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DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT TERM PAPER REPORT TITLE Internet as a cost effective means of communication Submitted

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

TERM PAPER REPORT

TITLE

Internet as a cost effective means of communication

Submitted By:

Zameer Ahmad

Roll No:

RS-1006-B-40

Registration No:

11000046

Submitted To:

Mr. Nandan Sujati

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PHAGWARA

(2010)

Acknowledgement

I sincerely feel that the credit of this term paper could not be narrowed to only one individual as the whole work is outcome of integrated efforts of all those concerned with it through whose cooperation and effective guidance I could achieve its completion.

I wish to place my profound indebtness and deep sense of obligation to Mr Nandan Sujati Senior lecturer Lovely Professional University for providing me with the opportunity to work on such an interesting topic. I also want to pay my gratitude and sincere thanks to my esteemed Sir for being supportive and lenient during the entire tenure of this term paper.

When emotions are involved words fail to mean. My heart full sincere gratitude to my parents, who have supported, encouraged and helped me throughout my life and academic career.

Zameer Ahmed

DECLARATION

I, "Zameer Ahmad, hereby declare that the work presented herein on the topic “ internet as a cost effective means of communication” is genuine work done originally by me and has not been published or submitted elsewhere for the requirement of a degree programme. Any literature, data or works done by others and cited within this dissertation has been given due acknowledgement and listed in the reference section.

Zameer Ahmad

(Reg. No:-11000046) Date: - 2010-11-06

Internet Communication

INTRODUCTION

E-mail is an important communications service available on the Internet. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Today it can be important to distinguish between internet and internal e-mail systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them. Pictures, documents and other files can be sent as e-mail attachments. E-mails can be cc-ed to multiple e-mail addresses.

Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer.

Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialling and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure; VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices.

Sociology of the Internet

SOCIAL IMPACT

The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. Social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs.

In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity, bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity, and distribution of copyrighted materials. These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations.

The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool, leading to Internet censorship by some states. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism. Some governments, such as those of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the People's Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content.[citation needed] This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.[original research?]

The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas. The pornography and gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other websites.[citation needed] Although many governments have attempted to restrict both

industries'

use

of

the

Internet,

this

has

popularity.[citation needed]

generally

failed

to

stop

their

widespread

One main area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. This form of recreation creates communities, where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing games to online gambling. This has revolutionized the way many people interact[citation needed] while spending their free time on the Internet. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s,[citation needed] modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.

Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. People use chat, messaging and e- mail to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops, where users can access their files and settings via the Internet.

THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON COMMUNICATION The Impact of the Internet on Communication

The internet has revolutionized all forms of communication since the beginning of its existence. The world has now become smaller' or more like a global village', so to speak. The internet was first used by the U.S military for communications purposes. The internet, from the communication point of view, has brought on new developments and techniques to keep in touch not only for individuals, but for businesses as well. An example of how the internet has impacted communication would be an example of doctors now communicating through live video feeds via the internet with patients or other doctors to diagnose patients or to even guide and advise surgeons through complicated procedures.

Email

Email (electronic mail) was one of the biggest breakthroughs in communication when the internet was commercialized. With email, it became possible to send messages and letters

across the world

in

a matter of seconds to the recipients

address.

Email

was

used as

an

alternative to conventional mail or snail' mail, as the term was introduced to describe its speed. As technology improved, it became possible to attach' documents, photographs and even sound clips or songs to emails which made mail by post redundant. Emails used packet switching software whereby the email was broken down into packets' and sent via the internet to the recipient.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)

Internet Voice, also known as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make regular telephone calls using a dial up or broadband internet connection instead of a regular phone line. Some services using VoIP may only allow you to call other people using the same service, but others may allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number - including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers. Also, while some services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone, other services allow you ...

INTERNET: A WAY TO COMMUNICATE The Internet: A Way to Communicate Cost Effectively

The words communicate means to send a message. You communicate when you talk to someone, or when you write a letter to a friend. Communication means all different ways of sending messages or passing information from one person to another. These include visual methods such as sign language, auditory, such as voice and music, and physical, such as touch. Communication allows us to give this information to others for the purpose of enriching life for ourselves and others.

We are living through a period characterized by the works of a new technological paradigm organized around information technologies. This period is being driven by the new information and communication technologies. It is the most important revolution since the industrial revolution.

Advances in electronics, computers, and satellites mean that we can send information farther and communicate faster than ever before. Powerful rockets have placed communications

satellites in orbit around the earth. They relay thousands of telephone calls across continents so quickly that you can talk to people on the other side of the world as if they were next door. Communication satellites also carry television and radio programs, facsimile images, telex messages, and computer data.

One of the new communications technologies that are affecting our lives on a scale of significant as the telephone and television is the Internet. Some people believe that when it comes to distributing information, the Internet is the most significant invention since the printing press. If you use a telephone, write letters, read a newspaper or magazine, or do business or any kind of research, the Internet can radically alter your entire worldview.

Everywhere you turn, you hear people talking about the Net. Radio shows give you their e- mail address, businesses give you their Web site, and strangers ask whether you have a home page. People are going online and staying connected ....

INTERNET THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

"Beam me up, Scottie." This popular line from Star Trek was a demonstration of the advanced technology of the future. Though it was a fictional story, Star Trek became the universal vision of the future. As always reality tends to mimic fiction. Though our society has not quite resulted to living in space, we have made life easier with technology. Economic survival has become more dependent upon information and communications bringing forth new technology of which was never thought possible. Just a mere thirty years ago a computer occupied a whole room compared today’s palm sized computers, which are faster and perform more functions. Cellular phones, now light and compact, were bulky just ten years ago. The most incredible invention, the Internet, is bringing infinite amount of information to your desktop. In the world of the of the Internet there exist a world blind to skin color and other physical appearances. The Internet while still young in age has grown rapidly, spreading to countries world wide and connecting 50 million users. With its popularity, it is incumbent upon our society to recognize how the Internet works and to be aware of its advantages as well as disadvantages.

While seemingly high tech the Internet concept is rather simple. Computers speak to one another and send information. This is accomplished by sending and receiving electronic impulse, and then decoding them into a message. In order to communicate with one another

they are linked up in a network. They are then able to access information from thousands of other computers. The network acts like one large computer storing information in various places, rather than in one physical structure. Users tap into the Internet to access or provide information. Internet technology allows one to surf the World Wide Web or send e-mail.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Internet use by university academics: a bipartite study of information and communication needs.

AUTHOR(S) Mohammad Nasir Uddin, (Mohammad Nasir Uddin is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science at Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.)

ABSTRACT

In Bangladesh, there are only 0.2 million Internet users out of a population of 140 million. Because there is a lack of academic research on Internet usage, the prime objective of this study is to report the level of Internet use by university academics for their information and communication needs. The study also sought to find out whether differences exist among the various levels of academics in terms of their use of the Internet. Six categories of information and communication needs were identified and a survey conducted among the lecturers of Rajshahi University where the Internet was introduced in 2001. Findings showed that Internet use by academics is useful for some common needs and that the academic rank of users is an important factor in determining the priority of needs. It also showed that there are some barriers to adequate use of Internet resources. Suggestions are made for increased use of the Internet, to benefit the nation as a whole

Use and impact of Information-Communication Technology in modern conflict: the war in Iraq

AUTHORS Uroš Svete ABSTRACT

Technology has always been one of the decisive factors, by which the outcome of conflict or war ought to be influenced without any doubt. But with Information-Communication

Technology (ICT) appearance it seems the revolutionary changes began concerning conflict perception, the organisation of actors waging a war and (spatial) spheres where conflicts are taking place. The case of last Iraqi war should confirm this thesis. The main purpose of my research paper is therefore to prove that ICT has really multidimensional impacts regarding recent conflicts and wars and these impacts should be analysed with interdisciplinary approach in any case. So my research paper based especially on strategic (defence) studies as well as on communication and sociological theory guidelines, what actually ensures a real interdisciplinary approach. Within these three basic theoretical approaches the concepts such as propaganda, perception management and information operations/warfare as well as asymmetric warfare, have also been used.

Internet use by health professionals at the Health Sciences Centre of Kuwait University

AUTHORS Sajjad ur Rehman, (Sajjad ur Rehman is Professor of Library and Information Science at Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.), Vivian Ramzy, (Vivian Ramzy is Medical Librarian in the Health Sciences Centre of Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyse Internet use and related issues among the health care professionals at the Health Sciences Centre of Kuwait University. A questionnaire was administered to all the 180 faculty members in HSC. The response rate was 76.6 per cent. The extent and patterns of their use of the Internet for 12 applications were analysed. The current level of skills was examined and perceptions for improving them were explored. Also, the impact of the Internet on professional and personal development was explored. Problems related to access and use were also investigated. It was found that the Internet had become a vital instrument for research, information, and communication in the lives of these professionals. Respondents wished to be further empowered through rigorous training and the alleviation of problems that inhibited their Internet use.

The Internet and services marketing the case of Danish retail banking

AUTHOR(S) Niels Peter Mols, (Niels Peter Mols (nmols@econ.au.dk) is Associate Professor, Department of Management, and University of Aarhus, Denmark.)

ABSTRACT

Examines various aspects of the motives, perceptions and expectations connected with the introduction of Internet banking in Danish retail banking Responses from 60 key managers in the largest retail banks in Denmark show that they believe that Internet banking will become more important in the future, whereas all other distribution channels are predicted to become less important Describes further the relationship between the perceptions of and expectations from Internet banking, the reasons for offering an Internet bank and the way it has been organized in the banks.

INTERNET AS A COST-EFFECTIVE & FASTEST MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

With service industry booming at a faster rate, various conferencing service providers have come up with solutions to help people in conducting conferences more effectively. Every organization is now incorporating conference calling services in order to establish direct connection with their clients present in different parts of the world. It is very useful for remote business meetings.

For conference calling, Calls can be connected from any cell phones, landlines etc. No extra support applications are required. In this service, you can call the person you want to talk to and can add more participants in the conversation.

Conference calling can be done in either of the two ways; one is dialing through the conference bridge, which is a special kind of telephone having a facility to link multiple telephone lines simultaneously. The other method is through special telephone number set up for conference calling. It is one of the primary means of saving time, minimizing travel costs and increasing the productivity of employees by cutting down the time of travel.

Voice conferencing is one of the most demanded conferencing solutions, where the users are offered features like audience poll, call recording, auto-reply, messenger services and survey facility. Voice conferencing is a cost effective medium of conducting conference, as it helps in connecting multiple callers at the same time on the single platform.

Most organizations do not use the Internet to buy goods and services—yet. ITC’s trend- trackers in international purchasing and supply management expect this to change; however, as Internet use becomes more widespread. Companies and governments in developing countries and economies in transition should take a second look at using the Internet to save time and money on purchases, and build better relations with suppliers.

Business use of the worldwide network mostly involves information gathering with relatively few organizations actually purchasing products or services over the Internet. Yet the Internet is already proving its cost-effectiveness in purchasing and supply management, according to trade sources as diverse as leading business newspapers, specialized purchasing and supply management magazines, and reports from international organizations.

Purchasing-related sites are on the rise, such as ones allowing businesses to track costs of raw materials and ones with on-line procurement requests. As telecommunication infrastructure improves, and people become more comfortable with using the Internet, organizations are starting to use a variety of tools (ranging from simple e-mails to more sophisticated Internet- based Electronic Data Interchange systems) to track purchases, manage stock levels, streamline ordering and payment processes, and build better relations with suppliers.

SIX REASONS TO USE THE INTERNET FOR DOING THE COST EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Cut purchasing costs. One can negotiate better prices for the products you purchase by using the Internet to monitor the material and labour costs of your suppliers. If your product material contains a high percentage of commodities, you can monitor current market prices and trends in public on-line databases, and use this information when negotiating with suppliers. Sources like Reuters commodities (http://www.commods.reuters.com) provide you with both current and historical data on commodity futures and options prices, which can help you to hedge against future price rises.

The Internet can also help you analyze the labour costs involved in your purchased product. For an example, visit the web site of the United States Department of Labour (http://www.bls.gov/datahome.htm), where you can obtain information on International Comparisons of Manufacturing Productivity and Unit Labour Cost Trends for 1997.

Even without analyzing the detailed material or labour costs of your supplies, you can use the Internet as a benchmark for comparison with current prices paid, or for negotiating anticipated price rises. Try to access a server specialized in the market from which you are buying. You can often gather commercial information on your supply market, and also request suppliers connected to this site to quote you a price according to your specifications. For example, buyers of office supplies in developing countries can now use the Internet and sites such as Buyerszone (http://www.buyerszone.com) to identify which local equipment is overpriced when compared with competitively-priced international market items, enabling them to negotiate discounts with their local suppliers.

Using the Internet allows you in some cases to directly access manufacturers, and save money by avoiding costs of intermediaries. This was the experience of a rural Kenyan farming cooperative, which managed to bypass distributors and obtain lower prices by establishing a direct relationship through e-mail with the US-based Earth Marketplace, whose main business is selling directly to North American consumers.

Reduce operating costs. The Internetwhen coupled with web-based Electronic Data Interchange systems that incorporate a purchase order facilityreduces costs involved in order processing and invoice processing. It also lowers costs by reducing the number of dedicated telephone lines for fax machines normally required to move data.

Improve management of suppliers. Strengthen relationships with suppliers that are linked with you electronically. For example, you can communicate by e-mail, involve them at an early stage in your design process, exchange ideas for product improvements and encourage them to send you information regularly on your supply market by e-mail. The more you improve information flows and communication (both with your internal customers and with suppliers), the faster you can react and cut lead times.

Control stock levels. One of the greatest benefits organizations can achieve by electronic linking with suppliers is substantial savings in inventory. Better communication links will decrease supply risks and shorten lead times, enabling you to adapt stock levels to the variations in demand more rapidly.

Take advantage of government and international organization calls for bids. Businesses are responding to a growing use of the Internet by governments to disseminate procurement opportunities and receive quotations from interested providers. International organizations are also using Internet for purchasing activities. The United Nations, for example, recently launched UN Development Business Online (http://www.devbusiness.com), a site providing procurement opportunities from multilateral development banks, such as the World Bank, and other international agencies. Over the next five years, the major development banks will pay over US$ 190 billion to companies worldwide.

Reduce problems. Other concrete advantages of using Internet-based tools include eliminating errors due to rewriting or re-keying data, and speeding up the payment process by processing invoices electronically.

USING INTERNET FOR MARKETING IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER

Also known as Web Marketing, Website Marketing, Search Marketing, Internet advertising, or eMarketing, Internet Marketing integrates a variety of creative and technical facets of the Internet, including design, development, advertising, and sales.

Internet Marketing is best deployed as part of an overall strategic web marketing campaign. Internet Marketing should be viewed as a synergy of business models, platforms, technology and techniques applied to meet business objectives through good website marketing. Internet Marketing is a powerful concept when applied properly and good website marketing can be delivered through quality web design, site functionality and search marketing through search engine optimisation as well as in a variety of other formats such as:

  • Banner ads

  • Blogs and blog ads

  • Text linking

  • Group marketing

  • Audio/visual rich media ads

  • Podcasting

  • RSS feeds

  • Streaming media

  • E-mail list and newsletter publishing

  • Press release distribution

  • Virally distributed interactive products

Internet Marketing delivers and communicates messages. Internet Marketing is also used to also sell virtually everything from products, brands, concepts, services, information, donations, votes and profiles, making website marketing a versatile tool.

Large marketers continue to spend big online through Website Marketing and Search Marketing. Online advertising alone is worth tens of billions of dollars annually. In 2008 it is estimated that more than $5 billion will be spent worldwide in each of the top four categories of Internet Marketing ads - adult content and gambling, information, electronics, and computing, making web marketing a growing industry. The US is predicted to lead the world in Internet Marketing through adverts, spending over $45 billion in 2011 purely on website marketing, making internet marketing big business.

The reasons for Internet Marketing proving such a powerful, emergent concept are many.

Internet Marketing is targeted:

Internet Marketing can be directed at specific web users, with content and media created to deliver appropriate messages via website marketing techniques. Specialised interest groups and niches can be focused by targeted Internet Marketing.

Internet Marketing is flexible:

An Internet Marketing campaign can be very specific, not just in where and how the Internet Marketing campaign will run but also when the web marketing runs. Website Marketing Campaigns can be time exact and efficient.

Internet Marketing is measurable:

Internet marketing campaign performance analytics can be closely studied to reveal key web marketing performance indicators. E.g. - new customers acquired, status of existing customers, profitability of customers by demographic segments, spend per head, return on investment and many more website marketing stats. Website Marketing results are easily accessible, making web marketing and search marketing a great measurable tool.

Internet Marketing is adjustable:

As the Internet is such a dynamic environment, website marketing campaigns can be honed as an ongoing process of web marketing. Analytics and Internet Marketing campaign data can reveal strengths and weaknesses in Web Marketing campaigns and website marketing

resources deployed accordingly. Website marketing isn’t just focused and proactive,

Internet Marketing can also be extremely reactive.

Internet Marketing is Cost Effective:

Internet Marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the ratio of cost against the reach of the target audience. Using website marketing, companies are able to reach their target audience for a fraction of traditional advertising budgets with good Internet Marketing. The current economic downturn may offer many potential opportunities for companies to develop effective website marketing, search marketing and advertising. Search marketing incorporating organic search engine optimisation and pay per click (PPC) web marketing campaigns prove the most effective forms of website marketing.

ANALYSIS

In the present world, businesses are growing globally. Companies are no more regional or national; if they are to succeed, they have to compete globally. Similarly, individuals and business customers are no more restricted to specific areas. Everyone has access to internet so they are very well aware of the prevalent prices. In such situations if companies and individuals are to thrive, they have to reduce their costs to retain and expand the current market share. Hence, for this purpose, the individuals and organizations need to communicate with people at different locations. Within most organizations, conventional phone lines are still widely used. Such option is not only expensive but also does not provide several benefits offered by Internet Phone. If cellular phone is thought to be a substitute for landline, it also has many limitations. You can move around with your mobile device but it is also costly. Your calls can be on roaming (if you leave some specific area) which can charge extra to both to both parties on line.

Different options are available as to how internet can be used for making calls and video conferencing. There is good news in store for those dependent upon phone for their business communications and want an inexpensive yet reliable way to communicate. On internet, there are different websites having setup similar to a conventional phone with all facilities. Different packages are available depending upon the services availed, like conference calling, call waiting, voice mails, call divert, video conference etc.

In a computer, there are some additional hardware and software installed to use the facility of telephone on the same computer. Telephony software provides access to the phone system. Usually microphone and speakers or headset are mandatory to make calls. Wireless headsets are available in the market with which you can move around (within range) while working with your phone.

There are many web servers like MSN, YAHOO and Skype who are efficiently using the technology and has made communication very affordable. Without incurring any additional cost, you can download messenger from internet and use it to share emails, messages, voice chat, video call, files, pictures etc. For video call you need to attach web camera. Once you have the web camera all you need to do is to choose a person from your messenger list and invite him/her to show and view video. When it is done, you can see and speak to the person without any problem.

Apart from that there is Voice over Internet Protocol, also known as broadband or Internet Phone. The technology of Internet Phone service has fascinated millions in no time due to its uncountable advantages. You can communicate with anyone from anywhere at a price which is as low as free. With it you, are no more bound to physical location or wires because you can carry your portable number to any place where there is internet facility. Internet Phone service can be utilized from anywhere, without any extra roaming costs like cell phones. You can also make use of soft phone, which loads VoIP software on your laptop and you can use it with internet.

The time is not far when landline phone would be something belonging to past. Graham bell would have never thought that his invention would advance to such levels.