# L – DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

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(Use the hierarchical list under "Bookmarks" to access individual tables and/or sub-topics)

Depth references Azimuth true, magnetic & grid Directional well plan equations Bottom hole assemblies The use of mud motors Surveys Equations

L-1 L-4 L-5 L-6 L-15 L-27 L-29

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

DEPTH REFERENCES
ONSHORE WELLS

Top rotary table, RT (used as reference while drilling) Local datum (always referred to. The only permanent datum)

Top 20" casing head housing, CHH (= top of bottom flange). Often used as reference by the production department as it remains unchanged for the life of the well.

30" stove pipe 20" casing

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–1

DEPTH REFERENCES
OFFSHORE WELLS DRILLED WITH SURFACE BOPS

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

DEPTH REFERENCES
OFFSHORE WELLS DRILLED WITH SUB-SEA BOPS

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–3

AZIMUTH - TRUE, MAGNETIC AND GRID
In the equations and diagrams below, which refer to a horizontal plane at the point in question : ATN = Azimuth with reference to True North AMN = Azimuth with reference to Magnetic North AGN = Azimuth with reference to Grid North G = Grid Convergence, which is by definition positive when Grid North is East of True North D = Magnetic Declination, which is by definition positive when Magnetic North is East of True North Thus: ATN = AGN + G ATN = AMN + D
Grid North True North G D Here the value of G is positive Here the value of D is negative ATN AGN Borehole direction AMN ATN Borehole direction Magnetic North

True North

Be wary of the term “grid correction” which is used in a similar way to grid convergence but which is, by definition, the negative of grid convergence. Grid correction was the standard used in Well Engineering defined in a previous Borehole Surveying Manual (EP 59300). To comply with standards used in the survey industry and Topographic Departments, Grid convergence has now been adopted as the standard for Well Engineering. Note also that not all OUs use the standard convention. Within an OU only the local convention should be used. These will be provided by the OU focal point.

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

DIRECTIONAL WELL PLAN EQUATIONS
With target co-ordinates of ∆N and ∆E relative to the surface position : the horizontal displacement, and the azimuth, d = At = D = From the build-up rate, BUR, R = ∆N2 + ∆E2 tan-1 ∆E (+ 180°) ∆N TVDtarget - TVDk.o.p. 360 x characteristic length = 5,730 2π BUR BUR 2πα x R 360 R sin α R(1 - cos α) ∆TVD cos α ∆TVD tan α

For the build-up section, with inclination α: ∆AHD = ∆TVD = ∆d = For the tangent section : ∆AHD = ∆d =
KOP α D

R

Displacement < R α= x-y x = sin-1 ( R cos y ) D y = tan-1( R - d ) D

x y Target KOP α R D y x KOP α R d Target

d

Displacement > R α= x+y x = sin-1 ( R cos y ) D -1 ( d - R ) y = tan D

D

x d

Displacement = R α= x = sin-1 ( R ) D = sin-1 ( d ) D
Target

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–5

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Fundamentals of BHA Design In all cases, the minimum practical amount of BHA should be run. By running the minimum amount of BHA the torque and drag will be reduced, this in turn will reduce the fatigue generated in the drill string and thereby increase the life of the drill string. All BHAs place a side force at the drill bit. This side force affects the path followed by the drill bit and the rate of angle change, (dog leg severity), in the well bore. By planning to minimise the rate of angle change and by selecting the minimum number of tools having the correct material properties and assembling them in the correct order, good BHA design can delay fatigue damage and reduce the severity of drill string failure. To achieve correct BHA design, it is necessary to understand the basic principles and the effect of selected physical properties of the BHA components. Factors Affecting BHA Behaviour The directional behaviour of a rotary BHA is affected in three different ways: by the mechanical characteristics of the BHA, by the drilling parameters applied to the BHA, and by the formation being drilled – over which we have no control. Characteristics affecting BHA behaviour can be summarised as follows: • The gauge and placement of stabilisers and other BHA components • The diameter, length and material of the BHA components • Bit type Drilling parameters affecting BHA behaviour are: • Weight on bit • Rotary speed • Circulation or flow rate Directional Control Principles There are three basic principles used to control well bore direction. • The fulcrum principle – used to increase the well bore inclination. Inclination is the angle, expressed in degrees, between the path of the well bore and vertical. • The stabilisation principle – used to hold both inclination and azimuth. Azimuth is the direction, expressed in degrees, between the path of the well bore and true North, or grid North if specified. • The pendulum principle – used to drop inclination.

Note : This and the following eight pages about BHAs have been taken from Shell Expro's “Drillstring Failure Prevention - BottomHole Assembly Design Guidelines” (WEIN 553), also available as SIEP Report EP 94-1103.

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
THE FULCRUM PRINCIPLE A BHA with a full gauge near bit stabiliser, and between 90 ft and 120 ft of drill collars before the first string stabiliser (or no string stabiliser at all) will build inclination when weight on bit is applied . The drill collars above the near bit stabiliser bend due to their own weight and also due to the weight on bit. The near bit stabiliser acts as the fulcrum point of a lever transmitting this bending moment down to the bit and pushing the bit upwards, thus building angle. The following factors act on the build-up rate of this type of drilling assembly: • Distance between the near bit stabiliser and the first string stabiliser. As this distance increases, the build-up rate also increases. However, once the distance between the first two stabilisers reaches 120 feet any further increase in length has little or no effect and might allow the drill collar to touch the side of the hole. • The outside diameter of the drill collars. As the outside diameter increases, the collars become more rigid or "stiff' and the build-up rate decreases. • Material of the drill collars. In the field, a choice of material is seldom available, so options are not normally possible. In a critical well this option should be considered at the planning phase. • Bit type e.g. Tri-cone, PDC etc. The bit type has little effect on the build or drop rate, the exception being long gauge bits. The increase in gauge length decreases the build tendency. However the bit type does affect the "walk" or azimuth change, tricone bits tend to walk right whereas PDC bits exhibit little or no walk, but each bit does have its own characteristics. • Weight on bit. An increase of the weight on bit tends to increase the bending force on the collars above the near bit stabiliser and hence the build-up rate. • Rotary speed With an increase in rotating speed the BHA becomes effectively more rigid and the build-up rate decreases. • Flow rate. In soft formations, higher flow rates tend to decrease the building tendency due to the effect of the circulating fluid washing away the formation. This increases the hole size and decreases the support for the BHA. Figure L-1 shows several BHAs which will exhibit a build tendency. They are graduated from highest to lowest tendency to build angle, and are typical for a 121/4" hole.

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–7

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
THE FULCRUM PRINCIPLE (2)
Figure L-1 : BHAs for building inclination

* At lower inclinations this BHA is the most responsive ** The level of build tendency changes with inclination where BHA Nos. 6 & 7 generate more side force at higher angles

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
THE STABILISATION PRINCIPLE By using three or more stabilisers with a short, large diameter drill collar between the near bit stabiliser and the first string stabiliser it is possible to reduce the transmission of bending moment to the bit, forcing it to follow a reasonably straight path. The BHAs that use this principle are called Packed Hole Assemblies and are used in vertical and deviated wells to maintain inclination and azimuth. Some bit walk may still be experienced when drilling with a packed hole assembly. The following factors are of importance when designing stabilised BHAs: • Stabiliser design. In large diameter holes (i.e. greater than 171/2") the use of straight bladed stabilisers is common. These are acceptable where the hole is vertical and the torque and drag when drilling is low. Due to its design, this style of stabiliser tends to dig into or "gouge" the well bore and will increase the torque and drag. For most hole sizes, stabilisers with 360° wall contact are available. These are of a long, wide, spiral blade design and provide full, effective support for the BHA without gouging the well bore. • Near bit stabiliser. In all packed drilling assemblies, the near bit stabiliser must be full gauge. The stabiliser type and the area of blade contact with the hole wall require careful consideration to match formation and hole conditions. In areas of severe tendencies, tandem stabilisers can be used at the near bit position when stabilisers with long and wide blades are not available. • Stabiliser spacing. The distance between the near bit stabiliser and the first string stabiliser, should be between 2 and 15 feet depending on hole size and hole condition. The shorter the spacing between the stabilisers the more rigid the assembly will be. • First string stabiliser. The gauge of the first string stabiliser is of great importance and for most cases the stabiliser must be full gauge. (In areas where the assembly tends to drop, e.g. for deviated wells, an under gauge stabiliser is used to help maintain inclination.) • Bit type. The two most commonly used bit types are tri-cone and PDC bits. The path drilled by a tri-cone bit will vary with applied weight on bit and rpm. PDC bits tend to drill straight holes regardless of weight on bit and RPM; long gauge PDC bits help to maintain a straight well path. Where possible and depending on the formation, the use of PDC bits is recommended to help maintain a straight well path. With pendulum assemblies long gauge PDC bits can build angle as the long gauge acts as a near bit stabiliser. • Rotary speed. A higher rotating speed makes the BHA effectively stiffer and therefore less susceptible to deviate from the required well path. /....

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–9

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
THE STABILISATION PRINCIPLE (2) • Formation Effect The formation being drilled will have an effect on the directional stability of the drilling assembly, however this effect is not the same for all assemblies. Action can be taken to mitigate the effect of formation characteristics and formation changes by studying the behaviour of BHAs in previous wells and catering for the effects observed. The greatest effect will be seen where no near bit stabiliser is in the BHA. Where a packed assembly is in use, the formation effect can take a BHA configured for a slight drop tendency and force it to drop heavily or even build angle. Figure L-2 shows several packed hole assemblies. These are graduated from a slight building to a slight dropping tendency.

Figure L-2 : Packed hole assemblies for holding inclination angle

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
THE PENDULUM PRINCIPLE The pendulum principle was originally used to drill vertical wells with slick (non stabilised) BHAs. It was modified to incorporate stabilisers and is still in use today to reduce inclination. The principle uses the weight of the BHA hanging below the tangent point to produce, via gravity, a force that pushes the bit to the low side of the hole. The effect of the pendulum varies with the length of the BHA below the tangent point. The fundamental pendulum assembly increases the restoring force by increasing the pendulum length with a stabiliser in the proper position. The following are important factors to be considered in the design of pendulum drilling assemblies : • Near bit stabiliser gauge. All pendulum assemblies use either an under-gauge near bit stabiliser or omit the near bit stabiliser completely. • Stabiliser spacing The distance between the bit and the first string stabiliser controls the weight of the hanging portion of the BHA and therefore the pendulum force. If the first string stabiliser is placed too far away from the bit the tangent point will fall between the stabiliser and the bit, i.e. wall contact will take place, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the pendulum. • Outside diameter of the drill collars. Drill collar stiffness increases with the fourth power of the outside diameter. Stiffer drill collars will place the tangent point farther away from the bit and also increase the pendulum force. The weight per foot of the drill collars to be proportional to the second power of the outside diameter, i.e., heavier drill collars will produce a larger pendulum force. In summary: For the portion of pendulum BHA below the tangent point or first drill string stabiliser, it is desirable to run drill collars with the largest possible outside diameter. BUT potential problems associated with fishing the drill collars must be considered in the design stage. • Bit type. To allow the pendulum force to work the bit must be free and unrestricted. Field experience has shown that tri-cone bits and short gauge, flat face PDC bits are the most effective with pendulum drilling assemblies. • Weight on bit. The higher the weight on bit, the more the assembly will bend. This can move the tangent point nearer to the bit and hence is detrimental to the effectiveness of the assembly. Furthermore, the side force at the bit, produced by the weight on bit, acts against the pendulum force. Weight on bit as low as possible is desirable for a /.... pendulum assembly.

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–11

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
THE PENDULUM PRINCIPLE (2) • Rotary speed. A higher rotating speed makes the BHA effectively stiffer and therefore the tangent point moves farther away from the bit. As the assembly becomes stiffer, less bending (due to weight on bit) is transmitted to the bit. Higher rotating speeds will help to enhance the performance of pendulum assemblies, but will also tend to stiffen the pendulum thus increasing the drop. This is most noticeable on shorter pendulum assemblies. This tendency can be counteracted by increasing the length of the pendulum. Figure L-3 shows a graduated series of pendulum assemblies used to drop inclination.

Figure L-3 : Pendulum assemblies for dropping inclination

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
VERTICAL WELLS There is no such thing as a vertical well. All wells are deviated to some extent, the objective during drilling is to keep the well bore as close as possible to vertical. To achieve this objective the well is normally drilled with either a non stabilised slick assembly relying on the pendulum principle to keep the well pointing down, or it is drilled with a stabilised assembly. The principle then being that if it is properly stabilised it will not deviate from the desired path. A typical method of drilling a vertical well is to use the special dropping assembly shown in Figure L-3. This assembly, when used in vertical holes with light weight on bit, acts as a minimum pendulum assembly but keeps any formation influenced building to a minimum. This type of assembly is mostly used with PDC bits which required low weight on bit. In practice the wells are often drilled with a combination of both slick and stabilised assemblies. Slick assemblies When drilling in a vertical well with a slick assembly the pendulum principle applies. An equation proposed by R. Hoch establishes a minimum drill collar outside diameter, ODdc, to be run with a specific bit size, ODb, into which a casing which has a coupling diameter of ODcc is to be run. ODdc = 2 x ODcc - ODb Stabilised assemblies In hard formations vertical wells are drilled using packed assemblies to allow maximum weight on bit to be run in order to drill faster. In soft and unconsolidated formations (normally shallow), pendulum BHAs are used to drill vertical wells. As packed assemblies will bend slightly when used, there is sometimes a tendency to build angle. If this happens a pendulum assembly is used to drop the inclination, followed by a packed assembly to allow more weight to be applied to the bit and drilling to continue. If the inclination is reduced by the pendulum assembly at too fast a rate, unacceptably large angle changes (dog-legs) can be created. These can prevent the following packed assembly from being successfully run in the hole without first having to ream to bottom. An even worse effect is that large angle changes speed up fatigue failure. To avoid these problems, it is advisable to have the pendulum portion of the assembly below the packed BHA, so that any dog-legs are reamed as soon as they are created. A further advantage is that the pendulum becomes more efficient due to less bending being transmitted from the upper part of the BHA through the packed section down to the bit. When drilling vertical wells with packed drilling assemblies the near bit stabiliser should be full gauge. In the event that the well starts to deviate from the vertical, the near bit /.... stabiliser should be examined and replaced if it is found to be under gauge.

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–13

BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES
VERTICAL WELLS (2) If the near bit stabiliser is full gauge, the width and length of the stabiliser blades should be checked, i.e. not too narrow or too short. If they are found to be acceptable then consideration should be given to either using a near bit stabiliser with wider and longer blades or by using tandem stabilisers in the near bit position. Alternatively a "Big Bear" near bit stabiliser can be used. These are stabilisers of exceptional blade length, normally in the order of twice the blade length of that seen on a standard stabiliser (3 feet). They are therefore suitable to replace a tandem near bit stabiliser. When applying any of these latter solutions, exceptional precautions have to be taken when running in hole. Due to the extreme stiffness of the near bit section great care should be taken not to mechanically stick the assembly, especially the first time such an assembly is run in the hole.

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES Picking up a mud motor Motors are generally supplied with a lifting or handling sub for transporting them to and from the rig floor. These lifting subs are normally rated to lift the motors only and should not be used for heavier lifts such as the complete drilling assembly. Surface checks prior to running a mud motor in hole Using the lifting sub, pick up the motor and set into the slips at the rotary table. Install the drill collar safety clamp below the dump valve ports, unlatch the elevators and remove the lifting sub. Check that the dump valve is free to move by pressing downwards with a hammer handle on the upper face of the piston, the piston should travel down two to three inches and return to the open position when the downwards pressure is released. To check that the dump valve is not leaking, press on the piston again and, whilst holding the valve down in the closed position, fill the valve cavity with water. Release the downward pressure, the piston should return to the open position and the water in the valve cavity will drain out through the ports. Using a cross over sub, connect the kelly or top drive to the motor. Remove the safety clamp and pick up the motor until the bit sub is above the rotary table. Measure the gap between the bit sub and the bearing housing. Set the motor down, making sure to protect the box shoulder by landing the bit box on wood or on a rubber mat over the rotary table. Measure the gap between the bit sub and the bearing housing again. Check that the measured play is within the specified tolerances for the motor. Lower the motor so that the dump valve ports are below the rotary table. Start the pumps and, once there is no more flow through the ports, pick up the motor and observe the bit sub rotating. There should be flow between the bearing housing and the bit box. Lower the motor until the dump valve ports are below the rotary table and shut down the pumps. Pick up the motor and attach the bit using a bit breaker while holding the bit sub with a tong. Tripping into the hole Run the tool in the hole carefully. Care should be taken not to run the motor into bridges, ledges or the bottom of the hole. Work through tight spots with the pump on and slow rotation. Should difficulty be experienced when reaming through tight spots care should be taken not to side-track the well through the application of high weight on bit or high rotary speeds. When running in the hole if the drill string does not self fill, due to the properties of the drilling fluid preventing it from entering the drill string via the dump valve, periodically /.... break circulation to fill the drill string.
Note : These mud motor operating procedures have been taken from Shell Expro's “Drillstring Failure Prevention BottomHole Assembly Design Guidelines” (WEIN 553), also available as SIEP Report EP 94-1103.

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

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THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES (2) In hot wells, above 250°F bottom hole temperature, break circulation periodically while running in the hole to cool down the motor. When using a PDC bit, avoid circulating inside the casing to prevent damage to the casing and to the bit. Drilling To commence drilling, with the bit two or three feet off bottom, start the pumps and slowly increase the flow rate to that required for drilling. Do not exceed the maximum flow rate for the motor. Once the pressure has stabilised make a note of the flow rate and the pump pressure, gently lower the bit to bottom and slowly increase the weight on bit, as the weight on bit increases there will be a corresponding increase in pump pressure. For each motor there is a specified maximum differential pressure, the difference between the on bottom and off bottom pressure, this maximum should not be exceeded. It is good drilling practice to keep this differential pressure and the flow rate constant. Tripping out The procedures for tripping out of the hole are the same as when a rotary drilling assembly is in use. However, once out of the hole, the bearing clearance should be checked in the same manner as it is checked prior to running in the hole. The motor should also be flushed with fresh water, and the bit removed. The same lift sub used to pick up the motor prior to running in the hole should be screwed in to the top of the motor and made up to a reduced torque valve. The lift sub should not be screwed in hand tight for lifting operations.

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
STEERING BY MEANS OF “MAGNETIC TOOLFACE” The magnetic toolface angle is the projection onto the horizontal plane of the angle between Magnetic North and the toolface. Steering tools are used in the magnetic toolface mode to change azimuth in near-vertical (less than about five degrees) wells.

Magnetic North

Toolface

45° Bit and mud motor trying to kick-off in azimuth 45° (Magnetic).
Looking down the drill string towards the bit

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

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THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
STEERING BY MEANS OF “HIGH-SIDE (GRAVITY) TOOLFACE”

The high-side is the top of the hole viewed along the borehole axis. Assuming that the hole has inclination, the low side is the path a small, heavy, ball would follow if rolling slowly down the well. Steering tools are used in the high-side toolface mode to change azimuth in wells with an inclination of more than about five degrees..

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
STEERING BY MEANS OF “HIGH-SIDE (GRAVITY) TOOLFACE” (2) Looking down the drill string towards the bit b) Toolface = 180° a) Toolface = 0° Bit and mud-motor trying to drop angle Bit and mud-motor trying to build angle while maintaining azimuth while maintaining azimuth
High-side High-side

Toolface Left Right Left Toolface Right

Low-side

Low-side

c) Toolface = 90° Bit and mud-motor trying to maintain inclination and turn the well to the right

d) Toolface = 300° (60° left) Bit and mud-motor trying to build angle and turn the well to the left

High-side

High-side

Toolface Left Toolface Right Left Right

Low-side

Low-side

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

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THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
REACTIVE TORQUE A clockwise rotating downhole motor applies right-hand torque to the bit. There is therefore an equal and opposite torque applied by the bit to the stator housing, and thence to the string. Called 'reactive torque', this can easily be controlled by the operator, by controlling weight on bit. During directional drilling, this reactive torque must be taken into consideration, because it tends to turn the drill string to the left. The actual angle of twist created at the bottom of the string by reactive torque is governed by: • The magnitude of the torque • The length of drill pipe • The torsional elasticity of the drill pipe • The length and torsional elasticity of the HWDP and BHA. The HWDP and BHA are both much shorter and much stiffer than the drill pipe and can therefore be neglected when estimating the BHA rotation due to reactive torque, given the accuracy to which the estimate is required. This BHA rotation in a drill string with a mud motor may be estimated as follows: • Measure the standpipe pressure with the bit on bottom, when flow rate and weight on bit are adjusted to drilling conditions. • Measure the standpipe pressure when the bit is lifted off bottom with the flow rate being kept constant. • Calculate difference in standpipe pressure. • If a diamond bit is in use, reduce the above value by the pressure drop at the bit. • Read the reactive torque values for the calculated differential pressure from tables. • Obtain the corresponding torsion angle per unit length for the drill pipe in use from the graphs on the facing page. After orientation by single shot measurement, the string has to be aligned to produce the required bore hole direction. To do so, the above calculated reactive torque angle is considered as a right-hand angle in addition to the direction change. Having applied the accumulated angle of the string with the rotary table, the string should be raised and lowered several times over a 30 ft interval. Once a few feet/metres of hole have been made with the new settings, the result will be checked and the drill pipe alignment adjusted in light of the actual results. This is the reason why the preliminary estimate is only required to an "order of magnitude" accuracy.

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SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

THE USE OF MUD MOTORS
REACTIVE TORQUE CHARTS
Torque in lbs-ft 4,500 1,500 3,000 Torque in lbs-ft 1,125 375 750
lbs/ft

0 540°

0 180° 540°

1,500 180°

2", 20 l

bs /ft

s/ft

2-3/8

/ft

.6 lb

s/ft

lbs

4 lb

16

Torsional angle for 1,000 m DP

9. 5

Torsional angle for 1,000 m DP

2-7

/8"

360°

120°

, 10

.4 l bs/

4-1 /

450°

150°

", 6.7

450°

150°

ft

360°

120° Torsional angle for 1,000 ft DP
lb s/ ft

4", 1

4-1

,1

270°

3-

5
180°

/ -1

1/ 2"

2

2 ",

0.

3. 3

9

lb

5"

ft s/
90°

Torsional angle for 1,000 ft DP

/2" ,

,1

270°

60°

180°

3-

2 1/

",

15

.5

lb

s/

ft

90°

60°

90°

30°

90°

30°

0

1

2

3 4 5 6 Torque in kN-m

7

0

0.5 1.0 1.5 Torque in kN-m

2.0

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

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NAVI-DRILL PERFORMANCE DATA
SI UNITS

L–22
l/min 180-365 180-365 65-125 180-365 260-370 120-340 250-800 1,600 900 5,500 5,000 1,200 650 15-43 17-54 30 29 900 4,800 920 25-36 -7,700 8,800 8,000 1,000 2,000 1,300 1,300 3,000 6,000 2,000 4,000 520 975 960 600 10-20 18-37 7-13 11-23 30 30 30 -4,800 9,600 3,200 6,400 830 1,560 1,540 960 1,470 1,920 1,040 Operating No load Bit speed pressure Diff. Power Torque output (mean Q) pressure N-m kPa kW kPa rpm WOB kN 16-32 29-60 10-20 18-37 40-57 24-68 27-87 Maximum Diff. Power Torque output pressure N-m kPa kW WOB kN 45 45 45 --55 55 110-325 110-325 180-600 100-300 105-210 55-110 195-650 150-255 150-255 800 1,000 2,400 4,200 820 1,420 13-22 22-38 1,200 2,100 1,300 1,000 1,300 1,300 800 5,000 9,500 11,000 5,000 4,000 2,000 5,000 1,850 3,530 1,950 1,600 2,300 2,200 1,000 21-63 41-120 37-123 17-50 25-51 13-25 20-68 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 --8,000 15,200 17,600 8,000 6,400 3,200 8,000 3,800 6,700 2,960 5,650 3120 2,560 3,680 3,520 1,600 1,310 2,270 34-101 65-192 59-196 27-80 40-81 20-41 33-109 21-35 36-61 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 --90-220 90-220 235-430 100-260 110-200 100-180 55-95 190-550 110-200 1,500 2,400 1,400 1,100 1,200 1,700 1,400 800 1,200 3,200 6,000 8,000 5,000 6,000 5,000 2,500 5,000 3,000 3,650 6,850 3,650 3,800 5,800 6,500 5,800 2,500 2,900 34-84 65-158 90-164 40-103 67-121 68-123 33-58 50-144 33-61 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 -5,100 9,600 12,800 8,000 9,600 8,000 4,000 8,000 4,600 5,840 10,960 5,840 6,080 9,280 10,400 9,280 4,000 4,640 55-135 103-252 144-263 64-166 107-194 109-196 53-92 80-230 53-97 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 --

Tool size – Bit size

Power Lobe Section config.

Flow rate

31/8" – 1/2"- 43/4" 3

5:6 5:6 5:6 5:6

300-600 300-600 300-600 300-600

– 43/4"- 57/8"

33/4" 41/2"-43/4" 33/4"

*DDS

7:8

500-700

M1C M2

5:6 1:2

250-700 250-800

43/4" – 57/8"- 77/8"

MIX M1XL M2PXL M1C M1P/HF M1ADM M2

5:6 5:6 2:3 5:6 5:6 5:6 1:2

400-1,200 400-1,200 300-1,000 300-900 600-1,200 600-1,200 300-1,000

43/4" – 57/8"- 61/2"

*DDSII *DDSIII

7:8 7:8

5-850 5-850

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

63/4" – 83/8"- 97/8"

MIX M1XL M2PXL M1C M1P M1P/HF M1ADM M2 *DDS

5:6 5:6 2:3 5:6 7:8 7:8 7:8 1:2 7:8

1,000-2,500 1,000-2,500 700-2,000 700-1,800 1,000-1,800 1,300-2,300 1,300-2,300 700-2,000 1,000-1,800

Tool size – Bit size l/min 85-190 90-150 90-150 50-80 155-450 80-165 100-190 80-130 80-130 40-70 200-400 80-170 70-110 155-330 1,600 1,600 800 4,500 5,000 4,000 13,200 24,000 7,500 111-235 176-276 122-259 227 227 227 1,800 1,000 700 1,600 1,300 900 6,000 5,500 6,000 5,000 2,500 6,000 14,600 9,300 15,000 17,000 15,000 6,450 122-252 97-185 126-204 142-231 63-110 135-270 214 214 214 214 214 214 9,600 8,800 9,600 8,000 4,000 9,600 7,200 8,000 6,400 23,360 14,880 24,000 27,200 24,000 10,320 21,120 38,400 12,000 1,300 900 2,000 1,500 800 4,000 6,000 5,000 2,500 4,000 6,100 10,500 11,500 10,100 3,250 54-121 99-165 108-181 53-85 53-153 155 155 155 155 155 6,400 9,600 8,000 4,000 6,400 9,760 16,800 18,400 16,160 5,200 WOB kN 87-194 158-264 173-289 85-135 84-245 196-404 156-296 201-327 228-370 101-176 216-432 177-376 281-442 195-415

Power Lobe Section config.

Flow rate

Operating No load Bit speed pressure Power Diff. (mean Q) pressure Torque output kW N-m kPa kPa rpm

Maximum Diff. Power pressure Torque output N-m kPa kW

WOB kN 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

8" – 1/2"-121/4" 9

5:6 7:8 9:10 7:8 1:2

1,200-2,600 1,500-2,500 2,000-3,400 2,000-3,400 900-2,600

M1XL M1C 91/2" – M1P 1/4"- 171/2" 12 M1P/HF M1ADM M2

5:6 5:6 7:8 9:10 7:8 1:2

2,000-4,000 1,500-2,800 1,800-3,000 2,500-4,200 2,500-4,200 1,500-3,000

111/4" – 16"- 26"

M1C M1P M2

5:6 9:10 1:2

2,000-4,300 3,000-4,800 2,000-4,300

Dog-leg capaabilities The dog-leg capaabilities of assemblies incorporating the above motor sections vary with the hole size, the motor diameter, the motor type, the AKO setting, the stabiliser configuration and the drilling parameters. The figures in the table alongside have been taken from BHI's Navi-Drill Motor Handbook (1996) as a guide to the ranges available using the standard series of motor sections. The service company should be contacted for recommendations for particular cases.

Tool diameter 31/8" 43/4" 63/4" 91/2" 111/4"

Dog-leg capability ( °/30 m) 3 - 40 0.2 - 26 0 - 19 0 - 9.5 1 - 11

* Motor section types DDS, DDSII and DDSIII are specialised motors used for drilling short radius build-up sections. These can be used to drill sections with a radius of curvature of 12 - 50 m (1.1 - 4.8 ° per metre).

L–23

NAVI-DRILL PERFORMANCE DATA
OILFIELD UNITS

L–24
Operating No load Bit speed pressure Diff. Power (mean Q) pressure Torque output lbs-ft rpm psi psi HP WOB lbs x 103 67 67 67 --67 65 1,110 1,280 1,160 1,090 1,420 770 695 1,390 465 930 620 1,150 1,140 700 180-365 180-365 65-125 180-365 260-370 120-340 250-800 230 130 800 725 885 480 20-57 23-73 130 695 680 34-48 145 290 190 190 435 870 290 580 385 720 710 440 13-27 25-50 9-17 15-31 21-43 39-80 14-27 24-49 54-76 32-92 37-117 Maximum Diff. Power pressure Torque output lbs-ft psi HP WOB lbs x 103 102 102 102 --122 122 110-325 110-325 180-600 100-300 105-210 55-110 195-650 250-255 150-255 115 145 350 610 600 1,050 17-29 30-51 175 305 190 145 190 190 115 725 1,380 1,595 725 580 290 725 1,365 2,605 1,440 1,180 1,695 1,625 740 29-84 55-161 49-165 22-67 34-68 17-34 27-92 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 --1,160 2,210 2,550 1,160 930 465 1,160 560 975 2,180 4,170 2,300 1,890 2,710 2,600 1,180 960 1,680 46-135 87-258 79-263 36-108 54-108 27-54 44-146 28-47 48-81 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 --90-220 90-220 235-430 100-260 110-200 100-180 55-95 190-550 110-200 220 350 205 160 175 245 205 115 175 465 870 1,160 725 870 725 365 725 435 2,690 5,050 2690 2,805 4,280 4,795 4,280 1,845 2,140 46-113 87-212 120-220 53-139 90-163 91-164 45-77 67-193 45-81 228 228 228 228 228 228 228 228 -745 1,390 1,855 1,160 1,390 1,160 585 1,160 695 4,300 8,080 4,300 4,490 6,850 7,670 6,850 2,950 3,420 74-180 138-338 192-352 85-222 143-261 146-263 72-124 107-309 72-130 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 --

Tool size – Bit size

Power Lobe Section config.

Flow rate

gals/min

31/8" – 1/2"- 43/4" 3

5:6 5:6 5:6 5:6

80-160 80-160 80-160 80-160

– 43/4"- 57/8"

33/4" 41/2"-43/4" 33/4"

*DDS

7:8

130-185

M1C M2

5:6 1:2

65-185 65-210

57/8"-

43/4" – 77/8"

MIX M1XL M2PXL M1C M1P/HF M1ADM M2

5:6 5:6 2:3 5:6 5:6 5:6 1:2

105-315 105-315 80-265 80-240 160-315 160-315 80-265

57/8"-

43/4" – 1 6 /2"

*DDSII *DDSIII

7:8 7:8

130-225 130-225

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

83/8"-

63/4" – 97/8"

MIX M1XL M2PXL M1C M1P M1P/HF M1ADM M2 *DDS

5:6 5:6 2:3 5:6 7:8 7:8 7:8 1:2 7:8

265-660 265-660 1,85-530 185-475 265-475 345-610 345-610 185-530 265-475

Tool size – Bit size

Power Lobe Section config.

Flow rate

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

8" – 91/2"-121/4"

M1C M1P M1P/HF M1ADM M2 80-165 100-190 80-130 80-130 40-70 200-400 80-170 70-110 155-330 230 230 115 655 725 580 9,735 17,700 5,530 148-315 236-371 163-347 510 510 510 1,050 1,160 930 260 145 100 230 190 130 870 800 870 725 365 870 10,770 6,860 11,065 12,540 11,065 4,755 164-338 131-248 169-274 191-310 84-147 181-362 488 488 488 488 488 488 1,390 1,280 1,390 1,160 585 1,390 17,230 10,980 17,700 20,060 17,700 7,610

5:6 7:8 9:10 7:8 1:2

gals/min 315-685 395-660 530-900 530-900 240-685

Maximum Operating No load Bit speed pressure Diff. Diff. Power Power Torque output WOB pressure Torque output WOB (mean Q) pressure 3 lbs-ft lbs-ft rpm psi lbs x 10 psi psi HP HP lbs x 103 85-190 190 580 4,500 73-163 348 930 7,200 117-260 674 90-150 130 870 7,745 133-221 348 1,390 12,390 212-354 674 90-150 290 725 8,480 145-242 348 1,160 13,570 233-388 674 50-80 220 365 7,450 71-113 348 585 11,920 113-182 674 155-450 115 580 2,395 71-205 348 930 3,830 113-328 674 262-541 209-397 270-438 306-497 135-236 290-580 15,580 237-504 28,320 377-593 8,850 261-556 Tool diameter 31/8" 43/4" 63/4" 91/2" 111/4" 894 894 894 894 894 894 1124 1124 1124 Dog-leg capability ( °/100 ft) 3 - 40 0.2 - 26 0 - 19 0 - 9.5 1 - 11

M1XL M1C 91/2" – M1P 121/4"- 171/2" M1P/HF M1ADM M2

5:6 5:6 7:8 9:10 7:8 1:2

530-1,055 395-740 475-795 660-1,110 660-1,110 395-795

111/4" – 16"- 26"

M1C M1P M2

5:6 9:10 1:2

530-1,135 795-1,270 530-1,135

Dog-leg capabilities The dog-leg capabilities of assemblies incorporating the above motor sections vary with the hole size, the motor diameter, the motor type, the AKO setting, the stabiliser configuration and the drilling parameters. The figures in the table alongside have been taken from the BHI's Navi-Drill Motor Handbook (1996) as a guide to the ranges available using the standard series of motor sections. The service company should be contacted for recommendations for particular cases.

* Motor section types DDS, DDSII and DDSIII are specialised motors used for drilling short radius build-up sections. These can be used to drill sections with a radius of curvature of 40 - 165 ft (0.35 - 1.45 ° per foot).

L–25

L–26

NEYRFOR TURBINE DATA
Turbodrills for deviated holes 91/2" T2 91/2" T3 33/8" FBS 43/4" FBS 43/4" MK2 65/8" FBS

Turbodrills for straight holes 71/4" T2 71/4" T3

Nominal size Type

91/2" 91/2" SBS SBS Standard High flow 73/8" 917/32" 917/32" 33/8" 43/4" 43/4" 65/8" 91/2" 91/2" OD 5" 73/8" Bit size 55/8"-63/4" 81/2"-95/8" 81/2"-95/8" 11"-15" 11"-15" 33/4"-53/8" 55/8"-63/4" 55/8"-63/4" 75/8"-97/8" 121/4"-171/2" 121/4"-171/2" Speed range (rpm) 800-1,800 700-1,400 700-1,400 400-1000 300-700 300-700 3/4° 3/4° Bent housing angle : Standard 1° 1° 1° 1° 1/2°,1° 1/2°,1° Available 11/4°, 11/2° 3/4°,11/4° Dog-leg angle capability with standard bent housing (°/100ft - °/30 m) 13 8 10-12 6-8 4 4 Nominal flow rate (gpm) 160 475 475 650 650 100 160 200 475 650 650 (l/sec) 10 30 30 41 41 6.3 10 12.6 30 41 41 Pressure drop (psi) 1,435 1,510 2,150 1,525 2,210 1,537 1,415 1,598 1,875 (kPa) 9,900 10,400 14,800 10,500 15,200 10,600 9,800 11,000 12,900 Power (HP) 78 243 365 379 568 51 74 104 280 520 520 (kW) 58 181 272 283 424 38 55 78 209 388 388 Torque Maximum drlg (lbs-ft) 1,475 2,460 5,000 5,000 (N-m) 2,000 3,350 6,780 6,780 Stalling (lbs-ft) 325 860 (N-m) 440 1,160

5" T2

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

Note : The pressure drop, power and torque figures given above are valid for the nominal flow rate, and for a drilling fluid density of 0.52 psi/ft or 11.75 kPa/m

FREQUENCY AND TYPES OF SURVEYS TO BE TAKEN

During DrillingVerification Survey

Survey Stove Pipe/Foundation Pile* GSS
1,2 6,13

Platform/Cluster/Template Wells and Other Wells During Drilling Verification Survey Type of Survey Type of Survey Survey Interval** Survey Interval** None None GMS GMS
1,9 6,10,12,13 MWD/ST/ESS 6,10,12,13

Isolated vertical wells During Drilling Verification Survey Type of Survey Type of Survey Survey Interval** Survey Interval** None None ESS MWD/ST/ESS GMS/EMS
1,7,8,14

Marine Conductor* GSS/MWD/ST/ESS
6,10,12

Conductor String MWD/ST/ESS
6,10,12 1,9

(20/185/8" GMS GMS
1,3,9 6,10,12,13

Casing)

GMS/EMS
1,7,8,9,14

Surface String MWD/ST/ESS
6,10,12

(133/8" MWD/ST/ESS MWD/ST/ESS
6,10,12

Casing)

GMS/EMS
1,7,8,9,14

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

Intermediate String (95/8" casing) MWD/ST/ESS
6,10,12 4,9,11

GMS/EMS
1,7,9,14

Production String (7" Casing/Liner) ESS/EMS
4,6 4,5,9

GMS GMS/EMS
4,6

GMS/EMS
4,9,14

Production Liner (41/2" Liner)

30 ft/ 10 m 30-90 ft 10-30 m 30-90 ft 10-30 m 30-90 ft 10-30 m 30-90 ft 10-30 m as required ESS/EMS/DIP

EMS/DIP
4

25 ft 8m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m

at section TD 300 ft 100 m 300 ft 100 m 300 ft 100 m 300 ft 100 m 300 ft 100 m

50 ft 15 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m 100 ft 25 m

L–27

Notes on table GSS = Gyro Single Shot (Surface read-out preferred) * Whichever is applicable MWD = Measurement While Drilling ** If a wireline survey is not made from surface, it should overlap at least 1000 ft (300 m) of the previous ST = Steering Tool survey. Magnetic surveys should be taken into the last casing shoe. ESS = Electronic Magnetic Single Shot 1. IN (FINDS or RIGS) to replace GMS if available. MSS = Magnetic Single Shot (ESS preferred) 2. When conductors have been batch installed, all should be cleaned out and surveyed prior to drilling the DIP = Dip Meter Log (which gives good survey results) first well. EMS = Electronic Magnetic Multi-Shot 3. Can use MWD and EMS when there are problems of getting gyro down. Run EMS prior to running GMS = Gyro Multi-Shot (North Seeking Gyro preferred) casing. IN = Inertial Navigation 4. EMS or Dip Meter survey allowed below the top of the lowest hydrocarbon bearing zone (in open hole). 5. In hot wells >120°C (250°F) there may not be enough room for the gyro heat shield. Run EMS prior to MMS = Magnetic Multi-Shot (EMS preferred) running casing. 6. ESS is preferred but MSS may be used. 7. GMS/EMS must be taken prior to entering any potential zone that could blow out. 8. GMS/EMS may be omitted where it is proven that the well will not penetrate a potential blow out zone in the next open hole section and (1) there is a GMS/EMS in the previous section and (2) the open hole magnetic survey of that section is good. 9. GMS surveys should be every 100 ft (25m), but this should be reduced to every 50 ft (15m) through sections with doglegs over 2.5°/100 ft (2.5°/30m). 10. Survey every stand (90 ft) when using MWD. Interval may be increased to 300 ft (100 m) when using an ESS. 11. IN (RIGS) may be considered in special cases of high accuracy requirements. 12. EMS to be taken when MWD/ST/ESS surveys have questionable quality. 13. Where criteria for relief well drilling have been relaxed, inclination only surveys may be considered. 14. Survey every stand (90 ft) when using EMS, but this should be reduced to every single (30 ft) through sections with doglegs over 2.5°/100 ft (2.5°/30 m).

PRE-SURVEY CHECKLISTS
Totcos Totcos are normally run by the driller. The pre-survey checklist and running procedure are given below. (When using a magnetic single shot tool for inclination only surveys follow the running procedure for MSS.) 1. Check that the instrument landing assembly will seat correctly in the landing ring (Totco ring), and not jam or land eccentrically. 2. Install the landing ring in the proper place when making up the BHA. 3. Avoid landing the instrument directly on top of bit, mud motor or turbine. The instrument could get stuck and furthermore make circulation impossible. 4. Check that the fishing tool will fit over the fishing neck. 5. Check that the instrument will pass the BHA above the landing ring and not hang up (e.g. in the jar). 6. Check that the instrument kit box is complete and that the angle units have been checked in the workshop before delivery to the well site. Check that no angle unit has been used more than 25 times after calibration. 7. Use sinker bars if the drilling fluid has a high density and/or is viscous. 8. Before surveying circulate sufficiently to avoid a back flow of cuttings into the BHA. 9. Estimate the time lapse. This should be equal to the sum of the times required to: - mount the instrument in the barrel - run the instrument through the drill string - provide a safety margin of a few minutes (3-5 minutes) in case of any delays. Magnetic Single Shots An OU representative should ensure that the following is carried out : 1. Check that the required length of NMDC is available. 2. Check that the instrument landing assembly will seat correctly in the landing ring (TOTCO ring), and will not jam or land eccentrically. 3. Check whether the instrument is to be top or bottom landed or used with a mule shoe. 4. Install the landing ring in the proper place when making up the BHA. Avoid landing the instrument directly on top of bit, mud motor or turbine. The instrument could get stuck and furthermore make it impossible to circulate. 5. Check that the instrument will pass the rest of the BHA above the landing ring and not hang up (e.g. in the jar). 6. Check that the instrument kit box is complete and that the angle units have been checked in the workshop before delivery to the well site. Check that no angle unit has been used more than 25 times after calibration. Specifically check that the kit box includes: • two angle units of each range, which should be used alternately • batteries specified for the instrument • film discs • developing chemicals and ensure that the film is kept dry before the survey is run. 7. Check the angle unit in the field test stand. Ensure that the angle unit inclination readings agree with the field test stand inclinations.

L–28

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

MINIMUM CURVATURE METHOD EQUATIONS
The directional surveys at consecutive stations (at AHD1 and AHD2) measure values of A1, A2, I1 and I2. These values are then substituted into the equations given below to yield values of dog-leg angle, ∆N, ∆E, ∆TVD and ∆PHD. cos DL = cos (I2 - I1) - sin I1.sin I2(1 - cos (A2 - A1)) DL x characteristic length ∆AHD ∆N = ∆AHD (sin I1.cos A1 + sin I2.cos A2).RF 2 ∆AHD (sin I .sin A + sin I .sin A ).RF ∆E = 1 1 2 2 2 ∆TVD = ∆AHD (cos I1 + cos I2).RF 2 DLS = ∆PHD = ∆N.cos At + ∆E.sin At Where: AHD/TVD = Along hole / True vertical depths RF = Ratio Factor = 180 x 2 x tan DL π.DL 2 DL = Dog-leg angle in degrees DLS = Dog-leg severity in degrees per characteristic length (usually °/100 ft or °/30 m) At = target Azimuth PHD = Projected horizontal distance (in direction At)

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001

L–29

BASIC VECTOR DIAGRAM

I1 ∆Az I2

DL

A1 TFS

A2 I1, I2, A1, A2 and DL are as given on the previous page TFS = Tool Face Setting angle, positive in the sense shown to give increasing azimuth Knowing the value of any three of the sides/angles of the triangle allows the other three to be calculated using the standard equations : a = b = c If two angles and a side are known : sin A sin B SinC If two sides and the included angle are known : a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc.cos A etc. b2 - c2.sin2B c2 - b2.sin2C

If two sides and a non-included angle are known : a = c.cos B ± or a = b.cos C ±

Note : For maximum change in Azimuth the vector representing A2 is tangent to the circle whose radius represents DL.

I1 ∆Az I2

DL

A1

TFS

A2

L–30

SIEP: Well Engineers Notebook, Edition 2, January 2001