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CASE # 2 According to the American Lung Association, more than half of all Americans live in countries with unsafe

levels of smog and particulate pollution, which leads to many lung and respiratory illnesses. About a third of the population is a cigarette smoker which exposes them to more hazardous substances. Air pollutants produced by automobiles and factories contributes more to this effect. The World Health Organization has reported that about 2.7 million Americans die of lung ailment. About 4.3 million Asians die from various lung diseases. In the Philippines, the Department of Health reported that 1.4 million Filipinos are affected by various lung diseases due to air pollution and cigarette smoking. And about 300,000 deaths have been attributed to air pollution and cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVES This case study aims to: 1. Identify the causes, sources and effects of smog and particle pollution in the air. 2. Determine the effects of cigarette smoking in human health. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. The unsafe levels of smog and particle pollution in the air. 2. Cigarette smoking exposes to more hazardous substances. EXAMPLES: Air Pollution China wins the number one spot for the worlds most polluting country as it emits 6,018 million tonnes of greenhouse gases each year. This comes at little surprise as huge amounts of goods are manufactured in China, then exported all over the world. China also has the world's largest population of 1,324,655,000 so it consumes vast amounts of fossil fuels for transportation, cities, workplaces and food production. China's environmental protection ministry published a report in November 2010 which showed that about a third of 113 cities surveyed failed to meet national air standards last year. According to the World Bank 16 of the worlds 20 cities with the worst air are in China. According to Chinese government sources, about a fifth of urban Chinese breath heavily polluted air. Many places smell like high-sulfur coal and leaded gasoline. Only a third of the 340 Chinese cities that are monitored meet Chinas own pollution standards. Chinas smog-filled cities are ringed with heavy industry, metal smelters, and coal-fired power plants, all critical to keeping the fast-growing economy going even as they spew tons of carbon, metals, gases, and soot into the air. The air pollution and smog in Beijing and Shanghai are sometimes so bad that the airports are shut down because of poor visibility. The air quality of Beijing is 16 times worse than New York City. Sometimes you can't even see building a few blocks away and blue sky is a rare sight. In Shanghai sometimes you can't see the street from the 5th floor window. Fresh air tours to the countryside are very popular. Coal is the number once source of air pollution in China. China gets 80 percent of electricity and 70 percent its total energy from coal, much of it polluting high-sulphur coal. Around six million tons of coal is burned everyday to power factories, heat homes and cook meals. Expanding car ownership, heavy traffic and low-grade gasoline have made cars a leading contributor to the air pollution problem in Chinese cities.

In Metro Manila, Philippines, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns levels, which exceeds twice the national air quality standards, is now considered the priority air pollution dilemma. Sulfur dioxide and total oxidants in air still occasionally exceed the standards, while nitrogen oxides, ozone, and carbon monoxide levels all remain barely within the air quality standard range. The largest contributor to the total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matters in air are fossil fuel combustion in small and medium industrial and commercial installations, re-suspension, and construction activities. Vehicle exhaust makes up about 12 percent of the total TSP emissions, the largest contributors of which are diesel trucks, buses, and jeepneys. The study further stated that air pollution in other urban areas of the country is becoming a problem. The WB cited as an example that from 1997-1999 at the main road and central business district in Baguio City, TSP levels ranged from fair to poor. In the Visayas, from 1995-1999, TSP levels are much higher than the air quality standard. The deterioration of air quality in the country most especially in Metro Manila has adverse impacts on public health. An epidemiological study conducted by the University of the Philippines (UP) College of Public Health, showed that the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is 32.5 percent among jeepney drivers, 16.4 percent among air conditioned bus drivers, and 13.8 percent among commuters. The study further stated that up to 55 percent of the total burden of bronchitis was found to be attributable to pollution in urban and rural areas of the country. Cigarette Smoking In the Philippines, ten Filipinos die every hour from illnesses caused by smoking while the country loses nearly P500 billion annually from healthcare costs and productivity losses, according to an anti-tobacco group. Health Justice Philippines disputed the claims of tobacco companies that increasing taxes on tobacco would hurt tobacco farmers and lead to the loss of livelihood. The most important issue is none other than health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that tobacco consumption kills 10 Filipinos every hour, due to cancer, stroke, lung and heart diseases brought on by cigarette smoking, the group said in a statement. Even if a person does not smoke, the WHO warns that second-hand smoke causes hundreds of thousands of deaths to non-smokers due to the same smoking-related diseases, it said. HealthJustice said the Philippines loses billions of pesos in terms of health and economic costs from smoking. It cited a 2006 study by the WHO, Department of Health (DOH), University of the Philippines-Manila and the Philippine College of Medical Researchers Foundation showing that the governments economic costs, including expenses for health care and costs of productivity losses, reached P461 billion. The group said price increases through tax reforms in tobacco products will discourage people from smoking. It quoted a World Bank study as saying that a 10 percent increase in taxes on tobacco products would lead to a 4 to 8 percent decrease in consumption, thus leading to saving thousands of lives. A recent study by economists Filomeno Sta. Ana and Jo-Ann Latuja estimates that at least 870,000 smokers will quit and 310,000 lives can be saved when the needed excise tax reforms, which will significantly increase the price of cigarettes, are implemented, HealthJustice said. The tax reforms would also help raise additional revenues for public health, with the Department of Finance estimating that as much as P30 billion to P40 billion additional revenues can be generated annually, it said. The group said the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has estimated that more than 17 million adult Filipinos smoke while a DOH survey showed that Filipino children as

young as five years old are already starting to smoke. If the current administration falls short of implementing measures to reduce tobacco consumption among its citizens, the health risks and economic losses will certainly become too much to bear in the near future, the group said. CONCLUSIONS In cities, air may be severely polluted not only by transportation but also by the burning of fossil fuels (oil and coal) in generating stations, factories, office buildings, and homes and by the incineration of garbage. The massive combustion produces tons of ash, soot, and other particulates responsible for the gray smog country like China, along with enormous quantities of sulfur oxides (which also may be result from burning coal and oil). These oxides rust iron, damage building stone, decompose nylon, tarnish silver, and kill plants. Air pollution from cities also affects rural areas for many miles downwind. Every industrial process exhibits its own pattern of air pollution. Petroleum refineries are responsible for extensive hydrocarbon and particulate pollution. Iron and steel mills, metal smelters, pulp and paper mills, chemical plants, cement and asphalt plantsall discharge vast amounts of various particulates. Uninsulated high-voltage power lines ionize the adjacent air, forming ozone and other hazardous pollutants. Airborne pollutants from other sources include insecticides, herbicides, radioactive fallout, and dust from fertilizers, mining operations, and livestock feedlots. Air pollution causes numerous health consequences for people. Like the filters in machinery and buildings, a person's lungs can become coated with the particulate matter in the pollution. This can lead to any number of respiratory problems, depending on the levels of exposure. At the very minimum, people who suffer from asthma or respiratory issues may have more difficulty. Long term exposure can lead to health concerns similar to long term smoking, such as cancer and emphysema. This is in addition to any contamination caused by toxic chemicals that may be in the pollution, which themselves carry numerous health risks. Smoking is today known to be the biggest cause of both preventable and premature death not only in the US, but worldwide. Smoking- related diseases are a cause of over 440,000 deaths in the US annually. In the UK this figure stands at over 105,000 annually. The life expectancy of the smoker is cut short by 10- 12 years and more than half of all smokers die from smoking-related diseases. The younger the onset of smoking the longer one will most likely smoke and younger one is more likely to die. Smoking is a slow killer, not just to the smoker but to those also around him as they are affected by second- hand smoke. Comparative smoking facts show that the risk of heart attack is 70% higher among smokers than among non-smokers. The incidence of lung cancer is 10 times greater in smokers than non-smokers and one out of ten of people that smoke will die from this disease. Some 80% of smokers will at one time be diagnosed with heart disease, emphysema or chronic bronchitis.Of the diseases attributable to the tobacco habit, 29% are from lung cancer and 24% are caused by heart disease. Over and above that, other cancers have also been linked to smoking, including cancer of the throat, mouth, stomach, cervix, breast and pancreas. All this is small wonder as cigarette smoke has been found to contain over 4,000 chemical compounds and toxins, all with very harmful to human health. We have eight things that you can do that will make a difference (however small) to the problem of air pollution:
1. Save energy: Making electricity in conventional power plants generates pollution,

so anything you can do to save energy will help to reduce pollution (and global warming as well). Switch to low-energy lamps, use a laptop computer instead of

2. 3.




7. 8.

a desktop, dry your clothes outdoors, and heat insulate your home. Every bit of energy you save also saves you money you can spend on something better. Save water when you can: Producing cool, clean water needs huge amounts of energy so cutting water waste is another good way to save energy and pollution. Cut the car: Sometimes we have to use cars, but often we can get a jeepney, bus or (for shorter distances) walk or a bicycle. Cars are now the biggest source of air pollution in most urban areas, so travelling some other way through a town or city helps to keep the air clean. When you have to use your car, drive efficiently to save fuel and money, and cut pollution. It's particularly important to avoid car use when smog is bad in your city. Never burn household waste: If you burn plastic, you release horrible toxic chemicals into the local environment, some of which will be sucked up your own nose. Recycle your trash instead. Garden organically: You can tackle virtually all garden pests and diseases in more environmentally friendly organic ways. Buying organic food is a good option if you can't grow your own. Cut the chemicals: Do you really need to spray an air freshener to make your home feel nice? Yes, you fill your room with perfume, but you're also choking it with chemical pollution. Why not just open a window instead. Reduce, reuse, and recycle: Buying new stuff is fun, but reusing old things can be just as good. Don't smoke: Cigarettes contain addictive chemical called nicotine that makes you want to go on smoking them. They cause all kinds of health problems, but they also cause much localized air pollution.


Tighten the controls for power plant emissions to reduce emissions. Introduce cleaner fuel standards and switching to electric vehicle. Restrict the construction of power plants and other energy-intensive industries near residential areas. Improve urban planning to increase green spaces. Take air quality into consideration when conducting environmental assessments for major projects; for example, flyovers and highways should be far away from residential areas. Create and form national/worldwide air pollution control commission. Strengthen the Air Pollution Control Laws through being strict in imposing the law. Strengthen the Anti-Smoking Law in all public places and the prohibition of cigarette and tobacco sales to persons under eighteen (18) years of age; a ban on cigarette smoking, tobacco use, sale and promotion in elementary and secondary schools; and inclusion in the curricula of all elementary and secondary schools a study on the health risks associated with cigarette smoking and tobacco use. Impose penalties to those who will violate the law.