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PASTRY & BAKING ASIA PACIFIC VOLUME 3 ISSUE 6 2007 KDN PPS 1641/2/2008 MICA (P) 149/09/2006


Volume 3 Issue 6 2007

Charles Zhao Beijing Homecoming

S$5.50 / RM10
ISSN 1793-4508

Sugar Lobster Part II




Letter From The Editor

Time to Shine
With the rest of the world in turmoil, its Asia Pacifics time to shine. For better or for worse, the US economy is in shambles. War and conflict rage in the Middle East and inflation seems out of control in Europe. True to economic cycle theorists, Asia Pacific has recovered for the most part - from the paralyzing financial crisis of the late 1990s. Beijing will host the Summer Olympic Games next year and I am truly excited. Not only will there be an extraordinary influx of visitors to China, but count on across the board up-ticks in foreign travelers throughout the region. 2008 will be the year the world comes to Asia Pacific. In this issue, we feature pastry chef Charles Zhao from the The Ritz-Carlton Beijing, Financial Street. As you will read, Charles is ready for the world to arrive in his home town. As a dedicated pastry professional, this is Charles moment in the sun to showcase not only his own skills, but the professionalism and standards demonstrated by his team. I encourage others to prepare themselves for the impending opportunity. For many of the tourists and business professionals, it will be there first experience in the East. And being a firm believer in the old adage You never get a second chance to make a first impression, your goal should be to make an indelible mark on these visitors and do your part in creating guests for life. Seasons greeting, Happy New Year and looking forward to helping you shine in 2008! Regards, Joseph Marcionette Editor-in-Chief Email:

, 2008 (Riz-Carlton) Charles ZhaoCharles 2008 , 2008

Joseph Marcionette

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Felchlin Edelweiss
Felchlin Edelweiss 36% was awarded The Sant Gold Star


Top honors were given by SANT, The Magazine for Restaurant Professionals, to Felchlin Switzerland for Edelweiss 36% White Chocolate for its supreme, clean, bold and distinctive creamy avors.
For more information on distribution in Asia-Pacic visit

astry&baking P

House Specials

Chef in Focus
Pastry Chef Charles Zhao from The Ritz-Carlton Beijing, Financial Street has returned to his beloved hometown from years on the road. He now prepares for the world to visit next summer and is ready to dazzle. 40

Off The Wire
The latest news, happenings, events and product updates for the well informed professional.

Regional Showcase
Join P&B AP on a tour of Asia Pacific as we visit with and showcase talented professionals who share their favorite products and recipes.

Asian Fusion
Legendary Kim Young Mo shares his unique approach to the marriage of classic European pastry/baking with Asian tastes and sensibilities.

Sugar Arts
The incomparable Ewald Notter provides step-by-step instruction and insight into his passion and craft.

Chocolate Love
World renowned pastry chef and chocolatier extraordinaire Norman Love presents a distinctive chocolate ball and decorative rings right in time for the holidays.


Baking Fundamentals
U.S. Wheat Associates Roy Chung is back and focuses on the ingredients that go into yeast leavened laminated dough.

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astry&baking P

Published by

Synergy1 Group, Pte Ltd

Editor-in-chief / Publisher Joseph Marcionette Creative Director Lisa Dinges Senior Editor Campbell Ross Walker

32 Maxwell Road #03-07 White House Singapore 069115 Email:

Endorsed by:

If your job is to create beautiful chocolate...

Let another professional take care of the tempering!

Pang Kok Keong Executive Pastry Chef Canele Patisserie Chocolaterie

Chocovision makes the best tempering machine! Saves me a lot time with no waste. A pastry chefs best friend.!

Hong Kong Bakery And Confectionery Association

Made in the USA
Looking for Distributors email

Off The Wire

News, events and happenings from around the region

Wild Sweets Chocolate

Ignited by a passion for melding art and science in the kitchen, Dominique and Cindy Duby turn culinary conventions inside out. Inventive recipes tow the line between sweet and savory, fusing unlikely flavors to render unforgettable dishes. T h e a dven t u ro u s ch e f s s p i n immaculate recipes for sweets, bites, and drinks from their culinary studioand show you how to perfect them in your own kitchen. Step-by-step recipes and immaculate photography feature elemental, root-down methods driving the Dubys approach to cuisine. Sharp, clean flavors balance in a joyful harmony of sweet sand savory, inspired by ingredients that are refreshingly contemporary and distinctly west coast. Wild Sweets Chocolate is in equal parts a feast for the eyes, a delight to the senses, and an exhilarating journey through the Dubys famous atelier. Wild Sweets Chocolate is a hard cover book, 9 x 12 in size with 208-pages all printed in 4 colour throughout, features 180 colour pictures and retails for $40.00 at major book stores in Canada and the USA including Signed copies are only available on the Dubys Virtual Boutique located at and at the special price of $32.00. It is the rare few that truly break through with important and lasting ideas. The creations contained in Wild Sweets Chocolate are fluid and provocative, yet have depth and eloquence that is only found in the hands of those that have a true mastery and profound understanding of their craft. Charlie Trotter
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Dominique Duby Cindy Duby , Duby Duby 9X12 , 208, 180, 40 , Duby www.dcduby.com32 ** Charlie Trotter

Gem of a Dessert
The Fortress Sri Lanka, an award winning luxury resort in Galle has created the most expensive dessert in the world. Priced at $14,500 The Fortress Stilt Fisherman Indulgence is an effort by the resorts culinary team to create a one of a kind dessert that is intrinsically linked with the destination, offering both long lasting memories and a keepsake of the experience. Available on special request, the desserts inspiration comes from the resorts logo of the stilt fisherman, a centuries old fishing practice that can still be seen along the countrys coastline even today.

SIGEP 2008
The 29th International Exhibition of Artisan Gelato, Confectionery and Bakery Production at Rimini Fiera will be held January 26th 30th 2008 and is following a record breaking summer in terms of global consumption of Gelato (Italian ice cream). The artisan confectionery world is therefore preparing to make another qualitative leap, with the aim of maintaining a clear distinction from industrial products. These distinct differences will be on display at SIGEP 2008, where the best from Italy and around the world will demonstrate techniques, skills and competitive spirit highlighting artisan craft in gelato, confectionery and bakery. To personally discover how the sectors professionals work, SIGEP and Co.Gel.Fipe will present the Gelato World Cup, from January 27th 28th, sponsored by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies and the Academy of Italian Cuisine. Gabriel Paillasson will be among the judges carefully scrutinizing teams from Argentina, Brazil, France, Italy, Morocco, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, Hungary and Team USA. For more information on SIGEP visit www.sigep. it or call +39 0541 744510.

14, 500 ,

Tallest Chocolate Tower

The Centara Grand and Bangkok Convention Center in co-operation with Central World Plaza recently exhibited The Worlds Tallest Chocolate Tower at the Atrium Zone, 1st floor of Central World Plaza in Bangkok. Executive Pasty Chef Guillaume Bonnety created the 10 meter tall tower that was covered with 600 kg of chocolate. The proceeds will be donated to the donated to Save a Child's Life from Aids under the patronage of HRH Princess Soamsawali and the Caring Hearts for Aids Foundation to support the scholarship of the orphan children that their parents were killed by HIV, revealed Michel Horn, General Manger of Centara Grand and Bangkok Convention Center Central World. The opening ceremony was presides over by HRH Princess Soamsawali and to all accounts, significant funds were raised for the aforementioned charities.

29 200812630 2008 Co. Gel. Fipe 12728 Gabriel Paillasson

Centara 10600Guillaume BonnetyCentaraMaichel Horn Soamsawali Soamsawali

Off The Wire

Asian Pastry Cup 2008

Following the tremendous success of Asian Pastry Cup 2006, planning is already underway for the next Asian Pastry Cup, to be held in conjunction with Food Hotel Asia 2008. Next years event aims to be bigger and better. To be held from 23 24 April 2008, the number of participating team will double and already pastry teams from around Asia are signing up for this prestigious event. All these pastry teams are vying not only for the top prize but also an opportunity to be pre-selected for World Pastry Cup 2009 in Lyon, France. Founded by Valrhona, Singapore Pastry Alliance (member of Singapore Chefs Association), Ravifruit and in conjunction with Food Hotel Asia, the Asian Pastry Cup is an Asian partnership to the World Pastry Cup held in Lyon, France biennially. This event aims to: Assist in pre-selecting 3 Asian teams/countries to participate in the World Pastry Cup 2009 in Lyon, France; Elevate the stature and status of the pastry industry around Asia region; Ignite creativities and interest to this culinary art Launch a platform for communications and learning among pastry chefs enthusiasts around the region Create opportunities for pastry chefs to surpass oneself in the pastry world Each country will be represented by 3 professionals and the candidates will have to prepare and present a chocolate showpiece, a sugar showpiece, plated dessert and a chocolate cake. In addition to having more participating teams, there will also be a sponsor village where sponsors of this event will be able to showcase their products at this trade show. Asian Pastry Cup appeals to the trade and provides a meeting place to share new ideas in enhancing the fine art of creative pastry. For more information, please contact Ms Grace Chia at +65 9683 9950 or

2006 2008 20082324 2009 Valrhona Ravifruit /2009 Grace Chia + 65 9683

Vacuum Cooling for Bakery Products

The vacuum cooling of bakery products has many advantages. The procedure takes place immediately after the baking process. The baked goods ranging from bread rolls to pastries and loaves are cooled straight after baking, in just three to four minutes. Avoiding the traditional shock-freezing procedure, the products are stored or transported at 5 degrees Celsius or at ambient temperature for up to 30 days. This simplification of the process saves a lot of money especially today with the cost of energy and raw materials rising. Founded in 1983, Permafood AG today produces vacuum chambers for batch processing as well as for continuous production processes for the international market. Batch chambers correspond to the size of rack ovens and are installed afterwards. Each hour, more than 14 racks of bakery products can be
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cooled in no time. In the case of continuous manufacturing processes, the company constructs individual handling systems that collect the bakery products from the oven and take them to the vacuum chamber. This creates a fully-automated continuous production process. Vacuum cooling has many other advantages: the baking times, especially for half-baked products, can be significantly reduced, creating a considerable amount of free oven capacity. Loaves for slicing and bread rolls for filling can be processed just four minutes after baking. Consistent product quality within the chain is also achievable through vacuum cooling thanks to the lack of defrosting time and shorter baking times. These resourceful entrepreneurs have even achieved fantastic results with pizza, filled pastries and cakes through vacuum cooling. This forward-thinking process is sure to trigger changes in the industry. For any queries, please contact Permafood AG at +41 58 123 00 70 or visit their website

Off The Wire

Valrhonas latest Grands Crus blend. For many years, Valrhona has been skilfully creating distinct chocolates from highly original blends, revealing unique aroma and flavor combinations. ABINAO 85% offers a subtle balance of several sensory dimensions dominated by an intense bitterness backed up by powerful tannins, the result of its high percentage of cocoa and a fine blend of African beans.
Available in 3kg-bags of beans

Valrhona! Valrhona Abinao85% 3

KL Chocolate Promotion
Chocolate took center stage at a recent promotion in Kuala Lumpur where chocoholics were treated to a plethora of delicious creations. Felchlins corporate pastry chef Simon Badertscher visited the Mandarin Oriental Kuala Lumpur for a two week promotion in conjunction with resident pastry chef Alexander Haebe. Together, the two chefs presented an array of pralines, macaroons, chocolate ice cream and a six-course Chocolate Fantasy. The promotion, called Death By Chocolate, was held at the Mandarins Lounge on the Park and the Pacifica Grill & Bar. For those requiring even more chocolate, The Spa at the Mandarin Oriental also offers an exfoliating chocolate scrub, a moisturizing mocha body wrap and a relaxing aromatherapy passion oil massage paired with a delectable mini cocoa facial treatment.

FelchlinSimon Badertscher Alexander Haebe


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The road to complete chocolate understanding is a long one. Here it is in a nutshell.

For almost a century we have striven to satisfy the creative demands and impulses of our master artisans and confectioners. Scouring the world for new cocoa-growing areas, reviving forgotten varieties, establishing our own plantations and creating the renowned Ecole du Grand Chocolat are some of the ways we fulfill and share our passion for blending chocolate into harmonious new symphonies of taste. Valrhona - France -

Regional Showcase

Holiday Petits Fours

Yield: 96 petits fours 96 9. Cool. Wrap tightly.


Joconde Cake


14 oz almond flour 14 101/2 oz confectioners sugar

9 oz heavy cream (whip cream)


3 cups icing sugar 3 6 tbsp cold water 6 1 tsp soft butter 1 Mix icing sugar and water together in a saucepan. Heat over medium heat until mixture feels lukewarm and is of good pouring consistency. Stir in butter.

21/3 cups whole eggs

8 oz milk couverture chopped or chips


31/4 oz melted butter

1 cup egg whites 4 oz granulated sugar 4 4 oz all purpose flour 4

8 oz vanilla couverture chopped or chips


1. Boil the heavy cream.

1. Blend almond flour, confectioners sugar and 1/2 of the whole eggs. Whip for 6-8 minutes.

2. Poor hot cream onto chocolate and stir immediately. Add 11/2 oz of butter and stir until smooth. Let cool and store in refrigerator.


1. Spread ganache over first sheet of cake.

2. Add the rest of the eggs in two batches, beating well after each addition. Whip for 8-10 more minutes.

2. Lay second sheet on top.


3. Temper melted butter with about 2 cups of batter, set aside.

3 cups sugar 3 1 cup water 1 4 cups ground blanched almonds


3. Prepare marzipan by rolling out equal to the dimensions of the sheet cake. About 1/20 inch in thickness.

4. Whip the egg whites and granulated sugar like a French meringue, beating till soft peaks. Fold into reserved batter, set aside.

1. Add the sugar to the water in a saucepan and cook until the sugar is dissolved.

4. Diluted glucose and apply to the top sheet of cake. This will provide adhesion for the rolled marzipan. Lay the marzipan onto the prepared cake. Trim edges.

5. Gently fold in sifted flour.

6. Fold in tempered butter mixture.

2. Add the almonds and cook it until the batter stops sticking to the pan. Remove from heat and place onto a marble slap, wooden board or a sheet pan. While still warm knead first with a wooden spatula and then by hand until smooth.

5. Cut individual petit fours using pastry bicycle or ruler/knife.


7. Pour onto 2 greased half sheet pans.

6. Glaze each cake.

8. Bake at 425F till done, about 8-10 minutes.

425 810

3. Store in an airtight container or plastic bag.

7. Decorate the petits fours using royal icing with the shapes of your choosing.

Brooks Coulson Nguyen

Owner/Pastry Chef Dragonfly Cakes 200 Gate Five Road Sausalito, CA 94965 Tel: (415) 332 6812


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Holiday Petits Fours


Regional Showcase

Mango Pillows

2. Fold in sliced or cubed sweet, ripe mangoes.

7 egg whites (250 ml)


Pinch of salt


4g cream of tartar

200g white sugar


1. Cut meringue into squares. NOTE: For perfect squares, dip the knife into water before cutting.

1. Whip egg whites with cream of tartar and salt until soft peaks forms. Beat sugar in gradually. Continue to beat until stiff peaks form.

2. Start with bottom layer of meringue and spread on healthy layer of mango curd filling. Finish off with top layer of meringue.

2. Spread mixture into a baking sheet lined with parchment paper and place inside preheated oven at 170C for 15 -20 minutes.
170 1520

3. Garnish with sifted confectioners sugar and slices of fresh mangoes.

Mango Curd Filling

Your Notes

7 egg yolks

50g white sugar


4 oz fresh mango puree


2 oz sweetened condensed milk


25g butter

1. Combine all ingredients in a sauce pan and cook with constant stirring until egg yolks curdle and mixture thickens.

Rose Marie T. Lim

Pastry Chef/Owner Caro & Marie The Annex 18 Cherry Court General Maxilom Avenue Cebu City 6000 Philippines


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Mango Pillows

Regional Showcase

Gateaux Exotique
Yield: 27 cakes

2. Add the shifted almond flour, flour and tea powder.

Nappage Exotique

Biscuit Joconde

350g Absolu Cristal glaze 50g syrup (water 25g : sugar 25g)
502525 25g passion fruits puree 25g Delice Exotique puree 65g glucose

250g almond flour 250g icing sugar 300g egg 215g egg white 50g sugar 50g butter 70g flour 1. Whip the almond flour, icing sugar and egg.

3. Keep in the refregerator.

4. Roll out at 2-3mm. Cut into 9 x 6 oval shape.

23 9* 6

1. Mix all the ingredients.

5. Bake at 170C for about 10 minutes.


2. Heat until 50C.


Mascarpone Cream

3. Mix with the burmix.

2. Whip the egg white with the sugar.

3. Mix 1 and 2.

20g sugar 180g cream 40% 40% 500g mascarpone cheese 300g orange puree 1. Whip the cream with the sugar.


1. Pour the Extoique Jelly into the Egg shape Flexipan mold (10 x 7.5cm).
(10 x 7.5)

4. Add the melted butter and the shifted flour.

5. Pour onto the baking paper. Bake at 280C for 4-5 minutes.
280 45

2. Add mascarpone cheese and orange puree.

2. Add the frozen mascarpone cream and biscuit joconde. Freeze.

3. Glaze the nappage exotique.

6. After cooling down, cut into 9 x 6cm oval shape.

9 x 6

3. Pipe the cream on the plastic sheet as the shape of 9 x 6cm ovale with 18mm diametre piping tip. Freeze.
, 18 9 x 6

4. Put on the sutroizel and finish with lemongrass, passion fruits seeds, orange etc.

Tea Sutroizel

150g butter 140g sugar 2g vanilla sugar 3g salt 150g almond flour 150g flour 5g Earl Grey tea powder 1. Mix the softened butter, sugar, vanilla sugar and salt.

Exotique Jelly

Your Notes

1320g Delice Exotique puree

35g silver gelatine sheet 35g sugar 1. Heat the puree with sugar.

2. Add the bloomed gelatine.

Hiroshi Fujikawa
Owner/Chef Patisserie La Splendeur 2-1-20 Minamikugahara Ohtaku Tokyo Tel : +81 3-3752-5119


Courtesy All Japan Confectionery Association From PCG Magazine

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Gateaux Exotique

Regional Showcase

Avocado, Chocolate and Orange Bombe

Yield: 2 cakes 85 2. Whip the cream fluffy, not too stiff. Mix some of it through the warm, melted chocolate, just enough to create an emulsion. Quickly but carefully fold the pate a bombe through the chocolate, then the whipped cream. , , 3. At this stage, the mousse should be liquid and shiny. Pour a layer in the cake mould. Place in the blast freezer until set. 3. Arrange in the flexipan disk moulds. Place in the blast freezer until set. Remove from the mould and place on top of the chocolate mousse, in the centre of the cake mould. Keep refrigerated.


115g butter 70g dark couverture 70% 70%

100g whole egg 100g sugar 60g cake flour 100g candied orange peel 10g grated orange rind
1. Whip the eggs and the sugar fluffy. Combine with the melted couverture, then the melted butter. Fold in the sieved flour and mix the orange peel and grated rind through the batter. , , , 2. Spread the mixture evenly in a flexipan disk mould. Place in the oven at 170C, damper closed, for about 15 minutes. Remove and leave to cool completely before turning out. 170 15

Orange crunch

10g orange juice 5g orange zest (strips) 50g icing sugar 15g flour 40g melted butter 1 pinch salt
1. Melt the butter on low heat (or microwave oven) and mix with the orange juice. Add the sugar, salt and flour. Combine to a smooth paste and leave to rest in the refrigerator for an hour. ( ) , 2. Spread the mixture on a silpat and sprinkle with the orange rind strips. Place in the oven at 150C and bake for approximately 20 minutes or until golden brown and crispy. Leave to cool completely before removing. 150 20 Assembly

Avocado cream

Chocolate mousse

1 avocado 1 banana 40g orange juice 80g lemon juice 40g water 20g sugar 10g gelatine sheets
1. Allow the gelatin sheets to bloom in five times their volume of cold water. Blend the avocado and banana meat, lemon juice, water and sugar to a smooth paste. Slightly warm up the orange juice. 5 , 2. Press the bloomed gelatin to remove excessive water and melt it in the warm orange juice. Combine this with the blended ingredients.

200g egg yolk 100g whole egg 180g sugar 120g water 600g dark couverture 70% 70%

Green chocolate spray mixture Macarons Gold leaf

1. Place the tuile on top of the avocado cream disk in the centre of the cake mould. Fill the mould 80% full with dark chocolate mousse. Close the mould with the layer of brownie and level the surface. 2. Place the cake in the blast freezer until set, then move to the holding freezer. For service, remove from the mould. Spray entirely with green spray mixture. 3. Decorate the cake with macarons, gold leave and flamed orange segment.

800g liquid cream

1. Combine the sugar, water, egg and egg yolk in a mixing bowl, placed over a bain-marie. Poach the mixture, while continuously whipping (pate a bombe). When the mixture is fluffy enough and has reached 85C, remove it to the mixer bowl and whip until it cools down to room temperature.

Khun Ratchanee Rungwong

Chef de Partie Shangri-La Hotel Bangkok 89, Soi Wat Suan Plu New Road Bangrak Bangkok 10500 Thailand Tel: +66 (02) 236 7777


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Avocado, Chocolate and Orange Bombe


Regional Showcase

Raspberry Waltz
Yield: 40 cakes 40

Saha Cake
60g milk 266g unsalted butter 266g dark chocolate 320g egg yolk 96g sugar 1 A 533g egg white 384g sugar 2 B 2g tarter powder 266g cake flour 1. Melt butter at 65C and chocolate at 40C and mix together. 65 40 2. Cook liquid egg yolk on the water to 40C and whip with sugar 1 to density 0.47. 40A 0.47 3. Whip egg white and sugar 2 like chiffon batter. B 4. Mix well melted chocolate with egg yolk. 5. Add 1/3 cake flour with the chocolate mixture and then 1/3 egg white. 6. Add 2/3 cake flour and 2/3 egg white. The final density is 0.52. 0.52 7. Baking temperature & time for 4-8cake: 180/170C for 20 minutes then pull the air door and bake another 25 minutes. 48 180/17020 25

520g milk chocolate 40% 40% 40g bitter chocolate 1. Cook milk and fresh cream and pour into the mixed egg yolk and sugar then sift. 2. Cook till 82C and add gelatine sheet and add melted chocolate. Mix well. 82 3. Cook raspberry puree to 80* and add into mixture. 80 2 4. Add whipped cream when cool down to 40C. 40

White Chiffon Cake

80g salad oil 100g milk 22g sugar 1 A 150g cake flour 1.65g baking powder 0.6g salt 168g egg yolk 340g egg white 150g sugar 2 B 1.6g tarter powder 1. Mix milk, salad oil, sugar 1 and salt and add sifted flour and baking powder. Mix well then add egg yolk. 2. Slightly whip egg white with tarter powder then add sugar 2 and whip in high speed to get the volume then turn to medium speed for 1 minute. 3. Add 1/4 whipped egg white to the mixture, mix well then add the rest whipped egg white.

Vanilla Coulis
12g gelatine sheet 330g fresh cream 10g vanilla bean 150g sugar 200g egg yolk 500g whipped cream 1. Cook milk with vanilla seeds. 2. Mix egg yolk and sugar well and pour milk into mixture. Mix well and sift then cook to 82C. Add gelatine sheet. 82 3. When cool down to 40C then add whipped cream. Pour into mould and freeze. 40

Coffee Syrup
30g sugar 88g water 10g coffee wine 1g rum 2g instant coffee 1. Cook sugar and water to 105C then add coffee powder. 2. When cool down to 40C add coffee wine and rum. Assembly 1. Put one Saha cake in the bottom of mousse mould. Spray with coffee syrup. 2. Pipe raspberry mousse then add one sheet of chiffon cake. 3. Spray a thin layer of mousse on the both side of raspberry coulis then put on the top of chiffon cake. 4. Place another chiffon cake then vanilla coulis and cover with raspberry mousse. Put into freeze. 5. Do some necessary decoration as wish.

Raspberry Chocolate Mousse

200g milk 100g fresh cream 40g egg yolk 40g sugar 24g gelatine sheet 360g raspberry puree 880g whipped cream

Raspberry Coulis
1100g raspberry puree 170g sugar 35g gelatine 250g frozen raspberry fruits Cook raspberry puree with fruits and add sugar. Bring to boil the add gelatine sheet. Pour into mould and freeze.

Kuo-Hao Chung
Pastry Chef Sugar & Spice 1F, No.125, Sec.2, Chorng Der Road, Taichung, Taiwan Tel: 886 4-22426066


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Raspberry Waltz

Regional Showcase

Raspberry Souffle
Fruit base

250g pureed raspberries 55g sugar 20 ml water 37g corn flour 50ml water Juice of 1/2 lemon 1. Bring the pureed raspberries to a boil.

3. Whisk the egg whites together until they form soft peaks then gradually add sugar till firm but not stiff peaks form.

4. Whisk 1/4 of the mixture into the raspberry base then fold in the remaining egg white mixture.

2. In a separate pot, bring the sugar and 20ml water to a boil. Reduce the heat and simmer for 2 minutes. Then pour into the boiling raspberries.
20 2

5. Coax mixture into pots, and then scrap across the top of the ramekin to ensure level with the edge of the ramekin.

6. Bake for 6-7 minutes.


3. Whisk the corn flower and 50ml of water together, and then pour into raspberry mixture while it is still boiling. Cook on medium heat for 3 minutes.

7. The souffl is done when it has puffed over the rim, the outside is golden and the center giggles slightly. Take care not to over bake. Dust with powdered sugar before serving.

4. Remove from heat and add lemon juice. Then strain the mixture through a sieve and allow cooling.

Your Notes


12 large egg whites 28g sugar 1. Preheat oven to 200C.


2. Coat 6 souffl ramekins with butter and sugar.

Chef Aren
Rocket Restaurant Help & Railway Streets Chatswood NSW 2067 Australia Tel: +612 9411 8233


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Raspberry Souffle

Chef in Focus

Pastry Pioneer Returns Home

By Campbell Ross Walker Photography by Dragon and Hungry Eyes

After years of sacrifice and travel in search of pastry enlightenment, Chef Charles Zhao is back in Beijing and looking forward to next summers Olympic games.
Charles Zhao

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Marinated Seasonal Fruits with Vanilla Sabayon


Chef in Focus

ts inevitable, of course. Change. Nowhere more so than in the hospitality industry. Properties open, restaurants close and chefs move up or out. When opportunity knocks and culinary professionals answer the door, the stress and anticipation of everything a new position has to offer can be taxing. Yet, Charles Zhao is handling his appointment as Executive Pastry Chef at The Ritz-Carlton Beijing, Financial Street with aplomb. Finally, after several years in Shanghai and traveling the world in search of pastry enlightenment, Charles has returned home to Beijing. And with next summers Olympics bringing the eyes of the world to Chinas capital city, Charles is ready to put his skills front and center and dazzle his guests with distinct flavors and superior craftsmanship. Charles self confidence is readily apparent and for good reason: he has devoted his life to pastry. As a teenager, Charles was a good student but he didnt really know what he wanted to do. Then one day, he found himself in a neighbors kitchen playing around with a piping bag filled with frosting. I immediately appreciated the bag as an implement of the creative process. The technique came easy for me and soon I had piped a nice looking dragon. Very satisfying. From there, it was off to vocational high school where I would study the basics and lay my pastry foundation, remembers Charles. After vocational school, like millions of graduates before him, Charles hit the street trying to land his first job. We all can appreciate the anxiety associated with this process. However, think about what it is like in the China with hundreds of candidates vying for each and any open position. Talk about competitive. But Charles Zhao is a competitive guy. He soon heard about a posting for a pastry cook at the China World Hotel and that became his goal. A simple foot in the door was all he was after and when it came time to interview and demonstrate his innate skill and training, the pastry chef offered him the job on the spot.

Charles Zhao Charles Charles Charles Charles Charles Charles Charles Zhao

32 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

Ritz-Carlton Pastry Team

Chocolate Mousse with Jasmine Mango Jelly

Gianduja Chocolate Log


Chef in Focus
The 1990s was a remarkable time in China highlighted by extraordinary growth, industrial entrepreneurship and a broadening appreciation of international cuisine. With the world flocking to the likes of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, local hotels were pressurized to better serve their international guests. Considering the high percentage of European visitors at the time, modification of the dated pastry and dessert menu at many a Chinese hotel became a priority. An extraordinary benefit of working at the China World Hotel during that time was the exposure to highly skilled, international pastry consultants. The hotel was always bringing in trainers from France, Germany and Japan. I saw this as an opportunity and I worked with these chefs as much as I could. Considering the difficulty, at the time, in finding pastry magazines and Western culinary books in China, the visiting Chefs were my only exposure to international standards and styles, Charles points out. With basic English skills gained from intense middle school training, Charles was often able to communicate directly with the trainers. For me, the chefs served a duel purpose: pastry instructors and English tutors, say Charles whose English today is near fluent. Working hard and being extremely goal oriented is part and parcel of Charles Zhaos physiological makeup. Soon after arriving at the China World Hotel, Charles passion for pastry ignited and within 3 years, he was the head pastry chef at the property. Even with this meteoric rise to the top, Charles was not satisfied with being the hotels top professional. He wanted to become Chinas best pasty chef. And, in order to achieve this goal, Charles knew he required more international exposure and direct interaction with the worlds best practitioners. The Coupe du Monde de la Ptisserie would provide such a venue.

Pineapple Lasagna

Charles : Charles Charles Charles Zhao Charles 1997 Charles Charles 1997

34 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

I researched the event and the more I found out, the more I wanted to compete. At first, finding teammates and sponsors was difficult but persistence paid off and in 1997 I was able to Captain Chinas first team to the Coupe du Monde de la Ptisserie, says Charles. Many of the participating chefs and spectators thought we were from Japan or Korea but once everyone found out we were Team China, we received a lot of encouragement and support. It was truly an inspiring occasion. All Charles remembers of the actual competition was the speed at which the event flew by. Next thing he knew, time was up and Team China was being called to present. Needless to say, Team China did not win the 1997 competition, but all the team members felt like champions for being the first team to represent China on an international, pastry stage. An added bonus to the whole experience was an extra day in Paris and Charles and Team China wasted no time and set a hectic agenda. That was a busy day. We were able to see Ladure, Fauchon and Lentre. Amazing standards. I bought a lot of books and even though I dont read French, the pictures are remarkable. I couldnt wait to return to China and start creating, says Charles.
Charles Ladure Fauchon Lentre Chales Charles Eric Perez Charles Eric, Eric
Xmas Stollen


Chef in Focus
Back in Beijing, Charles worked harder than ever and even took gold in a national competition for his plated dessert. Coincidentally, newly arrived pastry chef Eric Perez had encouraged several of his Shanghai Ritz Carlton staff to complete in the same event. Charles remembered Eric from the pervious years Coupe du Monde Eric was part of Team USA- and reintroduced himself. From the beginning, chef Eric was a generous and open mentor. Always sharing his insight, technique and pastry experience, remembers Charles. The following month, Charles used his own vacation time to visit and train with Eric in Shanghai. Charles Zhao possesses a unique combination of drive, skill and passion that has escalated him to the top of the Chinese pastry scene. What has been wonderful to witness is his growth, not only as a craftsman, but most importantly as a mentor and role model to younger Chinese pastry chefs, remarks Eric Perez. As is the case with other professions, chefs tend to change jobs frequently. Most often these new postings are driven by financial opportunity and upward mobility. Charles Zhao is a bit different. When it came time for Charles to prepare for the 2003 Coupe du Monde, he faced a daunting obstacle. Since Eric Perez now Team China manager and coach- and two other team members all lived in Shanghai, Charles was faced with a bi-monthly commute to training sessions. Considering the cost, travel and lack of proper face time with his teammates, Charles, a true captain, put his team and pastry passion first and decided to interview for an opening at the Four Seasons Shanghai.
Charles Charles Eric Charles Zhao , Eric Perez Charles. Charles Zhao 2003 Eric Perez Charles , Charles , Charles Zhao Charles : , , , 20022006Charles , : 2003,

Spicy Chocolate Pudding with Lavender Ice Cream

36 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific


Chef in Focus

Caraibe Chocolate Gateau

38 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

Caraibe Chocolate Gateau

Flourless Biscuits
800g sugar 750g egg white 500g egg yolk 175g ground almond 275g cocoa powder 1. Separately whip up the egg white with sugar and egg yolk.

I met with the Director of Kitchens in the morning and by the early afternoon they offered me the job, says Charles. However, would Charles wife back in Beijing be so excited? Being a pastry chef herself, my wife completely understands my passion and commitment to the team. It was not an ideal situation, but again, it was an incredible learning experience and I am grateful to her for being so understanding and compassionate, say Charles. The next four years (2002-2006) would prove very rewarding and extremely hectic for Chef Charles: back and forth to Beijing as often as possible, numerous international competitions taking 9th at the 2003 Coupe du Monde - along with the responsibilities of running the pastry operations at the Fours Seasons Shanghai. For most chefs, such a lifestyle would have been too much, but Charles Zhao is tough. During that time, Charles grew his creative skills along with his organizational and managerial abilities. And, in the eyes of many in the hospitality industry, Charles became a sought after pastry professional. At 36 years of age, Charles is still a young man but as a dedicated husband and father, Chef Charles realized it was time to go home. When the The Ritz-Carlton Beijing, Financial Street position became available, he knew it was where he needed to be. This is a dream come true. To be the executive pastry chef in one of Beijings top hotels with the Olympics fast approaching is exhilarating. The challenge is formidable but we are more than ready and looking forward to the influx of international guests. We plan on accommodating their taste for pastry and have already finalized a menu that includes sugar free, low fat and Mediterranean style desserts, says Chef Charles proudly. The best part is that I am back in Beijing with my wife and son and we can all experience this great event together.
, Charles Zhao Charles Charles 36 Charles , Charles , , , , Charles ,

2. Mix together with ground almond and cocoa powder.

3. Baked at 200C.

Caraibe Chocolate Mousse

250g sugar 340g cream 15g gelatin 1pc vanilla bean 1000g caraibe chocolate 8pcs egg yolk 40g sugar 1670g whipped cream

1. Caramelize sugar until golden brown, pour the cream and vanilla bean into the sugar cook for 3 minutes at low temperature and pour into chocolate mix well as ganache.

2. Mix ganache, egg yolk mixture and whipping cream together.

Assembly Put chocolate mousse with flourless biscuits layer by layer in the stainless steel form, freeze and then cut it into 3cm by 9cm.
3 x 9

Dining room

Asian Fusion

Green Tea Cake

Green tea has become one of the most popular beverages in the world. Unlike black tea or oolong, green tea is made from unfermented tea leaves. Because it is does not go through a fermentation process, research suggests that it contains the highest concentration of polyphenols, antioxidants that rid of the body of free radicals. In Asia, where people smoke heavily and green tea is widely consumed, there is a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Some scientists refer to this as the Asian Paradox and draw a direct linkage between this phenomenon and green tea consumption.

Green Tea Sponge
50g (1/4 cup) Milk 8g (11/2 tbsp) Green tea powder 60g (3) Egg yolks 17g (4 tsp) A. sugar 67g (1/2 cup) Cake flour 17g (3 tbsp) Almond flour 2g (1/2 tsp) Vanilla extract 33g (2 1/2 tbsp) Unsalted butter 90g (3) Egg whites 100g (1/2 cup and 2 tbsp) B. sugar
50 8 60 A 174 173 2 33 90 B 100

Publishers Note: Successful entrepreneur, award winning author, instructor, international representative and current President of the Korean Bakers Association, Chef Kim Young Mo is an institution. As a trailblazing visionary in the pastry and baking fusion movement, Chef Kim marries his classical European training with his appreciation for Asian ingredients and tastes. Photos and text courtesy of Dream Character, Inc.

Green tea cream

10g (2 tbsp) Green tea powder 20g (4 tsp) Orange liqueur 150g (3/4 cup) unsalted butter 300g (11/4 cups) Custard cream

102 20

Sweet red beans Chopped walnuts 200g (7 oz) White chocolate

Before you begin: 1. Preheat the oven to 430F/222C. Grease or line the 15x11 (38cm x 28cm) rectangular cake pan with parchment paper and set aside. 430 (222)15 x 11 (38x 28) , 2. Mix and sift the cake flour and almond flour from the sponge ingredients and set aside. 3. Make the custard cream before making the green tea cream and keep it refrigerated. 4. Put butter (from sponge ingredients) in a separate bowl and place the bowl over a saucepan of hot water to melt the butter. Keep melted until ready to use for the sponge.

40 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

1. Green Tea Sponge. Put milk and green tea powder in a pot bring to a boil. Once a boil is reached, turn of the heat. , 2. Beat the egg yolks and A. sugar in a bowl for about 1 minute. Then, add the hot green tea milk little by little while beating the batter (do not pour all at once). Beat the batter for 2-3 minutes. In a separate bowl, put egg whites and B. sugar and make a stiff meringue. 3. Add half of the meringue and mix in with a rubber spatula. Add the sifted cake flour and almond flour and fold in well. Add the melted butter and mix in together. , 4. Add the remaining meringue and vanilla extract and gently fold in well. 5. Bake. Pour the batter onto the prepared pan and use a scraper to level out the batter. In a preheated oven, bake for approximately 6 minutes at 430F. Remove the sponge and cool on a rack. When the sponge is completely cool, carefully remove the parchment paper and cut the sponge into four squares (or rectangles). 6. Green tea cream. While you are waiting for the sponge to cool down, make the green tea cream. First, combine green tea powder and orange liqueur in a bowl and mix. Then, beat the butter in a separate bowl for 1-2 minutes. Add the custard cream to the butter and whisk a few times, then add the green tea powder with liqueur and whisk together well.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.



7. 8. 9.
7. Layering. Spread the green tea cream over the bottom sponge, sprinkle on the sweet red beans and apply a thin layer of cream again. Put another sponge on top and repeat.

8. After you put the last sponge on top, apply a thick layer of cream and tap the cream using the tip of a metal spatula to make small, wave-like peaks. 9. Decoration. Scrape the white chocolate using a cookie cutter to get nice, decorative flakes. Scrape enough to loosely cover the cake. 10. Trim all four sides of the cake. Sprinkle on the white chocolate flakes to complete decoration.

42 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year

to all our valuable customers and dear friends

with an expression of sincere gratitude for having chosen to do business with us throughout 2007!
For more information on distribution in Asia-Pacic visit

Sugar Arts

Sugar Lobster
Two part tutorial for creating a very real and intricate crustacean.

Part 2: Creating the Lobster and Shell

Lobster Body
Sugar Recipe 1000g sugar 400g water 200g glucose Equipment Bulb pump (wood or metal tube) Mat Gloves Hair Dryer Heat source Pot Spatula Marble
1000 400 200 (

Publishers Note: Ewald Notter is considered a leading expert in modern day confectionery arts and is also well know as a competitor and instructor. Today, Chef Ewald heads the Notter School of Pastry Arts in Orlando, Florida. (

44 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific









5. Continue to blow air into the sugar. Mold and form the sugar little by little. Once your desired shape is reached, you may cool the sugar down by using a hair dryer. 6. When the body has been cooled, re-warm the air channel. Cut away through the re-warmed sugar with a pair of scissors. Use the warm sugar at the end of the body to mold a tail. 7. Attach the sugar lobster to the straw sugar base by using two pieces of very warm sugar as glue. 8. Pull five elongated petals to create the tail. 9. Immediately (as long as the petals are warm) attach the petals onto the tail. If you are too slow, you have to re-warm the sugar which will make the sugar dull in appearance. () , ,

1. Using your hands, form the pliable sugar into a sphere by blowing it several times in order to get an even temperature throughout. If you blow sugar with an uneven temperature, the sugar will always extract more on the warmer side. The only way to correct this is by using your hand to cool down the warmer parts. 2. Carefully push a short hole into the sphere. Try not to cool down the sugar by handling too much. 3. Slide the tubing attachment a short distance into the ball of sugar. Press the sugar onto the tube very well, so the air does not escape from the sides. 4. Pump air into the sphere and expand sugar evenly. Elongate the sphere as you blow air into the sugar. If the sugar is very warm (pliable) you cannot blow too much air in at once. The sugar will collapse from not being able to hold its shape.

Sugar Arts









14. Place a smaller sphere of sugar on the blowing tube. Blow a little air into the sphere and make sure it expands evenly before elongating. 15. While the sugar is still warm and flexible, cut the end to create the claws.

10. To create the exoskeleton, you need to pull 6 straight ribbons. Try to keep the beginning and the ending pieces narrow. 11. Similar to the tail, attach the ribbons to the body of the lobster as soon as possible without re-warming. The sixth ribbon should be placed half way down the body to have enough room for the head, 8 legs and 2 claws.

16. Use the scissors to score and form the segments. You have to work quickly to make sure you get all the parts before the sugar cools and gets too brittle. 12. To finish the second part of the body, you will need two ribbons. Start by pulling the ribbon wide and end by pulling the ribbon narrow. 17. Once the shape has been reached, cool the lobster claw using the hair dryer. 13. Attach the wide end first and pull the narrow end up alongside the body. Repeat on the opposite side.
46 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

18. Segment the lobster legs with scissors. The legs are not blown which makes the sugar easier to work with.






23. You may cover the straw-sugar base with a very fine piece of plastic to protect it during the spraying process. Prepare the colors in order of spraying. Red is the primary color followed by yellow, blue and finally black. You may choose to use an air brush or an atomizer. If you are using an atomizer, you will need to thicken the color by adding some food lacquer. Otherwise, the spray mist of color will not be so fine.


19. 20. 21.


Attach the lobster legs immediately. Cool the legs ass soon as possible to hold the shape. You will need 4 legs on each side. 4 Cut out small pieces of blue sugar the size of a pea. To create the eyes, model a piece of sugar to a tear drop shape. Warm the pointed end and attach it to the face of the lobster. Blow a little sphere and pull it long to form a narrow tube. Before the tube gets cold, bend one end 11/4 inch and place it on the head. Continue this process to make the smaller antenna underneath the eyes.


25-26. Begin to apply the red color in an evenhorizontal motion to ensure full application of color, followed by yellow, blue and black. You may need to apply multiple layers of color to achieve the desired effect.

Sugar Arts

Conch Shell
Sugar Recipe: 1000g sugar 400g water 200g glucose Equipment: Bulb pump (wood or metal tube) Mat Gloves Hair Dryer Heat source Pot Spatula Marble

1000 400 200




1. Fold a small amount of sugar to form a sphere which has been cooled to an even-temperature throughout by this folding process. 2. Pull the sphere into a tear-drop shape. Immediately, cut through the center with scissors. It is important this step be performed while the sugar is still warm to ensure the sugar does not burst or break. 3. Twist the top of the tear-drop shape one time to achieve the conch shell shape.
48 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

5. 6.
4. Once you obtain the shape, cool the object by using a blow dryer. Warm the end of the conch shell by using the spiritus burner and remove from the tube. Re-warm the underside of the shell and open the shell very slightly using a scissor. 5.

6-7. Re-warm if necessary to model and mold the outside of the shell to make the points protruding from the shell.




8. 9.


Moisten the shell with water or lacquer so the sugar will attach easily on the outside to create a rough texture. Dredge the shell into the granulated sugar making sure the opening stays clear of the sugar.

10-11. Apply the yellow color first, followed by red and blue. 12. To ensure the conch shell sticks to the straw-sugar base, scratch off a small portion of the granulated sugar before warming the area to attach. You may also want to use a smaller piece of sugar which has been warmed to use as a glue to apply to that area before you attach.



Is your


Contact Numbers: Australia: 1800 633 275 China: (86 21) 5211 0999 Hong Kong: (852) 2958 1333 Indonesia: 806206018005 Korea: +86-2-6001-3773

Malaysia: 1-800 88 3122 New Zealand: 0800 cheese (243 373) Philippines: 1800 888 7799 Singapore: 1800 777 3005 Taiwan: 886-2-265 88658 email:


Pure Anchor Butter. Light, buttery pastries made with pure Anchor butter. The perfect recipe to have your customers craving your aky and avourful pastry treats.
Anchor Pastry Butters provide a smooth natural buttery taste and a melt prole that gives consistent performance and a great lift every time. Our range of Anchor Butters come in sheets, blocks and pats to suit all your baking needs. At Fonterra we believe dairy is the key to driving bakery growth, with Anchor Butters providing pure and natural dairy taste that your customers will love.

Chocolate Love

Tools: Plastic acetate Airbrush Cornet Polycarbonate demisphere Paring knife Metal triangle Fine-tooth comb Metal ring Parchment paper Soft paint brush Hot plate Putty knife Ladle Ingredients: Ingredients: Dark chocolate Colored cocoa butter Gold powder

Publishers Note: In the world of gourmet chocolate creation, few can match the career and quality of Norman Love. As the former executive pastry chef for The Ritz-Carlton Company, Norman Love understands the importance of quality and presentation and his global brand of artisan chocolates can be found in innumerable retailers, restaurants and hotels around the world. For more information on Chef Norman and his gourmet chocolates, please visit his website ( or his retail salon in Fort Myers, Florida.

52 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific




4. 4. 5.
1. Lightly moisten the table and adhere acetate to the table.

2. Place ample amount of chocolate on one edge of the table.

3. Drag comb across the chocolate.

4. Allow chocolate to slightly harden.

5. Form plastic into a circle, joining ends. Place metal ring over acetate to secure in a circle.

6. Turn ring on side. Using a cornet, pipe a bead of chocolate to seal opening. Allow to harden.



Chocolate Love

7. 8.




7. Using a polycarbonate demisphere, spray chocolate into the cavity of each mold.

8. Scrape the excess chocolate overspray off the surface of the mold.

9. Using a soft paint brush, paint gold powder thoroughly into each cavity of the mold.

10. Fill each cavity with tempered dark chocolate.

11. Scrape excess chocolate off the mold.

12. Turn mold completely over; tapping gently to discard excess chocolate.

13. After dripping stops, scrape bottom of mold clean; place on parchment paper for two to three minutes; chill mold until hardened.

54 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific






14. Remove demispheres.

15. Quickly touch each demisphere on a heated surface.

16. Join two demispheres; then place in freezer for five minutes.

17. Place desired stencil on one-half of ball.

18. Spray with cocoa butter.

19. Allow to dry.

20. Remove plastic from coiled stripped chocolate circle.

21. Glaze cake.



To complete creation, place seam-side down; place ball in center.


Chocolate Love

56 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

Nothing great was ever done without passion

Frozen fruits, fruits purees and coulis extra: here are 52 intense and natural avours. Your expectations have shaped the unrivalled quality of our products. Safe and easy to use, they will allow your imagination to run wild. Our chefs are always available for advice and our distributors are by your side every day. Lets make the difference together.

FROZEN FRUITS, FRUIT PUREES, FRUIT COULIS For any further information, contact:

Tel: 33 (1) 45 60 73 32
or visit our website

Tangerine/RMP Advertising - Photos : Y. Bagros



Visit Dobla
arch from 29 M

s stand

- 2 April 20

08 in Paris,


4772 -

DOBLA BV, The Netherlands

Recipe made by

We have distributors all over South East Asia/Pacific. Please check our site to find your local distributor:

Ramon Morat, Director of Aula Chocovic S.L. Ramon used the Ring dark and the Dobla Filter dark to decorate.

Hungry Eyes food photography


Wild Sweets

More with Agar

Unique properties provide opportunities to make preparations with novel tastes and/or textures.


The typical ratio to make an agar gel is around 1% of total liquids. Note that too much agar will result in a gel with a grainy texture. Agar gels are not very elastic and can actually break quite easily, thus these gels are best served flat or cut into small shapes. Elasticity can be improved though the addition of some sorbitol or glycerin. Salt, sugar or slight acidity does not affect the gelling process with agar. However, since liquids need to be heated to the boiling point, for fresh herb juices and other similar liquids that are prone to quick oxidation, agar is not recommended as the gelling agent. Other specialty hydrocolloids yielding similar gelling properties as agar such as carageeanan or gellan are starting to surface as these provide distinct properties such as increased elasticity, softer setting or lower melting point. Since all of these hydrocolloids are plant based they are also used as a vegetarian alternative to gelatin. The following recipe showcases another example of a hot gele taken from our latest book: Wild Sweets Chocolate.

Publishers Note: Dominique and Cindy Duby are the chefs and owners of DC DUBY Wild Sweets, a critically acclaimed chocolate atelier and virtual boutique, which has emerged as one of North Americas finest artisan chocolatiers. The couple also owns DC DUBY Hospitality Services Inc., a Vancouver-based international firm offering culinary training and consulting services to hotels and catering companies worldwide, as well as culinary creative and marketing services such as product development, food styling, and photography. For more information, visit


Serves 8 8

Hot Raspberry Gele

1 cup (250 ml) raspberry pure


tsp (2.5 ml) DC DUBY Elements Agar*


pinch of citric acid (optional)


leaf gelatin

4 Tbsp (60 ml) corn syrup


*NB: Other sources of agar may be substituted, but gelling properties and firmness may differ.

60 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific




Line a 4 x 8 inch (10 x 20 cm) shallow container with plastic wrap. Place the raspberry pure into a tall and narrow container. Add the agar powder, citric acid (if using) and blend with an immersion blender. Transfer the mixture into a saucepan, add the corn syrup and bring to a boil. Continue to cook until the mixture begins to thicken, then remove from the heat and stir in the gelatin until dissolved. Immediately pour into the plastic wrap-lined container. Let it set at room temperature. Store the Gele in the refrigerator for up to 2 days. Serve warm.

x x

Dark Raspberry Chocolate

3.6 oz (100 g) 70% dark chocolate, chopped

70%3.6 (100)

1 cup (250 ml) raspberry pure


Place the chocolate in a tall and narrow container. Bring the raspberry pure and whipping cream to a boil in a saucepan. Remove from the heat and pour over the chocolate. Blend with an immersion blender until well combined and frothy. Serve immediately.

1 cup (250 ml) whipping cream




Cocoa Crisp
3 Tbsp (45g) unsalted butter, room temperature


Cream the butter and sugar with a spatula. Add the orange juice and mix until well combined. Sift in the flour and cocoa powder. Fold to combine. Refrigerate the batter in a sealed container for at least 2 hours (overnight is best). Preheat the oven to 350F (180C). Line a baking tray with a silicon mat or paper. Shape the cold batter into 11/2 squares. Bake for approximately 4 to 6 minutes. Remove from the tray and let them cool on a wire rack. Once cooled, store in an airtight container.

2 () 350 180 1.5 46

cup (100g) granulated sugar

3 Tbsp (45ml) orange juice

1 1/2 Tbsp (15g) all-purpose flour

1 Tbsp (8g) unsweetened cocoa powder


Wild Sweets



Chocolate Marshmallow
6 Tbsp (90g) granulated sugar, divided


5 (75), ( 230/110) , 1 (15)30 , () , ,

Bring 5 Tbsp (75 g) of the sugar to a boil in a saucepan with the water. Simmer until it begins to thicken (around 230F/110C). Meanwhile, whip the egg whites on medium speed with an electric mixer. When the sugar water begins to thicken, turn the mixers speed to maximun and add the remaining 1 Tbsp (15 g) sugar. Continue whipping for 30 seconds. Add the hot thickened sugar syrup with the machine still running. Add the gelatin, and when well imcorporated, reduce the speed to low and continue mixing until the mixture thickens (about 4 to 5 minutes). Add the cocoa powder, fold with a rubber spatula, and serve immediately.

2 Tbsp (30ml) water


3 Tbsp (30ml) egg whites

1 leaf gelatin, bloomed

1 Tbsp (8g) unsweetened cocoa powder, sifted

62 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific


Suggested Assembly


Cut the Hot Raspberry Gele into desired shapes. Pipe or spoon some Chocolate Marshmallow on top of the Raspberry Gele. Spike 3 Cocoa Crisps into the gele and finish with fresh raspberries and a mint leaf. Serve immedately with a glass of hot frothed Dark Raspberry Chocolate.




Hot Raspberry Gele with Dark Chocolate Marshmallow

Photography by DC Duby


Baking Fundamentals

Laminated Dough Final Steps

The Make-Up Process
After the dough has had it desired number of laminations, it will require adequate resting (a minimum of 30 minutes) before the final sheeting and further processing into different shapes. This step is called the make-up process.

The Final Sheeting

Roy Chung was educated as an engineer at the Ungku Omar Polytechnic in Malaysia. He graduated from the American Institute of Baking, the National Baking Center and the San Francisco Baking Institute in the U.S.A. Mr. Chung has been a full-time bakery consultant for U.S. Wheat Associates in the South Asia region since 1979 and is based in Singapore. He provides baking education in several baking schools, predominantly in Thailand, Sri Lanka and China. Roy Chung 1979
64 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

For best handling, the dough is kept cold (depending on the layer fat properties) before the final sheeting. If the dough is too warm, the layering fat will be too soft for sheeting and handling during the final shaping. If it is too cold, the layering fat may be too brittle to sheet and will cause the fat to break up, thus loosing the layering effect. Work as quickly as possible. As the final dough layer gets thinner and thinner, the dough tends to change temperature very quickly and can affect dough consistency and dough handling characteristics. If butter is used as a layering fat, working in an air conditioned room (below 22C) is best. If margarine is the layering fat, it will tolerate a higher working temperature. Using a reversible sheeter for final sheeting is the best solution as this step can be accomplished fast. The pressure applied to the dough during final sheeting is crucial and should be applied with no greater than a 2:1 ratio at the start and gradually using a 1.5:1 ration during the last few reductions to attain final thickness. Dusting flour is essential to keep the dough from sticking to the rollers or scrapers, however, do not use too much dusting flour. Final dough thickness should be about 3 to 4 mm (depending on the extensibility of the dough). The dough will require pre-shrinking before final cutting and shaping. If the dough character is resistant to stretch, it would be advisable to sheet to a thickness of 3 mm and then pre-shrink. This would then make the dough length slightly shorter and the dough thickness slightly thicker (to perhaps 4 mm final thickness). Pre-shrinking the dough is an important step before cutting and shaping as it takes the stresses out of the dough and will reduce the tendency of misshaped and distorted final products. Another important step is to dust off excess dusting flour used during the final sheeting process. The dough is then cut into predetermined size using a sharp knife. Using a blunt knife tend to stick and seal the top and bottom dough layers together and restrict expansion during baking.

, 22 2:1, 1.51 34 3, (4)

After cutting into predetermined sizes, the dough pieces are then shaped into products as desired. Another series of articles to introduce shapes and other possible products will be produced in future publications.

Depending on the shapes and sizes of the products made, there is no standard way to pan the products. The most important factors to consider when panning is to keep same sized products in the same pan and allowing adequate space between them for product expansion during proofing and baking. Different size products in the same pan can result in non uniform rate of proofing and baking. Smaller size products usually proof and bake faster than larger ones. This is an important factor that must be respected or it can result in sub-standard products that are inconsistent.

Excess dusting flour is dusted off and the dough pre-shrink before cutting.

The dough sheet is cut into predetermined sizes after preshrinking the dough sheet. Strip shape or squares are ideal for Danish pastry and Pain au chocolat.

Same sized products panned with equal spacing.


The preshrink dough sheet may be folded into two before cutting into predetermined sizes for croissant.

Improper panning of products with different scaling size. This will result in the larger product being under baked.

Baking Fundamentals

Final proofing is done in a proof box and the temperature used must be below that of the melting point of the layering fat. If the layering fat has melted in the proofer, all the efforts made to create layers during the lamination process are wasted. Without the layers, the dough will not lift very much during baking. Thus, for butter as a layering fat, the proofer temperature suggested is 27C. A higher temperature is acceptable for margarines; however, it must still be below the melting point of the margarine used. The suggested relative humidity should be about 85%. This suggested humidity will be sufficient to prevent crusting of the products before baking. Premature crusting will restrict product expansion during baking. It is important that the proof box has separate controls for both temperature and humidity. By this, I mean that the temperature works like a hair dryer with heaters to create dry heat and a thermostat to control temperature. Humidity is created with cold water passing through a set of fine spray nozzles to create fine mistlike droplets. Desired relative humidity can be achieved by using a humidistat to control the flow of cold water through the nozzles. Using a simple heater in a container of water (for boiling) to achieve both temperature and humidity is not a good solution to achieving a controlled condition in the proofer. In order to achieve adequate humidity, the water needs to be boiled and this condition creates heat. In cases where butter is used as the layering fat, the heated condition in the proofer may be above the melting point of the butter, thus ruining the laminated layers. To keep the temperature below the melting point of the butter, the condition in the proofer may be too dry and may cause premature crusting of the raw products. The product must never be allowed to fully proof or over proof before baking. This will cause the product to shrink or even collapse after baking. An 80 to 85% proof is best as it will allow for further expansion during the baking stages. Using time as a guide for proofing is not a good system as proof time depends on many factors (like yeast types and amount, other ingredients, product size and proofing conditions). It is suggested that final product volume before baking is a better guide that can be used more accurately to achieve great looking products. A proofing gauge can be made easily from small plastic containers. All it requires is that the diameter of the container is approximately the same size as the diameter of the products after shaping. A height scale is glued to the sides of the container. A small hole is bored into the center of the cover of the plastic container. An additional plastic disc with a slightly smaller diameter than the internal diameter of the container is required. A straight metal rod (than can pass through the hole in the cover) is glued to the center of this disc. The length of this straight metal rod must be slightly longer than the height of the plastic container. You now have all the parts to a proofing gauge that can be used for all yeast leavened products. The container opening can be used as a cookie cutter to cut out 3 to 4 circles of the final sheeted dough. The dough circles are then compressed to the bottom of the container using the disc with the metal rod. The cover is replaced with the metal rod jutting out. The side of the plastic disc is used as a guide to note the initial height of the dough pieces. The container is placed in the proofer together with the shaped products. As the dough proofs in the container, it will push the plastic disc up keeping it level as well (due to the straight rod guiding it straight up through the hole in the cover). The final height of the dough (as read on the height scale on the side of the container) is used as a guide to start the baking process. A final height approximately 3 to 3.5 times initial height is adequate proofing.
66 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

, , 27 , 85% , , 80%85% ( )



Parts of the proofing gauge showing plastic container with scale on its side, with a round disc and rod sticking through its cover.

Baking can be carried out in any oven deck or convection (also known as ventilator) oven. However, the baking conditions for both these oven are a little different. The deck oven is quite straight forward and has independently controllable top and bottom heat controls. It may or may not come with steam injection capabilities. For such an oven, the suggested setting is 220C to 230C top heat and 190C bottom heat. The bottom heat is almost always lower than the top heat in that it conducts heat to the product in a more efficient manner. This is the temperature setting when the products are loaded into the oven for baking. If steam injection is available, it is injected upon loading of the products into the oven. The use of steam during the initial stages of baking will result in bigger product volume but many small blisters will appear on the surface of the end products. If this is not the desired products appearance, then do not use steam during baking. Top heat temperature setting must be reduced to 200C - 210C after about 5 minutes of baking. This step is essential to get a through bake without over baking the crust. As most bakers will judge bake by color alone, the product may be removed from the oven while the center of the products is still raw or under baked. Baking time for small items (50-60g) are about 20 to 25 minutes.


Initial height of the dough (left) and after a period of proofing (right). The scales on the side of the containers are used as guide to determine proper proof.

The proofed products may be taken out of the proofer to allow some drying (for additional dough surface strength) before egg washing. A good formulation for egg wash is: Whole eggs 100g Egg yolks 17g Salt 2g

220230 190 200210 5060 2025

The egg wash can be prepared ahead of time but must be kept in the chiller until required. If a large portion of egg wash is prepared for use throughout the day, it must be portion controlled into smaller portions that can be used up within 30 minutes. Egg wash can go bad easily especially if kept in a warm place. Besides, it is not sanitary to use the same brush throughout the day for egg washing. It is suggested that the brushes be washed after use every 30 minutes and hung up to dry before re-use. The egg wash brushes must have soft bristle and the egg washing process must be conducted in a gentle manner with even strokes. Thick and stiff bristle tends to flatten the proofed pieces. When the proofed product has been evenly washed, it is ready for the baking process.
, ,

Deck oven with steam injection capability.


Baking Fundamentals
The convection oven is very efficient in heat transfer and works by means of wind movement in the oven. There is only one temperature setting for the entire oven and it may or may not come with steam injection facilities. Regular baking temperature for this type of oven is almost always 30C - 50C below that of a deck oven. A good system to manage baking is to set the oven temperature at 230C. Load the oven with the proofed products and re-set the oven temperature to 180C and bake until done. A higher initial temperature is set and allowed to drop to the actual baking temperature required when the oven is loaded. If the oven comes with a facility called fan delay, set it for 5 minutes at beginning of bake to get better product volume. Fan delay at the beginning of bake simply means that the convection fan in the oven will not operate for the fan delay time set. This setting will delay crust formation early in the baking stages to promote better product volume. The fan will operate normally after this time delay and due to it efficiency in heat transfer, the baking temperature is lower and baking time slightly shorter. Suggested baking time is between 18 to 23 minutes for small items (50-60g). Croissant does not require any glazing after bake. Danish pastry may require further finishing touches before sales. Glazing of topping and fruits fillings must be done while still warm and will give a shine to the products. If fresh fruits are use as toppings, glazing can provide eye appeal and prevent drying. Other methods used to enhance appearance are to use simple icing or fondant or icing sugar a part of the topping.
3050 230 180 (5060) 1823 ,

Croissant with desired internal texture, showing even distribution of layering fat and proper bake.

Danish pastry with the desired baked appearance.

Fat oozing out during baking indicates insufficient lamination for the layering fat used or too much layering fat for the lamination made.

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Convection oven with steam injection capability.

Product with uneven distribution of layering fat.

Product with almost no lamination, indication that this particular dough piece was from the sides or ends of the dough where layer fat was not properly distributed during the lamination process. It could also come from dough with too much lamination.


Product with the under baked center core collapsing inside.

This brings us to the end of this series of Baking Fundamentals. I hope Ive been able to provide useful information that you can use in your daily work. I wish you well and happy baking.


70 Pastry & Baking Asia Pacific

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