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What is orifice (in piping term) and what is the function of orifice in pipes?
Posted by: ANTONY in Piping Questions, QUESTIONNAIRE, Site Map

06
oct

Industrial Control Valves www.argointl.com Kace Valves, Valve Technologies Hoke Valves & Fittings Acro Associates, Inc. www.acroassociates.com Solenoid and Pneumatic Pinch Valves For Fluidic Controlled Systems PipeData-PRO www.pipedata.com Dimensional, WEIGHT and Piping Design Information.

An orifice, in general is an opening. I'll just leave it at that. In piping it is usually a special device used primarily to measure or restrict the flow of a fluid. These are called metering devices. Here is an example of one type. A flat metal disc with a known diameter hole is called an orifice plate. It is clamped between special flanges in a section of straight pipe and centered in the pipe so that the fluid flowing through the pipe also passes through the hole and then proceeds on down the pipe. The two special flanges both have a small hole ( called a tap) drilled thru the sides and on into the pipe opening where the flow is passing. The pressure from the upstream side or "tap" of the orifice plate is compared to the downstream pressure. Since it is known that pressure drop and velocity are related the measured pressure drop across the known orifice is used in the
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flow calculation. Other orifice-type metering devices are used to limitShare a flow within a certain range. This is common in variable orifice control valves where a tapered plug changes the size of the orifice opening. Another less common orifice plate application in piping is in flow restriction in the event of a pipeline rupture. In refrigeraton a common metering device called a capillary. This is actually a smaller diameter tube which does the same as a hole in a flat plate, but does it better.

Industrial application of venturi meter and orifice?


i would be glad if the answer be in detail , and anybody can explain me the application of orifice in the car?

Venturies and Orifice plates are widely used in industries to measure the flow rate of gases and liquids. The working principle is simple and flow is measured using the differential pressure principle. Even for a wind to blow, there has to be a low pressure and a high pressure. Hence if there is a flow (created naturally or artificially), there is a high pressure upstream and low pressure down stream. Differential pressure transmitters (DPT's) utilize this principle to measure this pressure difference and transmit the pressure difference signal to a process indicator or controller. This signal is processed by the indicator (meter) and scaled or integrated to engineering parameters like flow rate, totalisation, speed, volume etc., using specific formulas for the particular type of application and medium (gas or fluid). To summarize, venturies and orifices generate a differential pressure which if integrated with time, can then be used to convert into any engineering parameter like flow rate, quantity, speed etc. and can be used in any industrial, automotive, aeronautical, domestic or just about any field - which comes to imagination.

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QUESTIONS FOR PIPING ENGINEER


Posted by: ANTONY Questions, Site Map in Design basis, Piping Book, Piping Design system, Piping

01
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TYPICAL QUESTIONS FOR PIPING ENGINEERs KNOWLEDGE TESTING Please help to answer this Examination? 1. Can you explain in detail three or more major differences between code ANSI B31.1 and code ANSI B31.3? 2. There is a power plant inside a Process refinery. Where exactly the ANSI B31.1 &

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ANSI B31.3 scope break occurs? 3. Which of the following piping system is more health hazardous. A) Fuel oil piping b) Process piping with Caustic c) process piping with HF acid d) Sulphuric acid piping. 4. There is a steam piping with low pocket but without steam trap. What will be worst consequence of this layout?
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5. In what circumstance, the reducer of a pump suction piping will be in bottom flat position. Explain why the reducer should be so.
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6. A P&ID shows a spec break (at Flange) between carbon steel & stainless steel specification. What additional arrangements you have to make for that dissimilar material flange joint? 7. A stainless steel piping specification mentions Galvanized carbons steel bolts. What is your first reaction ti this and how do you rectify it? 8. How many types of piping speciality items do you know? Why it is called a piping special? Why not we include them in standard piping specification. 9. Draw a typical steam trap station layout and explain why the existence of a by-pass line around the trap is not a good idea, when the condensate is returning to a condensate header? 10. Explain what is a Double block & Bleed valve? Why we need a bleed valve? When do we use this? 11. In a typical tie-in where should the spectacle blind be inserted? a) after block valve and towards existing plant b) before block valve and towards new plant. Explain why. 12. Stress intensification factor (SIF) Where do we use this? Explain this term. How many types of these SIFs exist? 13. When all design parameters are same, whose thermal expansion is higher among the following? A) Carbon steel b) Stainless steel c) Duplex steel d) Cast Iron e) Galvanized

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PROCESS PLANT / UTILITY TERMINOLOGY

03

jun Posted by: ANTONY in Piping Design system, Piping Questions, Process plant Layout, QUESTIONNAIRE, Site Map

PROCESS PLANT TERMINOLOGY


Process Plant Terms

Refinery
A refinery is a plant that takes crude oil as its feed or charge stock and converts it into the many petroleum products that people use; Some of these are gasoline, jet-fuel, kerosene, butane, propane, fuel oil and asphalt.

Hydrocarbon
The hydrocarbon compound contains hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbon compounds are numerous and form the basis for petroleum products. They exist mostly as vapors and liquids but may also be solid. In general, piping systems refineries and gasoline plants transport hydrocarbons or utilities.

Gasoline Plant
The gasoline plant takes natural gas (a vapor) as its charge stock and separates the vapors heavier products out and re-injects the lighter gas (methane) into a pipeline or perhaps into the gas field it came from. Again gasoline, propane and butane are extracted as products. But, since a gasoline plant starts with a vapor, the heavier hydrocarbons do not exist in its charge stock; so heavier products cannot be made. Asphalt s one of the products that is classified as a heavy hydrocarbon and is not produced in a gasoline plant.

Chemical Plant
The chemical plant takes semi-refined products from refineries and gasoline plants and reprocess them, in this case it is also act as a Petrochemical plant. Sometimes blending in other products and converts them into certain chemicals which may be sold as a finished consumer product. One such product widely demanded today is plastic. Chemical plants make many ingredients in modern medicines.

Tank Farm
1

The tank farm is the area that containsposts huge storage tanks of the refinery and the 0 Link Menu Translate Recent Random Share

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gasoline or chemical plants. The tanks are usually isolated from the main processing units in case of fire. They may be 200 or more in diameter and will contain the plants charge stock for several days. The tanks also store the plants products, until the Share shipment goes to the consumer.

Flare Systems
The flare system transports vapors (via a piping system) to a flare stack which is very tall and has a flame burning at the top. This system burns waste gases and also collects and burns relief valve discharges. At night the flare stack usually stands out -sending flames high into the air. This is waste gas burning. if it did not burr, it would pollute the air.

Instruments
Instruments tell the operator what is happening inside a vessel or pipe. There are four basic groups of instruments, namely temperature, pressure, flow and level.

Fluid
Most students may think of fluid as liquid, but it can also be a vapor. Fluid means something that will flow-something not solid. Piping directs fluid flow.

Process Plant Utilities:


The utility is a refinerys service portion. While a home has water, gas and electricity, a refinery or other plant has many more, some of which are below.

Steam
Steam services many plant items. Heat generates steam in fired boilers or heater which will make many different steam pressures and temperatures. They apply heat and convert condensate (pure water) to steam (a vapor). The steam then goes to the different plant units in the piping systems which use the steam. Many students think they have seen steam, but they havent. They cannot actually see steam: it is invisible. What they have seen is the condensate condensing out of the steam. That is where the term condensate comes from.

Condensate
As the energy in steam is used, the steam turns to condensate. Another piping system collects this condensate, which is returned under a row pressure to a collection point and is pumped through the boiler tubing and converted to steam again. So the condensate is in a constant cycle from steam to condensate to steam.

Fuel Oil
Fuel oil is another utility that refineries make and partially consume. It is also sold as a product to heat homes and fires furnaces in private business.
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Instrument Air
A utility that operates the plant instruments is instrument air. A piping system distributes this air, which has been compressed and dried to remove, all its moisture, as the moisture would harm the instruments.
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Utility Air
Utility air drives air motors and blow air on objects to clean them, such as some barbers blow cut hair off customers with air hoses.

Cooling Water
Cooling water cool various streams in a plant. The water starts at a cooling tower and is pumped through a piping system to exchangers, which exchange heat. it comes out boner-much like water from a hot water heater in a home. This water then returns to the cooling tower, which cools the water. and then is ready for more circulation into the unit. Like the steam and condensate system above, this is a constantly c system.

Drains
An underground utility collects drains from funnels or catch basins and, in a separate piping system, transports them to a disposal point. Since no pressure is in this drain piping, the pipes must slope to cause flow. This slope is usually 1 foot per 100 feet of tine or greater. It can be very difficult to design drain systems. Since they run underground, they must miss all other underground items. The drainage system must twist and turn to miss all the process equipment foundations. Most plants also have more than one drain system. They may have an oily water sewer a storm water sewer and an acid sewer. The oily water sewer handles the oily drips and drains. The storm water sewer collects surface runoffs from rains. The acid sewer collects acid drains and drips. There may be many other types of separate drain systems.

You May like these too Piping Components - Explanation PIPING QUIZ & ANSWERS Piping Questions and Answers

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PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

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Posted by: ANTONY in Download, Piping Book, Piping Design system, Piping Handmay , Book Piping Questions, QUESTIONNAIRE, Site Map PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What factors to consider for site selection? Ans : District classification, Transportation facilities, Manpower availability, industrial infrastructure, community infrastructure, availability of raw water, effluent disposal, availability of power, availability of industrial gas, site size and nature, ecology and pollution. 2. What are different standards? Ans : Most commonly use standards are as follows: Sr. Standard Description 1. ANSI B18.2 Square and hexagola head bolts and nuts 2. ANSI B16.3 Malleable iron threaded fittings 3. ANSI B16.4 Cast iron threaded fittings. 4. ANSI B16.9 Steel buttwelding
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fittings 5. ANSI B16.11 Forged steel Share socketwelding and threaded fittings 6. ANSI B16.25 Buttwelding ends 7. ANSI B16.28 Short elbow radius and returns 8. MSS-SP-43 Stainless steel buttweld fittings 9. MSS-SP-83 Pipe Unions 10. API 605 Large diameter carbon steel flanges 11. ANSI B16.1 Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings 12. ANSI B16.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings 13. ANSI B16.47 Large diameter steel pipe flanges and flanged fitts. 14. ANSI B16.20 Ring joint gaskets and grooves for pipe flanges 15. ANSI B16.21 Non metallic gaskets for pipe flanges 16. API 601 Metallic gasket for refinery piping. 17. API 5L Specification for line pipe. 18. ANSI B16.10 Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes 19. ANSI B36.19 Welded and seamless austenitic stainless steel pipe 20. ANSI B16.10 Face to face and end to end dimensions of valves 21. ANSI B16.34 Steel valves, flanged and buttwelding ends. 3. What are various temporary closures for lines? Ans : Line blind valve, line blind, spectacle plate, double block and bleed, blind flanges replacing a removable spool. 4. Where jacked screwed flange is used ? Ans : For spectacle discs, one flange is jacked screw flange. This flange has two jacked screws 180 degree apart which are used to 0
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create sufficient space between flange Share for easy removal and placement of line blind or spectacle blind. 5. What is double block and bleed? Ans : Two valves with bleed ring in between with a bleed valve connected to the hole of bleed ring. 6. Where blind flange is used ? Ans : It is used with view to future expansion of the piping system, or for cleaning, inspection etc.

TOWERS 7. What are crude oil ranges? Ans : Crude oil BP Range: 100F1400F, lightest material: Butene below 100F, Heavier materials- upto 800F, Residue above 800F. 8. What is batch shell process? Ans : feed, heat,condense,heat more,condense, low quality. 9. What are types of towers? Ans : Stripper, Vacuum tower, trayed, packed towers. 10. What is chimney tray? Ans : Its a solid plate with central chimney section, used at drawoff sections of the tower. 11. What factors to consider while setting tower elevation? Ans : NPSH, Operator access, Maintenance access, Minimum clearance, reboiler type , common area, type of support, Tower dimensions, type of head, bottom outlet size, foundation details, minimum clearances. 0
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12. How to located tower Share maintenance access nozzles ? Ans : At bottom, top and intermediate sections of tower, must not be at the downcomer section of tower and in front of internal piping. 13. How to located feed nozzle ? Ans : Must be oriented in specific area of tray by means of internal piping. 14. How to located temperature and pressure instruments ? Ans : Temperature in liquid space, at downcomer side and pressure in vapor space, in area except downcomer sector.

SEE ALSO: PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3) PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)

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COMPRESSORS & DRUMS PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE


Posted by: ANTONY in Download, Drum, PDF Download, Piping Questions, QUESTIONNAIRE, Site Map
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05
may

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PIPING INTERVIEW Share QUESTIONNAIRE


COMPRESSORS
1. What are the types of compressors? Ans : Positive Displacement, Centrifugal and Axial, rotary screw, rotary vane, rotary lobe, dynamic, liquid ring compressors. 2. What are types of compressor drives? Ans : Electric motor, gas turbine, steam turbine and gas engine. 3. How Centrifugal compressors work ? Ans : Highspeed impellers increase the kinetic energy of the gas, converting this energy into higher pressures in a divergent outlet passage called a diffuser. Large volume of gas at moderate pressure. 4. What are types of steam turbine and why are they popular? Ans : Condensing and non-condensing, Popular because can convert large amounts of heat energy into mechanical work very efficiently. 5. Where gas turbine drive is used ? Ans : Desserts and offshore platforms where gas is available, for gas transmission, gas lift, liquid pumping, gas re-injection and process compressors. 6. What are the auxillary equipments of compressor? Ans : Lube oil consoles, Seal oil consoles, Surface condensers, Condensate pump, Air blowers, Inlet air filters, Wast heat system, compressor suction drum, knock out pot, Pulsation dampner, volume bottles, Inter and after coolers. 7. What are the types of seal oil system? Ans : Gravity and pressurized. 8. What factors to be considered while designing compressor housing? Ans : Operation, Maintenance, Climate conditions, Safety, Economics. 9. What are the compressor housing design points? Ans : Floor elevation, building width, building elevation, hook centerline elevation. 10. What are the types of compressor cases? Ans : Horizontal split case, Vertical split case. 11. What are compressor suction line requirements ? Ans : Minimum 3D straight pipe between elbow and inlet nozzle, increases based on inlet piping layout. 4D

12. What are necessary parts of inlet line of compressor? outlet 0 1 Ans : Block Valve, Strainer, Break out flanges in both inlet andShare to Link Menu Translate Recent posts Random

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remove casing covers, Straightening vane in inlet line if not enough straight piece in inlet line available, PSV in interstage line and in discharge line before block valve. 13. What points to be considered for reciprocating compressor piping layout? Ans : High pulsation, simple line as low to grade as possible for supporting, analog study, all branches close to line support and on top, Isolate line support from adjacent compressor or building foundations 14. What are the types of compressor shelters? Ans : On ground with no shelter, Open sided structure with a roof, Curtain wall structure (Temperate climates), Open elevated installation, Elevated multicompressor structure.

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DRUMS
15. What are drum internals? Ans : Demister pads, Baffles, Vortex breakers, Distribution piping. 16. What are drum elevation requirements? Ans : NPSH, minimum clearance, common platforming, maintenance, operator access. 17. What are drum supports? Ans : Skirt for large drums, legs, lugs, saddles for horizontal drums. 18. What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel? Ans : Inlet, outlet, vent, manhole, drain, overflow, agitator, temperature element, level instrument, and steamout connection. 19. What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel? Ans : Inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, pressure relief, agitator, level guage, pressure gauge, temperature element, vent and for steamout. 20. What is preferred location for level instrument nozzles? Ans : Away from the turbulence at the liquid outlet nozzle, although the vessel is provided with a vortex breaker, instrument should be set in the quiet zone of the vessel for example on the opposite side of the weir or baffle or near the vapor outlet end. 21. What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum? Ans : Minimum from the tangent line.

22. What is preferred location for steam out nozzle on drum? Ans : At the end opposite to the maintenance access. 23. What is preferred location for vent ? Ans : AT the top section of drum at the end opposite the steam out connecton. 24. What is preferred location for pressure instrument nozzle on drum? Ans : Must be anywhere in the vapor space, preferable at the top section of drum 25. What is preferred location for temperature instrument? Ans : Must be in liquid space, preferably on the bottom section of drum.
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Ans : Must be located at the bottom section of drum.


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See Also:

PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)

PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)

PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

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PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)


Posted by: ANTONY
Valve

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in Download, Piping Book, Piping Questions, Site Map,

51. What is regular pattern plug valve? Ans : Rectangular port, area almost equal to pipe bore, smooth transition from round body to rectangular port, for minimum pressure loss. 52. What are short pattern plug valve? Ans : Valves with face to face dimension of gate valve, as a alternative to gate valve. 53. What are ventury pattern plug valve? Ans : Change of section through the body throat so graded to have ventury effect, minimum pressure loss. 54. What are inverted plug design valve? Ans : Plug valve with taper portion up of plug. For 8 and higher size. 55. What is pressure balanced plug valve? Ans : With holes in port top and bottom connecting two chambers on top and bottom of plug, to reduce turning effort. 0 1 56. What are Teflon sleeved plug valve? Link Menu Translate Recent posts Random Share

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Ans : PTFE sleeve between plug and body of valve, low turning effort, minimum friction, temperature limitation, anti static design possible. 57. What are permasil plug valve? Ans : Plug valves with Teflon seat instead of sleeves, for on off applications, can handle clean viscous and corrosive liqiuids, Graphite seat for high temperature applications. Drip tight shut off not possible. 58. What are eccentric plug valve? Ans : Off center plug, corrosive and abrasive service, on off action, moves into and away from seat eliminating abrasive wear. 59. What is dimensional standard for plug valve? Ans : API 599. 60. What is pinch valve? Ans : Similar to diaphragm valve, with sleeves of rubber or PTFE, which get sqeezed to control or stop the flow, Cast iron body, for very low service pressures like isolation of hose connections, manufacture standard. 61. What is needle valve? Ans :Full pyramid disc, same design as globe valve, smaller sizes, sw or threaded, flow control, disc can be integral with stem, inside screw, borged or barstock body and bonnet, manufacturers standard. 62. How to install a globe valve ? Ans : Globe valve should be installed such that the flow is from the underside of the disk, Usually flow direction is marked on the globe valve. 63. What are globe valve port types? Ans : Full port: More than 85% of bore size, Reducer port: One size less than the connected pipe. 64. What are globe valve disk types? Ans :Flat faced type for positive shutoff, loose plug type for plug renewal or needle type for finer control. 65. What are characteristics of globe valve stem? Ans : Always rising design, with disk nut at the lower end and handwheel at upper end. 66. What are types of globe valve? Ans : Angle globe valve, plug type disc globe valve, wye-body globe valve, composite disc globe valve, double disc globe valve. 67. What is angle globe valve? 0 1 Ans : Ends at 90 degree to save Recent posts Link Menu Translate Random elbow, higher pressure drop. Share

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68. Where plug type disc globe valve is used? Ans : For severe regulating service with gritty liquids such as boiler feedwater and for blow off service. 69. Where WYE body globe valve is used ? Ans : In line ports with stem emerging at 45 degree, for erosive fluids due to smoother flow pattern. 70. What is double disc globe valve ? Ans : Has two discs bearing on separate seats spaced apart, on a single shaft, for low torque, used for control valves. 71. What are port types for gate valves? Ans : Full port and reduced port. Default is reduced bore. Full port has to be specified in bom. 72. How to close a gate valve ? Ans :Turn the handwheel in clockwise direction. 73. What is lantern ring? Ans : Its a collection point to drain off any hazardous seepages or as a point where lubricant can be injected, it is in the middle of packing rings. 74. What are types of gate valves? Ans : Solid plane wedge, solid flexible wedge, split wedge, double disc paralles seats, double disc wedge, single disc single seat gate or slide, single disc parallel seats, plug gate valve. 75. What are the types of bonnets? Ans : Bolted bonnet, bellow sealed bonnet, screwed on bonnet, union bonnets, A U-bolt and clamp type bonnet, breechlock bonnet, pressure seal bonnet. SEE ALSO: PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3) PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)

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PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)


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26. What is BlowDown Valve? Ans Refers to a plug type disc Share globe valve used for removing sludge and sedimentary matter from the bottom of boiler drums, vessels, driplegs etc. 27. What is Breather Valve? Ans: A special self acting valve installed on storage tanks etc. to release vapor or gas on slight increase of internal pressure ( in the region of to 3 ounces per square inch). 28. What is Drip Valve? Ans: A drain valve fitted to the bottom of a driplet to permit blowdown. 29. What is Flap Valve? Ans: A non return valve having a hinged disc or rubber or leather flap used for low pressure lines. 30. What is Hose Valve? Ans: A gate or globe valve having one of its ends externally threaded to one of the hose thread standards in use in the USA. These valves are used for vehicular and firewater connections. 31. What is Paper-Stock Valve? Ans: A single disc single seat gate valve (Slide gate) with knife edged or notched disc used to regulate flow of paper slurry or other fibrous slurry. 32. What is Root Valve? Ans: A valve used to isolate a pressure element or instrument from a line or vessel, or a valve placed at the beginning of a branch form the header. 33. What is Slurry valve? Ans: A knife edge valve used to control flow of non-abrasive slurries. 0 Random Share 34. What is Spiral sock valve?

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Ans: A valve used to control flow of powders by means of a Share twistable fabric tube or sock. 35. What is Throttling valve? Ans: Any valve used to closely regulate flow in the just-open position. 36. What is Vacuum breaker? Ans: A special self-acting valve or nay valve suitable for vacuum service, operated manually or automatically, installed to admit gas (usually atmospheric air) into a vacuum or low-pressure space. Such valves are installed on high points of piping or vessels to permit draining and sometimes to prevent siphoning. 37. What is Quick acting valve ? Ans: Any on/off valve rapidly operable, either by manual lever, spring or by piston, solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing a weight which in falling operates the valve. Quick acting valves are desirable in lines conveying flammable liquids. Unsuitable for water or for liquid service in general without a cushioning device to protect piping from shock. 38. What is diverting valve ? Ans : This valve switch flow from one main line to two different outlets. WYE type and pneumatic control type with no moving part. 39. What is sampling valve? Ans : Usually of needle or globe pattern, placed in branch line for the purpose of drawing all samples of process material thru the branch. 40. What are blow off valve? Ans : It is a variety of globe valve confirming with boiler code requirements and specially 0
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designed for boiler blowoff service. WYE Share pattern and angle type, used to remove air and other gases from boilers etc. 41. What is relief valve? Ans : Valve to relieve excess pressure in liquids in situations where full flow discharge is not required, when release of small volume of liquid would rapidly lower pressure. 42. What is safety valve? Ans : Rapid opening(popping action) full flow valve for air and other gases. 43. What is foot valve? Ans : Valve used to maintain a head of water on the suction side of sump pump, basically a lift check valve with integrated strainer. 44. What is float valve? Ans : Used to control liquid level in tanks, operated by float, which rises with liquid level and opens the valve to control water level. It can also remove air from system, in which case, air flows out of system in valve open condition, but when water reaches valve, float inside valve raises to close the valve and stop flow of water. Used in drip legs. 45. What are flush bottom valves? Ans : Special type of valves used to drain out the piping, reactors and vessels, attached on pad type nozzles. 46. What are types of flush bottom valves? Ans : Valves with discs opening into the tank and valves with disks into the valve. 0
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47. What are the uses of threeway valve? Share Ans : Alternate connection of the two supply lines to a common delivery vise versa, isolating one safety valve, division of flow with isolation facility. 48. What are uses of four way valve? Ans : Reversal of pump suction and delivery, By pass of strainer or meter, reversal of flow through filter, heat exchanger or dryer. 49. What is metal seated lubricated plug valve? Ans : A plug valve with no plastic material, where grease is applied to contacting surfaces for easy operation. 50. What are three patterns of plug valve design? Ans : Regular pattern, short pattern and ventury pattern. SEE ALSO: PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE VALVE (PART 1 OF 3) PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

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PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)


Posted by: ANTONY
Valve

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PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What are the steps in selection of valve? Ans : What to handle, liquid, gas or powder, fluid nature, function, construction material, disc type, stem type, how to operate, bonnet type, body ends, delivery time, cost, warranty. 2. What are functions of valves? Ans : Isolation, regulation, nonreturn and special purposes. 3. What are isolating valves? Ans : Gate, ball, plug, piston, diaphragm, butterfly, pinch. 4. What are regulation valves? Ans : Globe, needle, butterfly, diaphragm, piston, pinch. 5. What are non-return valves? Ans : check valve, 6. What are special valves? Ans : multi-port, flush bottom, float, foot, pressure relief, breather. 7. What materials are used for construction of valves? Ans : Cast iron, bronze, gun metal, carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy carbon steel, polypropylene and other plastics, special alloys. 8. What is trim? Ans : Trim is composed of stem, seat surfaces, back seat bushing and other small internal parts that normally contact the surface fluid. 9. Which standard specifies trim numbers for valve ? Ans : API 600. 10. What are wetted parts of valve? Ans : All parts that come in contact with surface fluid are called wetted parts. Share 0 Random

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11. What is wire drawing? Ans : This term is used to indicate Share the premature erosion of the valve seat caused by excessive velocity between seat and seat disc, when valve is not closed tightly. 12. What is straight through valve? Ans : Valve in which the closing operation of valve is achieved by 90degrees turn of the closing element. 13. What pressure tests are carried out on valves? Ans : Shell-hydrostatic, seathydrostatic, seat-pneumatic 14. What are available valve operators? Ans : Handlever, handwheel, chain operator, gear operator, powered operator likes electric motor, solenoid, pneumatic and hydraulic operators, Quick acting operators for non-rotary valves (handle lift). 15. What are two types of ball valve? Ans : Full port design and regular port design, according to type of seat, soft seat and metal seat. 16. What are ball valve body types? Ans : Single piece, double piece, three piece, the short pattern, long pattern, sandwitch and flush bottom design. 17. Why ball valves are normally flanged? Ans : Because of soft seat PTFE which can damage during welding. 18. What are butterfly valve types? Ans : Double flange type, wafer lug type and wafer type. 19. What are types of check valve? Ans : Lift check valves and swing check valves. 0
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20. What are non-slam check valves? Share Ans : Swing check valve, conventional check valve, wafer check valve, tilting disc check valve, piston check valve, stop check valve, ball check valve. 21. Where stop check valve is used ? Ans : In stem generation by multiple boilers, where a valve is inserted between each boiler and the main steam header. It can be optionally closed automatically or normally. 22. Where diaphragm valves are used ? Ans : Used for low pressure corrosive services as shut off valves. 23. What is Barstock Valve? Ans: Any valve having a body machined from solid metal (barstock). Usually needle or globe type. 24. What is BIBB Valve? Ans: A small valve with turned down end, like a faucet. 25. What is Bleed Valve? Ans: Small valve provided for drawing off liquid. SEE ALSO: PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE VALVE (PART 2 OF 3) PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

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PIPE RACK / WAYS & RACK PIPING Training

23

mar Posted by: ANTONY in Download, PDF Download, Pipe Support, Piping Book, Piping Hand Book, Piping Questions, Site Map

INTRODUCTION PIPE RACK Pipe Rack design criteria Shapes Future Space Width of Pipe Rack Clearance Pipe Rack Loading RACK PIPING Positions of Lines (Process & Utilities) Hot Lines & Cold Lines Bigger Size Lines Pipe Spacing Anchor Bay Unit Battery Limit Expansion Loops Pipe Route Trays Download the file
Technorati Tags: Pipe Rack,Rack Piping,pipe rack deisgn,width of pipe rack,expansion loops,pipe route
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VALVE & PIPING Training Book

23

mar Posted by: ANTONY in Download, PDF Download, Piping Book, Piping Design system, Piping Hand Book, Piping Questions, Site Map

Introduction Piping materials: Metallic & Non-metallic Metallic piping manufacturing process Pipes specification: Pipe size :Dimensions & Schedule Numbers Pipe fittings: Types & functions of fittings Pipe connections: Threading, welding, flanges Gasket Piping symbols & drawing Hydrostatic testing VALVE AND PIPING PIPING Contents Piping coating & insulation Pipe Supports & restraints Maintenance of piping system

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ProEngineer Piping Fittings in Wildfire 3.0


Posted by: ANTONY in Piping Questions, Site Map, Software Tutorial

12
mar

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Pro Engineer Piping Fitting in Wildfire

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Piping Stress Related Design Factors

11

mar Posted by: ANTONY in Pipe Support, Piping Book, Piping Hand Book, Piping Questions, Process plant Layout, Site Map, Stress training

There are five basic factors that influence piping and therefore piping stress in the process plant. There is temperature, pressure, weight, force and vibration. These factors will come in many forms and at different times. Stress problems become all the more
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complex because two or more of these will exist at the same time in the same piping system. The main objective of the focus when dealing with problems related to piping systems is not normally the pipe itself. In a very high percentage of the time it is not the pipe that is the weakest link. Note this: the pipe is normally stronger and/or less vulnerable to damage than what the pipe is connected to. Pumps are just one examples of equipment to which pipes are routinely connected. Misalignment problems caused by expansion (or contraction) in a poorly designed system can result in major equipment failure. Equipment failures can lead to the potential for fire, plant shutdown and loss of revenue. At this point it should be emphasized that the success (or failure) of the plants operation, years down the road can and will depend on what is done up front by all the members of the design team during the design stage. An important point to remember, While analysis cannot create a good design, it can confirm a good design (Improved Pump Load Evaluation, Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1998, By: David W. Diehl, COADE Engineering Software, Inc Houston, TX). On the other hand, proper analysis will identify bad design and potential problems in a piping system design.

Stress Related Design Factors


Temperatures in piping systems may range from well over 1000 F (537.8 C) on the high side to below -200 F (-128.8 C) on the low side. Each extreme on the temperature scale and everything in between brings its own problems. There will also be times when both high and low temperatures can occur in the same piping system. An example of this would be in piping that is installed in an arctic environment. The piping is installed outdoors where it is subjected to -100 F (-73.3 C) over the arctic winter. Six to nine months later it is finally commissioned started up and may operate at five or six hundred degrees. The problems that temperature causes is expansion (or contraction) in the piping system. Expansion or contraction in a piping system is an absolute. No matter what the designer or the stress engineer does they cannot prevent the action caused by heat or cold. Expansion or contraction in a piping system it self is not so much a problem. As we all know if a bare pipe was just lying on the ground in the middle of a dry barren desert it will absorb a lot of heat from just solar radiation. In the hot sun piece of pipe can reached 150 F (65.5 C). The pipe will expand and with both ends loose it would not be a problem. However, when you connect the pipe to something, even if only one end is connected you may begin to have expansion related problems. When the pipe is
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anchored or connected to something at both ends you absolutely will have expansion induced problems. Expansion induced problems in a piping system is stress. There are a Share number of ways to handle expansion in piping systems. Flexible routing is the first and by far the cheapest and safest method for handling expansion in piping systems. The other way is the use of higher cost and less reliable flexible elements such as expansion joints. Stress will exist in every piping system. If not identified and the proper action taken, stress will cause failure to equipment or elements in the piping system itself. Stress results in forces at equipment nozzles and at anchor pipe supports. Two piping configurations with the same pipe size, shape, dimensions, temperature and material but with different wall schedules (sch. 40 vs. sch. 160) will not generate the same stress. Force in piping systems is not independent of the other factors. Primarily, force (as related to piping systems) is the result of expansion (temperature) and/or pressure acting on a piping configuration that is too stiff. This may cause the failure of a pipe support system or it may cause the damage or failure of a piece of equipment. Force, and the expansion that causes it, is best handled by a more flexible routing of the piping. Some people suggest that force can be reduced by the use of expansion joints. However we must remember that for an expansion joint to work there must be an opposite and equal force at both ends to make the element work. This tends to compound the problem rather than lessen it. Pressure in piping systems also range from the very high to the very low. Piping systems with pressure as high as 35,000 psi in some plants are not unusual. On the other hand piping systems with pressures approaching full vacuum are also not unusual. The pressure (or lack of) in a piping system effects the wall thickness of the pipe. When you increase the wall thickness of the pipe you do two things. First, you increase the weight of the pipe. Second, you increase the stiffness of the pipe thus the stress intensification affecting forces. Increasing the wall thickness of the pipe is the primary method of compensating for increases in pressure. Other ways, depending on many factors include changing to a different material. With low or vacuum systems there are also other ways to prevent the collapse of the pipe wall. Among these the primary method is the addition of stiffening rings. Stiffing rings may be added internally or externally depending on the commodity type and the conditions. Weight in a piping system is expressed normally as dead load. The weight of a piping system at any given point is made up of many elements. These include the weight of the pipe, the fittings, the valves, any attachments, and the insulation. There is also the test media (e. g. hydrotest water) or the process commodity whichever has the greater specific gravity. Piping systems are heavy, period. Everybody involved in the project needs to understand this and be aware that this weight exists and it needs to be supported. Ninety-nine times out of a hundred this weight will be supported from a structural pipe support (primary pipe support system) of some kind. However there are times when the piping (weight) is supported from a vessel or other type of equipment. Vibrations will also occur in piping systems and come in two types. There is the basic mechanical vibration caused by the machines that the piping is connected to. Then, there is acoustic (or harmonic) vibration caused by the characteristics of the system itself. Typically the only place severe vibrations will be found is in piping connected to equipment such as positive displacement reciprocating pumps or high pressure multistage reciprocating compressors and where there is very high velocity gas flows.
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Author:James O. Pennock is a former Piper with more than 45 years experience covering process plant engineering, design, training, pipe fabrication and construction. Share He is now retired and lives in Florida, USA.

Original from http://www.pipingdesigners.com/

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Piping Designer - Stress Training


Posted by: ANTONY
training

11

mar in Pipe Support, Piping Book, Piping Questions, Site Map, Stress

Piping Designer Stress Training


What does the piping designer need to know? Piping design is more than just knowing how to turn on the computer, how to find the piping menus and the difference between paper space and model space. So, appropriately, what else does the designer need to know about piping design besides how to connect a piece of pipe to a fitting? Here is a list of some of the most basic of things that a good piping designer should know. Thinking about every one of these items should be as natural as breathing for a good piping designer. Allowable pipe spans All designer need to know and understand the span in the different schedules for aRandom wide varietyShare of common piping 0 1 capabilities of pipe Translate Link Menu Recent posts

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materials. When a new project introduces a new material with severely reduced span capabilities; supplemental training may be required. Expansion of pipe All designers must understand that they need to treat a piping system as though it is alive. It has a temperature and that temperature causes it to grow and move. That growth and movement must be allowed for and incorporated in the overall design. Not just of that specific line but for all other lines close by. The process of expansion in a pipe or group of pipes will also exert frictional forces or anchor forces on the pipe supports they come in contact with. Routing for flexibility The piping designer must understand how to route pipe for flexibility. Routing for flexibility can normally be achieved in the most natural routing of the pipeline from its origin to its terminus. Routing for flexibility means (a) do not run a pipe in a straight line from origin to terminus and (b) building flexibility into the pipe routing is far cheaper and more reliable than expansion joints. Weight and loads (live loads and dead loads) The piping designer needs to understand the effects of weight and loading. They need to know and understand that everything has a weight. They need to be able recognize when there is going to be a concentrated load. They need to have access to basic weight tables for all the standard pipe schedules, pipe fittings, flanges, valves for steel pipe. They also need to have the weight tables for other materials or a table of correction factors for these other materials vs. carbon steel. They need to be able to recognize when downward expansion in a piping system is present and is adding live loads to a support or equipment nozzle. Equipment piping The piping designer needs to know the right and the wrong way to pipe up (connect pipe to) different kinds of equipment. This includes pumps, compressors, exchangers, filters or any special equipment to be used on a specific project. Vessel piping The piping designer also needs to understand about the connecting, supporting and guiding of piping attached to vessels (horizontal or vertical) and tanks. They need to know that nozzle loading is important and does have limitations. Rack piping The designer needs to understand that there is a logical approach to the placement of piping in (or on) a pipe rack. It does not matter how wide or how high the rack or what kind of plant, the logic still applies. Starting from one or both outside edges 0 1 the largest and hottest lines are Recent posts in such a manner that allows for the nesting Link Menu Translate Random Share sequenced

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of any required expansion loops. The spacing of the lines must also allow for the bowing effect at the loops caused by the expansion.
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Expansion loops The designer needs to understand and be able to use simple rules and methods for sizing loops in rack piping. This should include the most common sizes, schedules and materials. Cold spring/Pre-spring Designers should understand the basics rules of cold spring and pre-spring. They need to understand what each one is along with when to and when not to use each.

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Introduction to LNG
Posted by: ANTONY
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23
feb

in Download, Piping Book, Piping Questions, Site Map, Zip

This Presentation covers the basics of LNG. and lot of questions are answered. For Sample initial few pages are pasted below. What is LNG? LNG is natural gas which has been condensed by cooling to approximately -160 C and is stored at atmospheric pressure. Why liquefy natural gas?
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Converting natural gas to a liquid reduces its volume by Share about 600 to 1. Liquefying natural gas makes it feasible to transport by tanker and to store it in preparation for regasification and delivery to markets.

What is Acid Gas?

Acid gases are those that produce acids when dissolved in water and include both CO2 and H2S.

Note: Sour Gas is a gas stream containing significant quantities of H2S or CO2 or both.

For Download Click here


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Piping Info Site Map


Download

21

feb Posted by: ANTONY in Download, PDF Download, Pipe Support, Piping Book, Piping Design system, Piping Hand Book, Piping Questions, Process plant Layout, Site Map, Zip

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1. Pipe Support Design and Standards 2. Piping Hand Book Data

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3. Design of Piping Systems-MW Kellogg 4. Piping Hand Book - Mohinder L. Nayyar 5. Process Plant Layout and Piping Design-Roger Hunt 6. PIPING QUIZ & ANSWERS 7. Piping Questions and Answers 8. Piping Quiz 9. Chemical Industries Definition Book 10. Engineer's Hand Book 11. Engineering Reference Excel Book 12. Introduction to LNG 13. Pipes, Flanges and Fittings Dimensions in Excel 14. Piping Slide Chart PDMS Commands Piping Components - Explanation PDMS Latest Commands

Technorati Tags: Piping Material,Download piping material,ebook,pdf download,Excel download,Pipe fittings,Piping quiz,Piping hand book,Piping data book,Chemical defiition book,engineering reference

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Piping Quiz
Posted by: ANTONY
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16
feb in Download, PDF Download, Piping Book, Piping Questions, Site

Piping Quiz... Useful piping quiz

What should be the radius of long radius elbow? Answer: 1.5D (Where D is the diameter of the pipe) Normally where do we use the following? i. Eccentric reducers ii)Concentric reducers Answer: i. Eccentric reducers = Pump suction to avoid Cavitation, To maintain elevation (BOP) in rack. ii. Concentric reducers = Pump discharge, vertical pipeline etc. Concentric reducer is used in pump suction. (Yes / No). Explain. Answer: No. Air pockets may form if concentric reducer is used at pump suction, which results in
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Cavitation, and cause damage to Pump. To avoid this problem, Eccentric Reducer with Flat Side Up (FSU)is used in Pump Suction.
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Go to following link and download the file http://tinyurl.com/cws2fj

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Piping Questions and Answers PIPING QUIZ & ANSWERS

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Piping Questions and Answers


Posted by: ANTONY in PDF Download, Piping Questions, Site Map

16
feb

Much awaited PIPING QUESTIONAIRE Pls follow the link and download the PIPING QUESTIONAIRE pdf file. http://tinyurl.com/bbmfyg For example: 1. What is the ASME code followed for design of piping systems in Process piping (Refineries 0 1 & Chemical Industries)? Link Menu Translate Recent posts Random Share

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(i) B 31.1 (ii) B 31.3 (iii) B 31.5 (iv) B 31.9 Answer (II) 2. Which American institute standard does piping engineer refer? Answer: A. The American Petroleum institute (API). B. The American Iron & Steel institute (AISI). C. The American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM). D. The American National standard institute (AISI). E. The American welding society (AWS). F. The American Water Works Association (AWWA). G. The American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 3. What is the different ASME 31 code for pressure piping? Answer: A. ASME B31.1 - Power piping. B. ASME B31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping. C. ASME B31.3 - Process piping. D. ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation system for liquid hydrocarbon & other liquid. E. ASME B31.5 - Refrigeration Piping. F. ASME B31.8 - Gas transmission & distribution piping system. G. ASME B31.9 - Building services piping. H. ASME B31.11 - Slurry transportation piping system. 4. What are the different sections of ASME code? Where these sections are reffered? Answer: A. ASME section I : - Rules for construction of power boiler. B. ASME Section II : - Materials. Part A Ferrous materials. Part B Non-Ferrous materials. Part C Specification for electrodes & filler wire. Part D Properties. C. ASME Section IV : - Rules for construction of Heating Boiler. D. ASME Section V : - Non- destructive Examination. E. ASME Section VI : - Recommended rules for care & operation of heating boiler. F. ASME Section VII : - Recommended guidelines for care of power boiler.
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H. ASME Section VIII : - Rules for construction of pressure vessels. (Division I & II) I. ASME Section IX : - Welding & Brazing qualification.
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There are lot of questions and answers are available. Please make use of it.

See also PIPING QUIZ & ANSWERS

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PIPING QUIZ & ANSWERS


Posted by: ANTONY in Piping Questions, Site Map

16
feb
Piping QA FLUOR DANIEL PIPING QUIZ & ANSWERS

Piping QA 1. What is the pipe size range, per Fluor Daniel standard, for pipe spools that are to be shop fabricated? 3 diameter and larger <2.1/2 and larger>
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2. What is the pipe size range, per Fluor Daniel standard, for pipe spools that are to be field fabricated?
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2 diameter and smaller 3. Define what piping is considered field assembly. Off-the-shelf components that make-up a piping assembly and do not require cutting and / or welding <If no field fabrication is required> 4. Define what piping is considered rack loaded, per Fluor Daniel standard, and what pipe size ranges is involved. Piping in the PIPERACK that crosses two or more supports. 3 and larger. 5. All shop fabricated piping spools (mark pieces) are shipped from the fabrication shop in a geometry that is defined by length, width, and height. Assuming it to be a box, there are two situations that you must avoid in regard to the box and the mark pieces within. Describe these two situations and describe the undesirable result if you do not avoid them. Piece mark must fit within the shipping box otherwise it may not be transported. Skewed placement of the piece mark within the shipping box could result in crowding out other piece marks. <Press fit should be avoided to ensure piece mark fits shipping box> 6. Define a field weld (FW) and when it is used. Field Weld is made somewhere other than the fabrication shop. Used to connect two mark pieces (or components) together. Describe three things you must consider when locating a field weld and why they must be considered. Accessibility: The weld must be in a place that is accessible to the welder Constructability: The weld must be placed so the constructors can position the piece mark prior to welding. Size of spool piece to ensure it fits shipping box and can be transported. Economics: Made in a location that would lessen or eliminate the need for additional scaffolding.
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Piping QA
Share Self-supporting so temporary supports are not required during construction.

Made on the smaller side of a reducer. Preferably made in the horizontal 8. Describe a field fit-up weld (FFW) and when it is used. Field Fit Weld is a weld made somewhere other than the fabrication shop. The fabrication shop adds additional length of material to the spool piece. This additional length gives the field variance for adjustment when the location of the connecting point is not known. <May require field alteration> 9. Per Fluor Daniel standard, what is the construction (fitting type) of: Pipe size range 2 and larger? Butt-weld Pipe size range 2 and smaller? Socket Welded Pipe size range 2 and smaller? Screwed or Threaded 10. What is the minimum (not absolute minimum) distance between welds that Fluor Daniel likes to use? 3 inches 11. What is the absolute minimum distance between welds (used only as a last choice)? Pipe Size (NPS) Min. distance b/w welds 1/8 3/16 1 /4 1/4 3/8" 5/16 1/2" 7/16 3/4" 1/2 1" 11/16 1 1/4" 13/16 1 1/2" 15/16 2" 1 3/16 2 1/2" 1 9/16 3" 1 3/4
1

3 1/2" 2

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4" 2 1/4 5" 2 3/4 Half the outside diameter of pipe (6 and larger) 12. What do the letters HAZ mean? Heat Affected Zone Kavimagi Page 3 of 13 13. What is the effect of the HAZ? Weakens the material (pipe wall) Piping QA 14. How far from the weld, is the HAZ? or 1 15. Why do piping designers care about the HAZ? If two HAZs overlap each other it may result in failure of the pipe 16. When is the HAZ considered in threaded construction? When threaded connection is seal welded 17. What are the pressure ratings of forged steel Socket Weld Fittings? 3000# 6000# 18. What are the pressure ratings of forged steel threaded fittings? 2000# 3000# 6000# 19. What are the pressure ratings of malleable iron threaded Fittings? 150# 300# 20. What are the pressure ratings of cast iron threaded fittings? 125# 250# List the wall thickness for pipe, starting with the thinnest wall to the heaviest wall: Carbon Steel & Alloy steel (13 schedules)
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Sch 10, Sch 20, Sch 30, Sch 40, Std Wt, Sch 60, Sch 80, XS, Sch 100, Sch 120, Sch 140, Sch 160, XXS Stainless Steel (4 schedules) Sch 5S, Sch 10S, Sch 40S, Sch 80S Piping QA 22. What is the technical term used for the sag in pipe caused by gravity and how does affect piping design? Deflection It govern the amount of pipe span <causes leakage at flanges> <causes stress on pipe> 23. If one 4 carbon steel pipe is schedule 40 and another 4 carbon steel pipe is schedule 80. Which has the greater sag and why? 4" sch 40 has the greater sag because its wall thickness is less than the wall thickness of the sch 80 - the thinner the wall, the shorter the length the line will span.
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Which weighs more and why?


Share 4" sch 80 because it's wall thickness is more than that of the sch 40, more material= more weight

Which requires fewer support point and why? 4" sch 80 because it's thicker wall allows it to span farther, reducing the number of times support is needed. <more rigid / stiffer> 24. Pipeway/Piperack loading/stuffing drawings. Which lines qualify for loading/stuffing Lines 3" and larger that cross two or more pipe supports. Why is loading/stuffing done (the advantages)? It provides an early start for construction. It reduces the amount of ground area taken by storage of pipe 25. Line size changes When is swage used for a line size change? When reducing from or to socket welded or threaded construction on at least one end. When is a butt-weld reducer used for a line size change? When reducing from or to butt welded construction on both ends. When/where do you use eccentric, bottom flat swages or reducers and why? In any horizontal run of pipe, that has two or more supports within that run. To maintain a common bottom of pipe elevation for the two line sizes. When/where do you use eccentric, top flat swages or reducers and why? Used at the final reduction on a pump end suction line. Piping QA To prevent cavitation of the pump. When/where do you use eccentric, side flat swages or reducers and why? Used when two equipment connections are so close that the two connecting, adjacent lines interfere with each other after the line size change. If they are side flat toward each other, the lines may clear.
1

<Used on vertical pipe to maintain common back of pipe>


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When do you use butt-weld reducing 90 degree elbows and why?


Share Normally it is not FLUOR piping practice to use reducing butt-weld 90 degree reducing elbows.

If they are used, it will be where a size change is required and there is insufficient space available for an elbow and a reducer or an elbow and a reducing flange - or if the client requires it. Why would a short radius butt-weld 90-degree ell be used? To adhere to FLUOR piping practice 000 250 2650 where it states 10" and larger elbows at a nozzle of a vertical vessel are short radius (decreases the "l" dimension so a standard vessel pipe support can be used). <Space limitations> Why would a short radius butt-weld 90-degree ell not be used? It is easy to "lose" a short radius elbow if shipped to the jobsite or fabrication shop with long radius elbows of the same size. Additional tracking effort may result to keep the short radius elbow from being "lost" or used inadvertently where it was not intended to be used. Often the use of a short radius elbow requires client approval, or process review, or stress approval - all taking time that would not be taken for a long radius elbow. <when pressure drop is a concern short radius elbow has more pressure drop. 26. What is a trimmed ell and when is it used? A trimmed elbow is a butt weld 90 degree long radius elbow that is cut and beveled to match the original bevel, the resulting change of direction is no longer 90 degrees but is a non-standard angle suited for the piping geometry requiring it. Trimmed elbows are used when a line routing must have a change of direction that is not satisfied by a 90 or 45-degree elbow or by elbows being rolled or offset. Describe a stub-on connection and when it is used? A stub-on connection is a branch connection made to a header without the use of fittings - the connection is made from pipe. the branch pipe is contoured (fish -mouthed) to match the curvature of the header to which it will be connected (a fillet weld). A hole is made in the header that should match the inside diameter of the branch pipe. The stub-on connection is not the same construction as a Piping QA stub-in connection - but the resulting geometry is the same as a stub-on. Stubon connections are generally 90 degree, but can be other angles.
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28. Describe a stub-in connection and when it is used? Fluor piping does not use the stub-in construction. A stub-in connectionShare is the same as a stub-on connection as far as the resulting geometry and material goes, but the construction is different. The branch pipe may or may not be contoured to match the inside diameter of the header - if it is not, then it is a straight cut. The header will have a hole cut in it that nearly matches the outside diameter of the branch pipe. The branch pipe is inserted into the hole in the header and is connected via a fillet weld. Like the stub-on, the stub-in is generally 90 degree and other angles are possible. Client request 29. Describe a reinforcing pad and when it is used? Reinforcing pads are made from the same size, wall thickness and material as the pipe header to which they are welded. Reinforcing pads are used at stub-on and stub-in branch connections and occasionally at support trunnions when specified by the stress sketch, if required per the line list or if required per the branch chart in the piping material specification. 30. What document (name and 5-diget number) does a piping designer refer to determine what branch connection to use? Piping material specification 31. What are the two documents (not specifications) that will tell a piping designer when branch reinforcement is required? Stress sketch Line list <Branch chart> 32. What is the pipe size range in which all flanges are standard? 24 inch and smaller 33. What is the pipe size range in which all flanges are not? 26 inch and larger List the information to be placed on the isometric that will fully describe a non-standard flange and what is the reason we would include this information? Reason for including the information. To guarantee, without failure, the flanges are compatible. Information to be placed on ISO. Piping QA
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ANSI number or other industry number (API, MSS) Size Rating Facing Outside diameter of flange Bolt circle diameter Bolt hole diameter Number of bolt holes Flange bore Material Bolt hole orientation Flange thickness 35. What facing is required on a steel flange that will be bolted to a cast iron flange and why? Flat Face There is a risk of breaking the cast iron flange if it is bolted to a raised face steel flange. 36. What are two pressure ratings of cast iron flanges and what are the ratings of compatible steel flanges? 125# Cast iron to 150# steel, 250# cast iron to 300# steel. 37. How is cast iron flange attached to steel pipe? The flange is threaded on. 38. What are two reasons for using lap joint construction? To reduce the cost of components - a less expensive carbon steel flange may be used in lieu of a stainless steel flange. Flange can be rotated to aid in bolthole alignment. 39. What fitting (not flange) must be used in lap joint construction and what are the names of two the types of these fittings? Stub end <Lap joint stub end> ANSI & MSS
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40. What is the difference between a van stone flange and a slip on flange? The shape of the contact point where the face of flange contacts the lip Share of the stub end is rounded on the van stone flange and is square on the slip on flange. 41. In lap joint construction, how many welds are on a slip flange? Zero. In lap joint construction, how many welds are on a van stone flange? Zero. Piping QA 43. List the types of steel flanges. Weld neck Slip on Threaded Socket welded Van stone Reducing Expanding Blind <Lap joint> <Orifice> <Slip on reducing> 44. List the faces of steel flanges. Raised face Flat face Ring joint Tongue and groove Male & Female 45. List the ratings of steel flanges. 150# 300#
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400# 600# 900# 1500# 2500# 46. How are flange boltholes oriented on flanges on vertical line? Boltholes straddle the north-south-east-west flange centerlines 47. How are flange boltholes oriented on flanges on horizontal line? Boltholes straddle the vertical and horizontal flange centerlines Valves are used for three basic flow functions (not control valves or pressure safety valves). List three functions and the type of valve used for each function. Function BLOCK THROTTLE CHECK <Start / stop> <prevent back flow> Type GATE/BALL/PLUG/BUTTERFLY <needle> BLOCK GLOBE <plug or butterfly or needle> THROTTLE CHECK CHECK Piping QA 49. What are the two styles of butterfly valves in flanged piping and their associated type of bolt? A. WAFER - STUD BOLT/MACHINE BOLT B. LUG TYPE - CAP SCREW 50. What are the two main styles of check valves in flanged piping and their associated type of bolt? A. SWING - STUD BOLT/MACHINE BOLT B. WAFER/SPLIT DISC - STUD BOLT/MACHINE BOLT 51. Not using a ladder or platform, how is a valve operated that is: Too high - CHAIN OPERATOR Too low - EXTENSION STEM
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52. What is the minimum clearance between the outside diameter of a valve hand wheel and the next obstruction?
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Three inches 53. If a valve hand wheel projects into an aisle way, to what elevation must the bottom of the hand wheel be raised above HPFS (High Point Finished Surface) or platform? 6'-6" plus or minus 3" (6'-3" to 6'-9") 54. What manually operated item is added to a valve that is either to large or is to high a pressure to operate and how do you know it will be required (give the name of the specification)? - A GEAR OPERATOR - MATERIAL SPECIFICATION 55. If a pressure safety valve has a block vale upstream of it, what note must appear on the P&ID relating to this block valve and why? CSO (car sealed open) or LO (locked open). To help ensure that the valve is open during normal plant operation so that if a condition resulting in overpressurization occurs, the valve is open and the relief valve can function properly. 56. If a pressure safety valve downstream of it, what note must appear on the P&ID relating to this block valve and why? CSO (car sealed open) or LO (locked open) To help ensure that the valve is open during normal plant operation so that if a condition resulting in overpressurization occurs, the valve is open and the relief valve can function properly. 57. The piping downstream of a pressure safety valve that discharges to a closed system must be routed in a specific direction, what is this direction and why? Routed in such a manner as to free drain into the collection header. So no liquid can collect and possibly obstruct the free release of pressure. Piping QA 58. If a pressure safety valve has a downstream block valve, excluding accessibility, how is the vale hand wheel to be oriented and why? The handwheel is to be located within the lower 180 degrees - horizontal to horizontal. <horizontal or downward> This is to prevent the disc falling into the port if the stem corrodes - thereby closing the valve and preventing the free release of pressure. 59. If a pressure safety valve has a rupture disc upstream, what is the purpose of the rupture disc?
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The rupture disc isolates the relief valve from the potentially corrosive atmosphere of the system to be protected - protecting the stem from corrosion.
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60. When a pressure safety valve discharges vertically to atmosphere, what must be added to the lowest part of the tail pipe, what size is it and why is it added? A weep hole. 1/4" diameter To drain the collection of rain water in the open tailpipe that if allowed to collect could obstruct the free release of pressure 61. What is the end preparation for the end tailpipe of a pressure safety valve discharging vertically to atmosphere and why? Square cut/plain end There is no need to bevel or 45-degree chamfer because it is unnecessary cost. 62. What is the formula for calculating the free standing (unguided) length of a tailpipe of a pressure safety valve discharging vertically to atmosphere? 1.67 x outside diameter (in inches) of the Tail Pipe = the height in feet. 63. If a pressure safety valve has a small, valved and plugged connection in the area between the block valve and the pressure safety valve, describe the purpose and operation of this valve. For bleeding pressure and venting any trapped commodity so, the relief valve can be safely removed for maintenance. 64. Per Fluor Daniel Standard, what is the rule for establishing the height of a tailpipe of a pressure safety valve that discharges to atmosphere? The top of a tailpipe discharging to atmosphere must be a minimum of 8'-0" above any platform within a 25'-0" radius of the tailpipe. 65. The spring on a pressure safety valve must be oriented in which direction and why? Vertically upward. To keep the spring out of any liquid that could corrode the spring. Piping QA 66. Cooling water piping at the channel side of a shell and tube heat exchanger that is located outside in the sunlight will typically have a THERMAL RELIEF VALVE located between the exchanger nozzle and the block valve. Why is this done? To protect the tubes of the exchanger from splitting due to overpressurization of the system when the valves upstream and downstream of the exchanger are closed. Sunlight can cause a temperature rise of the trapped liquid, causing a rise in pressure.
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67. What is the most common body style for control valves? Globe
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68. In a control valve manifold with block valves upstream and downstream of the control valve, what is placed between the upstream block valve and the control valve and what is its purpose? 3/4" valved & plugged bleed valve. To drain and depressurize the volume of trapped liquid for the safe removal of the control valve for maintenance. 69. If a control valve manifold has a bypass line what is the distance between the bypass valve and the main line and why? Minimum distance. To prevent a dead leg in the bypass line. 70. What is the minimum clearance between the top of the diaphragm on a control valve and the nearest obstruction above it? 1-0 (12 inches) 71. In a control valve manifold with upstream and down stream block valves A. What is the breakout spool piece for? Easy removal of the control valve. B. What is the preferred configuration of the breakout spool piece and why? Preferred configuration is with an elbow. It is easier to remove than a straight spool piece that requires a flange spreader. The "l" shape allows gravity to aid in its removal. 72. Who determines the size of the control valve? Process 73. Who determines the size of the bypass valve? Process Who determines the upstream and downstream block valves? Process Piping QA 75. If you are establishing the overall length of a control valve main fold for allocation of space and you do not have a vendor drawing giving the face to face dimension of the control valve, what valve will you use as a substitute face to face dimension (assume the control valve is 6-3003RF)?
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A 6"-300# GLOBE VALVE OR PIPING PRACTICE 000 250 2701 <17 inches>
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76. When a control valve and its downstream block valve are the same size and rating, they can be bolted together. What possible problem can occur when these two valves are bolted together? The handwheel of the block valve may interfere with the topworks of the control valve. Also give me two solutions that could correct the problem. If the boltholes permit - rotate the block valve so the interference is gone. Add two flanges back to back, and, if necessary add a spool piece to give the necessary clearances. <place valve in the vertical> 77. There are three things that establish the height of a valued drain (bottom of drain top of finished surface). One thing that sets this height is Fluor Daniel standard (6), what are two others? Clearance for rodding out the drain. Clearance required for the addition of a bucket to catch the liquid. 78. What are two industry terms when a threaded connection is also welded? Seal welding Back welding 79. What must be used on a threaded connection if it is to receive the weld referred to in question 69, and why should it not be used? Thread compound or "pipe dope." If thread compound/pipe dope is present and the connection is to be seal welded, the heat could cause a small explosion, injuring the welder.

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