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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included (Azizullah A, et al , 2011). Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities (C. Michael Hogan, 2010). Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily, An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness 1

2 every day. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, developed countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres, and 32 percent of assessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted (Environmental Protection Agency,2002). The effects of water pollution are numerous. Some water pollution effects are recognized immediately, whereas others don’t show up for months or years. When toxins are in the water, the toxins travel from the water the animals drink to humans when the animals’ meat is eaten so the pollutants enter the food chain. Infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera can be contracted from drinking contaminated water. This is called microbial water pollution. The human heart and kidneys can be adversely affected if polluted water is consumed regularly. Other health problems associated with polluted water are poor blood circulation, skin lesions, vomiting, and damage to the nervous system. In fact, the effects of water pollution are said to be the leading cause of death for humans across the globe (EPA Standard Operating Procedures (2002). In Pakistan the problem of water pollution is also growing at an alarming rate. The phenomena1 increase in country’s population has brought unprecedented pressure on safe drinking water. Water born diseases account for 20 to 30% of all hospital cases and 60% infant deaths (Government of Pakistan, 1999-2000). In Pakistan, 72% population lives in rural area. More of them have not the availability of good quality drinking water. So due to polluted water the people of villages have a many diseases like typhoid, stomach problems, kidney problem, food poisoning and skin problem (Ilyas, 2005).

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Objectives
1. To study the effects of water pollution on human health 2. To explore the water pollution effects on the people of Maqbool Road Faisalabad. 3. To give some suggestion to water quality better for the better health of the people.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Revenga C and Mock G. (2000) It has been known to cause illness and /or
death. Many people are not aware of this sources of water pollution are generally divided into two categories. The first is point source pollution in which contaminant is discharged from a discrete location sewage out falls and oil spills are example of point, source pollution. The second category is nonpoint –source of diffuse. Pollution m, and rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas are examples of non-point source pollution. Pink, Daniel H. (April 19, 2006). Virtually all water pollutions are hazardous to humans as well as lesser spices sodium is implicated in cardiovascular disease. Nitrates in blood disorders Mercury lend can cause nervous disorders. Water pollution is a serious problem in the global context, it has been suggested that it is the biding worldwide cause of deaths diseases m and that it account for the deaths of mote than 14.000 people daily. Beychok, M. R (2005) Air water and land pollution are environmental phenomenon quite fruiter to most of the city dwellers and a good number of people in the rural areas. Environmental pollution which has threatened mot only human health life exception and welfare but also animalism plants crops as well as property and planning for the 21st century. Jehangir (2011) reported that pollution is caused by the things that benefit the people e. g. exhaust from automobiles cause a large percentage of all air pollution but automobiles cause a large percentage of all air pollution but automobiles provide transportation to million of people. Factories discharge much of the material that pollutes the air and water nut factories provide out put and jobs for people. Too much fertilizers and pesticides scan ruin the soil but fertilizers and pesticides are more important aids to the growing of crops, likewise the textile industry effluents. Thus, to end or greatly reduce pollution

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5 immediately , people would have to stop using man things that benefit them . Most of the people do not want to do that, of course. Tripathy and Ddhar (2000) reported that continued advancement in industrialization and the ever increasing demand for energy resources and minerals ace led to a spurt in mining activities, bringing in its wake imbalances in ecological equilibrium and many environmental hazards . the air and water pollution causes hazards, reducing the quality of life. The weather conditions also greatly affect the pollution levels in the atmosphere. Grievink at al.( 2000) reviewed proposes 2 mechanisms for a respiratory effect of oxidative air pollutants, summarizes studies on modulation of acute respiratory effects of air pollution by supplementation of antioxidants (vitamin c, vitamin E and arytenoids) and discusses the role plated by antioxidants in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Revenga C. and Mock G. (2000) stated that the sight and smell or grossly polluted waterways provided some of the original impetus to the environmental movement in the 1970s. Nearly a century before that, the dangers of polluted water to human health drive what became known as the “sanitary revolution” in Europe and the United states emphasizing clean water supplies and sewer systems in cities. Today, despite progress in cleaning up waterways in some areas, water pollution remains a serious global problem with impacts in the health of freshwater ecosystems and the human communities that rely on them for water supply. Dockery ct al: (2001) Discussed in this article, the associations between cardiovascular diseases and inhalation of airborne particles and co-pollutants. Epidemiological studies providing guidance to possible pathways of particulate air pollution health effects are described. Hajra Elahi (2001) our cities are likely to experience a higher incidence of smog in the coming winter because air pollution has erased all safety levels. According to a recent environmental report, the presence of pollutants suspended in the atmosphere exceeds worlds Health organization (WHO) guidelines by 6.4 per cent in cities. Smoke emitted from vehicles and industry 5

6 with natural dust combines to create a blanket if fog over the city. Some becomes a leafing factor in road accidents due to poor visibility and inadequate street lighting. It also aggravates allergies and asthma, affecting people’s health. In a study carried out by the world bank, the annual cost to the Pakistan economy in terms of urban air pollution was estimated at $369 million. This includes expenditures on heath and productivity loss due to absenteeism in schools and at the workplace. Dawn (2001) reported “According to the National Environmental Quality standards, 98 per cent of industrial units discharge underrated effluent into rivers lakes and sea. Dumping of the untreated municipal and industrial wastes have caused contamination of surface and ground water resources and threatened aquatic life to diminishing level. About 40 per cent of Pakistan population has no access to safe drinking water and nearly 84 per cent of rural population is with out sanitation facilities. Water bore diseases account for 20 to 30 per cent of all hospital cases and about 60 per cent of infant deaths in the country. Also, environmental pollution and unhygienic conditions are directly responsible for the spread of tuberculosis and malaria. Dr Robert Brook (2002), a specialist in the biology of blood vessels at the university of Michigan and his group in study stated that “Air pollution causes the blood vessels of healthy people to close up, which helps explain why high levels of pollution are linked to heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems”. Brook said the experiment involved fairly high levels of pollution, as found in Mexico City, for instances or on bad days in loss. Angeles but he said the harmful pollution could not be seen or smelled, and people would not feel the effects, The Nation (2002) concluded that it has been variously reported that between the year 1980 and 1996,carbon dioxide emission have move than doubled in Pakistan from 31.6 metric tons to 94.3 metric tons in terms of pre capital emission. During the same period the discharge of organic water pollutants increases from 75, 1,125KG /day to 114,726/day Moreover, in [Pakistan, only 39% of the population has access to sanitation facilities. (International Labor organization in its 2002 publication) Has stated that in many countries urban 6

7 and industrial waste is dumped into large land fill sites without consideration of geography soil texture the water table or potential seeping into ground water which might be used for drinking waste from industries like those producing alkaline salts, affects the fertility of the soil by making it salty being disrupted, and water related diseases cause millions deaths each years, especially in developing countries, pollution is henceforth regarded as a major public health concern. Tripathy & Dhar (2002) Concluded that the continued advancements in industrialization and the ever increasing demand for energy resources and minerals have led to a spurt in mining activities bringing in its wake imbalances in ecological equilibrium and mange environmental hazards. The air and water pollution cause hazards reducing the quality of life. The weather conditions also greatly affect the pollution levels in the atmosphere.

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8 Chapter III Methodology The main objective of methodology is to explain various tools and techniques employed for the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, related to the study under investigation. 1. UNIVERSE Selection of universe in very important in research study. It provides more accuracy and precision. In statistical sense the term” Universe” means the aggregate of person are objects under study. Universe is a theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given research (Babble, 2001). The study was conducted in city Faisalabad. The study population was consisted on all living people at Maqbool Road Faisalabad. 3.2 SAMPLE “Part of a population is called sample” 25 respondents from Maqbool Road were selected for this research work. 3.3 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION Interview Schedule The data was collected with the help of interviewing schedule; an interviewing schedule was referred to the questions formulated according to the requirements and relevance of the objectives of research. It was a technical procedure to get the required information accurately. Interviewing schedule was prepare in English but translated into Urdu and Punjabi for data collection, if deem necessary. It was formulated with supervision and great attention of supervisor.

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Conceptualization of concepts
Concepts of the abstraction used by the scientist as building blocks for the development of the preposition and theories, which explain and predict the phenomenon (Good and Hatt., 1952). Conceptualization is much more difficult in social science as compared to other discipline, because some concepts are sometimes used with different meanings by different researchers. Some of the concepts used in the present study are operationalzed as under: Statistical techniques used Following techniques of data analysis were used: Percentage Percentage indicates proportion. It is a useful technique for comparison and estimation. Percentage will be calculated by following method. P Where: P F N = = = Percentage Number of observation Total number of frequencies = F/N x 100

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Chapter IV Data analysis
Analysis and interpretation of data are the most important step in scientific research. Without these steps generalizations and prediction cannot be achieved which is the target of the scientific research. Data collection about related problem is imperative to find out the facts and figures. Analysis of data leads to inferences. Generalization and conclusion are drawn on the bases of characteristics and attitudes of the respondents. The data was collected through a questionnaire from the living peoples of Maqbool Road. Three alternatives viz A, B, C &Yes, No, were given against each item regarding awareness about water pollution to measure the existing attitude of responded towards ill effect of water pollution at Maqbool Road. The required data analysis is given bellow. Table 1 Distribution of the Respondents in Regard to Monthly Income. Percentage Income per Month Les than Rs3000 5001/-to 6000/6001/-to 8000/8001/-to+ 10000 Total Frequency 1 20 33 26 80 Percentage 1.25 25. 41.25 32.5 100

This table shows that the monthly income of the respondents. According to the table the highest numbers of the respondent had up to 6001-8000 monthly income with the percentage of 41.25

Table 2 Distribution of the respondents in regard to Family Type

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Family Type Joint Nuclear Total

Frequency 70 10 80

Percentage 87.5 12.5 100

This table shows that 87.5 percent of the respondents were living in joint family type. While 12.5 percent were living in nuclear type of family.

Table 3

Distribution of the Respondents in Regards to Marital Status Martial Status Married Unmarried Total ``Frequency 77 03 80 Percentage 96.25 3.75 100

This table shows that s that a very large majority 96.5% of the total respondents were married whereas unmarried percentage was only 2.5.

Table 4 Distribution of the Respondents in Regards to Age: Age (Year) 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Frequency 14 10 26 27 03 Percentage 17.5 12.5 32.5 33.75 3.75 11

12 Total 80 100

This table shows that the highest numbers of the respondent with the percentage of 33.75 were in the age of 55-64. While 32.5 were in the age of 45-54. TABLE 5 Percentage Distribution of respondents according to awareness about pollution. Frequency Water Land Air Total 16 5 4 25 64 20 16 100 Percentage

The above table shows the Percentage Distribution of respondents according to awareness about pollution. This shows that the highest numbers of the respondent with the percentage of 64 had knowledge of water pollution. Wile 20 % having knowledge about land pollution.

TABLE 6 Percentage Distribution of respondents according to source of drinking water, which is available. Frequency Wasa’s available Under ground water Mineral water Total 12 8 5 25 48 32 20 100 Percentage

The above table shows that 48 % of the respondents were use drinking water provided by WASA. While 32 % of the respondents used under ground water.

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13 TABLE 7 Distribution if the Respondents in regard to about the diseases that create to the health problem. Frequency Eye burning Lungs disease Skin disease Total 5 14 6 25 20 56 24 100 Percentage

This table shows the Distribution if the Respondents in regard to about the diseases that create to the health problem. This shows that 56 % of the respondent suffers in lung diseases due to water pollution. While 24 % of the respondents facing skin disease.

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14 Table 8 Percentage Distribution of respondents regarding to knowledge about the cause of land pollution. Frequency Smoking of vehicles Dirty Water of factories Sewerage System Total 8 12 5 25 32 48 20 100 Percentage

The above table shows the Distribution of respondents regarding to knowledge about the cause of land pollution. This shows that 48% of the respondents agree that dirty water of the factories is a main cause of water pollution Table 9 An opinion can give the public to save for pollution. Frequency You read and leastion on T.v, Radio, Newspaper about pollution. TV Radio Newspaper Total Percentage

20 2 3 25

80 8 12 100

The above table shows that the above table shows that 80 % of the respondents know about pollution through TV. While 12% by newspaper.

TABLE 10

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15 Percentage Distribution of respondents suffered due to following type of pollution. You and your family have suffered due to this type of pollution? Water Air land Total 16 7 2 25 64 28 8 100 Frequency Percentage

The above table shows that 64% of the respondents suffered due water pollution. While 28% of the respondents suffered due to air pollution. Table 11 Distribution of the Respondent in regard to General Attitude about Environmental pollution. General attitude about 5 18 2 25 Frequency 20 72 8 100 Percentage water pollution. Positive Negative Indifferent Total

The above table shows that 72 % of the respondents had negative attitude about water pollution. While 20% respondents give their opinion in positive sense.

TABLE 12 Percentage Distribution of respondents according to knowledge other side of human being pollution is effects. On the other side of human being Pollution is effects on these? Animal Plants 4 5 16 20 15 Frequency Percentage

16 Human Total 16 25 64 100

This table shows that 64 % of the respondents know that every kind of pollution effects on human being. TABLE 13 Percentage Distribution of respondents regarding to how water use in their houses. Division of people use of water. Hand Pomp Stream Water Water pump Total 2 2 21 25 Frequency 8 8 84 100 Percentage

This table shows that 84% of the respondents use water pumps for water using while 2 % use hand pump and same ratio use stream water.

TABLE 14 Percentage Distribution of respondents to regarding to knowledge about pollution. You know what is effects of pollution? Yes No Total 21 4 25 Frequency 84 16 100 Percentage

The above table shows that 84% of the respondents agree that they have knowledge about the effects of water pollution.

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17 TABLE 15 Percentage about any industrial unit. You know about unit any that 22 3 25 88 12 100 Frequency Percentage

industrial

working in your locality. Yes No Total

This table shows that 88% of the respondents know about the industrial units that were working in the area. While 12% of the respondents reply in negative.

TABLE 16 You know about any agency working to give awareness in public about pollution. Awareness agency pollution Yes No Total about that any give Frequency Percentage

information about water 4 21 25 16 84 100

This table shows that 84 % of the people were not agree with the statement that they have knowledge any agency that give information about water pollution.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

In the light of the results found in the present study, the following conclusions are drawn. The Chemical Factories are
1.

The biggest source of continuous nuisance and bad smell. When the wind

blows the air polluted by this mill takes into full grip all the area around it. Every body feels very much upset and disturbed. The mill is creating nuisance in two ways, one by the polluted air and the other by its sullage flowing in spacious open drain. If the mill had been installed with full consideration of its pros and cons, the situation would have been different. 2. Due to this chemical plant, the social atmosphere will become very ugly. It has created many social problems, making the life of dwellers miserable other than the fact that they are always living in polluted air bad, it has been discharging

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19 gas which destroys vegetables, fruit and crops. Its effects are very harmful for animals, which prove a great economic loss. 3. People do not feel socially and economically secure. They feel very uneasy when peaceful atmosphere is spoiled by chlorine gas. Its set up has played a vital role in damaging the healthy living conditions. If remedial measures are not taken to arrest this situation rights now, the life if the dwellers in surrounding communities will be awful. 4. Clean and healthy atmosphere is essential for good health of suburban communities around the chemical mills, people cannot inhale smoothly in polluted air where the ratio of the air composition is disturbed by means of pollution of solid waste, liquid waste dropping in drainage and leakage of chlorine gas. 5. Residents of the said area cannot work properly. Pollution bring out only health problems for them but also economic problems by damaging crops and social problem e.g., discomfort and tension etc. the chemical plant is damaging the entire nature if the surrounding community by its pollution and by accumulating unhealthy environment. MAIN FINDINGS  The highest numbers of the respondent had up to 6001-8000 87.5 percent of the respondents were living in joint family type. a 96.5% of the respondents were married the highest numbers of the respondent with the percentage of The highest numbers of the respondent with the percentage of 64 48 % of the respondents were use drinking water provided by 56 % of the respondent suffers in lung diseases due to water monthly income with the percentage of 41.25.  very large majority.  

33.75 were in the age of 55-64.  had knowledge of water pollution.  WASA.  pollution.

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20  48% of the respondents agree that dirty water of the factories is a 80 % of the respondents know about pollution through TV. 64% of the respondents suffered due water pollution. 72 % of the respondents had negative attitude about water 84% of the respondents use water pumps for water using. 84% of the respondents agree that they have knowledge about the 88% of the respondents know about the industrial units that were 84 % of the people were not agreeing with the statement that they

main cause of water pollution.    pollution.  

effects of water pollution.  working in the area.  have knowledge any agency that gives information about water pollution. SUGGESTIONS The Maqbool Road is a industrial area of Faisalabad situated at Samundari Road. There are so many workshops of Industry Items manufacturers, Textile Units, Waving Factories and other type of industries. Researchers visit their own and suggest some suggestions for betterment of the living people of Maqbool Road Faisalabad. 1. The industry should adopt the following applicable options to minimize wastes:I. Source reduction. II. Recovering and recycling. III. Modification or replacement of process. IV. Change in raw materials. V, Change in raw materials. 2. Environment issues must become pan of our political agenda. 3. There is a need to convert the message of IPCC and its scientific work in to simple understanding of how the lives of the poor will be affected with climate change. IPCC (intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

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21 4. For the purpose of clean drinking water the ultimate solution may be o have home based water filtration/sanitizing system. This would eliminate the problem of trying to prevent hundreds of mills of pipes. 5. We could request and purchase processed chlorine-free paper, not just in writing paper but in paper towels, napkins, tissues, and toilet paper. It's a vote for our environment and our health. It may seem to be a small tiling, but collectively it really can make a substantial difference. 6. The industry should be beneficial for the local community. They should provide jobs to the local! People and built hospitals, dispensaries and schools. 7. The environment protection ordinance 1983 should be more effective after updating it. 8. Awareness in regard to pollution; environment provision should be Promoted through the media and the educational institutions. 9. Environment impact study to all the new projects should be done. Before approval and sanction of the loans for the industrial projects, which have built-in arrangements for treatment of waste materials. The civic bodies at every level should take environment protection measures in areas under their jurisdiction by framing by-laws for the propose. 10. A working level advisory panel of labour, management, academic and public representatives should be established- The function of the panel should be to provide advice, technical assistance and information on environmental, health and safety matters, as well as to work on the drafting of regulations and enforcement procedures. 11. Pollution control is the need of the day, which can be controlled not merely by applying the rules and regulations but with the active co-operation of the polluters especially the industrialists.

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References

 Azizullah A, Khattak MN, Richter P, Häder DP. (2011). Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review. Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Staudtstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.  Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th Edition ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  C. Michael Hogan (2010). "Water pollution.". Encyclopedia of Earth. Topic ed. Mark McGinley; ed. in chief C. Cleveland. National Council on Science and the Environment, Washington, DC.  Dawn, 2001, the daily newspaper "The Dawn" July 2001. Pakistan.  Dockery, D. W,, D.B.yeates and J.L Maidenly, 2001Epidemioligic evidence. Of cardiovascular effects of particulale air pollution. American Thoracic Society.  Dr, Robert Brook, 2002. Air Pollution causes the blood Vessels of healthy people to close up. Which helps explain why high levels of

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23 pollution are linked to heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems U.S.A.  EPA Standard Operating Procedures (2002) Collection of chemical and biological ambient water samples. U.S. EPA, Module 7, Region 1,  Government of Pakistan, 1999. Pakistan Economic Survey, 1999– 2000. Government of Pakistan Economic Adviser’s Wing Finance Division Islamabad, Pakistan.  Grievink L., Smit H.A., Brunekreef B. 2000. “Anti-oxidants and air pollution in relation to indicators of asthma and COPD: A review of the current evidence,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 30(10): 13441354.  Hnjra Elahf, 2001. Environmental Pollution and human health. World Health organization, U.N.O.  Ilyss, M., 2005. Community medicine Chains T.W., 1981, Industrial and iDomestic Effluent and Living Organism. Public health reports. Washington, DC. USA  Jahangir, M. 2011. Environmental Pollution, A nightmare by the year 2000 Kisht-e-Nau. University magazine. University of Agriculture Press. Faisalabad,Pakistan, p.91-92.  Pink, Daniel H. (2006). "Investing in Tomorrow's Liquid Gold". Yahoo. http://finance.yahoo.com/columnist/article/trenddesk/3748.  Revenga C and Mock G. (2000) Dirty water: pollution problems persist pilot Analysis of Global Ecoststems;Freshwater ststems:Earth Trends 2001 world Resources Institute .Oct.  The Nation. 2002. Pollution in Pakistan Constantly Increasing 23

24  Tripatahy, D.P.and B.B.H Publishing Corporation. Darya-New Dehli110002.  United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002). Washington, DC. "The National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress for the 2002 Reporting Cycle – A Profile." October 2007. Fact Sheet No. EPA 841-F-07-003.

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