger are among the most confusing pieces of equipment for the
process control engineers.
The temperature of the 2 fluids will tend to equalize by arranging counter
current flow it is possible for the outlet temperature of each fluids to
approach the inlet temperature of the other. The heat contents are simply
exchanged from one fluid to the other and vice versa and no energy is
added or removed.
The heat exchanger it self is not constant and its characteristic
change with time. The most common changes are a reduction of heat
transfer rate because of the surface fouling.
The heat exchanger must be controlled to make it operate at the
particular rate required by the process at every moment in time.
6.3.2 CONTROL OBJECTIVE
The purpose of controlling in heat exchanger is to control the temperature
from the outlet stream. Precisely, it is important that the temperature
involved in the process must be maintained because it will influence the
temperature in the next stages or equipment and it must in a certain
temperature so that the process can operate smoothly.
6.3.3 HOW TO MAINTAIN THE TEMPERATURE
a) Thermocouple is used to determine any changes in temperature,
especially in the outlet the transmitter, which will convert the signal to
the electrical signal, detects stream and then the changes.
b) Temperature controller is used to interpret the electrical signal and will
send an output to the transducer. The function of the transducer is to
convert the electrical signal into air pressure. These are because the air
pressure is used to open and closed the valve in order to maintain the
temperature.
c) Here, the controller will correct the increased in temperature in the
outlet stream by using the valve of the inlet stream. When this happen
the heat transfer will reduced in spite of reduce in temperature.
6.3.4 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HEAT EXCHANGER
6.1.4.1 FEEDBACK CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER
T1 = Temperature of inlet fluid T = Transducer
T2 = Temperature of outlet fluid Tset = Temperature set
TT = Temperature Transmitter
F = Fluid flowrate
6.3.4.3 TYPES OF CONTROLLING
The controller used is feedback control, which have lots of
advantages. These types of controller can detect any changes
of temperature in the outlet stream and corrective action then
occurred as soon as the controlled variables deviates from the
set point, regardless of the source and types of disturbance.
Heat Exchanger
TT
Feedback
Controller
T
T set
F
Steam
Condensate
T
2
F
T
1
F
Liquid in
Condensate
Besides, it also required minimum knowledge about the
process to be controlled.
Manipulated variable
A steam flow rate, F
Process variable/control variable
Temperature of the outlet liquid (Tout), T2
Load/disturbance
Temperature and flow rate of liquid in temperature outlet.
Tout = f (Ti,Fi)
6.4 FIXED BED REACTOR CONTROL
6.4.1 INTRODUCTION
The schemes used for reactor, if a reliable on line analyzer is
available, and the reactor dynamics are suitable, the product composition
can be monitored continuously and the reactor conditions are feed flows
controlled automatically to maintain the desired product composition and
yield. Reactor temperature will normally be controlled by regulating the flow
of the heating or cooling medium. Pressure is usually held constant.
Material balance control will be necessary to maintain the correct flow of
reactants to the reactor and the flow of product and un reacted materials
from the reactor.
6.4.2 CONTROL OBJECTIVE
i. To overcome the temperature increase of inlet cooling water
that may cause unsatisfactory performance by adjusting the
control valve on inlet stream.
ii. To maintain the temperature of exit liquid at the desired
value.
TC
INLET
FEED
COOLING WATER OUT
COOLING
WATER IN
OUTLET PRODUCT
REACTOR
Figure 6.1: Fixed Bed Reactor control
6.4.3 CASCADE CONTROL
The cooling water is passed through the reactor jacket to regulate the
reactor temperature. The reactor temperature is affected by changes in
disturbances variables such as reactant feed temperature or composition.
The control strategy to handle such disturbances is by adjusting a control
valve on the cooling water inlet stream. By adding cascade control on the
feedback controller will overcome the increase of the inlet cooling water
temperature that may cause unsatisfactory performance. Cascade control
measures the jacket temperature, compares to it set point, and uses the
resulting error as the input to a controller for the cooling water makeup,
thus maintaining the heat removal rate from the reactor at constant level.
The controller set point and both measurements are used to adjust a single
manipulated variable, the cooling water makeup.
6.4.4 ADVANTAGE OF CASCADE CONTROL
i. The output signal of the master controller serves as the set
point for the slave controller.
ii. The two feedback control loops are nested, with the
secondary control loop( for the slave controller) located
inside the primary control loop (for the master controller)
6.5 DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL
Reflux Distillate
Feed
Condenser
Bottoms
Reboiler
PC
Boilup
LC
LC
FC
FC
Figure 6.2: Distillation Column control
6.5.1 INTRODUCTION
The final, overall objective of any process control application should
always be to maximize the profitability of the process under control. This is
normally achieved via a rationalization of the value added by the process
with the energy that is consumed by the process. In the distillation column,
increasing the internal vapor and liquid flows nearly always increase the
separation of key component and therefore, increase either the product
yield or its value. However, the increase in internal flow rates in only
achieved at the expense of additional energy consumption in both the
condenser and reboiler. With most reactors and many other unit operations,
this principle often manifests itself with respect to the heating or cooling
requirement, or the recycle rate. An effective control application adjusts the
process operation towards an optimum where the incremental value added
is just less than the incremental cost of the energy and raw materials.
6.5.2 DEGREE OF FREEDOM ANALYSIS
A simple two product distillation column with a single feed and a
total condenser has five degrees of freedom. These correspond to control
valves that vary the following quantities:
The distillate product draw rate (D):
The bottoms product draw rate (B):
The reboiler duty (QR or V to donate the internal vapour rate):
The reflux rate (R):
The condenser duty(Qc):
The condenser and reboiler duty usually cannot be manipulated directly but
the designation, QR and QC, are used to represent the group of variables
which could not be used to adjust the duty in each case, for example the
control valve which is designated to regulate the condenser duty might
actually manipulate the coolant flow rate (either directly or indirectly by
regulating the bypass rate) the active surface area of the condenser or the
rate at which vapour is withdrawn from the from the column. Similarly, the
method of regulating the reboiler duty could be the heating medium flow
rate, the reboiler exchange area or the process flow through the reboiler.
The column pressure, the reboiler sump level and the reflux
accumulation level (i.e. the column vapour and liquid inventory) must all be
stabilized for the column to operate in a steady state. The column pressure
is almost always controlled via the condenser duty (Luyben, 1990) and tight
control is usually achievable with a simple SISO (single-input, single-
output) control loop (Dale E. Seborg,1989). The liquid inventory can usually
be controlled by two simple SISO controllers provided either the distillate
rate or the reflux accumulator level and either the bottoms rate or the
reboiler duty is use to control the reboiler sump level.
Therefore, two degrees of freedom remain for the control of the
process objectives. If neither of these variables is used within a control loop
(i.e. the process operator manipulates the control valve directly), the
column is said to be operated in open-loop or manual. If only one of these
variables is manipulated automatically to control a measured property, a
one-point or single composition control scheme is deemed to be in used. In
this case, the remaining degree of freedom is usually fixed at a constant
value or manipulated only occasionally to reflect capacity constraints (e.g.
maximum reboiler duty or flooding). Finally, both available degrees of
freedom can be utilized within control loops. This is known as two-point or
dual composition control.
6.5.3 OPEN-LOOP CONTROL
The most basic distillation control system consider only the column
inventory and relies on the process operator to counteract disturbances to
the process by adjusting (when required) on the manipulated variables
which are not being used for inventory control. The effectiveness of this
approach depends on the variable pairings (i.e. the control configuration).
It is convenient to adopt a nomenclature to concisely describe the
variable pairings or control configuration. The most widely accepted method
of describing control configuration employs two letter designations that
correspond to the variables which are not used for inventory control.
6.5.4 ONE-POINT CONTROL
One-point control schemes have been the backbone of industrial
distillation control for many years, although the advent of multivariable
predictive controllers (e.g. Dynamic Matrix Control, DMC) has recently seen
a shift towards more complex strategies. However, one-point control is still
widely practiced and has some inherent advantages compared with open
loop and two-point control.
One-point control is relatively easy to implement, is not subject to
interactions between opposing composition control loops and provides a
form of effective constraint management. Distillation columns are almost
always illconditioned due to the presence of high gain variables (e.g.
internal flows which change the energy balance). If a two-point control
scheme is applied, the illconditioning can restrict the attainable closed-loop
performance and, in extreme cases, create instability due to excessive
interaction.
6.6 PIPING
6.6.1 INTRODUCTION
The installation cost of piping systems varies widely with the materials of
construction and the complexity of the system. The economics also depend
on the pipe size and fabrication techniques employed. Therefore, it is
important to choose pipe sizes which give a minimum total cost for pumping
and fixed changes.
6.6.2 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
There are several considerations that need to be evaluated when
selecting the piping material such as corrosiveness, brittle failure and the
ability of thermal insulation. For this process, almost all the components are
not corrosive. So, carbon steel is the most suitable for piping system
because of its low cost of material. However for the reactor with cooling
water, stainless steel is used because of its corrosiveness.
6.6.3 PIPE SIZING
An approximate estimation of the economic pipe diameter can be
obtained by the following equation, (Coulson and Richardson, 1999)
For carbon steel pipe
doptimum = 293 G
0.53
-0.37
For stainless steel
doptimum = 260 G
0.52
-0.37
where d = optimum diameter of the pipe, mm
G = flow rate of fluid in the pipe, kg/s
= density of fluid, kg/m
3
The minimum pipe wall thickness can be determined by : (Coulson and
Richardson, 1999)
i
i
P f
D P
t
+
+
2
where t = minimum wall thickness, mm
Pi = Internal pressure of the pipe, N/mm
2
f = maximum allowable stress, N/mm
2
D = Pipe outer diameter, mm
6.6.4 FLUID VELOCITY
The fluid velocity of each stream is given by the equation below;
(Robert H. Perry, 1997)
2
4
D
G
U
= RM 494,000,000.00 / year
Capacity of Propylene Oxide = 295,625 ton / year
Sales income =
ton
1411 RM
year
) balance mass from gathered is value ton(this 625 , 295
= RM 417,8126,875.00 / year
Total sales income = RM 911,126,875.00 / year
8.4 COST ESTIMATION
8.4.1 Capital Cost Estimation
CTC = CFC + CWC + CL (8.1)
Where,
CTC = total capital cost
CFC = fixed capital cost
CWC = working capital cost
CL = cost of land & other non-depreciable costs
FP = Pressure factor to account for high pressure
FM = Material factor to account for material of constructions
CP = Purchase cost for base condition
FBM = Bare module cost factor
CBM = Bare module equipment cost for base condition
CBM = Bare module equipment cost for actual condition
Table 8.1: Estimation Cost of Purchased Equipment
Equipment
Size(m
2
)/
Diameter
(m)/Power(kW)
Material of
Construction
Operating
Pressure
(bar)
FP/Fq FM FBM F
O
BM Cp($) CBM ($) C
o
BM ($)
R - 504 3m SS 3 1.4 4 1 5.6 40000 160000 224000
R - 508 456.922m
2
SS 9.9 1.1 1 1 - 250000 250000 -
E-506 62.94 m
2
CS/Cu 11 1 1.25 1.25
1.256
3
10500 13125 13191.15
E-507 62.94 m
2
CS/Cu 11 1 1.25 1.25
1.256
3
10500 13125 13191.15
C - 503 500kW SS - - - 1.5 3.5 200000 300000 700000
P-100A/B 65kW SS - 1 2.4 3.31 5.424 18000 119160 195264
DC - 501 3m SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
35 Trays - SS 1.5 1 - 1.2 2 950 33250 66500
DC - 509 3m SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
35 Trays - SS 1.5 1 1.2 2 950 33250 66500
DC - 505 0.7m SS 8.02 1.4 4 4 12 22000 88,000 264,000
22 Trays - SS 8.02 2 - 1.2 2 298 7867.2 13112
DC 511 3 SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
35 Trays - SS 1.5 1 1.2 2 950 33250 66500
V-100 3 SS 1.5 1.1 2 5.5 6 150,000 825000 900,000
Total 4351027 5222258
Total Module Cost, CTM = CTM (Reference: Appendix H5) (8.2)
= 1.18 (CBM)
= 1.18 (5222258)
= 6162265 x 3.8
= RM 23416607
Grass Root Cost, CGR = CTM + 0.35 ( CBM) (Reference: Appendix H5)(8.3)
= 6162265 + 0.35 (4351027)
= 7685124 x 3.8
= RM 29203471
Since, Grass Root Cost (CGR) is:
CGR = CFC + CL (8.4)
When,
CWC = 15% of fixed capital cost (CFC) (8.5)
(Coulson & Richardson,1999)
So,
CGR = 1.15 CFC
i. CFC =
15 . 1
GR
C
(Coulson & Richardson,1999) (8.6)
=
1.15
29203471
= RM 25394323
ii. CL =
2
2 4 -1
m 1
60 RM
hacter 1
10 0 . 1
acre 1
hacter 10 4.046856
acre 100
m
= RM 24,281,136
iii. CWC = 15% fixed capital cost (CFC)
= 0.15(25394323)
= RM 3809148
Total capital cost (CTC) = CFC + CWC + CL
= RM 25394323 + RM 3809148 + RM 24,281,136
= RM 53,484,607
8.4.2 Manufacturing Cost Estimation
The equation below is used to evaluate the cost of manufacture:
(8.7)
COM = 0.304FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT + CWT + CRM)
The cost of manufacturing (COM) can be determined when the following costs are
known or can be estimated:
1. Fixed Capital Investment (FCI): (CTM or CGR)
2. Cost of Operating Labor (COL)
Cost of manufacture (COM) = Direct Manufacturing Cost (DMC) +
Fixed Manufacturing Cost (FMC) +
General Expenses (GE)
3. Cost of Utilities (CUT)
4. Cost of Waste Treatment (CWT)
5. Cost of Raw Material (CRM)
8.4.3 Cost of Operating Labor (COL)
Table 8.2: Labor Cost
Equipment type
No of
equipment
Operators per shift per
equipment
Operator per
shift
Heat exchangers 1 0.1 0.1
Heater 1 0.5 0.5
Reactor 2 0.5 1.0
Vessels 1 0.0 0.0
Pumps 1 0.0 0.0
Compressor 1 0.15 0.15
Towers 4 0.35 1.4
Waste Treatment 1 2.0 2.0
Total 5.15
Since, a single operators works on the average 49 weeks (3 weeks time off for vacation
and sick leave) a year, five 8-hour shifts a week.
1 operator =
week
shift 5
Year
week 49
=
Year
shift 245
Operating shift per Year =
days
shift operating 3
Year
days 300
=
Year
shift operating 900
So, the number operator needed =
Year
shift 245
Year
shift operating 900
= 3.7 operators
Thus,
Operating Labor = 3.7operators x 5.15 operator per shift
= 19.1 operator
= 20 operator
A mechanical engineers maximum wages per year (MIDA Jan, 2003) RM 54,000.00
Thus,
Labor Cost (2003) = 20 x RM 54,000.00
= RM 1,080,000.00
8.4.4 Cost of Utilities (CUT)
Yearly costs = flowrate x costs x period x stream factor
Since, assuming the plants operating days per year = 300 days
So,
Stream factor (SF) = no. of days plant operates per year
no. of days per year
=
365
300
= 0.82
1. Heater (E-100)
Duty = hr GJ hr KJ 8 . 0 10 8 . 0
6
Thus,
Yearly cost = (Q) (C steam) (t)
=
82 . 0 300 24
3 . 19
8 . 0
yr
day
day
hr
GJ
RM
hr
GJ
= RM 91157.77
2. Pump
Power (shaft) = 2.34x10
5
kJ/h = 65 kW
Effeciency of drives, dr = 91.3% (Reference: Appendix H6)
Electric Power, Pr =
dr
output Power
=
913 . 0
65
= 71.19kW
Yearly cost =
82 . 0 300 24
06 . 0
19 . 71
yr
day
day
hr
kWh
kW
(Reference: Appendix G7)
= RM 25218.35
3. Compressor
Power (shaft) = 1.8x10
7
kJ/h = 5000kW
Effeciency of drives, dr = 96% (Reference: Appendix H6 & H7)
Electric Power, Pr =
dr
output Power
=
96 . 0
5000
= 5208.33 kW
Yearly cost =
82 . 0 300 24
06 . 0
33 . 5208
yr
day
day
hr
kWh
kW
= RM 1, 844, 998.82
Total of utilities costs = RM (91157.76 + 25218.35 + 1, 844, 998.82)
= RM 1, 961, 374.93/yr
8.4.5 Cost of Raw Material (CRM)
1. TBA = 94273.44 kg/h (Price = RM1035/Metric Ton = RM1.035/kg)
=
82 . 0
kg
1.035 RM
yr
day 300
day
h 24
h
kg 44 . 94273
= RM 576,071,053.4/yr
2. Methanol = 22429.40 kg/h Price RM 0.8816/kg
= 82 . 0
kg
0.8816 RM
yr
day 300
day
h 24
h
kg 40 . 22429
= RM 116,744,273.4/yr
3. Copper catalyst (solid) = 1,677 tonne/yr
Price RM 2.00/kg (Reference: Appendix H8)
= 1,677 tonne x 1000 kg x 2 x RM 2
tonne yr kg
= RM 6708000/yr
Total cost of raw material cost (CRM) = RM 699523327.8
The estimation of total manufacturing cost:
COM = 0.304FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT + CWT + CRM)(Reference:
Appendix H9)
Since, the cost of Waste Treatment (CWT) = RM 516600
Thus,
COM = 0.304 (53484607) + 2.73 (1080000) + 1.23 (1961374 + 516600 +699523328)
COM = RM 883260746/yr
8.5 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
The feasibility of MTBE production in Malaysia is evaluated by profitability analysis.
The profitability of the project will be the largest factor that makes a project
economically attractive. To this stage, almost all the design and cost information
required for the profitability analysis were obtained. Based on the information available,
the best methods assessing the profitability of alternatives are based on projections of
the cash flows during the project file.
8.5.1 Before Tax and After Tax Cash Flow
Table 8.3: Annual Before Tax(CFBT) and After Tax Cash Flow (CFAT)
Year Gross
Income
Expenses
Investment &
Salvage
Value
CFBT Depreciation
Taxable
Income
(38%)
Taxes CFAT
0 -25394323 -25394323 -25394323
-3809148 -3809148 -3809148
-24,281,136 -24,281,136 -24,281,136
1 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
3628848.75
7
24237280.2
4
9210166.49
2 18655962.51
2 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
6219069.70
3 21647059.3 8225882.533 19640246.47
3 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
4441467.09
3
23424661.9
1 8901371.525 18964757.48
4 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
3171750.94
3
24694378.0
6
9383863.66
2 18482265.34
5 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
2267713.04
4 25598415.96
9727398.06
3 18138730.94
6 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
2265173.61
2 25600955.39
9728363.04
8 18137765.95
7 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
2267713.04
4 25598415.96
9727398.06
3 18138730.94
8 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129
1132586.80
6
26733542.1
9
10158746.0
3 17707382.97
9 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
10 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
11 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
12 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
13 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
14 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
15 911,126,875 -883260746 27866129 0 27866129 10589129.02 17276999.98
15 2539432.3 28090284 2539432.3 964984.274 29055268.27
Estimated salvage value = 10%CFC(Coulson & Richardson, 1999)(8.8)
= 0.1 x RM 25394323
= RM 25394323.3
8.5.2 Present Worth and IRR Method
In theory, the Minimum Attractive Rate of Return (MARR) is choosen higher than the
rate expected from the bank or some safe investment that involved minimal
investment risk. The MARR for after taxes is selected at 15%. (Analysis and Design
of Chemical Processes)
Table 8.4: Annual IRR After Tax
Year CFAT 30% PW 40% PW
0 -25394323 -25394323 -25394323
-3809148 -3809148 -3809148
-24,281,136 -24,281,136 -24,281,136
1 18655962.51 0.76923
14350726.0
4 0.71129 13269799.57
2
19640246.4
7 0.59172
11621526.6
4 0.5102 10020453.75
3
18964757.4
8 0.45517 8632188.66
0.3644
3 6911326.567
4
18482265.3
4 0.35013
6471195.56
3 0.26031 4811118.49
5
18138730.9
4 0.26933
4885304.40
3 0.18593 3372534.243
6
18137765.9
5 0.20718 3757782.35 0.13281 2408876.696
7
18138730.9
4 0.15937
2890769.54
9 0.09486 1720640.017
8
17707382.9
7 0.12259
2170748.07
8 0.06776 1199852.27
9
17276999.9
8 0.0943 1629221.098 0.0484 836206.799
10
17276999.9
8 0.07254
1253273.57
9 0.03457 597265.8893
11
17276999.9
8 0.0558
964056.598
9 0.02469 426569.1295
12
17276999.9
8 0.04292
741528.839
1 0.01764 304766.2796
13
17276999.9
8 0.03302
570486.539
3 0.0126 217690.1997
14
17276999.9
8 0.0254
438835.799
5 0.009 155492.9998
15
17276999.9
8 0.01954
337592.579
6 0.00643 111091.1099
15 29055268.27 0.01954
567739.942
1 0.00643 186825.375
7798369.25 -6934097.616
8
After interpolation it is found that the value of IRR is equal to 34.65% and therefore,
since it is bigger than the value of MARR (15%) this project is acceptable
8.5.3 Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax
Table 8.5: Cumulative Cash Flow After Tax (CFBT)
Year CFBT
Cumulative
cash flow
0 -53,484,607 -53,484,607
1 27866129 -25,618,478
2 27866129 2,247,651
3 27866129 30,113,780
4 27866129 57,979,909
5 27866129 85,846,038
6 27866129 113,712,167
7 27866129 141,578,296
8 27866129 169,444,425
9 27866129 197,310,554
10 27866129 225,176,683
11 27866129 253,042,812
12 27866129 280,908,941
13 27866129 308,775,070
14 27866129 336,641,199
15 28090284 392,597,612
Cumulative Cash Flow (RM) vs Year
-100,000,000
-50,000,000
0
50,000,000
100,000,000
150,000,000
200,000,000
250,000,000
300,000,000
350,000,000
400,000,000
450,000,000
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Year
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
C
a
s
h
F
l
o
w
Figure 8.1: Cumulative Cash Flow vs Year
8.6 Payback Period
8.6.1 Simple Payback Period
Table 8.6: Simple Payback Period
Year Cash Flow
Cumulative
Cash Flow
0 -53484607 -53484607
1 27866129 -25618478
2 27866129 2247651
From Table 8.6 it is found that the simple payback period is in the second year.
8.6.2 Discounted Payback Period
Table 8.7: Discounted Payback Period
Year Cash Flow
Cumulative
Cash Flow
0 -53484607 -53484607
1 27866129 -25618478 -29461249.7
2 27866129 -1595120.7 -1834388.805
3 27866129 26031740.2 29936501.22
From Table 8.7 it is found that the discounted payback period is in the third year of
operation.
8.7 Conclusion
Based on this chapter, the economic evaluation plant are made through
study in all aspect including feasibility study, process synthesis and flow sheeting
and designed of major equipment. From the cash flow analysis, the payback period
is about 3 years. By looking to the IRR value (34.65%) which is bigger than the
MARR therefore it can be concluded that this project is profitable and acceptable.
Furthermore, it should be stated that the present work is primarily illustrated based
on the method of engineering economic analysis of chemical processes.
REFERENCES
J. M. Coulson, J. F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume Two, Third
Edition, The Pergamon Press, 1977.
R. K Sinnot, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Chemical
Engineering Design, Volume Six, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999.
Robert H. Perry, Don W. green, Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook,
Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
James, M. Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1988.
Martyn S. Ray and David, W. Johnston, Chemical Engineering, Design
Project: A Case Study Approach, Gordon and Breach Science
Publishers, 1989.
Carl R. Branan, Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Gulf Publishing
Company, 1994.
Smith, R., Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
CBM = Bare module equipment cost for actual condition
CL = cost of land & other non-depreciable costs
CP = Purchase cost for base condition
CBM = Bare module equipment cost for base condition
CGR = Grass Root Cost
CFC = Fixed capital cost
COL = Cost of Operating Labor
CTC = Total capital cost
CTM = Total Module Cost
CUT = Cost of Utilities
CWC = Working Capital Cost
CWT = Cost of Waste Treatment
COM = Cost of Manufacturing
CFAT = Cash Flow After Tax
CFBT = Cash low Before Tax
FM = Material factor to account for material of constructions
FP = Pressure factor to account for high pressure
FBM = Bare module cost factor
FCI = Fixed Capital Investment
PW = Present Worth
MARR = Minimum Attractive Rate of Return
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
PROCESS INTEGRATION ROHIZAD JAMIL
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 9:
PROCESS INTEGRATION
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 9 PROCESS INTEGRATION
9.1 INTRODUCTION 218
9.2 PINCH TECHNOLOGY 219
9.3 THE PROBLEM TABLE METHOD 219
9.4 THE NETWORK DESIGN 221
\CHAPTER 9
PROCESS INTEGRATION
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Pinch technology was introduced by Linnhoff and Vredeveld to represent a new set
of thermodynamics based methods to minimized energy level in design of heat
exchanger networks. Process integration can lead to a substantial reduction in
energy requirements and increase the efficiency of a plant. One of the generally
useful techniques is pinch technology. The term derives from the fact that in a plot of
the system temperature versus the heat transferred, a pinch occurs at the minimum
temperature difference between the hot and cold stream, refer to Figure 9.1. It has
been shown that the pinch represents a distinct thermodynamic break in the system.
Temperature,
o
C
Pinch Tmin
Hot
Stream
Cold
Stream
Enthalpy, kW
Figure 9.1: Hot and cold stream composite curves (not according to the value in this
case)
.
9.2 PINCH TECHNOLOGY
In this problem, the hot stream, stream 11-12 which requires cooling and cold
stream, stream 3, 4 has to be heated. Each starts at from a source temperature Ts,
and is to be treated to a target temperature Tt. The heat capacity of each stream is
shown as CP where given by:
CP = mCp (9.1)
Where m = mass flow rate, kg/s
Cp = average specific heat capacity between Ts and Tt, kW kg
-1
o
C
-1
The heat load is the total heat required to be exchange as the objective is to reduce
the power consumption.
Table 9.1: Data for heat integration
Stream
number
Type Heat Capacity, CP
KW/
o
C
Ts
o
C
Tt
o
C
Heat Load
KW
3-4 Cold 30.5 55 282 -6923.5
11-12 Hot 106.55 400 330 7458.5
9.3 THE PROBLEM TABLE METHOD
The actual stream temperatures Tact need to be converted into stream interval
temperatures, Tint. The use of interval temperatures rather than the actual
temperatures allows the minimum temperature difference to be taken into account.
Hot stream Tint = Tact -
2
min T
(9.2)
= 400 10/2
= 395
o
C
Cold stream Tint = Tact +
2
min T
(9.3)
= 55 + 10/2
= 60C
Table 9.2: Interval temperatures for 10 min T
o
C
Stream
number
Actual Temperature Interval Temperature
Ts,
o
C Tt,
o
C Ts,
o
C Tt,
o
C
3-4 55 282 60 287
11-12 400 330 395 325
The bracketed temperature indicates the duplicated temperature. All Tint are ranked
in order of magnitude and carry out a heat balance for the streams falling within
each temperature interval.
) )( ( T CP CP H h c
(9.4)
where H = net heat required in that interval
h CP
kW/
o
C
) )( ( T CP CP H h c
kW
395
325 70 -106.55 -7458.5
287 38 0 0
60 227 -76.5 -17263.35
Cascading the heat from one interval to the next implies that the temperature
difference is such that the heat can be transferred between the hot and cold
streams. The pinch occurs where the heat flow in the cascade is zero. This is
because the rule of heat integration says that for minimum utility requirements no
heat flows across the pinch. The supply of external heat only occurs above the
pinch, and external cooling only below the pinch.
Interval temperature
395
o
C
325
o
C
287
o
C
60C
0 kW
-7458.5
0
-17263.35
0 kW
7458.5 kW
7458.5 kW
24721.85 kW
Figure 9.2: Heat cascade
From the Figure 9.2 above, the pinch occurs at interval temperature = 395C
9.4 THE NETWORK DESIGN
For the case which CPhot CPcold, the heat transfer can only occurs below the pinch.
Stream 3-4 will received the full load amount of heat required to bring up the
temperature to the Tt.
ex H
) ( s t T T CP (9.5)
= 30.5 (282 - 55)
= 6923.5 kW
The load of stream 11-12 is H
) (
t pinch
T T CP
(9.6)
= 106.55 ( 400 -330)
= 7458.5 kW
Heat being transferred, ex H = ex H received by stream 3-4
= 6923.5 kW
Heat being cooled by chiller, cooled H = 7458.5 6923.5
= 535 kW
400C 330
o
C
535 kW
282
o
C 55
o
C
6923.5 kW
Figure 9.3: Proposed heat exchanger network
The network shown in Figure 9.3 was designed to give the maximum heat recovery
and minimum energy consumption, hence increase the efficiency. Before process
integration, the process requires 7458.5 kW for cooling and 6923.5 kW for heating,
which will total up to 14382 kW. However, after heat exchanger was designed, the
process only requires 535 kW for cooling.
11-12
3-4
A
A
REFERENCES
Sinnott, R.K, 1999, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6 :
Chemical Engineering Design, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES
CP - Steam heat capacity kW/C
CPc - Sum of heat capacities of cold stream kW/C
CPh - Sum of heat capacities of hot stream kW/C
H - Change in enthalpy kW
Hex - Heat transfer in exchanger kW
Tact - Actual stream temperature C
Tint - Interval temperature C
PRODUCTION OF 400,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF MTBE
WASTE TREATMENT JUPLIN KINTI
NORMARIAH BINTI ABDULLAH
SUPERVISORS
1. EN. RUSMI BIN ALIAS
2. PN. SH. INTAN BAIZURA SYED A.FUAD DATE: 18 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 10:
WASTE TREATMENT
CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 10 WASTE TREATMENT
10.6 INTRODUCTION 223
10.7 DESCRIPTION AND PROCESS
SYNTHESIS 224
10.2.3 Air Treatment 224
10.2.4 Water Treatment 225
10.8 LAYOUT OF WASTE WATER
TREATMENT 227
10.9 MECHANICAL DESIGN WASTE
TREATMENT 228
10.10 CONCLUSION 229
CHAPTER 10
WASTE TREATMENT
10.11 INTRODUCTION
Generally, MTBE plant produces waste into air and water during operation.
This waste will be treating before discharge to the environment. The
purpose to treat this waste is to make sure that component have not been
hazardous to the animal, plants and human health. The entire waste
component must be treated to fulfill the requirement of Environmental
Quality Act (1974) before discharge to the environment
In aspect air pollution, air discharge from MTBE plant contains the
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) such as Acetone. These materials are
been hazardous in high concentration in the air.
The location of MTBE plant in Teluk Kalong Industrial Park that is
located at Terengganu Darul Iman and nearby the sources of water supply.
Hence, the wastewater treatment is under the effluent parameter in
standard B, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents)
Regulation 1979.
So, the characteristic of waste water must achieve the required in standard
B before discharge to the river.
In our MTBE plant, most of the product discharge as a waste such
as Methanol, TBA and Isobutylene are recycle or reuse again to minimize
the waste discharge and reduce the pollution occurred to the environment
and directly reduce the cost to treat the waste.
10.12 DESCRIPTION AND PROCESS SYNTHESIS
10.2.5 Air Treatment
Generally, the waste that released into air in our MTBE plant is Volatile
Organics Component (VOC). There is acetone that produces in the first
distillation column. The concentration of acetone must be compare with the
Air Quality, Industrial Emission Standards for Organic Substances (1995)
which the limitation value is 2400 mg / m3. (Please refer to APPENDIX J-1)
This waste is flammable gases and has been low of flash point.
Based on this characteristic, direct combustion with flare is using to dispose
this waste with high temperature to make sure the complete combustion
occurred.
Table 10.1: The composition of gases discharged
Types of gas Mole fraction (kmol/kmol) Molar flowrate (kmol/h)
Acetone 0.0198 14.3012
In this case, we must consider the flammable limits of each
component to make sure that our waste is not lean to burn or explode. The
lower flammable limit (LFL) and upper flammable limit (UFL) are important
to detect the volume of gases mixture with air or oxygen for burning.
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-2)
Table 10.2: The Flash Point and the lower flammable limit (LFL) and
upper flammable limit (UFL).
Properties Acetone
Flash point (
o
C) -20
Auto-ignition (
o
C) 465
(LFL) % in ambient air 2.5
(UFL) % in ambient air 12.8
Acetone passed through at the stack flare and burned with high
temperature 1090
0
C to make sure these waste burned in complete
combustion. This combustion will produce CO2 and dust into air. The
concentration of CO2 must be compare with level of emissions
Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 1978.
10.2.6 Water Treatment
In our MTBE plant, we discharged three types of waste water. There are
Methanol, Dimethyl and Propylene Oxide. This component must be treated
before discharge into river because it will be toxicity in human health, skin
and eyes irritation. For the long term, this component can reduce the
productive of animals and plant. The waste water treatment divided into
three parts. There are primary water treatment, secondary water treatment
and sludge water treatment.
Primary Treatment
In this treatment, the waste water passed through the settling tank to
remove oil and grease from waste water by disperses process and
sedimentation will occur by reducing the velocity of flowrate. Aeration tank
are using to keep the waste in suspension. In suspension, the waste having
a higher specific gravity then the liquid tend to settle while the lower specific
gravity will tend to rise. The precipitation component will pass through the
sludge digester.
Secondary Treatment
In secondary treatment, the waste is subjected to biological decomposition
by bacteria. Here, activated sludge tank are using which oxygen will supply
from air into tank and the temperature to be maintain about 37
0
C.The
process biological occurs when the microorganism oxidize the organic
material to be stable compound
The sludge will discharge into sludge digester and remain passing
through the secondary settling using Granular medium filtration. Here, the
flocs settles out in this clarifying tank and pass through the digester tank.
Sludge Treatment
Generally, raw sludge that produces is untreated non-stabilized sludge and
it tends to acidify digestion and produce odor. Hence, we need sludge
digester to eliminate nuisances and reduce health related threat. Aerobic
digestion are apply with no external food supplied into tank because the
bacteria can metabolic their own protoplasm and oxidation the sludge be
stable and not harmful.
Dewatering sludge will reducing the amount of water in the sludge
so that it can be handled and disposed of as a solid rather than a liquid.
Here we use sand drying beds. After that sludge will pass through the
storage tank and disposed by combustion using incineration.
Inventory of Waste Water
Table 10.3: Inventory of waste water
Component Mass fraction (w/w) Mass flow rate (kg/h)
Methanol 0.0001 5.5739
Dimethyl 0.0005 27.8697
Propylene oxide 0.0010 55.7395
Oxygen required.
a. Methanol
CH3OH + 3/2 O2 CO2 + 2H20
Hence, 1 mol methanol required 3/2 mol of oxygen.
b. Dimethyl
C7H16 + 11 02 7 CO2 + 8 H20
Hence, 1 mol Dimethyl required 11 mol of oxygen.
c. Propylene oxide
CH3 (CHCH2) 0 + 4 O2 3 C02 + 3 H2O
Hence, 1 mol propylene oxide required 4 mol of oxygen.
Table 10.4: Oxygen Demand of component
Component Oxygen demand (g O2)
Methanol 3/2 x (16 x 2) = 48
Dimethyle 11 x (16 x 2) = 352
Propylene oxide 4 x (16 x 2) = 128
Average density = mass fraction of component x density of component
= {(0.0001x 791) + (0.0005 x 674) + (0.001 x 829)} kg / m
3
= 1.25 kg / m
3
Total oxygen demand = (48 + 352 + 128) g O2
= 528 g O2
Generally, the value of total oxygen related with Biological oxygen demand
(BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This total oxygen demand is
high and must be reduced before discharged into river. Based on the
Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulation 1979
the BOD discharge must below 50 mg / l and COD 100 mg / l in standard B.
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-3)
10.13 LAYOUT OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT
Grit camber
Generally, Grid chamber as a function to remove inorganic likes sand in
the waste water. In this treatment, grid chamber provided to remove the oil
and grease in the settling tank.
Primary settling tank
Here, two existing primary tank will be installed for high efficiency of settling
will be occurred. Generally, more than one tank will install which one of the
tank as a function stand by tank. The rotating arm skims the floatable
materials (oils and greases) from the water surface. Another rotating arm at
the bottom of the tank sweeps sludge into a collecting chamber.
Aeration Tank
Oxygen will supply from the air into aeration tank and consumed by the
microorganism. The process biological occurs when the microorganism
oxidize the organics material to be a stable compound. This process will
provide a higher degree of treatment.
Pump
The waste water from the aeration tank will pass through to the secondary
settling tank by the centrifugal pump. This pump is needed to raise and
distribute the waste water to settling tank.
Secondary settling tank
Here, more than one tank will install and the other tanks as a stand by tank.
Waste water flows into secondary settling tanks or secondary clarifiers
where bacterial cells form clumps called floc. The floc settles out in this
clarifying tank and is piped over to the sludge holding tank for disposal.
Sludge storage tank
These tanks are covered to keep out precipitation. Here, the biological
treatment still occurred inside the sludge tank and oxidize the sludge to be
stable and non-hazardous. Sludge thickening is accomplished in a tank
equipped with slowly rotating that breaks the bridge between sludge,
thereby increasing settling and compaction.
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-4)
10.14 MECHANICAL DESIGN WASTE TREATMENT
Stack Flame Design
Stack flame is the equipment to disposed gases that produce in the plant.
The combustion of gases will occurred at the top of stack with continuous
flare at high temperature so that the gases will burn in complete
combustion to prevent any hazardous gases released.
The stack design must be high and designed plus 2.5 with higher
structure in the plant. The purpose is to make sure the plume to upward
level. In our MTBE plant the higher structure is 33.5 meter (Distillation
Column). Based on the EPA guidelines, the flare designed has the
operating temperature between 1370 K and 1920 K (1090
0
C and 1650
0
C).
(Please refer to APPENDIX J-5)
h = (33.5 + 2.5) m
= 36 m.
Settling Tank Primary and Secondary Design
Flow rate average = Total waste discharged x average density
89 .18 kg / h x 1.25 kg /m
3
= 69.13 m
3
/ hr.
The detention time = 1 hr
Depth Of tank = 5 m
The volume of tank = flow rate average x time detention
= 69.13 m
3
/ hr x 1 hr
= 69.13 m
3
.
The diameter of tank = (volume tank/ x depth)
(69.13/ x 5)
= 2.10 m
10.15 CONCLUSION
In our MTBE plant the waste water treatment discharge must be followed
the standard B in Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents)
Regulation 1979 which the value of BOD not exceed 50 mg/L and COD 100
mg / L. The waste water will continuously treat until achieved this
requirement.
Besides that, certain product such as TBA and isobutylene are not
disposed but reuse again to the plant operation because these components
are raw material to produce MTBE. This directly reduce cost production of
MTBE and pollution into environmental.
The other methods to minimize the waste in our MTBE plant is
packaging the certain product such as Propylene Oxide for commercialize
to get profit in the market.
REFERENCES
Christ. 1999. Production-Integrated Environmental Protection and Waste
Management in the chemical industry.. Germany. Wliley VCH
C. Stern, W. Boubel. 1984. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. Second Edition.
Academic Press
Environmental Quality Act 1974 ( Act 127). 1999. Laws of Malaysia. Kuala
Lumpur . International Law Book services
European Chemical Bureau, European Commission. 2002. MTBE,
Summary Risk Assessment Report. Finland.
Hammer. 2004. Water and Waste Technology . Fifth Edition. New Jersey.
Pearson Education
H. Perry and W.Green, 1998. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook,
Seventh Edition, United State.
R. Brunner, 1994. Hazardous waste incineration. Second Edition,
Singapore, McGraw-hill.
Regina D. 2002. An Overview of MTBE Remediation Process, Chemical
perspective. Inquiry reports MTBE. 7 August.
R. K. Sinnott. 2000. Chemical Engineering Design. Volume 6. Third Edition.
Great Britain. Butterworth Heinmann.
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
h height of stack
H effective height
LFL lower flammable limit
UFL upper flammable limit
VOC Volatile Organics Component