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ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESK-BASED STUDY Client THOMAS ENTERPRISES INC.

Project 10 TRINITY SQUARE LONDON

ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESK-BASED STUDY Client THOMAS ENTERPRISES INC. Project 10 TRINITY SQUARE LONDON

National Grid Reference: 533450 180800

Project Manager Reviewed by Author Graphics

Sophie Jackson Jon Chandler Rupert Featherby Carlos Lemos Judit Peresztegi

Museum of London Archaeology Museum of London 2008


Mortimer Wheeler House, 46 Eagle Wharf Road, London N1 7ED tel 020 7410 2200 fax 020 7410 2201 molas@museumoflondon.org.uk www.musemoflondonarchaeology.org.uk

Archaeological desk-based assessment MoLAS 2006

Contents
Summary (non-technical) ........................................................................................................ 1 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5 5.1 5.2 6 6.1 6.2 7 8 9 9.1 9.2 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 2 Origin and scope of the report .......................................................................................... 2 Site status .......................................................................................................................... 2 Aims and objectives.......................................................................................................... 2 Methodology and sources consulted ................................................................................ 3 Legislative and planning framework ............................................................................... 4 National planning policy guidance ................................................................................... 4 Regional guidance: The London Plan............................................................................... 4 Archaeology and planning in the City of London ............................................................ 5 Archaeological and historical background...................................................................... 7 Site location, topography and geology ............................................................................. 7 Overview of past archaeological investigations ............................................................... 7 Chronological summary.................................................................................................... 8 Archaeological potential.................................................................................................. 12 Factors affecting archaeological survival ....................................................................... 12 Archaeological potential ................................................................................................. 13 Impact of proposals ......................................................................................................... 14 Proposals......................................................................................................................... 14 Implications .................................................................................................................... 14 Conclusions and recommendations................................................................................ 15 Gazetteer of selected archaeological sites and finds ..................................................... 16 Bibliography..................................................................................................................... 24 Published and documentary sources ............................................................................... 24 Cartographic sources: historic maps ............................................................................... 25

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Figures
Cover: the PLA building from the south (picture provided by the architects) Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Site location Selected archaeological sites in the area The site in the south-east part of Roman London The site and its environs on the Historic Towns Atlas map of medieval London (1989) The site and its environs on the Agas woodcut map of London, c 1570 (Guildhall Library) Tower Hill and the scaffold, from Wyngaerdes panorama of about 1540 (Ashmolean Museum) Extract from Ogilby and Morgans map (1676) showing the site and its environs (Guildhall Library) The Navy Office in 1714 Extract from Rocques map (17467) showing the site and its environs (Guildhall Library)

Fig 10 Extract from Horwoods map (1819), showing the site and its environs (Guildhall Library) Fig 11 Ordnance Survey 1st edition 5:mile map of 1870 (not to scale) Fig 12 Goad map of 1880s showing distribution and depth of 19th century basements across the site (Guildhall Library) Fig 13 Photograph looking eastwards along the southern edge of the site during the demolition of Catherine Court prior to the construction of the PLA building Fig 14 Ordnance Survey 3rd edition 25:mile map of 1920 (not to scale) Fig 15 Plan of PLA building basement (PLA archive) Fig 16 Sections of PLA building showing basements and foundations (PLA archive) Fig 17 Plan of existing sub-basements within the PLA building Fig18 Plan of proposed basement (Woods Bagot A011, P1, Nov 06)

Note: site outlines may appear differently on some figures owing to distortions in historic maps. North is approximate on early maps.

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Summary (non-technical)
Woods Bagot has commissioned the Museum of London Archaeology Service (MoLAS) to carry out an archaeological desk-based assessment of proposed development at 10 Trinity Square. The development proposal comprises the adaptation of the building for a hotel. The site to be assessed comprises two adjacent parts: 10 Trinity Square, the former Port of London Authority (PLA) building of 1922 including the area of Seething Lane Gardens to the west. The PLA building lies within the City of London. This desk-based assessment forms an initial stage of archaeological investigation of the area of proposed development and may be required at a future date in relation to the planning process in order that the local authority can formulate appropriate responses in the light of any identified archaeological resource Prior to the construction of 10 Trinity Square, the site would have had moderate potential to contain archaeological remains dated to the Roman, Saxon, medieval and post-medieval periods. An ancient stream channel, pre-dating the Roman occupation, may have clipped the northwest corner of the site. The most significant archaeological structures on or adjacent to the site area consist of a 3rd century Roman building excavated to the east of the PLA building at and Wrens Navy Office which once stood beneath the northern part of the site. The presence of the Roman and medieval City Wall, the 11th century Tower of London, and the 14th century House of the Crutched Friars will all have influenced the character of development in the area. The desk-based assessment has demonstrated that the site of 10 Trinity Square now has more limited potential to contain archaeological remains due to the extent of modern disturbance arising from the construction of the existing building, earlier warehouses and also from WWII damage and clearance. All archaeological material is expected to have been removed in the areas of existing foundations and double basements. This to an extent has been confirmed by the results of three geotechnical pits excavated on the site in 2008. The new hotel development will involve the construction of new lower ground floor and basement levels across the whole area of 10 Trinity Square, including Seething Gardens. This may result in the removal of any surviving archaeological deposits. New second and third level basements across the centre and western part of the site are not expected to have any additional impact on archaeology. As there is some potential for archaeological deposits surviving beneath the single basement areas of 10 Trinity Square and beneath Seething Lane Gardens it is recommended that an archaeological evaluation is carried out. This information will allow the Local Planning Authority to assess the requirements for mitigation.

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1.1 1.1.1

Introduction
Origin and scope of the report Woods Bagot has commissioned the Museum of London Archaeology Service (MoLAS) to carry out an archaeological desk-based assessment of proposed development at 10 Trinity Square (National Grid Reference 533450 180800, Fig 1). The development proposal comprises the adaptation of the building for a hotel. The site to be assessed comprises two adjacent parts: 10 Trinity Square, the former Port of London Authority (PLA) building of 1922, and Seething Lane Gardens to the west. The PLA building lies within the City of London. This desk-based assessment forms an initial stage of archaeological investigation of the area of proposed development (hereafter also referred to as the site) and may be required at a future date in relation to the planning process in order that the local authority can formulate appropriate responses in the light of any identified archaeological resource. The desk-based assessment has been carried out in accordance with the standards specified by the Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA 2001) and the Association of Local Government Archaeological Officers. Under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 MoLAS retains the copyright to this document. Note: within the limitations imposed by dealing with historical material and maps, the information in this document is, to the best knowledge of the author and MoLAS, correct at the time of writing. Further archaeological investigation, more information about the nature of the present buildings, and/or more detailed proposals for redevelopment may require changes to all or parts of the document. Site status The site does not contain any Scheduled Ancient Monuments. The PLA building of 191922 is Listed, Grade II*. The site lies within a Conservation Area. This is called the Tower Conservation Area, and is partly within the borough of Tower Hamlets which lies immediately to the east of Trinity Square. The PLA building lies within the City part of this Conservation Area. The Tower of London, immediately to the south-east of the site, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1988. The official map of the Heritage site places its north boundary along the outer edge of the moat, i.e. across the road south of Trinity Square Gardens; but the environs of a World Heritage Site are certain to be a sensitive area. Aims and objectives The aim of the assessment is to: Describe the survival and extent of known or potential archaeological features that may be affected by the proposals; Assess the likely impacts arising from the proposals; Provide recommendations to further quantify the nature of the archaeological resources or mitigation aimed at reducing or removing completely any adverse impacts. 2
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1.1.2

1.1.3

1.1.4

1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

1.2.3

1.3 1.3.1

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2.1.1

Methodology and sources consulted


For the purposes of this report the documentary and cartographic sources, including results from any archaeological investigations in the close proximity of the area of proposed development and a study area around it were examined in order to determine the likely nature, extent, preservation and significance of any archaeological remains that may be present within the site. In order to set the site into its full archaeological and historical context, information was collected on the known archaeology within a radius of about 200m to the north and 100m to the east, west and south. The main sites thus considered are shown in Fig 2. The assessment included a site visit in order to determine the topography of the site and existing land use, and to provide further information on areas of possible past ground disturbance and general archaeological potential. Observations made on the site visit have been incorporated into this report. The degree to which archaeological deposits actually survive on the site will depend on previous land use, so an assessment is made of the destructive effect of the previous and present activity and/or buildings, from the study of available plan information, ground investigation reports, or similar. Fig 2 shows the location of known archaeological sites and finds within the study area. A full bibliography and list of sources consulted may be found in Section 9.

2.1.2

2.1.3

2.1.4

2.1.5

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3.1

Legislative and planning framework


National planning policy guidance Archaeology

3.1.1

Planning Policy Guidance Note 16: Archaeology and Planning (PPG16) sets out the Secretary of States policy on archaeological remains, and provides recommendations subsequently integrated into local development plans. The key points in PPG16 can be summarised as follows:
Para A6; Archaeological remains should be seen as a finite and non-renewable resource, and in many cases highly fragile and vulnerable to damage and destruction. Appropriate management is therefore essential to ensure that they survive in good condition. In particular, care must be taken to ensure that archaeological remains are not needlessly or thoughtlessly destroyed. They can contain irreplaceable information about our past and the potential for an increase in future knowledge. They are part of our sense of national identity and are valuable both for their own sake and for their role in education, leisure and tourism. Para A8: Where nationally important archaeological remains, whether scheduled or not, and their settings, are affected by a proposed development there should be a presumption in favour of their physical preservation. Para A13 (see also paras 24 and 25): If physical preservation in situ is not feasible, an archaeological excavation for the purposes of preservation by record may be an acceptable alternative. From an archaeological point of view, this should be regarded as a second-best option. Agreements should also provide for the subsequent publication of the results of any excavation programme. Para A12: The key to informed and reasonable planning decisions is for consideration to be given early, before formal planning applications are made, to the question of whether archaeological remains are known to exist on a site where development is planned and the implications for the development proposal. Para A28 (see also para 25); Planning authorities, when they propose to allow development which is damaging to archaeological remains, must ensure that the developer has satisfactorily provided for excavation and recording, either through voluntary agreement with the archaeologists or, in the absence of agreement, by imposing an appropriate condition on the planning permission.

Built Heritage 3.1.2 In 1994, the Department of the Environment published its Planning Policy Guidance Note 15: planning and the historic environment (PPG15). This sets out the Secretary of States policy on the visible remains of historic buildings, spaces and structures, and provides recommendations many of which have been integrated into local development plans. The key points in PPG15 can be summarised as follows:
Para 1.1: It is fundamental to the Governments policies for environmental stewardship that there should be effective protection for all aspects of the historic environment. The physical survivals of our past are to be valued and protected for their own sake, as a central part of our cultural heritage and our sense of national identity. They are an irreplaceable record which contributes, through formal education and in many other ways, to our understanding of both the present and the past. Para 2.11: The Secretary of State attaches particular importance to early consultation with the local planning authority on development proposals which would affect historic sites and structures, whether listed buildings, conservation areas, parks and gardens, battlefields or the wider historic landscape. There is likely to be much more scope for refinement and revision of proposals if consultation takes place before intentions become firm and timescales inflexible. Para 3.23: Local planning authorities should also consider, in all cases of alteration or demolition, whether it would be appropriate to make it a condition of consent that

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applicants arrange suitable programmes of recording of features that would be destroyed in the course of the works for which consent is being sought.

3.2 3.2.1

Regional guidance: The London Plan The over-arching strategies and policies for the whole of the Greater London area are contained within the GLAs London Plan (Feb 2004) also include statements relating to archaeology:
Policy 4B.14 Archaeology The Mayor, in partnership with English Heritage, the Museum of London and boroughs, will support the identification, protection, interpretation and presentation of Londons archaeological resources. Boroughs in consultation with English Heritage and other relevant statutory organisations should include appropriate policies in their UDPs for protecting scheduled ancient monuments and archaeological assets within their area.

3.3 3.3.1

Archaeology and planning in the City of London The City of Londons revised Unitary Development Plan (UDP) was adopted in April 2002. The policies set out in this document determine the position of archaeology as a material consideration in the planning process and incorporate recommendations from the Department of the Environments Planning Policy Guidance 16 (PPG 16). The City of London recognises that archaeology is a finite and fragile resource and that adequate safeguarding of ancient monuments and archaeological remains contribute to a better understanding of Londons past. The City of Londons planning guide-lines are given focus in its strategy (Policy Strat 11A) for safeguarding ancient monuments and archaeological remains in the City:

3.3.2

POLICY STRAT 11A: To recognise the archaeological importance of the City as the historic

centre of the capital and to seek the adequate safeguarding and investigation of ancient monuments and archaeological remains. The City of Londons Unitary Development Plan goes on to elaborate three Policies which deal specifically with archaeological preservation and investigations:
POLICY ARC1: To require planning applications which involve excavation or groundworks on sites of archaeological potential to be accompanied by an archaeological assessment and evaluation of the site including the impact of the proposed development. POLICY ARC2: To require development proposals to preserve in situ, protect and safeguard important ancient monuments and important archaeological remains and their settings, and where appropriate, to require permanent public display and/or interpretation of the monument or remains. POLICY ARC3: To ensure the proper investigation, recording of sites, and publication of the results, by an approved organisation as an integral part of a development programme where a development incorporates archaeological remains or where it is considered that preservation in situ is not appropriate.

The principle considerations which underpin these Policies are as follows:


Para 11.7: Strategic Guidance states that account should be taken of the desirability of preserving ancient monuments and their settings and of the Secretary of States guidance in PPG 16, Archaeology and Planning. Archaeological remains are an irreplaceable resource and often the only evidence of past development. These remains are a finite and non-renewable resource, in many cases highly fragile and vulnerable to damage and destruction. They contain irreplaceable information about our past and the potential for an increase in future knowledge.

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Para 11.8: Where nationally important archaeological remains, whether scheduled or not, and their settings are affected by proposed development there is a presumption in favour of their physical preservation in situ. Some monuments and archaeological remains are protected as scheduled ancient monuments under Part I of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. Applications for works which may affect a scheduled ancient monument are determined by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, with advice from English Heritage. This procedure is different from any consents that may be necessary under Town Planning legislation. Due to the potentially complex nature of archaeological remains in the City, the Corporation will expect applications for scheduled monument consent and planning permission to be prepared and considered in parallel. Para 11.9: Not all important monuments and remains are scheduled, and in some cases, remains of more local importance will be considered worthy of preservation. PPG 16 gives criteria for assessing the national importance of an ancient monument and considering whether scheduling is important. Development schemes should be designed to incorporate the preservation in situ of important monuments and archaeological remains, and respect and enhance their settings. Para 11.10: On sites where archaeological remains of lesser importance exist, and it is considered by the Corporation that preservation in situ is not appropriate, investigation, recording and publication will be required. This is to ensure preservation by record, placing those remains in a wider context, and adding to our understanding and interpretation of the historic landscape. Para 11.12 All of the City is considered to have archaeological potential unless it can be demonstrated that archaeological remains have been lost, due to basement construction or other groundworks. The Corporation will indicate the potential of a site, its relative importance, and the likely impact to a developer at an early stage so that the appropriate assessment and design development can be undertaken. Para 11.13 On sites of archaeological potential, which may be affected by development schemes or groundworks, an archaeological assessment will be required to be submitted with the application. This will set out the archaeological potential of the site and impact of the proposals. Where appropriate, this should be supplemented by evaluation, carrying out trial work in specific areas of the site to provide more information and inform consideration of the development proposals by the Corporation, prior to a decision on that application. Para 11.15 The interpretation and presentation of a visible or buried monument to the public and enhancement of its setting, should form part of the development proposals. Agreement will be sought to achieve reasonable public access. The Corporation will consider refusing schemes which do not provide an adequate assessment of a site or make no provision for the incorporation, safeguarding or preservation in situ of nationally or locally important monuments or remains, or which would adversely affect those monuments or remains. Para 11.16 In some cases, a development may reveal a monument or archaeological remains which will be displayed on the site, or reburied. Investigation and recording of those features will be required as part of a programme of archaeological work to be submitted to and approved by the Corporation. Where the significance of the remains is considered, by the Corporation, not sufficient to justify their physical preservation in situ and they will be affected by development, archaeological recording should be carried out. A programme of archaeological work for investigation, excavation and recording, and publication of the results, to a predetermined research framework, by an approved organisation, should be submitted to and approved by the Corporation, prior to development. This will be controlled through the use of conditions and will ensure the preservation of those remains by record.

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4.1 4.1.1

Archaeological and historical background


Site location, topography and geology The site lies at NGR 533450 180795, immediately north-west of the Tower of London: Fig 1). The PLA building fills a rectangular area between four streets, with its south-east corner cut off or canted. The boundaries are formed by Pepys Street to the north, Muscovy Street to the south, Seething Lane to the west and Savage Gardens to the east. The present ground surface is flat from north to south: 13.9m OD (above Ordnance Datum or sea level) at the north-east corner of the PLA building (the top of Savage Gardens) and 14.0m OD at the south-east corner of the building. The following summaries draw on reports from sites in the vicinity, which are described further in Section 8 below. The site of the City of London lies on gravel, overlaid in parts by the tan-coloured loess called brickearth. Gravels were observed at Colchester House (Site 9) immediately east of the site, at 9.3m OD, and at Lloyds Register of Shipping (Site 1) at about 9.8m OD. At Mariner House to the north (Site 13), natural gravel was observed at 9.80m and 9.44m OD and natural brickearth at 9.50m and c 9.80m OD during recent SI work. Thus historic strata, that is man-made deposits, would survive to a depth of about 4.5m in this area (and may still do, under the streets). But all buildings in this area have at least one basement, which has removed at least the upper part of the historic strata beneath buildings. An ancient stream running south-west towards the Thames has been identified north of the site in recent years; it is seen as silt beneath basements. Evidence has been found on the Lloyds Register site (Site 1) and Fenchurch Street station (Site 5). Clearly much of this area was subject to flooding. The stream lay north-west of the current site, and probably had little effect on its development. It is shown as just clipping the site on the Roman map used here (Fig 3). The stream was evidently a feature of the landscape of the Roman city, and may have still been visible in the Middle Ages. The information on natural topography from surrounding sites suggests that the level of the natural subsoil beneath the PLA building would have originally been approximately 9.5m OD with a possible slope down into the ancient stream bed to the northwest. Overview of past archaeological investigations The results of these investigations, along with other known sites and finds within the study area, are discussed by period, below. In 2008, MoL Archaeology monitored geotechnical test pitting within the PLA building. Three pits were monitored, two pits 3 and 4 were in the northern half of the site and one, pit 5, was in the southern half (MoL Archaeology, 2008). The results of the test pits are set out in the table below;

4.1.2

4.1.3 4.1.4

4.1.5

4.1.6

4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2

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Table 1: Summary of geotechnical survey data


All figures in metres OD Test pit Top of PLA basement slab 11.30 TP3 11.13 TP4 11.01 TP5 Base of PLA basement slab 10.03 10.93 10.81 Base of 19th/20th century deposits 8.70 8.47 8.08 Natural Gravels Not witnessed 8.47 Not witnessed

4.3

Chronological summary Prehistoric period (c 500,000 BCAD 43)

4.3.1

4.3.2

4.3.3

4.3.4

The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic saw alternating warm and cold phases and intermittent perhaps seasonal occupation. During the Upper Palaeolithic (c 40,000 10,000 BC), after the last glacial maximum, and in particular after around 13,000 BC, further climate warming took place and the environment changed from being a treeless steppe-tundra to one of birch and pine woodland. It is probably at this time that this part of England saw continuous occupation. Subsequent erosion has removed many of the land-surfaces on which Palaeolithic people lived and hunted and consequently most Palaeolithic finds are typically residual (located outside the context in which it was originally deposited), and often discovered during gravel extraction. The Mesolithic hunter-gather communities of the postglacial period (c 10,0004,000 BC) inhabited a still largely wooded environment. The river valleys and coast would have been especially favoured in providing a predictable source of food (from hunting and fishing) and water, as well as a means of transport and communication. Evidence of human activity is largely characterised by finds of flint tools and waste rather than structural remains. The Neolithic (c 40002000 BC), Bronze Age (c 2,000600 BC) and Iron Age (c 600 BCAD 43) are traditionally seen as the time of technological change, the establishment of farming and settled communities, and forest clearance occurred for the cultivation of crops and the construction of communal monuments, and with increasing population and pressure on available resources throughout each period. No certain prehistoric occupation sites have yet been found in the City of London, though there have been scattered hints such as Bronze Age pits. Six prehistoric flint tools were recovered from Site 11 in 1988. Roman period (AD 43410)

4.3.5

4.3.6

The Romans established Londinium on the north bank of the Thames around AD 50. Though checked by the Boudican rebellion in AD 601, the town grew in size and importance during the 1st and 2nd centuries. A city wall with gates was built around AD 200 (examined at Sites 3 and 12). The present site lies about 100m inside the circuit of the Roman defences, in the south-east corner of the Roman city (Fig 3). On the excavated sites in the surrounding area, there has been some evidence for ditches and enclosures, perhaps for animals (Sites 2, 11). There are also traces of large, sumptuous buildings with heating systems (e.g. Site 1, Lloyds Register). A fragment of a simpler Roman building, including a floor of plain tesserae or cubes, is on display in the crypt below the church of All Hallows Barking, only 100m south of the development site (Site 17). 8
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4.3.7

As in the rest of Roman London, it may be that some of these luxurious buildings date from the late Roman period, from about AD 200 until the end of Roman rule in 410. A particularly enigmatic discovery was made on Site 9 or Colchester House, immediately east of the PLA building, in 1989. Part of a large 3rd-century building was recorded as two rows of stone pier bases. A slight difference in the grouping of the bases led to the suggestion that this might have been a basilical building with two different internal arrangements, such as a Roman church. Although this is a speculation, the evidence from this site points to a 3rd-century building immediately east of the present site. Early medieval period (AD 4101066)

4.3.8

4.3.9

Following the withdrawal of the Roman army from England in the early 5th century AD the whole country fell into an extended period of socio-economic decline. The Roman city of London was probably almost totally abandoned, apart from the establishment within the walls of St Pauls Cathedral somewhere around its present site in AD 604. By AD 650 there was in contrast a thriving trading settlement upstream of the city, centred round modern Aldwych on the Strand. A re-occupation of the Roman city, no doubt because of its surviving stone walls, took place in 886 as part of the response to Viking armies, and this late Saxon (AD 8501050) town became the medieval City of London. The first centres of the Saxon town were Cheapside and harbours on the waterfront, notably Queenhithe, Dowgate and later Billingsgate. Generally the east half of the City developed much later, and evidence of the Saxon or early medieval period here is sparse. But there are a few hints. At Site 2 north-east of the development site (the site then called Rangoon Street, which was then swallowed up in development of the 1980s), two human burials probably of early Saxon date were found in 1982. South of the development site at All Hallows Barking or All Hallows by the Tower, Byward Street (Site 17), a masonry arch was disclosed by bombing in the War (which badly damaged the rest of the church). This had been dated to the 8th century, but more recently to the 11th century (Schofield 1994, 813). The church would have preceded the first buildings in the Tower of London, of the 1090s, if only by a few decades. Later medieval period (AD 10661485)

4.3.10

The south-east corner of the City of London was transformed by the construction of the Tower of London, beginning with the White Tower in the 1090s. In the 13th and 14th centuries successive kings added concentric rings of fortifications and palatial buildings within the complex. These extensions stimulated development on the west side, particularly along the waterfront and Thames Street. The influence of the Tower on development to the north, around the present site, is so far largely unknown. Seething Lane, which forms the west border of the PLA building site, is first mentioned in documents as Shyvethenstrat in 1257; the name derives from the Old English for chaff, and this may allude to corn being threshed and winnowed in the lane (Ekwall 1954, 1034). This part of the City was sparsely occupied by comparison with Cheapside and the waterfront zones. The site of the PLA building, in the medieval period, lay in two medieval parishes, as far as we can tell from the first map of parishes which is that by Ogilby and Morgan in 1676 (Fig 7, where the parish boundary is the row of filled black dots crossing the site just above the court l. 58). The northern third lay within the parish of St Olave Hart Street, and the southern two thirds in the parish of All Hallows Barking. It is possible that the parish boundary was an ancient feature of some kind, or simply a property boundary. 9
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4.3.11

4.3.12

4.3.13

The area immediately north-west of the Tower was largely open space for much of the medieval and later centuries. This was partly because the royal commanders in the Tower wanted such an open space between them and the City, and there were sporadic disagreements about who was in charge of Tower Hill. North of the Tower was the scaffold used for public executions (except for royalty, who were executed within the Tower) from the late 14th century until 1747. This scaffold is illustrated in the view of the city from the south by Wyngaerde, dated to about 1540 (Fig 6). The execution of the Earl of Strafford in 1641 is shown in an engraving by Hollar (Schofield 1993, fig 25); the artist seems to have been standing on the site of the PLA building. The site of the scaffold is marked today by a stone in the pavement at the west end of the Trinity Square Gardens. On the Ordnance Survey maps from the 1880s onwards, which often contain historical site labels, there is mention of Pikes Garden on the east side of the site, at the south end of what is now Savage Gardens. Pikes Corner is first mentioned in James IIs Patent defining the Tower Liberties and the corner is 27ft west of the water-gate. No further information on Pike has been found; perhaps it was a medieval or 16th-century garden of note. North of the site, approximately beneath the arches for Fenchurch Street Station, lay the friary of the Crutched Friars, established in 1298 (for general situation, Fig 4), but largely constructed in the early 14th century. A burial and foundation fragments have been recorded at Sites 6, 8 and 13. Other medieval discoveries tend to be the lower parts of stone cellars, as at Site 11 and Site 3. Post-medieval period (AD1485present)

4.3.14

4.3.15

4.3.16

4.3.17

The area escaped the Great Fire of 1666, which stopped about 100m west of the site. The late 17th- to 20th-century development of the site and its environs is illustrated by maps. A notable building south of Crutched Friars [street] by 1700 was the Navy Office (Samuel Pepys had worked and lived in its predecessor, about which little is known, in the 1660s: Latham and Matthews 1983, 2989). This Navy Office survived the Great Fire, but burnt down itself in 1673. Thus the area is blank on Ogilby and Morgans map of 1676 (Fig 7), and construction of a new Navy Office has been attributed to Sir Christopher Wren in 16823 (Colvin 1995, 1090). It comprised a main range surrounded by others; it is shown by Rocque in 1746 (Fig 8) but had been replaced by warehouses by the time of Horwoods map in 1819 (Fig 10). It is likely that the rear or south half of the Wren Navy Office lay under the north edge of the PLA building. The early Ordnance Survey maps show little or no change on the site until the construction of the PLA building. The Goad Fire Insurance map (Fig 12) of the 1880s indicate that there were basements across the site. The south boundary of the PLA building is roughly on the alignment of Catherine Court, a narrow court of fine early 18th-century houses which was entered from Seething Lane on the west, with a back entrance to Trinity Square. Several watercolour views of this court in the late 19th century are in Guildhall Library. The Court was demolished in 1913 to make way for the PLA offices (see Fig 13). On Rocques map of 17467 (Fig 9) Trinity Square was laid out in 1797 by Samuel Wyatt as a setting for his Trinity House of 1796, which lies on the north side. This was rebuilt in 19523 after severe bomb damage, replicating the interiors (Bradley and Pevsner 1997, 3712). Samuel Wyatt (17371807) was a notable architect of houses and public buildings in London and elsewhere (Colvin 1995, 11248). Trinity House was built as the headquarters of the Corporation of Trinity House, originally a seamens guild of Deptford, which from 1514 became a public authority which 10
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4.3.18

4.3.19

4.3.20

4.3.21

4.3.22

4.3.23

provided the means of safe navigation, particularly in the Thames. Previously, as when Pepys was Master of the Corporation in 16866, the headquarters was in Water Lane, Thames Street, opposite the Custom House. A tunnel carrying the District and Circle London Underground lines crosses the south half of Trinity Square Gardens, from Tower Hill Station which is immediately north-east of the Gardens westwards towards Monument Station. This would have been of cut-and-cover construction in the 1860s. It means that about 45% of the historic strata comprising Trinity Square Gardens has been removed. The standing building at 10 Trinity Square, known as the Port of London Authority Building from its original use, was built in 191222 to the design of Sir Edwin Cooper. It was listed Grade II* in 1972. The listing text is as follows: Large, detached, monumental building of Portland stone. Nearly square plan with entrance at canted south east corner. Plain courtyard formerly filled by large rotunda destroyed in World War II. 4 storeys plus basement and slated mansard treated as stone attic to end pavilions and at entrance. Deep entablature with pairs of Corinthian columns in antis to pavillons. 4-columned entrance portico, also in antis, the entablature topped by balustrade in front of attic. Above rises broad tower embellished with order of Corinthian pilasters and piers, arched niche and colossal figure sculpture. Stepped upper part. Entrance hall, corridors etc of some distinction. Suite of richly panelled rooms on 2nd floor, notably dining room, chairmans room and board room, east 2 with exceptional carved decoration. The architectural significance of the building is summarised in Pevsners Buildings of England volume on the City of London (as revised by Bradley and Pevsner 1997, 1212, 326). Its style can be called mature Edwardian Baroque, in which it was preceded by the Central Criminal Court in Old Bailey of 19007. It is on a palatial scale, with large Corinthian columns and a broad double-height entrance vestibule worthy of a northern City Hall. Pepys Street on the north side and Muscovy Street on the south side were created at the same time as the building. The Authority moved to Tilbury in 1970, and the building was sold. A central rotunda was bombed in the War and replaced with a new block in 1975. The construction of the PLA building included the creation of a small strip of garden along the west side of the property. Seething Gardens as they are known are in fact built over the backfilled cellars of the East India Company warehouses (Fig 11). Occupying the west half of the oval Trinity Square Gardens are two war memorials. The larger, on the south, is the Mercantile Marine Memorial by Sir Edwin Lutyens, 19268, an open tunnel-vaulted structure 64ft (19.5m) long. On its north side is the companion monument for those lost in 193945, by Sir Edward Maufe, 19525. Both parts were listed Grade II in 1973 (the later part is seen to be an extension of the earlier monument). Presumably the siting of these monuments outside Trinity House which has concerned itself over the centuries with the welfare of the merchant navy, is significant; there is a psychological link. The area suffered some bomb damage in the Second World War; the PLA building was hit and its central rotunda destroyed. By 1970, Lower Thames Street had been extended and rerouted at its east end to join with Tower Hill.

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5
5.1

Archaeological potential
Factors affecting archaeological survival Past impacts

5.1.1

5.1.2

5.1.3

5.1.4

The PLA building is recorded as having a single basement throughout with a floor level at 11.17m OD (CoL Planning file 1504H; Fig 15 and Fig 16). Recent monitoring of geotechnical test pits has shown that the basement slab varies between c 11.30 OD to c 11.0m OD and varies in thickness between 0.2m to 0.3m. The slab truncation level across the single basement is between c 10.8m OD and c 11m OD. In addition sub-basements exist in the northwest and southeast of the site, which are assumed to be at least 3.5m below the general basement level (See Fig 17). Further backfilled basements should be present in the centre of the site, where the pre-War rotunda once stood. The plan of the single and double basements suggests that the building rests on large strip foundations. The combination of these dense foundations and the basements means that any surviving archaeology is likely to be heavily fragmented and truncated. The East India Company Warehouses will also have had deep basements (Fig 12). These are likely to have removed any earlier deposits and structures down to approximately 3.5m below modern ground level, ie 10.5m OD. Three geotechnical pits excavated on the site in September 2008 have revealed modern disturbance to at least 8.70m OD. A structure now occupies part of the location of the original rotunda in the central part of the PLA building. This building was constructed in the 1970s. It does not have a basement. The nature of its foundations is not known but given its nature and date it is possible that these were piled. Piles would have removed all archaeology within their footprint. The area of the current Seething Lane Gardens was previously developed, as can be seen on the Horwoods 1819 map (Fig10), the 1870 OS map (Fig 11) and GOADS map of the 1880s (Fig 12). Most of the offices and warehouses will have had basements. Likely depth/thickness of archaeological remains

5.1.5

5.1.6 5.1.7

Natural gravels were observed directly east of the PLA building at Colchester House (Site 9), at about 9.3m OD and to the north at Mariner House up to 9.8m OD. A general level of 9.5m OD has been assumed for the area of the PLA building. Street level at the south-east corner of the PLA building is currently 14.0m OD. Where undisturbed, strata from the Roman period onwards hereabouts would therefore be about 4.5m deep, i.e. down to 9.5m OD. If a general truncation level of 10.65m OD is assumed across the site, then up to 1.15m depth of archaeology could in theory survive beneath the single basement slab. However the ground plan of the building indicates that there are extensive strip and pad foundations. These are likely to rest on the natural gravels and will have removed all archaeological deposits. The earlier East India Company Warehouses will have also truncated archaeological deposits down to the 10.5m OD level, particularly on the northern and western sides of the site. The areas of sub-basement will have cut into the natural gravel deposits and will have removed all archaeological deposits. Where archaeological deposits do survive between existing foundations, there may also be cut features such as deeper masonry foundations, wells and cesspits, of any 12
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period, which will have cut into the gravels and go deeper; this would also be the case for any traces of the stream in the north-west corner. 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 Archaeological potential The nature of possible archaeological survival in the area of the proposed development is summarised here, taking into account the levels of natural geology. The site has an uncertain but possibly moderate potential to contain archaeological remains dated to the prehistoric period. Small amounts of prehistoric material have been found on surrounding sites. It is possible that an ancient stream impinges on the site at its north-west corner. The site has low to moderate potential to contain archaeological remains dated to the Roman, Saxon, medieval and post-medieval periods. Because of the removal of most of the strata which formerly lay beneath the PLA building, the survival of historic features cannot be accurately predicted. There will be the deeper foundations, along with cesspits and wells, dug into the gravels beneath. But there could be fragmentary survivals of Roman buildings, of signs of Saxon and medieval occupation, and even fragments of Wrens Navy Office complex (i.e. deeper brick foundations). Because relatively little is known about what might survive beneath the basement of the PLA building, it is difficult to comment on the significance of known resources within the site in local, regional or national archaeological terms. The site has always lain in a comparatively quiet area, in the south-east corner of the Roman, Saxon and medieval City of London. However, the 3rd-century building found in 1989 east of the site at Colchester House (Site 9) gives the area additional importance for the archaeology of London. A second feature of regional importance is the Navy Office of Christopher Wren, if any remains survive.

5.2.3

5.2.4

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6
6.1 6.1.1

Impact of proposals
Proposals The new hotel building will have a lower ground floor and basement extending across the whole of 10 Trinity Square, including beneath Seething Lane Gardens. Deeper second and third level basements will extend beneath the central and western area of the property. It is assumed that the floor level of the lower ground floor will be close to the existing basement level at 11.0m OD with the basement approximately 3.5m below this at 7.5m OD. Fig 18 illustrates the first basement level. Implications The primary zone of potential archaeological survival consists of undisturbed ground above 9.5m OD (the anticipated level of natural gravels) and below the underside of modern disturbance between 10.5m OD (the East India Warehouses) and 10.65m OD, the existing basement slab. In practice the modern disturbance probably extends below this level, as seen in the 2008 geotechnical pits (MoL Archaeology, 2008). Modern disturbance associated with the sub-basement, foundations, services and war-time bomb damage will have caused additional localised truncation. The main impact of the new development will result from the construction of the new basement level across the site, which would remove any surviving pockets of archaeology in the zone between 9.5m and 10.65m OD. The second and third level basements are expected to fall well below the level at which archaeology could survive and will have nom additional impact. The development site lies in the Tower Conservation Area. The policies of the City of London with regard to its Conservation Areas are laid out in various policy documents, for instance Conservation Areas in the City of London: a general introduction to their character, produced in 1994.

6.2 6.2.1

6.2.2

6.2.3

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7
7.1.1 7.1.2

Conclusions and recommendations


The site does not contain any Scheduled Ancient Monuments. The PLA building of 191922 is Listed, Grade II*. The site lies within a Conservation Area. This is called the Tower Conservation Area, and is partly within the borough of Tower Hamlets which lies immediately to the east of Trinity Square. The PLA building lies within the City part of this Conservation Area. The Tower of London, immediately to the south-east of the site, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1988. The official map of the Heritage site places its north boundary along the outer edge of the moat, i.e. across the road south of Trinity Square Gardens; but the environs of a World Heritage Site are certain to be a sensitive area. The site has limited potential to contain archaeological remains dated to the prehistoric period. Small amounts of prehistoric material have been found on surrounding sites. It is possible that an ancient stream impinges on the site at its north-west corner. The site has low to moderate potential to contain archaeological remains dated to the Roman, Saxon, medieval and post-medieval periods. The most significant structures known in the area consist of the 3rd century Roman building recorded immediately to the east of the PLA building at Colchester House and Wrens Navy Office. The existing PLA building and the earlier East India Company Warehouses will have caused extensive disturbance to archaeological deposits, from basements, foundations, services and WWII bomb damage. The new hotel development will involve the construction of a new lower ground floor and basement levels across the whole area of the property. This may result in the removal of pockets of surviving archaeology. Second and third level basements across the centre and western part of the site are not expected to have any additional impact on archaeology. As there is some potential for archaeological deposits surviving beneath the single basement areas of 10 Trinity Square and beneath Seething Lane Gardens it is recommended that an archaeological evaluation is undertaken to confirm that this is the case. This information will allow the Local Planning Authority to assess the requirements for mitigation.

7.1.3

7.1.4

7.1.5

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8
8.1.1

Gazetteer of selected archaeological sites and finds


This section summarises the main archaeological excavations and observations (also called watching briefs) within about 200m of the site, but not including a detailed study of the Roman and medieval city wall which runs from north to south about 100m to the east of the site, ending at the Tower Postern which is now displayed. One site on the wall, at America Square (Site 7) is included as an example. Site 1 FCC95 Lloyds Register of Shipping, 68-71 Fenchurch Street, 1-7 Railway Place (Magpie House), EC3 D Bluer and R Nielsen NGR: TQ 3343 8099 In the S of the site, recorded above the natural brickearth, was a structure represented by a N-S foundation of rammed pebbles with flint packing at its corners, suggesting a superstructure of timber; it dates to the Roman period. This was replaced with a structure on the same alignment, but whose substantial walls were based on piled foundation trenches. In another area a sub-floor associated with a hypocaust was recorded and nearby burnt material, which contained a 4th-c coin, was probably rakeout from the flue system. In the W of the central area a concrete sub-floor of a hypocaust was cut by robber trenches of three sides of a masonry building, and sealed by a thick dump containing much opus signinum. On the W of the site organic waterlogged deposits may have been associated with dumps behind a revetment bounding the E bank of a stream (possibly that referred to in medieval times as the Lorteburn). Roman consolidation dumps over these deposits contained brickearth which may have derived from a demolished building. To the S of St Katherine Coleman churchyard a masonry wall, associated opus signinum floor and burnt demolition debris was recorded, as were medieval graveyard soil and burials. Elsewhere for the medieval period, only pits, robber trenches and wells survived truncation. Two pre-Great Fire cesspits and a brick-lined cesspit, traces of the 18th-c East India Company warehouses known to have occupied the site, and 18th-c walls represent the post-medieval survival. Site 2 RAG82 112 Rangoon Street, 6165 Crutched Friars (now Friary Court), EC3 D Bowler NGR: TQ 33500 81020 SMR: 04345864 Commercial Union Properties funded a five-month excavation on this site from May to September of 1982. The natural river gravels were uncovered over most of the site, together with a small area of the brickearth cap along the northern edge of the site. The earliest man-made features on the site were pits and gullies of the Roman period, from the first c onwards, and seen in the N part of the site. The unusually large area of excavation made it possible to trace the alignment and fall of the gullies over long distances. 16
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These features produced quite a large amount of animal bone, pottery, and metal work. The Rangoon Street site lay just within the walls of the Roman City, and well back from the main road (Fenchurch Street); it is likely that this area was taken up with gardens, or given over to industrial purposes, such as butchers yards or even rubbish tips, as suggested by the plentiful animal bone and pottery. In the N part of the site, the Roman features were sealed by about 0.3m of dark earth, deposited some time at the end of the Roman period, or later. It contained two human skeletons, buried together in the same grave, their heads to the north, the head of the upper (female) in the lap of the lower (male?). These unusual arrangements suggested some pagan burial practice. Cut into the dark earth was a large medieval chalk-lined cesspit, containing fragments of painted window glass, decorated with an heraldic lion and foliage patterns; and a pattern of small rectangular pits, filled with rammed chalk and gravel, perhaps postpads of a timber-framed structure. South of Rangoon Street, the lower part of a timber-lined well survived, cut into the gravels and containing large amounts of 14th and 15th c pottery, including a wateringpot. The most conspicuous structure on the site was the East India Companys Tea and Drugs warehouse, built in 1796, whose massive brick and stone foundations covered most of the site. Surveyors plans and elevations of this building survive in the India Office Archives. Associated with the warehouse, but not appearing on any surveyors drawings, was an underground brick structure, identified as an ice-well. This consisted of a brick dome and cylinder, about 3m deep altogether, set in the natural gravel, down to the top of London Clay. It may originally have been built before the warehouse, but was retained when the warehouse was constructed. Rangoon Street was removed by the present redevelopment. Site 3 CRU86 913 Crutched Friars, 17 Crosswall, EC3 A B Thomas NGR: TQ 33550 80954 SMR: 041051, 04392431 Between December 1986 and March 1987 excavations funded by Hartstreet Properties Ltd were carried out just inside the line of the Roman city wall. Excavations suggested that the earliest activity on site was related to the construction of the defensive wall of c 200. The area appears to have been levelled by dumps and later sealed by a roughly N-S aligned compacted mixed mortar/gravel surface. To the E a small section of surviving Roman wall revealed in the main property boundary of the site gave clear indications that the gravel/mortar surface was constructed after the lower courses of the wall. Above this surface the internal bank survived to a height of approximately 1.41.5m, and a width of 8.5m. The bank was constructed using alternate dumps of brickearth/gravels, the tip lines of which suggested that the dumping sequence was from S to N; the bank tended to slope down from E to W. Apart from the defensive wall and bank there was little late Roman activity noted on site. 17
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By the medieval period the area of the bank was being encroached upon by a large NS aligned foundation, possibly for a stone building to the W. To the E of this building a series of N-S aligned timber post holes showed a possible lean-to structure or covered area between the building and the defensive wall. Once this timber structure went out of use, a N-S aligned yellow tile pathway was laid down between the building and the wall. During the post-medieval period the yellow tile path was incorporated into a larger cobblestone surface which covered most of the excavated area. By this period it is possible that the defensive wall had been demolished, for mixed in with the cobbled surface were stone fragments similar to those noted in the Roman wall construction. Later a large N-S aligned brick wall crossed the site. This building had internal rooms to the W, but still incorporated the yellow tile path and its cobblestone surrounds to the E. Site 4 LNS95 7-10 London St (automated public convenience), EC3 D Sankey NGR: TQ 3338 8095 A watching brief took place in May 1995 funded by Corporation of London. Natural strata were not exposed. Roman debris from a clay-and-timber building was recorded. Site 5 FSS84 Fenchurch Street Station, EC3 S OConnor Thompson NGR: TQ 33430 80930 Between September 1984 and March 1985 a watching brief (funded by Norwich Union) was undertaken at this site. The redevelopment involved the sinking of 25 massive encaissoned concrete piles - up to 3m in diameter and over 30m deep - the shafts of which had to be hand dug. Archaeologically it could be shown that the present alignment of streets and properties, as exemplified by French Ordinary Court which crosses the site, was in existence by at least the 15th c. Further, that activity in the area in all periods was fairly minimal up until the 18th c, and that perhaps by way of explanation for this it would seem that at least the southern fringes of the site were actually over the recently identified ancient Lorteburn valley in this part of the City. Certainly the quality of water encountered in four adjacent caissons indicates that there is still a stream flowing, albeit underground. Site 6 ARC81 9 The Arches, Crutched Friars, EC3 R Lea NGR: TQ 33500 80900 SMR: 043650 18
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During refurbishment a human skeleton was discovered, aligned E-W 1m E of a chalk foundation about 1.1m wide which ran N-S immediately below the modern cellar floor. The site falls within the NE corner of the precinct of the Crutched Friars. Site 7 ASQ87 12 America Square, 1517 Crosswall, 15 Coopers Row, EC2 C Goode, A Stephenson and T Nixon NGR: TQ 33570 80910 SMR: 041914, 0419734, 04386973 Preliminary excavation work, funded by Central and City Properties Ltd underneath the railway viaduct leading out of Fenchurch Street Station was undertaken in the summer of 1987 in two areas each measuring about 25 sq m to a depth of 2.5m below the warehouse basement slab. In the S area the internal face of the Roman city wall was exposed immediately below the concrete slab, standing to a height of 1.7m above its clay, flint and opus signinum foundations, and showing the usual pattern of dressed ragstone blocks and tile courses. A series of deposits of sand, gravel and brickearth, tipped from E to W, were banked against the wall, containing pottery of mostly mid 2nd c date. Below the 1.5m of rampart deposits was a layer of hard rammed gravel containing ragstone chippings and pottery up to 0.2m thick and with a distinct camber down towards the wall, presumably a road built either as part of the construction sequence of the defensive system or predating it. Below it lay a further 0.3m of dumping containing earlier Roman pottery. In the N area, the Roman walls external face was exposed to slightly less than 2m above foundation level. Above natural ballast lay a dump of material containing Roman tiles, chalk and ragstone fragments, through which cut the curving foundations of a later projecting bastion abutting the wall. The foundations were of gravel below undressed stone rubble, in rough courses, above which up to 1m of neat masonry superstructure survived. The core of the bastion, which was not dismantled, contained a coping stone and another partially moulded stone. Above this lay a series of dumps of 16501800, through which was cut a brick-lined cesspit abutting both wall and bastion and containing material provisionally dated to the same period. In a large test pit in the adjacent car park to the N, the wall survived intact to a height of 3m above foundations. Following these preliminary excavations underneath the railway viaduct, a series of excavations took place between October 1987 and January 1988, also funded by Central and City Properties Ltd. Of 39 trenches sited where pile caps were to be inserted to support a new building above the railway, 20 were excavated archaeologically and the rest by contractors. The Roman city wall ran N-S across the site and to the N, a 32m length was exposed (to be consolidated and displayed in the future building); it survived up to 2m high above original ground level on the E side. A change in build was evident on the inner face. N of this change a tile drain ran through the wall. A gravel metalled surface on the berm survived intact 0.6m below the sandstone plinth on the wall face, and the Vprofile of the base of the original ditch was recorded. 19
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In the W a hard gravel surface, dated to the late 2nd/early 3rd c, and probably a construction road for the wall, was sealed by dumps of sand, gravel and brickearth originally banked up against the inside of the wall, containing 2nd c pottery. Very thick deposits of dark earth or similar strata extended W cut by pits, wells and lines of stakeholes, probably fencing. Datable finds suggest that occupation was continuous from the 11th c. A large pitched stone medieval culvert was inserted through the wall and remained in use until the 19th c. To the E, a medieval or later ditch cut sloped down further E than the recorded Roman ditch. It was backfilled and the area levelled up with dumps of homogenous gravel containing 17th c pottery, cut in turn by post-medieval horncore-lined pits. No evidence was found of substantial buildings before the 17th c, and parts of the site remained open until the construction of the railway viaduct in the 1840s, when much of the city wall was also demolished. Roman finds included a bow brooch and quantities of glass from bottles, flasks and a pillar-moulded bowl; bone counters and fragments of two slate bracelets. Late medieval lead tokens and two cloth seals came from metal-detecting. There was also a range of post-medieval glassware, including wine glasses, phials and a near-complete beaker with chequered spiral decoration. Other post-medieval finds included an ivory comb and several knives. Site 8 SEN91 2526 Savage Gardens, EC3 S Gibson NGR: TQ 33505 80884 SMR: 0442879 Test-pits were observed. Spongy wet dumps, possibly the infill of a stream valley, were succeeded by medieval walls which might be part of the buildings of the Crutched Friars. Site 9 PEP89 Colchester House, Savage Gardens, Pepys Street; Woodruffe House, Coopers Row, EC3 D Sankey NGR: TQ 33520 80830 Excavations here were funded by Trinity House. Natural gravel and brickearth was cut by 1st and 2nd c features and by structural elements of buildings; in the SE of the site a gravel surface and associated ditch may have been a road. Above these a soil had formed which subsumed occupation and demolition remains associated with the buildings and which also included quantities of painted plaster. Glass waste, and the base of a substantial hearth which cut through the soil, may be evidence for Roman glassmaking. The hearth was truncated by general terracing associated with the construction of a 3rd c building. It had a wide external wall and several square pier bases founded on timber piles capped with flint and chalk and topped with concrete. One area of opus signinum flooring survived. This building was overlaid by dark earth 20
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which may have formed the gardens of the Crutched Friars. It was cut by pits, a well or soakaway and robbing trenches for the 3rd c building. Also located were 17th or 18th c cellar foundations and floors and a late 17th c ice house which was backfilled in the 18th c with wine bottles, unused clay pipes and some Chinese and European imitation porcelain. Site 10 TRY88 Trinity House, Savage Gardens, EC3 K Wooldridge NGR: TQ 33520 80800 SMR: 044579 Testpits and a lift shaft were examined. Natural was not reached. The lowest deposit was possibly Roman in date and was truncated by modern foundations, drains and make-up. Site 11 SEA88 2 Seething Lane, EC3 S Gibson NGR: TQ 33380 80780 Excavations after demolition between July and October 1988 were funded by British Land plc. A series of parallel Roman ditch segments may represent enclosures for animals, a function suggested by previous excavations in this area. Two medieval ragstone-built cellars were excavated, one of which had been used finally as a cesspit. Several post-medieval buildings were located, with accompanying external areas containing rubbish pits and a brick-built soakaway. The earliest finds are six prehistoric flints, including scraping and cutting tools. Roman finds include a rare piece of 1st c marbled glass. Post-Roman finds include a late Saxon single-sided antler comb, sixteen Penn floor-tiles and fragments of an imported prunted beaker. A post-medieval glass beaker of 16th or early 17th c date is a further import, from the Low Countries or the Rhineland. Site 12 GM188 23 New London Street, 3435 Crutched Friars, EC3 H Chapman, 1973 NGR: TQ 33385 80890 SMR: 044378 A cesspit group was recovered from this site. It was excavated from the side of a narrow trench dug to insert a diaphragm wall. It consisted of pipes, Delft, Tudor-Green bowls and Surrey ware, and glass; mid 17th c. A second cesspit group was recovered apparently six months later (ER 1359); this was dated 184050. 21
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Site 13 Mariner House, Pepys Street, EC3 P. Marsden, 1966 and evaluation by MoLAS, 2006 [MCF06] NGR: TQ 33443 80865 Observations on the site in 1963 noted that the natural gravel was crossed by a line of black mud, probably the bed of a former stream, which crossed the western part of the site from NW to SE. It was also noted that the whole area had previously been excavated down to almost the level of the natural gravel which lay at about 31 ft. above OD (9.44m OD). In 2006 a series of test pits were dug in the building, prior to redevelopment. These revealed variable levels of truncation, with survival of cut features including medieval and later pits and remains of structures associated with the Crutched Friars and post-medieval buildings. Site 14 GM78 8 Hart Street, EC2 I Nol Hume, 19501 NGR: TQ 33370 80860 SMR: 0418734, 0200714 Several chalk foundations 3ft 3in wide were found N of the tower and crypt of St Olave Hart Street church; they were undated. They had been reused by the foundations of the 18th c rectory. Burials were found, believed to date from the 12th and 13th c. A circular chalk-lined well, 3ft in diameter and 16ft deep from the modern concrete floor, was found close to the church tower. It contained debris of the mid 16th and early 17th c. A circular chalk-lined cesspit or well 4ft in diameter contained pottery of the 16th and 17th c. Some of the finds are preserved on display at the church. Site 15 GM23 Colchester House, Pepys Street, EC3 Unknown, 1951 NGR: TQ 33530 80840 SMR: 040209 During post-War widening of Savage Gardens in 1951, several whole Roman pots were found. Some were retained by Trinity House and are on display at their offices in Colchester House, which is on the E side of the Gardens. Site 16 North End of Seething Lane, EC3 Unknown (probably C Roach-Smith) 1839-41 Roman tessellated pavements were found near St Olaves Church and throughout the Street (presumably when excavating for sewers). A sculpture of three mother 22
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goddesses were found, likely to have come from a temple or shrine; this is now in the Museum of London (Merrifield 1965, gazetteer no. 350). Site 17 AHT99 All Hallows by the Tower, Byward Street, EC3 NGR: TQ 3341 8067 This church, which was badly damaged in the War but rebuilt, has been the subject of several observations and excavations since 1929, but they have not been brought together in detail. Beneath the church, in its present crypt, is a fragment of a probably 2nd-c Roman building found in 192830, and other Roman walls have been found (Merrifield 1965, gazetteer nos 3589). The church has remains from the 11th century (the Saxon arch) and evidence of several periods of rebuilding and extension in the medieval period. The tower dates from 1659 (Schofield 1994, 813). In 1999 the parish built on the graveyard to the E, and this was preceded by excavation by AOC (Diccon Hart) (AHT99). Natural brickearth in the S of the site was cut by a pit containing prehistoric material. It was followed by a sequence of Roman surfaces, which are likely to have been external, covered by a probable Boudican destruction layer (AD 601). Two graves were found which contained Saxon material, and the churchyard appears to have been in constant use from this period onwards. Excavations took place in the upper levels of the cemetery, where burials dating from the late 18th- to mid-19th c were removed. Some of the burials lay in family plots; a number of lead coffins were also recorded. Remains of the post-medieval vestry and adjoining boiler house were excavated, both backfilled with medieval charnel and coffins, presumably during post-War reconstruction and landscaping.

23
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9
9.1

Bibliography
Published and documentary sources

ACAO, 1993 Association of County Archaeological Officers, Model briefs and specifications for archaeological assessments and field evaluations, Bedford AGL, 2000 MoLAS, The archaeology of Greater London: an assessment of archaeological evidence for human presence in the area covered by modern Greater London, London Bradley, S, and Pevsner, N, 1997 London 1: the City of London, Buildings of England Series, rev ed Colvin, H, 1995 A biographical dictionary of British architects 16001840, 3rd ed, London Corporation of London, 2002 Unitary development plan, London Corporation of London Department of Planning and Transportation, 1994 Conservation Areas in the City of London: a general introduction to their character, London Corporation of London Department of Planning and Transportation, 2004 Planning Advice Note 3: Archaeology in the City of London, Archaeology Guidance, London Corporation of London Department of Planning, 1998 A directory of conservation areas, listed buildings and Scheduled Monuments in the City of London, London DoE, 1990 Department of the Environment, Archaeology and planning: a consultative document, Planning Policy Guidance Note 16, London DoE, 1993 Department of the Environment [and] Department of National Heritage, Planning policy guidance: historic buildings and conservation areas, Planning Policy Guidance Note 15, London Ekwall, E, 1954 Street-names of the City of London, Oxford English Heritage, 1991 Exploring our past: strategies for the archaeology of England, London English Heritage, 1997 Sustaining the historic environment: new perspectives on the future, London English Heritage, 1998 Capital archaeology: strategies for sustaining the historic legacy of a world city, London English Heritage, 2000, Power of place, the future of the historic environment, London English Heritage Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service, 1998 Archaeological guidance papers 15, London English Heritage Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service, 1999 Archaeological guidance papers 6, London Greater London Authority, Feb 2004 The London Plan: Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London IFA, 2001 Institute of Field Archaeologists, By-laws, standards and policy statements of the Institute of Field Archaeologists, standard and guidance: desk-based assessment, rev, Reading Latham, R, and Matthews, W (eds), 1983 The diary of Samuel Pepys: x, companion, repr 1995, London Merrifield, R, 1965 The Roman city of London, London Museum of London, 2003 A research framework for London archaeology 2002, London Museum of London, Archaeology, 2008, 10 Trinity Square, London, EC3: a report on the watching brief, unpub report Schofield, J, 1994 Saxon and medieval parish churches in the City of London: a review, Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 45, 23146 Schofield, J, 2003 The building of London from the Conquest to the Great Fire, 3rd ed, London 24
P:\CITY\063\NA\Field\plaDBA19-11-08.doc

Archaeological desk-based assessment MoLAS 2006

Schofield, J, with Maloney, C (eds), 1998 Archaeology in the City of London, 190791: a guide to records of excavations by the Museum of London and its predecessors, MoL Archaeol Gazetteer Ser 1, London

9.2

Cartographic sources: historic maps

Margary, H, 1979 The AZ of Elizabethan London, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Margary, H, 1981 A collection of early maps of London 15531667, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Margary, H, 1981 The AZ of Georgian London, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Margary, H, 1985 The AZ of Regency London, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Margary, H, 1987 The AZ of Victorian London, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Margary, H, 1992 The AZ of Restoration London, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Ogilby, J, and Morgan, W, 1676 Large and Accurate Map of the City of London, reproduced in Margary, H, 1976, Large and Accurate Map of the City of London by John Ogilby and William Morgan, 1676, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent Rocque, J, 1746 Exact Survey of the City of London Westminster and Southwark and the Country 10 Miles Round, reproduced in Margary, H, 1971 Exact Survey of the City of London Westminster and Southwark and the Country 10 Miles Round by John Rocque, 1746, Margary in assoc Guildhall Library, Kent

25
P:\CITY\063\NA\Field\plaDBA19-11-08.doc

Archaeological desk-based assessment MoLAS 2008


Greater London

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Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

The Site

Fig 3 The site in the south-east part of Roman London

The Site

Fig 4 The site and its environs on the Historic Towns Atlas map of medieval London (1989)

17
CITY0063DBA08#03&04

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

The Site

Fig 5 The site and its environs on the Agas woodcut map of London, c 1570 (Guildhall Library)

Fig 6 Tower Hill and the scaffold, from Wyngaerdes panorama of about 1540 (Ashmolean Museum)

17
CITY0063DBA08#05&06

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

The Site

Fig 7 Extract from Ogilby and Morgans map (1676) showing the site and its environs (Guildhall Library)

Fig 8 The Old Navy Office in 1714

17
CITY0063DBA08#07&08

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

The Site

Fig 9 Extract from Rocques map (17467) showing the site and its environs (Guildhall Library)

The Site

Fig 10 Extract from Horwoods map (1819), showing the site and its environs (Guildhall Library)

17
CITY0063DBA08#09&10

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

the site

Fig 11 Ordnance Survey 1st edition 5':mile map of 1870 (not to scale)

9
CITY063DBA08#11

10

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Based upon the Ordnance Survey mapping with the permission of the Controller of Her Majestys Stationery Office Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. City of London 100023243 2008.

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Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

Tr4

1
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the site

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CITY063DBA08#12

Scaffold
(site of)

32

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

Fig 13 Photograph looking eastwards along the southern edge of the site during the demolition of Catherine Court prior to the construction of the PLA building

the site

Fig14 Ordnance Survey 3rd edition 25:mile map of 1920 (not to scale)

9
CITY06308#13&14

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

9
CITY06308#15

Fig 15 Plan of PLA building existing basement (PLA archive)

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

9
CITY06308#16

Fig 16 Sections of PLA building showing basements and foundations (PLA archive)

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

9
CITY063DBA08#17

Fig 17 Plan of existing sub-basements within the PLA building

Archaeological desk-based assessment MOL Archaeology 2008

9
CITY06308#18

Fig 18 Plan of proposed basement (Woods Bagot A011, P1, Nov 06)