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What is deviance? Deviance is basically someone being different from social norms. They are considered to be deviant because they aren’t what I would call “a social robot”, for example, because I have a tattoo I’m considered in societies to be a deviant. One is deviant depending on who is doing the judging.

2. What is Durkheim’s Theory of Crime? Durkheim’s Theory of Crime basically states that crime/deviance is both normal and necessary. It also indicates that with crime everyone in the society doesn’t have the same standards. “Crime as a function keeps a society in the state of progression”. (pg 5 Chapter 7 Outline) Crime shows boundaries between what is the appropriate form of behaviour. 3. What is Merton’s Theory of Anomie? The Merton’s Theory of Anomie is a variation of the Durkheim’s Theory of Crime. Within this theory he states that breaking the rules is a normal act for some segments of any society. Merton insisted that a good deal of deviance can be understood in terms of people’s responses to the challenge of using approved means to reach approved goals. 4. Who is Edwin Sutherland? Edwin Sutherland developed the differential association and produced the notion of whitecollar crimes. 5. What is the differential Association? Differential association is a theory to explain crime and delinquency in terms of exposure to more favorable than unfavorable definitions of illegal behaviour. 6. What is the Labeling Theory? The Labeling Theory comes out of symbolic interactions people become deviant as they are defined and treated as deviants. It has two components which are primary and secondary deviance. Primary is deviant behaviour by someone who still defines themselves as conforming rather than deviant. Secondary is the individual begins to define themselves the way others have labeled them. The theory highlights the power of significant others to affect an individual’s self-concept and behavior.

2|Page 7. What is Anomie? Anomie is a condition in which norms are weak, inconsistent or lacking. 8. What are white collar crimes? A white collar crime is a crime that is committed by a respectable person in the course of his/her work. 9. What is the Caste System? The Caste system is a closed form of stratification, personally I don’t care for it. With this system people are left behind, no matter how hard one works it is impossible for them to be better off. 10. What is the Estate System? The Estate system is a closed form of stratification, one in which I wouldn’t mind being a part of. This system is basically the privileged; their position is given or based upon the law as well as birth. An example would be a royal family or the Hilton’s. 11. What are the differences between the Caste and Estate Systems? The difference between both the Caste and Estate systems are quite evident. With the caste you basically have people who are working to better themselves yet they can’t do so whereas with the Estate system they are born into power. 12. How is social class measured? Social class is measured by similar values and lifestyles, in most cases it is mainly defined by how much wealth one has. Others however may judge their social class by looking at people who surround them and compare. 13. Describe the upper class. The upper class is comprised of rich people 14. Describe the middle class. People in this class are not rich but they live quite well or comfortable. 15. Describe the working class. The working class is comprised of people who live from check to check.

3|Page 16. Describe the lower class. Poor people 17. Describe the American poor. The American poor comprise a good chunk of the populous. The poor have to deal with going through poverty, because of poverty many people end up being homeless or a part of the welfare system. Who’s poor in America varies by location; however, 35% of those who are poor are single mothers. Many reasons why so many people are poor isn’t just the cliché because some don’t want to work but it’s because of the forever changing economy. People can escape being poor but they need help, help which isn’t always so easily given to those in need. 18. Describe what a minority is. A minority is a disadvantaged racial or ethnic group. It could be in regards to the work area, school, county, country, region etc. Minorities are often paid less and not accepted in various areas. 19. Name the six racial and ethnic groups in the United States. a. b. c. d. e. f. African Americans Hispanic Americans Asian Americans White Ethnics Jewish Americans American Indians

20. Discuss in detail each one of these six racial and ethnic groups. a. African Americans i. Make up 33.7 million in America’s population ii. Were slaves 1st brought to America in 1619 iii. In the 18th Century were considered property with no rights of any kind iv. The abolition of slavery occurred due to the 13th Amendment however that didn’t solve the problems the race face 1. Discrimination in courts 2. Jobs v. In 1909 the NAACP was established vi. Had to deal with segregation in schools, restaurants, transportation etc. vii. The main problem African Americans face is being part of the lower class b. Hispanic Americans

4|Page i. In the 15th Century Spanish explorers came to North American and developed colonies ii. Population growth increased in the 19th Century mainly due to war. iii. Mexican Americans compose the largest group of Hispanic people in the U.S iv. Are a little better economically compared to African Americans v. 11% of U.S population vi. ¼ of the families are headed by women c. Asian Americans i. 1848 the 1st Chinese came to the U.S ii. 1980-1992- Asians were the fastest growing group in the U.S iii. They fare better than most other racial groups iv. There is a huge difference in wealth depending on the area in which they are in compared to others in their own race v. Noted for academic excellence 1. More Asians complete high school compared to whites. 2. High expectations in family 3. Account for success vi. Are more pessimistic, depressed and likely to deal with withdrawal. d. White Ethnics i. Started to immigrate to the U.S in 1830 ii. Make up the majority of the population iii. More likely to lose heritage iv. Are looked at as being American more so than others. e. Jewish Americans i. Nearly 6 million present in the U.S ii. Forced to deal with Anti-Semitism which is the prejudice against them iii. Declining in population due to loss of identity iv. High job and income levels v. Over half with college degrees f. American Indians i. 2.3 million in population making it the smallest group in the U.S ii. Over 500 tribes and 250 languages iii. Were viewed as inferior and portrayed as various forms of savages. 21. What is prejudice? Prejudice is a pre judgment or opinion based on different factors, could be age, sex, race, etc. 22. What is discrimination? Discrimination is the actual act of prejudices’ against an individual’s race, social group, sex, etc. besides his/her own worth.

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23. What are the differences between prejudice and discrimination? Is there really a difference? Being prejudice is a pre judgment it’s often a thought however with discrimination it’s basically in my opinion acting upon a prejudice. 24. What is Institutional discrimination? It’s discrimination caused by policies and practices of various institutions; it could be from school to loans. 25. What is segregation? The forced separation of either races, sexes, religion etc. Example at one point there blacks were told to use one water fountain while whites had to use a different one. 26. What is assimilation? Assimilation is basically losing one’s own cultural identity due to adopting the larger group’s practices. 27. What are gender roles? Gender roles are basically supposed behaviour norms for men and women. 28. Discuss socialization with peers. Socialization skills form with the family and are often times shaped by peers. Boys are given a higher rank due to how tough they are whereas girls by how they look. In turn it affects our behaviour. 29. Discuss gender socialization at school. School was different for both boys and girls. Girls were basically babied in school, if they had a question the teacher was quick to answer while boys on the other hand were told to figure out the answers on their own. 30. Discuss gender socialization by the media. In school books boys were shown being active and independent whereas girls were passive and dependent and shown colorless. When it comes to other forms of media like television boys are portrayed like in school books with the addition of dominance with girls being the same as in school books with the additions of sensitive and romantic. Boys are shown better.

6|Page 31. Discuss gender socialization in religion. It is believed by many religious groups that women although important shouldn’t be speakers of God and Jesus because all of the lack of women presence being a factor in the Bible. For example, Roman Catholics believe that only men because Jesus himself was man can be representatives of him at the altar and Protestants go by the fact that all of Jesus’ disciples were men so his speakers should be as well. In 1948 African Methodist Episcopal Church approved the ordination of women. Since then others have done the same thing. 32. What was the feminist approach? The feminist approach basically refers to what feminist have done and are doing for the fight for the abolition of all gender inequalities. They work together to achieve a common goal. The feminist group such as NOW has created some programs and policies to end gender inequality. 33. What is sexual harassment? It is unwanted and unwelcomed sexual advances on an individual by someone who is superior to them; there are more cases of sexual harassment in the workplace compared to anywhere else. Both men and women are sexually harassed but a majority of the cases are women. 34. What is the family? I look at family as a group of people which you are extremely close with and they stick with you no matter what the situation may be. The outline describes it as a “group of individuals living under one roof and usually under one head”. (pg 1 Chap. 11 outline) 35. What is cohabitation? Not being married while living with someone with whom you have an intimate and sexual relationship with. 36. What is abortion? Other than being a touchy subject, abortion is basically the removal of a fetus from the uterus. There are cases when an abortion is necessary to preserve the life of the pregnant woman and in other situations it’s a birth control method. 37. What is a blended family? A blended family is a combination platter. It adds another family to a current one with marriage. Example, a woman is divorced with 2 kids and remarries thus adding a husband and all of his family ties. Upon remarrying she just created a blended family.

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38. What is religion? Religion gives meaning in the course of beliefs and practices that are defined as sacred. 39. What is religion as an opiate? According to Karl Marx religion is a drug that leads the masses to passively accept their exploited and deprived situation. It shows the concept of the status quo and supports social inequality with women being inferior to men. People use religion to keep them satisfied and dull everyday pains. 40. What are sects and cults? Sects are religious based organizations that tend to differ from the larger society and the church. Cults on the other hand are religious groups that rebut the values of the larger society they oppose all other religions and demand total and complete commitment from members. 41. Discuss inequality in education. The quality of education differs depending on social class, racial/ethnic group and gender. People in poorer areas tend to not get quality education whereas those in richer areas receive a better education. It is predominately due to the amount of taxes paid and the way in which various areas distribute it. Children are deterred a better education due to the neighborhood they live in. “Unequal educational resources which result from unequal funding”. (pg 15 Ch 12 Outline) 42. What is Theism? The Greeks are theist because they worship Greek Gods like Hera, Zeus, and Aphrodite, Theism is a religion that is focuses on God or Gods. 43. Define power. Power is to have the control over the behaviour of others with or without their consent, to attain specific goals. 44. Define authority. Authority is defined as having legitimate power. 45. What is an Authoritarian Government?

8|Page Authoritarian government rules by coercion. People have little to no say about who governs them and how they are governed. Authoritarian governments vary in the extent to which they try to control the lives of people. 46. What is a Participatory Government? The participatory government is one in which people have a voice rules them and in how they are ruled. Power is given to the people and they have a different structure of leadership which is constitutional monarchies and democracy. 47. What is the pluralist model? Power is roughly evenly divided among various interest groups. 48. What is the power elite model? Interest groups have a middle or medium level of power. The power is concentrated in a relatively small number of political, economic and military leaders. This model has people at the bottom of the power chain. 49. What is Capitalism? Capitalism according to Adam Smith is based on selfishness, it’s an economic system with private ownership of means of production and competitive, for profit distribution of goods and service. It’s basically when you look out for yourself. 50. What is Socialism? Socialism is when the state owns the means or production. It’s an economic system that allows cooperative distribution of goods and services. People under this form of system avoid recessions, depressions and inflation. 51. What is Health? Health is a combination of your physical and mental welfare. If one fails the other seems to follow suit. 52. What are social factors in Health and Illness? Women live longer than men do. The social factors that deal with health and illness are the following: social class, social roles, the economy and the government.

9|Page Social class, people who are less fortunate tend to know less about various health factors and are provided with little to no health healthcare and insurance. Social roles, as previously stated women live longer than men and many physical and emotional disorders are related to stress, the happier someone is with their day to day task tend to live longer. The economy, industrial as well as agricultural places of work cause many health problems and can easily spread. The government, funding and policies given by them provide various accesses to healthcare. 53. Discuss the Right to Die. After Dr. Jack Kevorkian (a Michigan doctor who aided people with terminal diseases commit suicide), Right to Die became a serious issue. The right to die basically indicates the issue on health professionals being able to aid in killing those who want to kill themselves due to terminal health reasons. It also asks if people should have the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment.

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