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Moriah Son/ November 11, 2007

Ms. Hartmann/ Period 7

Chapter 20/ Section 1

Introduction: Dawn of the Industrial Age


a. many people lived and worked in small farming villages
i. the mid-1700s changed that way of life forever – the
reason was because of the rise of the Industrial Revolution
Started in
Britain as a
It started to Facts about long, slow,
spread – Britain to Industrial uneven
the rest of Revolution
Europe, North
America, and
Simple hand tools

Complex
New sources of machines
power replaced
human and
animal power.

The industrial revolution was an influence that first began with the
British. Then how come, when the British were a successful nation
during the times of revolution, none of the countries followed its
example.

I. A Turning Point in History


- in 1750 – people made their own clothes, food, lived in cottages
with firelight and candles, worked the land with simple handmade
tools, and did not try to go beyond the world
- in the 1850s, the rural life started to disappear because the
Industrial Revolution began: country villages = industrial
towns and cities, making food and clothes = made by
machine-made goods, cottages = multistory tenements
- some of the inventions that were made during this era –
train, steamship, telegraph wires, anesthetic, Bunsen
burner, sewing machine, antiseptic methods, cars,
televisions, air travel and antibiotics

It must have been hard for the farmers to live through this change; it is
like the Native Americans when they were getting kicked out of the
homes, forgetting their traditions in order to try to assimilate to the
new cultures.

II. A New Agricultural Revolution


- this is considered the second agricultural revolution – it
greatly improved the quality and quantity of farm products
- in the 1600s, the Dutch led the way in the new agricultural
revolution: built earthen walls known as dikes to reclaim
land from the sea, combined smaller fields into larger
ones to make better use of the land, used fertilizer
from livestock to renew the soil
- in the 1700s, British farmers used a new methods of crop
rotation, used “Turnip Townshend” which grew turnips
that restored exhausted soil, Tull invented a seed drill
that deposited seeds in rows
- enclosure: the process of taking over and fencing off land
formerly shared by peasant farmers – the enclosure
movement forced the farmers to migrate the towns and cities
and started to tend the machines in the Industrial Revolution
- refer to the reason for this is in the textbook: pg. 509 last
paragraph – “rich landowners had the enclosure
movement…enclosed land to gain pasture for sheep and increased
wool output…they wanted to replace the strip
farms of medieval times with larger fields that could be
cultivated more efficiently. As millions of acres were enclosed, farm output
rose. Profits also rose because large fields needed fewer
people to work them. But such progress had a human cost.
Many farm laborers were thrown out of work. Small farmers were
force off their land because they could not compete with large landholders.
Villages shrank as cottagers left in search of work.”

This gradual process of developing an Industrial Revolution is good


idea, because a sudden change can destroy many people during those
times. Like the French Revolution, the sudden changes in government
from the constitutional monarch to the Reign of Terror, this turned
anger into fear of dying.

III. The Population Explosion


- in the 1800s, there was a population explosion, and the
agricultural revolution was a contributor to this rapid growth
of population.
- In the 1700s, there was a declining death rates than to rising
birthrates
- The agricultural revolution reduced the risk of famine
- There was better hygiene and sanitation, with improved
medical care, and most of the plagues and diseases faded
away

They must have been advanced to a certain point if there were doctors
there to find out that their environment was a nasty place to live in.
Long time ago, taking showers often meant that the person was a
witch, but nowadays we compliment them on their cleanliness.
IV. An Energy Revolution
- in addition to muscle power exerted from the humans and the
animals, windmills and water mills were built also to add to
the “energy revolution” which is the third factor to the
Industrial Revolution
- water wheels powered the machines in the first factories
- coal was a new source of energy that was used to develop the
steam engine – brought out the “steam power” – made by
James Watt who improved from the original invention made by
Newcomen

The three factors of Revolution brought the beginning successes of the


Industrial Revolution, but nowhere does it or state there were any
safety measures during this time.