 History Notes

 Colonial America Background
Southern Colonies. Virginia Company. (Jamestown)
   Settled by English looking for gold, early colonies barely survived Colonies’ salvation was the “cash crop” tobacco Soon tobacco would spread to Europe but supply was too little for the large demand because it could only be grown in the southern colonies The Planters (Or Planter Class) could not grow the crop fast enough. Plenty of land, not enough labor. The labor shortage had to be solved. Head right system: The land owner paid the cost of transporting a worker to America. But there was nothing to keep the worker from setting out to start his own farm. System failed Indentured Servant: The landowner paid the transport cost, or hired a shipping company, and the servant was contracted to a term of service, typically 7 years. But servants were White, Christian, and Englishmen who demanded rights. Bacon’s Rebellion 1676. System did not solve the shortage Slave Labor: Unpaid permanent labor. Original slaves were Native Americans but escaped too easily, not good farmers, and European sickness was devastating to them. Black Africans: The “Perfect Slave” for the Americans. Escape was practically impossible, good farmers and they were immune to sickness. Soon slave trade was essential to American economic health and the tobacco trade was turning huge profits.

Labor Solutions

Plantation Style Agriculture
 South revolved around plantation style agriculture. The entire structure of the South, economic, political, and social was based on a slave based community The plantations were self-sufficient and either produced what they needed or shipped it in. as a result the South had few urban centers, hence smaller middle class

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Physically the South had only a few natural harbors. Theirs was an agricultural society. Socially: elite 5%, Middle class 15%, poor 80%.

Southern Colonies: Political Structure and Economics
      Politically the South was not very democratic or representative 5% of the population were the elite and dominated politics A very small middle class had very little political influence A large white lower class had no representation in the government Economically the South had a very narrow and fragile economy specialized in one specific area Cash poor. Lifestyle of rich meant little savings.( High debt)

The Northern Colonies
 Originally settles by the Puritans, these colonies featured a strong belief in a hard work ethic “Puritan Work Ethic”. Industrious and inventive, the countryside was filled with small villages and many towns. Mechanics and shopkeepers, farmers and merchants, populated these places Physically the ground and climate were suitable enough for traditional farming but not for “cash crop” agriculture like tobacco or cotton A rugged rocky coastline also featured many natural harbors. Fishing and whaling were economic staples Majority rules and representative assemblies were features from the puritan influence A small elite class 5%, large middle class 65%, and a small lower class 30% made up the social economic structure. (Cash rich) The North featured many towns and urban center. This helped created a large middle class The economy was very broad based and diversified, and stable A complex trade arrangement soon development with the northern colonies at the center of a world wide trade network.

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Political Structure of the North
 Politically the North was much more democratic and had a higher level of representation in government

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5% elites dominated politics 65% middle class had enough influence to strongly influence politically 30% lower class had little if any influence on politics

The Middle Colonies
• Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, New Jersey, ad Delaware. These colonies shared elements of both the northern and southern colonies. Tobacco, some slavery, trade and industry were evident Cultural influences: William Penn and Quakers founded Pennsylvania. Peace loving and antiauthoritive. They were frequently victimized Dutch settle New Netherlands but are conquered by the British in 1664. New Amsterdam becomes New York.

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Causes of the American Revolution
THERE WERE 3 BASIC CAUSED OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION - Economic policies of Great Britain - The outcome of the French and Indian War - Troops and Taxes

Economic policies of Great Britain
MERCANTILISM A. As the colonies developed and became profitable England sought to make a profit from them. The purpose of the colonies was to benefit the wealth and power of England by adding to their commercial and trading capacity and serving as both a source of raw materials and a market of raw materials B. Salutary Neglect: But England had many internal issues during the 1600’s. At a tome when America needed close administrative supervision England was distracted by civil war and leadership failures. The colonies develop a unique and independent minded outlook. Huge profits. C. England recovered and wondered why their American profits were low. The decision was made to fix this problem. THE NAVIGATION ACTS Were designed to enforce the basic principles of mercantilism

1. No other country could trade with American colonies unless in an English ship 2. All ships’ crew had to be ¾ English 3. Certain key goods could not be traded with anyone but England 4. Almost all trade goods had to travel to England before shipment to any other place The colonies were not happy with thee changes. Their substantial profits were at risk REACTIONS TO THE NAVIGATION ACTS the American colonies ignored the rules and continued on as before England countered by revoking the colonial charters and appointing governors to run the colonies England responded with the ADMIRALTY COURTS. These were nautical courts which administrated to trade and commerce on the seas. Americans that broke the act were sent to England to be tried The colonies were outraged. This is a violation of English law was only for the Americans. Resentment builds The British govt. was frustrated with the Americans. All of the other British colonies world wide, follow the law.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A. by the mid 1700’s the Americans colonists were expanding westward over the app. Mountains. The Ohio Valley awaited. B. Word reached the Americans of a French fort at the head waters of the Ohio. This was a serious threat to the future of the Americans especially the Virginians. C. An expedition was sent to investigate and if true, to drive the French from the reason; the future of the continent was at stake. George Washington of Virginia militia was selected to lead expedition. D. Washington’s expedition approached the Ohio River and the French had already established Ft. Duquesne(Pittsburg). E. Spotted by the Indian allies of the French and, with no chance of attacking, Washington made Ft. Necessity and awaited the attack. F. Washington and his men quickly surrendered to the French. G. With no formal declaration of war the French let them go with a warning to stay out because it was French land. THE WAR BEGINS A. the colonies were in an uproar. The presence of the French threatened their future

B. the colonists attempted to organize. They called for a meeting of representatives from all the colonies- the Albany Congress. Ben Franklin was one of the representatives C. the Congress failed, but made its marks as the first attempt of the colonies unite with British involvement GREAT BRITIAN SENDS AID A. the British sent a military force of 1400 regulars led by General Braddock. Braddock was contemptuous of the French, the Indians, the wilderness and the American militia sent aid to him. He insisted on constructed a road from Maryland to Ft. Duquesne B. Washington and Virginia militia went along as scouts and guides. Washington was made a member of Braddock’s staff, however he refused to listen to Washington’s warning. They were walking into a trap. BATTLE OF THE WILDRESNESS ROAD A. the French and Indians were waiting and the result of was an ambush. Braddock was quickly killed as were most of the British officers. The force was routed B. Washington and the Virginia militia fought well and covered the retreat. Washington’s coat was riddles with bullet holes and had many horses killed under him but was untouched. THE WAR CONTINUES A. the war went poorly for the Americans and British. This war would spread to Europe where it became the 7 year war B. England found herself in debt and losing badly on the front, especially in America C. William Pitt became the new Prime Minister. He instituted much needed reforms in the military and purchased the needed supplies and troops regardless of the cost D. Soon the war began to turn for the British and Americans SIEGE OF QUEBEC: THE BATTLE OF THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM A. British general Wolfe, a new young general brought up by Pitt, maneuvered his army to a point by Quebec, the key to all of Canada. B. But the French defenses, led by brilliant general Montcalm were very formidable. It looked like the British would fail. THE BATTLE OF THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM 1759

A. But Wolfe took a risk and snuck his troops up to the plain outside of the city by a small trail B. Montcalm led his troops out to do battle C. In a short but fierce battle the French were routed but both generals were killed. However England had won the battle and would capture Quebec and soon all of Canada. CONCLUSION OF THE WAR A. Within a few years the British and Americans most of the French forts one by the one B. Washington was finally able to capture Ft. Duquesne as a part of the British force in 1758 C. War under in 1763 TREATY OF PARIS 1763 A. the French were forced to abandon all claims in North America and withdrew their forces and most of their settlers B. The British, and Americans had won a total victory C. The British were now a superpower D. Americans flooded across the App. Mountains OUTCOME OF THE FENCH AND INDIAN WAR The Americans were very pleased, they had won and now were free to expand across the Mountains However, conflict with the Native Americans meant more bloody fighting; Pontiac’s Revolt of 1763 The British put down the revolt but it was obvious that future conflicts were inevitable. Something must be done

ROYAL PROCALMATION OF 1763 England realized the conflicts would never end, the colonists would push the Indians to war. This costs too much $$ The Royal Proclamation of 1763 banned all settlement west of the App. Mountains. This land was given to the Indians as a preserve For England this solved the problem- no westward expansion to conflicts The colonies were outraged. Why had they thought the war? What did they sacrifice for? England was uncaring and arbitrary. The colonists ignored and crossed anyway

CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION: TROOPS AND TAXES

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Following the French and Indian war the British govt. made a policy change The war had been extremely expensive and England had lot of debt As a world superpower England also had an obligation to maintain a large military force this costs $$. Who would pay for this?

TAXES the British govt. made a decision to tax the colonies. After all the war had started there England was also concerned by the economic power the colonies were starting to exhibit. It seemed a good time to limit their growth and expansion. Taxation would do this well

NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION England passed a number of tax acts Sugar Act 1764 Stamp Act 1765 Quartering Act 1765 These taxed the colonies for common items and manufactured goods The result was to stifle the colonial economy and outrage the colonist Since no Americans were elected to Parliament they accused the Crown of illegal taxation

MORE TAXES AND SOME TROOPS The colonists began to organized: the Sons of Liberty promoted a boycott of taxed goods England felt the pinch and dropped the Stamp Act but a new minister passed the Townshend Acts; these caused more boycotts and outraged the colonists British troops were sent into Boston in 1768 to help “keep the peace.” Sam Adams and Sons of Liberty were unhappy but could do little to stop it

BOSTON MASSACRE 1770 The British soldiers in Boston upset the people; no one like to be occupied by and army. But they also took work as off duty soldier were allowed to work at small part time jobs A drunken crowd threw snowballs at some British soldiers on guard duty, it turned into a struggle killing 5 and wounding 3 Sam Adams and Son of Liberty used the event for propaganda, but jury found the soldiers innocent. John Adams defended the soldiers in trial

BOSTON TEA PARTY

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the British dropped all taxes except one: the tea act also the East India tea company needed help from govt. so parliament let them have a monopoly of tea sales to the colonies; the American merchants were cut off Sam Adams and Sons of Liberty seized the opportune and raided the tea ships sitting in Boston harbor destroying 15,000 pounds of tea

THE INTOLERABLE ACTS 1774 the king and parliament were furious and demanded the colonists be taught a lesson. A series of new acts were passed to punish the Americans the harbor was shut down the Mass. Assembly was dissolved; Gage was now governor a curfew was put on the town and martial law was declared British troops quartered in private homes in the city

COLONIES ORGANIZE RESISTANCE the intolerable acts helped to unify all colonies. Mass. may have been too radical but English actions were illegal; this was tyranny the First Continental Congress was organized the colonies were encouraged to arm militias and stockpile arms and ammunition they had to be ready to defend themselves from acts of tyranny if need be

FIRST MOVES OF WAR the British knew of militia training locally around Boston. They had also heard of a gunpowder supply at Concord. They decided to launch a preemptive raid to seize the ammunition and capture the rebels. April 19, 1775 the British set out before dawn. The Americans had suspected an attack and had a warning system. Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott rode through the night to warn the militia to be ready

THE SHOT HEARD AROUND THE WORLD the first resistance encountered by the British was at Lexington. A company of militia was assembled. A shot was fired and the British opened fire scattering the militia. Several Americans were killed and wounded. The survivors fled to spread the word that the war had begun. More and more militia units began to assemble and as the British reached Concord several were waiting nearby. A sharp fight broke out and the British withdrew. The supplies were not at Concord so the British decided to return to Boston.

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Along the march back to Boston angry militiamen begin to take shots a the British from nearby cover The road-bound British were frustrated by the firing militia from cover along the route Soon the British were in big trouble, taking causalities and not being able to close with the enemy. Only the timely arrival of reinforcements from Boston prevented a real disaster for the red coats

The Revolutionary War
WHAT IS VICTROY American victory: o USA must exist as an independent country How to achieve this? o Outlast the English o European support English Victory: o No America independence How to achieve this o Crush American army o Conquer rebels o Destroy the supplies o Win hearts and minds of rebelling people

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EARLY EVENTS April1775- Battles of Lexington and Concord; opening shots of war June 1775- Siege of Boston: American militia surrounded Boston. The British attempt to break the siege with an attack. The Battle of Bunker Hill British win after three charges up the hill. Very bloody fight. The Americans fought well but ammo shortages forced a retreat. Both sides showed a tough determination Americans capture Ft. Ticonderoga which has many cannons, they drag cannons to Boston o British retreat from Boston to New York Benedict Arnold invades Canada and almost captures Quebec but is wounded and driven back Congress chooses George Washington as Commander-in-Chief o He takes command of the Continental army at Boston o Ensures support of the Southern Colonies Congress passes the Olive Branch Petition- attempt at peace with Britain. The king never saw the proposal but rejected it out of hand.

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King declared that all 12 American colonies in a state of open rebellion and announced they would all be punished King viewed the war as a personal attack on him. There would be no negotiated settlement

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE the 2nd Continental Congress debater the issue of independence for several weeks finally a committee of 5 men wrote up a document which was eventually found acceptable and signed the American colonies were now the Untied States of America the war was now one for independence and freedom

EXTENDED Written by a 5 man committee o John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston What is it? o List of grievances/ complaints against England o Public, formal declaration of independence o New philosophy of government New ideas o Inspired by John Locke- life liberty, and property (pursuit of happiness) o Obligation to resist tyranny o The opportunity to create a new government based on thought and reason Why do it? – how can it help G.W? o Cause to fight for- Liberty o Foreign Aid o Protection for soldiers o Chance at something new- democratic government

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CAMPAIGNS OF 1776 Washington followed the British to New York His poorly trained was no match for the British and was driven back repeatedly from positions around New York City Washington retreated to Penn. pursued by the British

DESPERATE DAYS Disheartened by repeated defeats, Washington’s army was melting away from casualties and desertions. He was desperate for a victory

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Across the Delaware River, British hires, Hessian mercenaries were encamped at Trenton. On Christmas night Washington attacked the unprepared army A few weeks later they won again at the Battle of Princeton Washington could now go into winter quarters with a much happier army

MIDDLE YEARS OF THE WAR 1777- Summer/Fall- British attack and invade Penn. Washington loses at Brandywine and the British captured Philly, the congress fled Washington counter attack at Germantown but could not drive out the British

TURNING POINT OF THE WAR Battle of Saratoga o Sep 19- Oct 17 1777 o Intense battle in upstate NY. Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan are key to the American victory, but General Gates is in command o General Burgoyne surrendered to Americans. The entire British is captured 7000+ men o Americans proved tat they could win a pitched battle o French join the war against England

DARK DAYS winter at Valley Forge, PA winter of 1777/1778 o Von Stuben and Pulaski are brought in to train soldiers. They are advisors o Low point for US military  Washington becomes canter of war effortbecomes the cause By spring of 1778 the Army has recovered and is ready to stand up to the British They only fight 1 more battle against the British at Monmouth, but they win

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THE WAR CONTINUES War on the Frontier o George Rogers Clark: Captures Illinois, Indiana, and secures the west War in the South o More like a civil war against each other  Guerilla fighting between Tories and Revolutionaries o Francis Marion “Swamp Fox”- helps drive British out

THE END NEARS the French send an army to America o Gen. Lafayette, French rep works closely with GW Yorktown Campaign – 1781 o French Navy, Admiral DeGrasse, drives off British navy o Americans trap Cornwallis and British army as they retreat from the south on the Yorktown Peninsula o British Surrender

TREATY OF PARIS-1783(ENDS THE WAR) America exists- French pledge support Borders- east/west Atlantic to Mississippi o North and South were disputed War Debt Treatment of English Citizens CHALLENGES OF A NEW NATION Create a system of govt. Pay off debt Settle western frontier Establish American economy and trade relationships Challenge Spain for South territories Make England honor the treaty

THE NEW AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION 1777 AOC were weak and inefficient The central govt. had very limited power No ability to raise taxes, regulate trade, make currency, or negotiate treaties 1786 Shay’s Rebellion: unhappy Mass. Farmers revolted over high taxes and bank foreclosures. Crushed by militia forces AOC was called to reform. It was decided to abandon AOC and create anew

NORTHWEST ORDINENCE OF 1787

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a way of dividing the western land it was decided early on than the western lands will be new states and be equal in every way to the old states the NOW serves as the blue print for how to add new states to the union. Land was surveyed and mapped out 60000 eligible voters territory may petition for statehood Provisions were made for public school and land for churches No slavery was allowed in northwest territory. First Federal anti-slave law This was the only lasting accomplishment of the AOC

THE CONSTITTUIONAL CONVENTION OF 1787 it was quickly realized that the AOC was beyond salvaging and that something new was needed G.W. was asked t come out of retirement to lend credibility to the Convention It was decided to create a new govt. with more power, but this leads to the great dilemma; how to have a strong central govt. w/o it becoming too power and destroying peoples rights

THE GREAT COMPROMISE the answer was to separate the powers of the govt. into 3 separate branches; legislative, executive, and judicial. Each has the ability to check and balance the others the most powerful, legislative was subject to debate 2 separate plans were proposed; the New Jersey(small state) plan and the Virginia(big state) plan The small stated wanted equal representation. 1 vote per state. Big states wanted representation based on the population The solution; the Great Compromise- use of both plans to form a bicameral or 2 house congress Upper House- the senate was 2 reps per state Lower House- he House of Representatives had reps based on population

THE SLAVERY ISSUE THE 3/5 COMPROMISE the south was concerned about power in the new govt’s house of reps. The north had 2/3 of the population in the country the south wanted to boost their pop; the answer count slaves was population the North was unhappy with this situations and refused, but the south threatened to reject the constitution if they did not get their ways the 3/5 compromise was the answer for every 5 slaves the south gets to count them as 3 people for rep and taxes this allows the south to hold their own in the new HOR

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no ban on the slave trade until 1808

THE FIGHT TO RATIFY THE CONSTITUTION the supporters of the new constitution were the federalists. They were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. They argued for a strong federal govt. which shared the power with the states. They wrote the Federalists’ Papers to convince the public to support the constitution the opponents of the constitution are called the anti-federalists. They were led by Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry. They had 3 objections o No guarantees of certain rights and freedom to the people o The govt. could become too powerful and destroy the states o Feared the new govt. would favor the rich and set up a ruling class of wealth and power

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A BUILT IN GUARANTEE - the Bill of Rights. The anti-federalists were asked to write up a list of rights and freedoms. They wanted a complete rewrite the constitution but instead decided to make the Bill of Rights into the first ten amendments which would be given a special status and could not be removed. These were like a top ten list of the most important rights and freedoms WASHHINGTON AS PRESIDENT 1789-1797 one the new Constitution was ratified a first president was needed. Washington was convinced of the importance of president and agreed to serve if elected; he was the unanimous choice to lead Washington had to determine the proper decorum for the new president, the title, the way he should appear in public, how to address Congress, all of these “stylistic” issues were established by the precedents set by Washington. Many of them have been followed ever since

PROBLEMS FOR WASHINGTON financial issues: the national debt was a huge early problem for the new govt. Hamilton, sect. of treasury, had some proposals to solve the problem. He wanted the debt to be absorbed by the govt. this upset the south, who had a much less large state debt than the north Another proposal to raise income was a new Tariff Act of 1789. this would raise the costs of imports via a tax. Again the south was upset as they imported most of their essential items Finally the creations of a national bank was a hotly debated issue. Southerners, led by James Madison, feared the creation of a wealthy elite

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northern class who would dominate finances. The national bank was approved Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. Poor western Pa. farmers objected to an unfair tax on whiskey and rose up in revolt. The new govt. raised an army and Washington led it, for a short time, and the revolt dissolved with little loss of life. The new govt. passed a critical test. The tax was later reduced

FOREIGN PROBLEMS the French Revolution began in 1789. Many Americans, including Jefferson, welcomed the rebellion as an extension of the American Revolution. But it soon grew bloody and chaotic then France declared war on England. Washington was soon forced to chose between the two sides. A military treaty from 1778 implied US support for France However Washington wanted o avoid war so he declared neutrality. Many, including Jefferson, felt this was a betrayal. France was unhappy and began to view the US as a potential enemy. The British assumed the US was an enemy and boarded and harassed American ships bound for France. In addition England was still not abiding by the Treaty of Paris 1783. war threatened Washington sent John Jay to negotiate a new treaty: Jays Treaty of 1794 resulted. It was unfair and favored England but it avoided war and the British no longer viewed the Americans as an enemy. But the French felt betrayed by Washington and the US.

PROBLEMS ON THE FRONTIER the Indians objected to settlement in Ohio. A fort was built, Ft. Washington, Cincinnati, in Ohio and a military force was sent to protect the settlers 1790 an Indian force led by blue jacket and little turtle defeated a militia force led by Gen. Harmar In 1791 another force led by Gen. Arthur St. Clair was defeated, in the worst defeat the US military had ever suffered at the hands of Indians Gen. ‘Mad’ Anthony Wayne was sent to restore order and peace to the NW territory. He took his time training his men and held discussion with the Indian tribes. Finally in 1794 the Indians attacked him at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Wayne won In 1795 they signed the treaty of Greenville which ceded most of Ohio, Indiana and parts of Ill. To the US. Settlers flooded into the region The Spanish were allied to France and threatened to shut down the Mississippi River. This was critical to the economic future of the western settlers Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to negotiate a settlement with the Spanish Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795. the US gains access to the Miss.

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And use of the port of New Orleans, and Spain dropped land claims to the SW Territory WASHINGTON STEPS DOWN after 2 terms as president Washington decided to retire to Mount Vernon. This was an amazing move, he was willingly turned away from power and ensured the US a peaceful succession of power However there would be no political dissension and the rise of 2 political parties. Jefferson and Hamilton, bitter rivals on Washington’s cabinet had each attracted a following, their differences because the center of their parties Jefferson’s republicans, state rights and weak central govt. with power in the common mans hands Hamilton’s federalists, strong central govt. led by intellectual and wealth elite ruling for the good of all Washington’s Farewell Address warning against Sectionalism and political infighting was ignored, but his foreign policy advice, neutrality and avoidance of internal European affairs became the guiding theme in US policy for the next 100 years

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ADAMS AS PRESIDENT 1797-1801 election of 1796. Hotly contested, Jefferson ran against Adams but lost, however the Constitution said whoever finished 2nd was the VP. The two men did not function well together Adams as Pres. Inherited Washington’s issues, both good and bad. Foreign affairs and domestic problems will mark his administration.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS France was very unhappy about a perceived betrayal by America. The war with England was intensifying and France saw the US as an enemy and attacked US ships bound for England Adams sent a team to negotiate with France but were insulted by an outrageous bribe demand. The XYZ Affair. Insulted the diplomats left. War was now probable, the country was outraged Adams refused to give in to emotion and while a quasi-war with France rages in the seas, sent another team to negotiate with France. This time a settlement was reached, the Convention of 1800, and war was avoided Adams was severely criticized for resisting the public will, indeed the will of his own party, and his popularity suffered

DOMESTIC PROBLEMS

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Adams was roasted by the Republican press and by his own VP. His fed allies in Congress tried to end this by passing the Alien and Seditions Acts. Foolishly Adams signed them The alien acts gave the pres. Broad power to remove foreigners and lengthened the time required to become a US citizen The Seditions Act made it illegal to publically criticize the president of public officials. This is a clear violation of the 1st amendment

THE KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS Jefferson, Madison and the Republicans were outraged. They plotted against Adams and the Feds. They urged the states of KY and VA to adopt resolutions secretly written by them These argues that the states were voluntary members of the Union. And could leave anytime they chose Also the announced the supremacy of the state governments by allowing the INTERPOSITION and NULLIFICATION rights of the states. They could stop an illegal action by the Fed Govt. and nullify any illegal law passed by the Govt. These acts threatened the entire power structure of the Constitution and upset the system of checks and balances These ideas are the basis of the States’ Rights Doctrine which will be the foundation of the civil war

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JEFFERSON AS PRESIDENT Election of 1800 hotly contested. Results in a tie for PresidentJefferson and Aaron Burr. All ties go to the House of Reps. Alex Hamilton is the Speaker of the House he hates Jefferson but fears Burr’s ambition, he uses his influence to get Jefferson elected. Burr hates him forever. In 1804 they will fight a duel and Burr will kill Hamilton

DOMESTIC ISSUES Jefferson becoming president was seen as a major ‘Revolution’ in American government. A republication administration Jefferson made the presidency less formal and more democratic. He cut off government spending reduced the military and cut taxes War with the judicial branch. Jefferson was outraged by Adams’ midnight judge appointments and tried to have them removed. This caused a political fight that Jefferson lost Marbury v. Madison right of judicial review for supreme court

FOREIGN AFFAIRS

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war between England and France intensifies. Jefferson is openly proFrench 1803- Louisiana Purchase. The greatest land deal in American history, doubles the size of the nation. Sends out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore and establish relations with the Indians

PROBLEMS WITH ENGLAND England put increasing pressure on the US. They impounded American ships, confiscated cargos and impressed American sailors into service in the British navy 1807 Chesapeake Incident. British warships fired on American warships in American waters. The nation was outraged and demanded war

BOYCOTT AGAINST ENGLAND Embargo Act of 1807  Jefferson tried to use economics to force England, and France, to change its policies. The policy failed and backfired hurting the US, especially New England, more then Europe. It was dropped in 1809- a total failure Jefferson served two terms and then retired as Washington had done

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MADISON AS PRESIDNET Madison inherited the foreign affairs of Jefferson. England had not changes its policies about impressments towards the US Madison tried another economic policy to get England to change its ways  the non intercourse act of 1809. this tried to pit France against England for US trade. It would have eventually worked but too late to avoid war.

WAR OF 1812 Causes of war- New young American politicians from the west favored war with England. Proud and patriotic they were loud and influential. They were the War Hawks. Calhoun and Clay were the leaders War on the Frontier. An Indian confederation led by the charismatic war chief Tecumseh threatened the west. The Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 was won by Gen. William Henry Harrison, who soundly defeated the Indians broke up their confederation. But the outcome of the battle seemed to imply that the British had been behind the Indian uprising strengthening the causes of the war hawks. The War Hawks called for war. They demanded that the US stand up for itself England was responsible for Indian attacks on the frontier, England was attacking US ships, and England was not following the Treaty of Paris of 1783

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Madison gave in to the pressure and asked congress to declare war on England The war of 1812 had begun

UNSUCESSFUL AND UNPOPUALR Despite the noise of the War Hawks the war was very unpopular. New England, already hurting by boycotts against England, threatened to secede. They predicted the war would be fought in their states and feared an economic disaster once England blockaded American harbors The war began poorly with a pathetic invasion of Canada. New York militia units refused to leave NY and the Ohio militia was so poor they actually retreated and lost Detroit to the British in 1812

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EARLY VICTORIES the war turned to for the better when Admiral Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Putin-Bay in 1813 General WH Harrison leads a limited invasion of Canada and at the battle of the Thames Indian leader Tecumseh was killed

THE WAR AT THE SEA AND THE SACK OF WASHINGTON as predicted the British soon blockaded the American coastline. The effect on the US economy was severe However the small American navy was able to sting the British many times. The best of them was the USS Constitution which never lost an engagement By 1814 Britain forced the first abdication of Napoleon and was able to make a serious effort at attacking the US. The British put together a force and raided the US capital at Washington and burned the city including the white house

THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER after the burning Washington the British sailed on to Baltimore, a major harbor. The city was defended by Ft. McHenry. After a long bombardment the British were unable to reduce the fort and withdrew. Francis Scott Key was an observer at this fight and later wrote the star spangled banner with the war in Europe settling down the British decided to make a major investment in an all out attack on the US

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THE BRITISH INVASION Britain decided on a major three pronged invasion of the US: 2 forces our of Canada and a Major invasion up the Mississippi

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The Canadian invasions were stopped at the battles of Lundy Lane and Plattsburg The larges and most dangerous invasion was up the mouth of the Mississippi River. If the British captured New Orleans and drove up the river they could reclaim the west for themselves

THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS Andy Jackson became a militia commander and led his troops against the Creek Indians in 1814, then when word reached him of the British invasion he marched to defend New Orleans Jan 1815, Battle of New Orleans. The British launched a series of frontal assaults on Jackson’s lines. Jackson’s motley force repulsed the British with few losses. The British suffered severe causalities . The Americans had won

THREATY OF GHENT DEC 1814 the war ended with the signing of the treaty of Ghent in Dec of 1814 one month before the battle of New Orleans the treaty was essentially a cease fire. None of the issues which caused the war were addressed US had a new sense of Nationalism and unity. Andy Jackson was the greatest hero since Washington Anglo-American Accords series of treaties and agreements between the US and England. These set a tone for a lasting peace and eventually a strong friendship.

Andrew Jackson, his Times and Texas

FLORIDA AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE 1st Seminole war 1817-1818 Run-away slaves from the south often fled to Spanish Florida, which was slave free, and hide with the Seminole Indians Slave hunters went into Seminole lands to recapture them. Violence often occurred. The Seminoles would then raid American town and farms for revenge. The US Govt. sent general Jackson with an army to go the Florida border and ‘Protect American lives and interests’.

JACKSON INVADES FLORIDA

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Jackson read his orders liberally and invaded Florida, Spanish territory, to pacify the Indians. He burned villages and killed the Seminoles every chance he got The Spanish were outraged and demanded he withdraw immediately. Instead he marched on the Spanish capital of St. Petersburg and jailed the Spanish governor and took over control of Florida Jackson then tricked many Indian leaders into attending a meeting and had then hanged Jackson discovered two British arm dealers selling the Indians guns. He had then hanged

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS SAVES THE DAY the sec. of state, John Quincy Adams son of a former Pres. Adams, had several problems to deal with; an Indian war, a mad England, and a very mad Spain Indian War Jackson had solved most of the problems so Adams had no real problem there England several assurances that the US was not going around killing English and a public apology kept England content- more proof of a new, better relationship with England Spain war threatened, but Spain was having problems in all of its central and South American colonies, the US offered to buy Florida, or fight for it- Spain sold it. The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819- US buys Florida and settles the border from Louisiana to the Pacific.

MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 Pres. Monroe was concerned about the status of many new nations in central and south America. These former colonies were young, weak and vulnerable, and good trade partners for the US With the end of the Napoleonic Wars Monroe feared a return of European colonialism in the ‘American Hemisphere’

THE MONROE DOCTRINE it was a warning to European nations to stay out of the American hemisphere it had four basic parts: 1. No further European colonization in AH, 2. Any European intervention in the AH would be seen as a direct threat to the US, 3. the US would not interfere with existing colonies, 4. US would stay out of European internal affairs this doctrine reinforces the traditional views of the US foreign policy of independence from European affairs and neutrality

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WHY DOES IT WORK the US was a weak and ineffective country at this time, and yet the Doctrine is not challenged. Why? The British supported the Doctrine. They had financial interests in the AH as well and did not want any new competition

THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE OF 1820 By 1819 the US was 22 states- 11 free and 11 slave. The Northwest Territory and the Southwest Territory were being added with no problems The Abolitionist movement was starting to become a national movement. Anti-slave feelings were intensifying. William Lloyd Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper the Liberator and Frederick Douglass speeches helped spread the movement. Missouri wanted it be admitted as a state- a slave state. It was also the first state organized out of the Louisiana Purchase Territory

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THE COMPROMISE the north is upset by this for two reasons; 1. it would unbalance the nation and give the south an edge in the senate, 2. it would set the precedent of all of the LA purchase lands becoming slave states. Solution: allow MO to be a slave state, create a new free state-Mainekeeping the numbers of the states even. Then draw a dividing line in the LA territory 36”30’, north of this is free, south is slave everyone worked hard to make this work, they were afraid of what a crisis would do to the country. This will keep the peace for the next 30 years

THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS AND AMERICAN ROMANTICISM Following the wave of the nationalism which erupted with the end of the War of 1812 there was a period where partisan politics faded, foreign affairs were peaceful, and economics were profitable. This was the era of good feelings As a response to the industrial revolution a new era of music, literature and art stressing romantic views and nature. American works like Washington Irving’s Rip Van Winkle (1819) and the legend of sleepy hollow (1820), James Cooper’s Last of the Mohicans as well as the macabre poetry of Edgar Allen Poe. Later this will lead to the Transcendentalism Movement.

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THE AMERICAN SYSTEM

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Henry Clay, the Kentucky Senator, came up with the plan to help expand the nation and feed off of the new nationalism present. It was called the American System and it had three parts A strong national bank system A protective trade tariff to protect and encourage industrial growth and development Federal funding for an ambitious program of internal infrastructure improvement s like roads and canals The program faced many challenges. Pres. Madison vetoed some aspects of the plan, mainly the road and canal process and the bank system was always a sore subject with southerners as was the tariff. Many states went ahead with their own infrastructure programs like New York which completed the Erie Canal in 1825

THE ELECTION OF 1824 Andy Jackson was a popular war hero and decided to run for president. JQ Adams also ran. The election was loud and intense. Jackson won a majority, but not the majority of the electoral vote. The House of Reps would have to decide- Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House and used his influence to get Adams the presidency- in return he was named as Adam’s sec. of state Jackson accused Adams of making a ‘Corrupt Bargain’ and an ‘Unholy Alliance’ Outraged Jackson began to organize for the 1828 election

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ELECTION OF 1828 Jackson’s close friend, Martin Van Buren from MY, helped him create a new better organized political party. They were the new representatives of the old party of Jefferson, but they shortened the name to simply ‘ the democrats’ They worked hard to get voting restrictions lifted and took advantage of Jackson’s popularity with the common people and westerners. Jackson and the Democratic party won in a landslide

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JACKSON AS PRESIDENT when Jackson won he swept into the white house ‘A man of the people.’ Like his idol, Jefferson, he cleaned out the oppositions power’s workers and appointed all democrats govt. positions- this was the spoiler system. Many complained but in reality Jackson only replaced about 10% of the govt. employees, less than Jefferson had done Jackson also had his unofficial cabinet, close friends and colleagues who advised him; the Kitchen Cabinet who came and went casually at the white house

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JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Jackson was the first modern and powerful president. He used the power of Veto more than all previous presidents combined, or threatened to use the Veto. With a Democratic controlled Congress, Jackson had more power than any pres since Washington Jackson hated Henry Clay and opposed his American system especially the Maysville Road bill. He fought all special privilege or regional interests and pork barrel legislation but sometimes overlooked this when it benefited his friends and supporters.

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INDIAN REMOVAL POLICY Jackson supported a policy of Indian removal from all lands east of the Miss. River. Indian removal act of 1830 made this legal. Creek and Choctaw forced out, 1832 Sac and Fox resist-Black Hawk’s War- wiped out by militia. In Georgia where gold was discovered on Cherokee land and Cherokee filed a lawsuit- Worchester v. Georgia. The supreme court ruled in favor of the Cherokee- they did not have to sell their land and move. Pres Jackson was outraged and refused to enforce it. The state of Georgia proceeded to remove the Cherokee. The federal govt. sent troops to help. 1835 Trail of Tears 15,000 removed about 400 died of disease. By 1840 no organized Indians left east if Miss River

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THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS 1828 a high trade tariff was passed over to protect northern industry over southern protests 1832 another trade tariff was passed to further protect northern industryJackson supports this. The south is outraged- VP John Calhoun calls it the ‘tariff of abomination’. The north gets richer at the expense of the south. Calhoun swings into action

THE NULLIFICATION AND SECESSION Calhoun dusts off the KY and VA resolutions and presents it to South Carolina- they issue the nullification doctrine and nullify the tariff of 1832. they then announce their right to do this and defend their actions and create an army of 10000 volunteers if need be and threatened secession Senators Hayne and Webster debate the issue of State Rights in Congress President Jackson finally makes a public announcement,’ the union must be preserved.’

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JACKSON TAKES ACTION AND A COMPROMISE

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Jackson announces that no state may secede and if South Carolina does not pay the tariff he will raise an army of 50000 troops and personally lead it down south Civil war threatened Henry Clay proposes a compromise- a 10 year gradually reducing the tariff. He is ignored but South Carolina gets no support from the rest of the South and finally agrees to drop the Nullification if the compromise is followed Jackson get the Force Bill passed- the president may use force if necessary to collect unpaid tariffs and duties South Carolina gives in, but nullifies the Force Act. Jackson ignores the insubordination, the Crisis is passed- but the issue of States Rights has not been resolved

THE BANK WAR the 2nd national bank of the US was up for renewal of its charter. Jackson opposed the bank, a private institution which held federal deposits. He felt it was too powerful 1. it could bribe and influence officials 2. it had too much influence over the economy 3. it did not answer to the federal government- it was above the law 4. it helped create a privileged class of people State banks opposed the federal bank because of unfair competition- the federal bank issued paper money which devalued the state banks and helped cause inflation which hurt the common people the most. The rich got richer and the poor got poorer Jackson hated the bank and its director, Nicholas Biddle, and the main political supporter of the bank, Henry Clay THE RENEWAL OF THE Bank was the main issue of the 1832 election and Jackson and Van Buren were re-elected. This election saw the first presidential nominating convention- this will become a standard for all parties Jackson vetoed the Bank charter. Nicholas Biddle then fought Jackson by trying to create a national financial crisis- Jackson got most of the blame for the crisis

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OUTCOMES OF THE BANK WAR a new political party was formed was called the Whigs who opposed the Kingly power of Jackson the Nations’ financial capital moved from Philadelphia to New York Jackson further expanded the presidential power

SPECIE CIRCULAR

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Jackson had pulled all federal funds out of the national bank and put them into state or ‘pet’ banks. These ‘wildcat’ banks issued too much money making it worthless People used the nearly worthless paper script to purchase western land from the govt. the govt. was losing too much $$ in these deals Jackson issued the specie circular which said that the treasury would only accept gold or silver specie for the payments on land transactions Many of the wildcat banks did not have enough specie on hand and were wiped out. This created a banking panic and an economic crisis which lasted from 1837-1841. Jackson was out of office by then.

JACKSON’S SUCCESSORS 1837-1841 Van Buren. He inherited Jackson’s financial crisis. He tried to reform the banking system and was blamed for the financial crisis. Lost the election of 1840 WH Harrison the first Whig President. Had a loud rowdy campaign. Tippecanoe and Tyler Too massive voter turn out 78%. Caught pneumonia during his inaugural and died 30 days later. VP John Tyler takes over Tyler was not a true Whig and soon betrays his party- he fights internal govt. improvement and ended the banking reform. The Whigs hate him and kick him out of the party. He will annex Texas in 1845 as a lame duck president which helps begin the Mexican War

TEXAS AND THE MANIFEST DESTINY in the 1830 westward migration was continuing unchecked. Many Americans believed that it was the Manifest of the US to grow and expand from coast to coast. Texas was the new area of settlement Texas belonged to Mexico and was slave free. Southerners were flooding into Texas and brought their slaves along But soon too many Americans were in Texas and Mexico became concerned, they tried to limit American immigration into Texas

CONFLICT IN TEXAS 1835 many Texans were outraged by Mexico’s actions- they were counting on selling the land to new settlers- and protested the Mexican govt. of president Santa Anna Santa Anna had Texas put under martial law. Texas breaks out into antiMexican violence in 1835 Santa Anna decided to end and type of rebellion right away and raised an army to crush Texas

TEXAS WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE

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with the Mexican army marching north the Texans panicked. They formed a provisional government and declared independence. Sam Houston was named as general of the Texan Army, his troops were militia scattered around the state. One garrison was located at San Antonio at an old Spanish mission called the Alamo. The Mexican army would strike here first

THE ALAMO 1836 187+ men were assigned to the Alamo, an old Spanish mission in San Antonio. They were led by William Travis and Jim Bowie. They were uncertain about what to do, retreat or await reinforcements. They waited too long and soon the Mexican army arrived and out the fort under siege Davy Crockett, famous frontiersman and congressmen from Tenn. Showed up at the fort. He was lured by the promise of free land for anyone fighting for Texas.

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FALL OF THE ALAMO after a 13 day siege, the Mexicans attacked and took the fort. After a short but bloody fight the fort fell some of the defenders surrendered and were executed on Santa Anna’s order. Travis, Bowie and Crocket were all killed the Alamo would serve as a inspiration for the Texans

BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO Sam Houston retreated with his army and hoped for aid from the US, but pres Jackson would send no help Finally Houston retreated to San Jacinto and waited, with his back to a river, for the Mexicans to attack When the Mexicans hesitated he launched his own attack, which caught the Mexicans by surprise and routed them The Texans won a total victory and killed hundreds of Mexicans while shouting ‘Remember the Alamo.’ Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign a peace treaty giving Texas independence The Mexican govt. refused to honor the treaty but for all practical purposes the war was over

TEXAS AND THE US Texas expected the US at annex them, but President Jackson refused to do this. Mexico did not recognize Texan independence. For 9 years the ‘Lone Star Republic’ existed 1836-1845

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‘Lame Duck’ Pres Tyler decided to finally annex Texas in 1845 Pres Polk believed in Manifest Destiny and fully supported the decision. War with Mexico seemed likely

THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR 1845-1848 causes of the war; 1) disputed boundary- Mexico claimed the Nueces river and the US claimed the Rio Grande.2) Mexico stopped the payment of debts to Americans. 3) Mexico was upset about the growing US immigration to California. 4) US annexed Texas War begins. The border dispute began the fighting- US and Mexican troops skirmished in the disputed zone and the US invaded Mexico

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THE US INVADES MEXICO General Zachary Taylor was in command. He led a good army and won the battles of Buena Vista and Monterey against General Santa Ana. But these victories were in northern Mexico and Taylor was a democrat while pres Polk was a Whig General Winfield Scott was chosen to lead an invasion of Mexico and landed at Vera Cruz in 1847. He won the Battle of Cerro Gordo and then fought and captured Mexico City. The Mexicans surrendered and the war was over in 1848

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TREATY OF GUAGALUPE HIDALGO Mexico ceded the southwest to the US- California, Utah, Nevada and parts of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and Wyoming for 15 million. The US was now coast to coast. Manifest Destiny was a reality

REFORM MOVEMENTS New Religions- 2nd great awakening religious revivals- Mormons led by Joseph Smith and later Brigham Young migrate to Utah- Shakers another group Educational reform- Horace Mann- Mass. educational reformer for public education Dorothea Dix prison reform and mental handicap treatment

ROMANTICISM AND AMERICAN LITERATURE a new type of literature stressing nature an dinner spirituality swept America Ralph Waldo Emerson and transcendentalism

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Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, James Fennimore Cooper, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allen Poe wrote classics of American literature

WOMEN’S MOVEMENT 1848 Seneca Falls Convention- stated by Lucretius Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton wanted equality for women and started the Voting rights movement. Other involved property ownership and working conditions in factories

Causes of the Civil War
1840-1860
SLAVERY AND ABOLITIONISM Following the invention of the cotton gin slavery explodes across the South The Plantation system was stronger than ever and cotton was the new cash crop In the north, anti-slavery speakers and organizations grew and gained popularity. The abolitionist movement led by William Garrison, Fredrick Douglass and Sojourner Truth spoke out and tried to create enough public support to end slavery

IMPORTANCE OF SLAVERY - Slave labor and the effects it had on southern society had grown and become entrenched into the very fabric of southern life. There was really no way to end slavery without resorting to radical measures - Economically cotton was too critical to the South’s economy to tolerate any type of distribution of the cotton production SLAVERY - The north, despite its anti-slave attitudes, was economically committed to slavery. Northern finances and banks loaned huge sums of money to southern plantation owners and invested heavenly in cotton and slaves. - Many southerners resented their growing economy indebtedness and reliance on the North. They saw this as a form of northern enslavement on the South ABOLITIONISM - The anti-slavery movement drew much support in the North but the South saw this as dangerous and deadly - Nat Turner’s slave revolt in Virginia was bloody and horrifying, a terrible warning for the south of what could be…

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Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a best selling novel called Uncle Tom’s Cabin which outraged the North with its 1 sided depiction of the evils of slavery. The book was banned in the South and famous in the North.

POLITICS AND SLAVERY - The Wilmot Proviso- During the Mexican-American War a congressman from Penn. Issued the proviso to keep slavery out of the new land acquired from Mexico. This act passed in the House but died in the Senatehowever it frightened the South - Compromise of 1850 Gold was discovered in California in 1848. By 1849 a gold rush was in effect with thousands of people making the long, expensive and dangerous journey to California. By 1850 it was ready to become a state- a free state THE CRISIS OF 1850 - There were 15 free states and 15 slave states in 1850 - California was the first state to be organized out of the Mexican Cession land. The South was afraid that all MC land would go slave free. This they could never allow - The situation was a huge crisis. (much like the Miss Comp of 1820) THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 - By this time the North and the South were much willing to compromise. Neither side would allow for the creation of a new state for the opposition. The crisis was huge. - Henry Clay proposed 1 last compromise - Cal comes in as a free state. The rest of the MC land is divided into the territories Utah and New Mexico with the people there deciding the issue of the slave or free. (popular sovereignty) - The slave trade is ended in Washington DC (for the anti slave people) - A tough new runaway slave law will be enforced for the nation (for the slave people) REACTIONS FOR THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 - Most everyone disliked the compromised. John C. Calhoun from South Carolina was too old to give his own speech but it was read by a younger man- it urged the South to reject all compromises and stand for their rights - Daniel Webster gave an impassioned speech in which he urged the nation to agree to one more compromise to preserve the Union and keep peace - In the end the compromise was slowly passed one separate part at a time, cleverly added in here and there, and the crisis was narrowly avoided. There would be no more compromises, Clay, Calhoun, and Webster would all die within a few years and a new generation of the politicians would have to deal with the issues of slavery and states’ rights. MORE POLITICAL PROBLEMS

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Ostend Manifesto- During President Franklin Pierce’s administration 1854-1855 a proposal to buy or capture Cuba to make into a new slave territory was leaked to the press. The result was extreme outrage by the North and great embarrassment for Pres Pierce Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas, a democrat, wanted to build a RR from Chicago to San Francisco. In order to do this the western territories would need to be organized and advanced toward statehood. This of course would lead to another toward statehood. This of course would lead to another nasty fight about slavery expanding into the west. Douglas was not interested in slavery- he wanted a railroad. Something had to be done

KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT OF 1854 - Douglas proposed that the new territories to be organized using Popular Sovereignty to determine free/slave state status. He had figured this would avoid argument and conflict - But this act was a direct assault on the old Miss Comp from 1820 - Southerners rallied in support of Douglas idea, they saw an opportunity to expand into the area long closed to them - Anti-slave Northerners were outraged by the betrayal, but popular sovereignty was very popular and passed into law BLEEDING KANSAS - the Kansas act passed. Almost immediately pro and anti slave forces rushed to Kansas. Whichever side dominated the population would determine the status of free or slave. Pro slave forces burn Lawrence, Ka. In the retaliation John Brown murders pro slave people in the cold blood VIOLENCE AND POLITICS - Violence broke out in Congress. Mass Senator Charles Summer gave a blistering speech attacking the south and the family of Senator Butler from south Carolina. Preston Brooks, a relative of Butler and a congressman from South Carolina, beat summer severely in his senate chambers. To the south he was a hero, to the North this demonstration southern violence about slavery - The Whig party divided with anti-slavery. Whigs becoming know as the Free Soil Party and the Know-Nothings. POLITICAL PARTIES - a new party began to organize- the Republicans. They wanted to stop the spread of slavery into the territories, but not necessarily end it. The Republicans appeared to many former Whigs, and the Know-Nothings as well as Northern Democrats who were unhappy with slavery FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT - the Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850. this law, as part of the compromise of 1850, gave the slave hunters permission to go anywhere in

the country to hunt down runaway slaves. Local law enforcement agencies were required by law to assist. Anyone aiding a slave to escape faced federal charges. The only place an escaped slave could be free was Canada THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD - a secret smuggling system developed to help slaves escape from the South- the Underground Railroad. This network of safe houses and friendly operatives helped to smuggle out hundreds of slaves - Harriet Tubman was one of the main operatives personally leading slaves to freedom 19 separate times THE DRED SCOTT CASE - In 1857 Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri. They moved to a free state and then back to Missouri. The owner died and as a part of the disputed inheritance a law suit filed on behalf of Scott. It argued that since he had been a slave in a free state he should be free. The Supreme court ruled otherwise. They argued that slaves are not citizens but property, and the rights of property owners and protected by the Constitution and anti-slave laws are now illegal- like the Missouri Compromise and popular Sovereignty - This ruling outraged the North and delighted the South LINCOLN- DOUGLAS DEBATE 1858 - the Senate race for Ill. Was between Democrat Stephen Douglas and Republican Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was an unknown but he was able to point out inconsistencies in Douglas’ arguments supporting Popular Sovereignty and slavery. This had two results: it divided the Democrats into northern and southern and it made Lincoln a nation known figure - Lincoln lost the election JOHN BROWN’S RAID 1859 - Radical abolitionist John Brown felt it that only violence would end slavery and he planned a slave uprising. To lead this he needed weapons so he raided the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia with 18 followers - Col. Robert E Lee and a company of US marines showed up. A gun fight erupted and Brown was captured. His trial was a sensation. He was found guilty and executed - The south was outraged and terrified: this was their worst nightmare come true; a white Northerner trying to lead a slave uprising perhaps with northern support - Could the south be safe as part if the Nation? Would they be better off on their own? ELECTION OF 1860

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The Presidential election of 1860 was going to be critical for the nation. 4 separate national parties supported candidates. Republicans: Abraham Lincoln- stop the spread of slavery to the territories Constitutional Union Party: John Bell- support the Constitution and its rules Southern Democrats: John Breckinridge- support slavery and the Dred Scott Case Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas- support popular sovereignty

RESULTS OF THE ELECTION OF 1860 - Lincoln carried most of the North and won a majority of the electoral votes despite having only 42% of the popular vote - Many southerners felt that there was now no hope for maintaining the Union with the ‘Abolitionist Republican’ in office - In Dec 1860, South Carolina adopted the Ordinances of Secession and left the Union - By Feb 1861 6 more states seceded the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis was selected as their President THE NATION DISSOLVES - Lincoln was helpless to stop the nation from falling apart. President Buchanan stood by and did nothing as state after state broke away from the Union - When Lincoln was inaugurated he tried to assure the South that they had nothing to fear, but they were not listening - War seemed inevitable if the Union was to be preserved WHY DID THE SOUTH SECEDE? - 7 southern states had formed the Confederacy before Lincoln had even been sworn in as President. Why? Officially the issue was states’ rights and no mention of slavery was included in their announcements of Secession - Lincoln would try and avoid war if possible, but he was steadfastly determined to ‘Preserve the Union’. War seemed inevitable

The American Civil War
1861-1865
THE CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT - Jefferson Davis was selected to head the new government. Montgomery, Ala. Was the capitol. The constitution of the new government legalized slavery and set a six year term of office for president. - They claimed the right to public property in their states and started to posses the federal buildings, arsenals, and forts.

THE OPENING SHOTS - The war began on April 12, 1861 when southern forces in Charleston, South Carolina opened fire on the US fortress located in the center of the harbor; Ft. Sumter. The fort surrendered - This was part of the southern plan to occupy all federal forts, arsenals and other property located in the seceded states. President Lincoln declared this illegal and pledged to use force to defend all federal property ADVANTAGES FOR BOTH SIDES North - larger population, 2/3 of the country - industry- nearly 75% of the nations heavy industry - 80% of the railroads and most river transports were northern. Also most of the draft animals- mules, horses, and oxen were in the north - The existing government meant financial institutions and banking were available - The navy was controlled by the North South - Fighting defensive war - Slave labor - King Cotton- European sympathy - Strong military tradition WHAT IS VICTORY? North - no confederacy can exist - physically conquer the south and destroy their will to fight South - confederacy Must exist - conquer the north - gain European intervention - outlast the north- presidential elections in 1864 EARLEY DEVELOPMENTS 1861-62 WAR IN THE EAST - Union General McDowell led the main army located at Washington DC. They were raw, untrained, and unprepared for war. However pressure was building to get on with the war so Lincoln ordered him to attack the main confederate army at Manassas Junction, just a few mile south of Washington - McDowell’s plan was solid but his untrained troops were not ready. The strain of attacking was too much THE BATLE OF 1ST BULL RUN, JULY 21, 1861 - The battle went well for the Union but fresh reserves and a stubborn defense by Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson turned the tide for the Rebels

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As the federals retreated the untrained troops and routed and fled the field. It was a disaster for the north Lincoln was disappointed nut understood that the army needed a new leader, one who had not been ‘tainted’ by defeat. He found this in the young General George McClellan But North and South realized the need to train and recruit their forces For the North, McClellan trained them, gave them pride, made them look and feel like real soldiers, and he gave them a name; the Army of the Potomac

THE TRENT AFFAIR - in November of 1861, a British mail ship was carrying two confederate diplomats, John Slidell and John Mason was stopped by a US warship. The confederates were arrested and taken back to the US - this caused an international incident. The British were outraged. The northern public was thrilled with the capture but Lincoln had to release them or face war with England - Sect. of State William Seward put a positive spin on the event by congratulating the British for recognizing the freedom of the seas and rights of neutrality position of the US from the war of 1812 LITTLE MAC THE YOUNG NAPOLEON - McClellan was a brilliant organizer and was named the Union commander. He even replaced his mentor, Winfield Scott, as Lincoln’s main advisor - Lincoln was impatient for aggressive action, but McClellan always seemed to have a reason why he couldn’t or wouldn’t attack - Finally McClellan came up with a plan of attack. It wasn’t what Lincoln wanted but the wise Lincoln realized that McClellan would only move with his own plan, and agreed to let him try THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN - McClellan’s plan was to avoid the main rebel force in northern Virginia by using the navy to bypass the rebel army and land on the Yorktown peninsula, than dash up to capture Richmond before the confederates could respond - Lincoln was concerned for the security of the capital and insisted that enough troops be left to protect Washington - The Rebels pulled their main force back closer to Richmond just prior to McClellan’s invasion. McClellan had to change his plans and landed further out on the Peninsula - Still his plan was sound – if he moved quickly. But McClellan was slow and cautious and in the field and insisted on waging a siege campaign rather than a lightning quick strike. The result was disappointment. Richmond was not captured but rather under siege. THE CONFEDERATES STRIKE BACK

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Confederate general Joe Johnson planned a counter attack on the federals, the battle of 7 pines may 31, 1862. tactically the battle was a draw but Johnson was wounded. Pres. Davis needed a new general That man was Robert E. Lee. He reorganized the army and gave them a name: the army of northern Virginia

STONEWALL IN THE VALLEY - General Lee ordered Stonewall to make a demonstration in the Shenandoah Valley to tie down Union troops on their way to aid McClellan - Stonewall launched his brilliant Valley Campaign. By fast marching and clever strategy he fought and defeated 3 armies, each larger than his own, and tied up thousands more trying to catch him. - Finally Stonewall was able to disengage from the Valley and join Lee outside Richmond without the Union knowing THE 7 DAYS CAMPAIGN - Lee’s plans were ready and he launched a major attack on McClellan’s army. his brilliant cavalry commander, Jeb Stuart found a weakness on the Federal right. Lee’s goal was to turn the Union right flank and crush them against the James River. This was the battle of 7 days. For a week lee hammered McClellan’s army with attack after attack - Tactically the Union held, but McClellan was convinced he was out numbered and feared the loss of his army; he ordered a retreat LEE SAVES RICHMOND - Lee’s attack, while bloody and not always successful, convinced McClellan to retreat back to his supply depot. He dug in at Malvern Hill behind his guns - Lee unwisely attacked and was repulsed. But he had reversed the situation and saved Richmond - Lincoln was very disappointed and ordered McClellan to shut down his whole campaign and return to Washington. McClellan delayed as long as he could LEE MOVES NORTH - with McClellan under wraps Lee decided to take the war north and marched back to northern VA - Lincoln had formed another army with a new leader, Pope - Pope was boastful and arrogant. Lee took personal offense and tore Pope apart at the Battle of 2nd Bull Run on Aug 29-30 1862 WHAT NEXT - in a summer of hard marching and tough fighting Lee ad saved Richmond and cleared most of Virginia of federal troops but his army was reduced by casualties and straggling.

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Now Lee is faced an important decision: should he wait and rest or hit while he still can Lee decided to hit; he would have to invade the North and crossed into Maryland

THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN - Lee crossed over the Potomac and into neutral territory, slave owning Maryland. Lee was hopeful that he would recruit new troops for his army but in this he was disappointed. There were still lots of opportunities for Lee and he divided his army to take advantage of them, namely capturing the Union Garrison at Harper’s Ferry - Lincoln was desperate to stop Lee. The Army of the Potomac was dispirited and leaderless. Lincoln had no other choice but the reinstate McClellan. Little Mac began a slow pursuit of Lee. He even recovered a copy of ‘lost orders ’from Lee’s HQ and moved a bit faster - Lee was worried by the uncharacteristic aggressiveness of McClellan. He pulled his army behind he shield of the South Mountain where Mac attacked him on Sept. 14, 1862. THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM SEPT. 17, 1862 - Lee pulled back to the town of Sharpsburg, along the Antietam Creek, to await McClellan’s attack. Lee was bluffing while awaiting the rest of his army to march up from Harpers Ferry - Mac hesitated to attack and wasted two precious days before finally launching his offensive. The bloodiest single day in American history had begun - McClellan attacked piecemeal and was never able to create a decisive breakthrough - At the last moment AP Hill marched up from Harpers Ferry and saved the day for Lee - The battle was a draw but Lee’s invasion of the North was over and had failed - Total causalities topped 23,000. Lee retreated back to Virginia. McClellan did not pursue - Lincoln could not get the general to go after Lee. Finally Lincoln fired McClellan THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAIMATION - Lincoln had decided to change the complexion of the war. Abolitionists had urged him to make the war about slavery since the beginning but Lincoln was reluctant to burn any bridges towards peace with the south or alienate any slave owners loyal to the government - This would make the war one for human freedom. The union now had a moral advantage - In addition it would almost guarantee that no European nations would join a war to promote slavery and human bondage

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Lincoln had just taken away one of the South’s 3 ways of winning Black soldiers were now used in the war by the Union Only slaves in the Confederate States were free. The rest would have to wait until after the war

BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG DEC. 13,1862 - Lincoln put general Ambrose Burnside in command of the Army of the Potomac - He launched a disastrous frontal attack at Fredericksburg; his men were slaughtered - Lincoln needed another general in the new year WAR IN THE WEST - in the west the war was different. The area was much larger so there were more smaller armies than in the east. The individual armies were operating much more independently than in the east. But coordination of the forces was difficult - one of the keys to the west was controlling the rivers - Gen U.S. Grant was one of these small forces commanders. He decided to take action and try to gain control of some of the critical rivers GRANT MOVES SOUTH - Grant, working with the navy, decided to attack 2 key rebel forts along the ky. Tenn. Border; forts Henry, Feb 6, 1862 and Donelson. The rebels asked for terms of surrender; Grants response, no terms but immediate and unconditional surrender - Grant continued his drive south - He stopped his forces to train and build up at a place called Pittsburg Landing. The Confederates were planning a counter attack THE BATTLE OF SHILOH APRIL 6-7, 1862 - Confederate General A.S Johnston decided to launch a surprise attack on Grant’s army. They achieved almost complete surprise but in the woods and ravines of Shiloh the Union fought hard - Grant, and Sherman were able to put together a final defensive line and as the day ended they stopped the rebel attacks - The next day Grant, reinforced with some fresh troops, counterattacked and drove the confederates from the field - The first big bloody battle of the war had been won by Grant GRANT IS BYPASSED, AND THE NAVY CAPTURES NEW ORLEANS - Grant’s commander, Gen. Halleck took field command after Shiloh and Grant was effectively put on a shelf. Soon Lincoln brought Halleck to Washington and Grant was able to continue his efforts

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The navy, led by Ad. Farragut stormed past the rebel defenses and captured New Orleans. The largest port in the Confederacy had been captured

THE CIVIL WAR MEDICINE - medical technology was very primitive - infection, antiseptic and germs were not understood - Limited supplies of chloroform were available, but many patients were conscious during surgery - The civil war bullets caused tremendous damage and often only amputations could save a patient - 2/3 civil war death were caused by disease LIFE ON THE HOME FRONT - while the war raged people at home tried to live as normally as they could - news reports and letters from soldiers were eagerly looked for - inflation and shortages of food were constant problems in the south - women volunteered to work with wounded men and service agencies as much as they could - others worked in factories or on farms making war material and growing food, life went on at home without the men CONSCRIPTION AND RIOTS - Soon both the north and south were running short on new recruits - In 1862 the South started conscripting men - In 1863 the North did as well and massive riots broke out in New York. Dozens were killed - Enlistment bounties hiring a substitute, and draft deferment were allowed to ease the unhappiness - The south allowed slave owners to be deferred from the draft WAR IN THE EAST 1863, GENERAL JOE HOOKER AND THE BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE. MAY 1-4, 1863 - Lincoln put Joe Hooker into command of the army of the Potomac. He was vain and boastful but made many much needed reforms in the army. he set out on an ambitious campaign to crush Lee’s forces and the plan almost worked, except Hooker lost his nerve at the critical moment - Lee, in a bold move, divided his army into three groups, two of them maneuvered against Hooker. Jackson launched his devastating flank attack of Hooker and the battle was won for the south STONEWALL DIES AND LEE INVADES THE NORTH AGAIN - Stonewall had been mortally wounded during the battle of Chancellorsville and died. Lee had lost his best commander.

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With the Union forces defeated, Lee decided to invade the North again, he was convinced that 1 more big victory, this time on Northern soil could finish them off and win the war for the South Lincoln replaced Hooker with General George Meade, the Union chased Lee into Pennsylvania.

THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, JULY 1-3, 1863 - the battle began as a meeting engagement. Both sides rushed troops onto the field. The south pushed the union back in a day of intense fighting - the union made a stand on Cemetery Hill - the biggest and bloodiest battle of the war had begun GETTYSBURG THE 2ND DAY JULY 2, 1863 - Lee decided to attack the union on the 2nd day. Meade’s army was dug in on some very formidable high ground - Some of the toughest fighting of the war took place. When the day ended the North had held - Lee would have to try again to break the union’s army. GETTYSBURG THE 3RD DAY JULY 3, 1863 - Lee decided to attack once more, this time on the union center. This was the famous ‘ Pickett’s Charge’ - The confederates were repulsed with heavy losses. Lee had almost lost the battle and decided to retreat - Lee’s invasion had been a failure and his magnificent army suffered irreplaceable loses. Never again could Lee invade the North. The South could no longer conquer the north. The only way they could win the war would be to outlast the North - Three reasons it is important The union had actually whipped up on the south If the south had won the war could have been over for the union The south’s army would never be the same. Heavy losses. Lee can never again attempt conquering the north. Taking away the 2nd way for southern victory. WAR IN THE WEST1863 - Grant had been working on capturing Vicksburg since Dec. of 1862 - Several attempts had been made but none had succeeded. Finally Grant decided on a risky strategy; he would operate without a supply line in enemy territory - After much hard marching and fighting Grant had Vicksburg sealed up and under siege. They surrendered on July 4, 1863 - Lincoln promoted Grant to commander of all western forces GRANT SAVES THE WEST - General Rosecrans had captured Chattanooga in a brilliant maneuver campaign, but he drove too far into Georgia and the Rebs counterattacked at the battle of

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Chickamauga. Rosecrans was defeated and retreated back to Chattanooga. The confederates cut off his supplies and had him under siege Lincoln sent Grant to save the forces there Grant fired Rosecrans and replaced him with George Thomas. He reopened supplies and brought Sherman and Hooker in as reinforcements The battle of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge Nov 23-24, 1863 were huge victories for Grant

GRANT TAKES COMMAND - Lincoln ordered Grant to come east and gave him command of all Union forces. Grant was now to coordinate and run the entire war effort- as long as him plans were approved by Lincoln - Grant put Sherman in charge of the west - For the first time in the war all of the union efforts would be coordinated. They would put continuous pressure on the confederates - Grant would direct the army of the Potomac to go after Lee’s army. This was their ultimate objective. They would threaten Richmond and force them to fight - Sherman would make Joe Johnson’s army his objective and would threaten Atlanta to force a fight GRANT OPENS HIS 1864 CAMPAIGN - Grant kept his HQ in the field with the army of the Potomac, still Meade’s army technically but Grant’s army practically. They crossed the Rappahannock river and tried to turn Lee’s left flank and get between Richmond and the Army of northern Virginia. - Lee launched a vicious counter attack in the Wilderness area of Virginia and the fighting began in May 1864 - After four days of bloody stalemate Grant began to march back north, his men thought he was retreating like so many previous commanders, but then they turned south again, it was not a retreat but another attempt to flank Lee’s forces - Grant continued the campaign determined to break Lee’s army or flank them out into the open where they could be destroyed in a pitched battle SPOTSYLVANIA COURT HOUSE, NORTH ANNA AND COLD HARBOR - Lee’s forces barely stopped Grant from flanking them and the army fought at Spotsylvania. It was hard and bloody. Lee’s men were constantly entrenched and heavily fortifies. Grant had almost three times as many troops but they constantly had to attack. - After more than a week of trying to break through, Grant pulled out and went back to flank marches - The armies met again at North Anna without any major engagements and Grant tried to turn Lee’s flanks again, this time at Cold Harbor - Grant attacked again in one of the worst assaults of the war. The federals were slaughtered - Grant went back to flanking Lee

PETERSBURG AND SIEGE - Finally Grant was able to flank Lee and crossed the James River to threaten Petersburg, the rail junction south of Richmond - Unfortunately the confederates were just able to stop the Union at Petersburg - Now with Lee stuck in his trenched defending both Richmond and Petersburg Grant settled down for an 8 month scene - The fighting was constant, miserable and bloody, but Lee was trapped SHERMAN CAPTURES ATLANTA - Sherman marched out of Chattanooga and fought a brilliant campaign against Joe Johnston’s confederate army of the west - Frustrated by constant retreats Pres. Davis fired Johnson and replaced him with the aggressive Hood - Soon the confederates launched a series of disastrous counter attacks. Lacking the manpower to hold the city, the rebs retreated out. Sherman had taken Atlanta THE ELECTION OF 1864 - Lincoln’s prospects for re-election did not look good by the summer of 1864, the war was bloodier than ever and victory looked no closer - A series of victories helped secure a Lincoln victory; Sherman took Atlanta; Phil Sheridan won a dramatic victory at Cedar Creek in the Shenandoah Valley; and Farragut and the Navy captured Mobile, Ala. THE SOUTH LOST THEIR FINAL WAY TO WIN - Lincoln also helped his campaign by getting legislation which allowed soldiers to vote in the field - When Lincoln won re-election the south had no chance of winning the war. They were not going to outlast the North - However the war would continue, the North still had to conquer the South, or convince them to give up the fight. TOTAL WAR AND SHERMAN’S MARCH TO THE SEA - Sherman was determined to bring the war to a quick conclusion. Frustrated in his efforts to pin down Hood’s army Sherman decided to ignore them and march to aid Grant outside Petersburg - He left Atlanta and decided to go without a supply line and live off the land - His men foraged food and supplies off of the farms in Georgia. Also they practiced ‘Total War’. They destroyed anything which could be of use to the enemy. This was war waged on civilians, brutal and merciless, but very effective. Soon the southern war efforts would collapse - By Christmas Sherman had captured Savannah. The south was running out of harbors APPOMATTOX AND THE END - by the beginning of 1865 Sherman was marching north through the Carolinas destroying everything in his path

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Lee’s army was starving in their trenches at Richmond/ Petersburg while their enemy destroyed their homes Lee tried to break out of his trap but Grant cut him off at Appomattox Court House and Lee had no choice but to surrender his army on April 9, 1865

PEACE AND FORD’S THEATER - Lee’s surrender was the signal which began the end of the war - Other southern armies quickly surrendered and by the end of May the war was over - However Lincoln did not live to see the end. He was assassinated on April 14, 1865 - The union had been preserved, the Federal Govt. was supreme, slavery was abolished and 600,000+ Americans had died - The era of ‘Modern America’ was about to begin

Reconstruction
1864-1877
DIFFERENT PLANS Lincoln Wanted to heal the country Offered general amnesty to former confederates who took an oath of loyalty 10% swore loyalty, State could reform govt and rejoin the country Radical Republicans Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner Wanted to make the South pay No former confederates in government Republicans to dominate Former slaves to have right to vote THE 13TH AMENDMENT - Jan 1, 1865 13th amendment was ratified. This banned slavery in all of the US - The Freedman’s Bureau- during the war this group went south to provide aid to former slaves: Food, land distribution and education, housing, as well as legal representation and loans - A rumor about all former slaves being given “40 acres and a mule” was common. This would have involved a complete land redistribution from the former plantations. Many northerners were not sure about that move. PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON - Following the assassination of Lincoln, vice president Johnson took office. He tried to continue Lincolns plan and go easy on the south

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A former Democrat from Tenn. He was now a southern ‘outsider’. Now as president he could punish the south, or join them Presidential vetoes- a renewal of the Freedman’s Bureau was vetoed. The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was vetoed Johnson pardoned thousands of former Confederates, many were being elected to the new Southern governments

THE SOUTH WILL RISE AGAIN - Emboldened by the actions of Pres Johnson, the south began to reassert themselves - Many former Confederates were showing up in Washington having been elected to office and ready to return to govt. Some of them wore their old rebel uniforms - Black Codes: Many of the southern states and communities began passing local laws designed to restrict and prohibit the former slaves. These were a form of “Social slavery”. They required all blacks to be employed and could not travel, own property, testify against a white person ect. While the South had lost the war but they may be able to win the Peace RADICALS STRIKE BACK - 14th Amendment: all persons born or naturalized in the US were granted citizenship, except Native Americans, and could only be denied this by due process of law - Pres. Johnson campaigned against the 14th Amendment. His views combined with growing violence in the South led to a Republican majority in the Congress

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