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System Startup and Shutdown Startup / shutdown are important for routine system administration and troubleshooting Boot

process: boot ROM startup and HP-UX startup 1. Power on or reboot 2. PDC performs self-tests, detects peripherals 3. PDC initializes console, looks for primary boot path 4. PDC loads/executes ISL (initial system loader) by IPL 5. ISL loads hpux (secondary system loader) from disk 6. hpux loads kernel /stand/vmunix into memory 7. kernel starts swapper (pid 0) , init (pid 1) then vhand (pid 3) 8. init reads /etc/inittab, initializes daemons and processes PDC (processor dependent code) different for different computers, resides on ROM, not disk if autoboot is enabled, starts autoboot process can be interrupted to get PDC menus (boot, path, search) search command searches for all boot devices mirror disk use boot command to boot alternate disk Stable Storage: primary, alternate boot path, console, autoboot, autosearch, stored information used by PDC Boot area on system disk BDRA System disk has boot area, root partition Files are in logical interchange format (LIF) Boot area contains {total size of BDRA=2.9MB) - LIF volume header- file containing HP-UX volume name - ISL -LABEL file ,tell position of / ,swap /stand n rootvol - hpux (secondary loader) - AUTO file (contains hpux name and arguments to hpux) HP-UX commands related to LIF are lifls, lifcp, also use mkboot , rmboot Initial system loader (ISL) ISL performs task automatically if autoboot on and PDC is not interrupted ISL commands: display, conspath, primpath, altpath, autoboot, autosearch On running system use setboot command to view/change Secondary loader (hpux) ISL reads AUTO file, per default loads /stand/vmunix Boot another kernel: ISL> hpux /stand/vmunix.old Boot in single-user mode: ISL> hpux is Boot in maintance mode ISL>hpux lm Boot in quorum mode ISL> hpux -lq List files in /stand: ISL> hpux ll /stand In maintance mode vg00 will not activate instead root will mount with auxiliary device file In single usermode only /stand and / will mount Quorum mode is single user mode with vg00 activate even if mirror disk failed ie 50% of lvm activate Loading the kernel hpux loads kernel into memory, transfers control kernel initialization has two mode real and virtual realmode initialize all of the memory, read /stand/ioconfig and /stand/rootconf an intailize all module (1st level) virtual mode : start the clock, start up the other processors, finish the I/O configuration (2nd level),initialize subsystems, intialize LVM/swap/dump, mount root file system readonly, fork() off system daemons. starts swapper process (process ID 0), which manages memory /sbin/pre_init_rc, calls fsck to check/repair file systems