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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Definition: Research: Scientific, purposeful investigation Methodology: Logic behind methods applied Research is primarily supplement to decision making process to reduce tensions from anxiety for success and fear of failure in case of decision making by chance. Relevance of research: 1 Pressing need for competitive superiority because of change in environment of business 2. Focus changed from inside- out approach to outside-in approach because of 360 degrees competition 3. Need for ever increasing operational productivity. Productivity is ratio of effectiveness to efficiency. Effectiveness is related to output performance and efficiency is related to input performance. Numerator is increased by 'continuously increasing value addition' and denominator is decreased by' continuous cost reduction'. 4. Several methods for value addition and cost reduction are available in every area of business Hence need for research to identify and recommend with organizational change analysis as beneficial changes, damaging changes and managing resistance to change 5. Complexity in decision making process: Identifying area for research is based on analysis of span over which decision will have impact, frequency of decision making and environmental conditions. Longer the span over which decision will have the impact . lesser the frequency of decision making and more the conditions are uncertain and conflicting/ competitive, need for research is pressing. 2] Enumerate Steps in Research Process Step 1: Identify the Problem The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally. In the example in table 2.4, the problem that the agency has identified is childhood obesity, which is a local problem and concern within the community. This serves as the focus of the study. Step 2: Review the Literature Now that the problem has been identified, the researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area. The review of literature also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area. In the obesity study, the review of literature enables the programmer to discover horrifying statistics related to the long-term effects of childhood obesity in terms of health issues, death rates, and projected medical costs. In addition, the programmer finds several articles and
information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that describe the benefits of walking 10,000 steps a day. The information discovered during this step helps the programmer fully understand the magnitude of the problem, recognize the future consequences of obesity, and identify a strategy to combat obesity (i.e., walking). Step 3: Clarify the Problem Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope. In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The knowledge gained through the review of literature guides the researcher in clarifying and narrowing the research project. In the example, the programmer has identified childhood obesity as the problem and the purpose of the study. This topic is very broad and could be studied based on genetics, family environment, diet, exercise, self-confidence, leisure activities, or health issues. All of these areas cannot be investigated in a single study; therefore, the problem and purpose of the study must be more clearly defined. The programmer has decided that the purpose of the study is to determine if walking 10,000 steps a day for three days a week will improve the individual’s health. This purpose is more narrowly focused and researchable than the original problem. Step 4: Clearly Define Terms and Concepts Terms and concepts are words or phrases used in the purpose statement of the study or the description of the study. These items need to be specifically defined as they apply to the study. Terms or concepts often have different definitions depending on who is reading the study. To minimize confusion about what the terms and phrases mean, the researcher must specifically define them for the study. In the obesity study, the concept of “individual’s health” can be defined in hundreds of ways, such as physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health. For this study, the individual’s health is defined as physical health. The concept of physical health may also be defined and measured in many ways. In this case, the programmer decides to more narrowly define “individual health” to refer to the areas of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol. By defining the terms or concepts more narrowly, the scope of the study is more manageable for the programmer, making it easier to collect the necessary data for the study. This also makes the concepts more understandable to the reader. Step 5: Define the Population Research projects can focus on a specific group of people, facilities, park development, employee evaluations, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations. For example, if a researcher wants to examine a specific group of people in the community, the study could examine a specific age group, males or females, people living in a specific geographic area, or a specific ethnic group. Literally
thousands of options are available to the researcher to specifically identify the group to study. The research problem and the purpose of the study assist the researcher in identifying the group to involve in the study. In research terms, the group to involve in the study is always called the population. Defining the population assists the researcher in several ways. First, it narrows the scope of the study from a very large population to one that is manageable. Second, the population identifies the group that the researcher’s efforts will be focused on within the study. This helps ensure that the researcher stays on the right path during the study. Finally, by defining the population, the researcher identifies the group that the results will apply to at the conclusion of the study. In the example in table 2.4, the programmer has identified the population of the study as children ages 10 to 12 years. This narrower population makes the study more manageable in terms of time and resources. Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan The plan for the study is referred to as the instrumentation plan. The instrumentation plan serves as the road map for the entire study, specifying who will participate in the study; how, when, and where data will be collected; and the content of the program. This plan is composed of numerous decisions and considerations that are addressed in chapter 8 of this text. In the obesity study, the researcher has decided to have the children participate in a walking program for six months. The group of participants is called the sample, which is a smaller group selected from the population specified for the study. The study cannot possibly include every 10- to 12-year-old child in the community, so a smaller group is used to represent the population. The researcher develops the plan for the walking program, indicating what data will be collected, when and how the data will be collected, who will collect the data, and how the data will be analyzed. The instrumentation plan specifies all the steps that must be completed for the study. This ensures that the programmer has carefully thought through all these decisions and that she provides a step-by-step plan to be followed in the study. Step 7: Collect Data Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey, with a questionnaire, through observations, or from the literature. In the obesity study, the programmers will be collecting data on the defined variables: weight, percentage of body fat, cholesterol levels, and the number of days the person walked a total of 10,000 steps during the class. The researcher collects these data at the first session and at the last session of the program. These two sets of data are necessary to determine the effect of the walking program on weight, body fat, and cholesterol level.
Once the data are collected on the variables, the researcher is ready to move to the final step of the process, which is the data analysis. Step 8: Analyse the Data All the time, effort, and resources dedicated to steps 1 through 7 of the research process culminate in this final step. The researcher finally has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan, the researcher specified how the data will be analyzed. The researcher now analyzes the data according to the plan. The results of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a manner directly related to the research questions. In the obesity study, the researcher compares the measurements of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol that were taken at the first meeting of the subjects to the measurements of the same variables at the final program session. These two sets of data will be analyzed to determine if there was a difference between the first measurement and the second measurement for each individual in the program. Then, the data will be analyzed to determine if the differences are statistically significant. If the differences are statistically significant, the study validates the theory that was the focus of the study. The results of the study also provide valuable information about one strategy to combat childhood obesity in the community. 3] explain importance of defining the research problem
For the problem area, exact problem needs to be defined with following parameters 1. Unit of analysis ( the object on which data are to be collected ) 2. Characteristic of interest (nature of data to be collected ) 3. Time and space references ( defining 'when' and where study will be done) 4. Environmental conditions: technology, competition, social, economic, political stability etc ) Characteristics of interest are classified as follows. Such classification helps in making an appropriate questionnaire for data collection How assessed? 1 Objectively assessed. Hence clarity on concept, Clarity on what to measure and how to measure Characteristic may be debated for inclusion 2 Inferred characteristic These are abstract in concept, hence difficulty in clarity, and what to measure and how to measure General with respect to object of study
1 These are potentially explanatory variables e.g. Demographic data :age, gender, marital status, education .occupation. income etc 2 Variables having predictive ability e.g. for a marketing problem personality traits, life style, intelligence 4] what are different Informal experimental designs? 1. Before-and-after without control design: In such a design a single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment. The treatment is then introduced and the dependent variable is measured again after the treatment has been introduced. The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of the phenomenon before the treatment. 2. After-only with control design: In this design two groups or areas (test area and control area) are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only. The dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time. Treatment impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area. 3. Before-and-after with control design: In this design two areas are selected and the dependent variable is measured in both the areas for an identical time-period before the treatment. The treatment is then introduced into the test area only, and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time-period after the introduction of the treatment. The treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the dependent variable in the control area from the change in the dependent variable in test area. Q5] write short Notes 1] Exploratory Research and Diagnostic Research Exploratory Research Studies: Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulate research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an operational Research Methodology point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem, broadly defined initially, is transformed into one with more precise meaning in
exploratory studies, which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. Generally, the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: (a) the survey of concerning literature; (b) the experience survey and (c) the analysis of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples. Diagnostic research Study Diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. The studies concerning whether certain variables are associated are examples of diagnostic research studies. Diagnostic studies share common requirements and as such we may group together these two types of research studies. In diagnostic study the first step is to specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that the data collected are relevant. If this is not done carefully, the study may not provide the desired information. 2] What are the sources of Secondary Data? Collection of Secondary Data The secondary sources can be classified into two categories via. Published and unpublished sources. A. Published Sources Generally, published sources are international, national, govt., semi-Govt, private corporate bodies, trade associations, expert committee and commission reports and research reports. They collect the statistical data in different fields like national income, population, prices, employment, wages, export, import etc. These reports are published on regular basis i.e., annually, quarterly, monthly, fortnightly, weekly, daily and so on. These published sources of the secondary data are given below: 1. Govt. Publications: The Central Statistical Organization (CSO) and various state govt. collect compile and publish data on regular basis. Some of the important such publications are: • • Indian Trade Journals Reports on Currency and Finance
• • • • • • • •
Indian Customs and Central Excise Tariff Statistical Abstract of India Reserve Bank of India Bulletin Labour Gazette Agricultural Statistics of India Bulletin of Agricultural Prices Indian Foreign Statistics Economic Survey and so on.
Primary and Secondary Data 2. International Bodies: All foreign govts and international agencies publish regular reports of international significance. These reports are regularly published by the agencies like; • • • • • • United Nations Organization World Health Organization International Labour Organization Food and Agriculture Organization International Bank for Reconstruction and Development World Meteorological Organization.
3. Semi Govt. Publications: Semi govt, organizations municipalities, District Boards and others also publish reports in respect of birth, death and education, sanitation and many other related fields. 4. Reports of Committee and Commissions: Central Govt, or State Govt, sometimes appoints committees and commissions on matters of great importance. Reports of such committees are of great significance as they provide invaluable data. These reports are like, Shah Commission Report, Sarkaria Commission Report and Finance Commission Reports etc. 5. Private Publications: Some commercial and research institutes publish reports regularly. They are like Institutes of Economic Growth, Stock Exchanges, National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT), National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) etc.
6. Newspapers and Magazines. Various newspapers as well as magazines also do collect data in respect of many social and economic aspects. Some of them are as: • • • • • • • • • Economic Times Financial Express Hindustan Times Indian Express Business Standard Economic and Political Weekly Main-stream Kurukshetra Yojna etc.
7. Research Scholars: Individual research scholars collect data to complete their research work which further is published with their research papers. B. Unpublished Source There are certain records maintained properly by the govt, agencies, private offices and firms. These data are not published. Limitations of Secondary Data One should not use the secondary data without care and precautions. As such, secondary data suffers from pitfalls and limitations as stated below: • • • • No proper procedure is adopted to collect the data. Sometimes, secondary data is influenced by the prejudice of the investigator. Secondary data sometimes lacks standard of accuracy. Secondary data may not cover the full period of investigation.
3] Methods of Non-Probability Sampling
Sometimes it is hard to get a sample that accurately represents the subjects. So judgment sampling occurs when the researcher creates the sample themselves, looking for what the researcher believes is the best representation of the population. The greatest problem with judgment sampling is that researchers tend to disagree with what constitutes an accurate sample, leading to differing opinions about which research findings are “more correct” – an argument that is invalid in probability sampling.
Convenience samples are the most well-known type of non-probability sampling. Convenience sampling is simply sampling those around you, or those that you know you can reach. Polling a group of people that happen to be in a room would be a form of convenience sampling. The main issue with this style of sampling is that it ignores everyone not in proximity.
Quota sampling has some similarities to judgment sampling, in that the researcher decides on the quota that “best represents the population.” Quota sampling takes the population’s known statistics, chooses what portion of the population is a large enough sample, and then creates a proportionate sample for their research. The greatest problem with quota sampling is not necessarily the quota itself, but the method used to choose those that enter the sample. They also may not account for unknown aspects of the demographic
4] Guidelines for Questionnaire Design
• • State the information required- This will depend upon the nature of the problem, the purpose of the study and hypothesis framed. The target audience must be concentrated on. State the kind of interviewing technique- interviewing method can be telephone, mails, personal interview or electronic interview. Telephonic interview can be computer assisted. Personal interview can be conducted at respondent’s place or at mall or shopping place. Mail interview can take the form of mail panel. Electronic interview takes place either through electronic mails or through the internet. Decide the matter/content of individual questions- There are two deciding factors for thiso Is the question significant? - Observe contribution of each question. Does the question contribute for the objective of the study? o Is there a need for several questions or a single question? - Several questions are asked in the following cases: When there is a need for cross-checking When the answers are ambiguous When people are hesitant to give correct information. Overcome the respondents’ inability and unwillingness to answerThe respondents may be unable to answer the questions because of following reasonso The respondent may not be fully informed o The respondent may not remember o He may be unable to express or articulate o The respondent may be unwilling to answer due too There may be sensitive information which may cause embarrassment or harm the respondent’s image. o The respondent may not be familiar with the genuine purpose
The question may appear to be irrelevant to the respondent The respondent will not be willing to reveal traits like aggressiveness (For instance - if he is asked “Do you hit your wife, sister”, etc.) o To overcome the respondent’s unwillingness to answer: o Place the sensitive topics at the end of the questionnaire o Preface the question with a statement o Use the third person technique (For example - Mark needed a job badly and he used wrong means to get it - Is it right?? Different people will have different opinions depending upon the situation) o Categorize the responses rather than asking a specific response figure (For example - Group for income levels 0-25000, 25000-50000, 50000 and above) Decide on the structure of the question- Questions can be of two types: o Structured questions- These specify the set of response alternatives and the response format. These can be classified into multiple choice questions (having various response categories), dichotomous questions (having only 2 response categories such as “Yes” or “No”) and scales (discussed already). o Unstructured questions- These are also known as open-ended question. No alternatives are suggested and the respondents are free to answer these questions in any way they like. Determine the question language/phrasing- If the questions are poorly worded, then either the respondents will refuse to answer the question or they may give incorrect answers. Thus, the words of the question should be carefully chosen. Ordinary and unambiguous words should be used. Avoid implicit assumptions, generalizations and implicit alternatives. Avoid biased questions. Define the issue in terms of who the questionnaire is being addressed to, what information is required, when is the information required, why the question is being asked, etc. Properly arrange the questions- To determine the order of the question, take decisions on aspects like opening questions (simple, interesting questions should be used as opening questions to gain co-operation and confidence of respondents), type of information (Basic information relates to the research issue, classification information relates to social and demographic characteristics, and identification information relates to personal information such as name, address, contact number of respondents), difficult questions (complex, embarrassing, dull and sensitive questions could be difficult), effect on subsequent questions, logical sequence, etc. Recognize the form and layout of the questionnaire- This is very essential for self-administered questionnaire. The questions should be numbered and pre-coded. The layout should be such that it appears to be neat and orderly, and not clattered. Reproduce the questionnaire- Paper quality should be good. Questionnaire should appear to be professional. The required space for the answers to the question should be sufficient. The font type and size should be appropriate. Vertical response questions should be used, for example: o o
o Do you use brand X of shampoo ?
o o Yes No
Pre-test the questionnaire- The questionnaire should be pre-tested on a small number of respondents to identify the likely problems and to eliminate them. Each and every dimension of the questionnaire should be pre-tested. The sample respondents should be similar to the target respondents of the survey. Finalize the questionnaire- Check the final draft questionnaire. Ask yourself how much will the information obtained from each question contribute to the study. Make sure that irrelevant questions are not asked. Obtain feedback of the respondents on the questionnaire.
Q3] True or false
1] Validity and reliability in attitude measurement mean the same concept False The terms validity, reliability are often used interchangeably. But each of these has a specific meaning based on the type of measurement error that is present • Systematic error and • Variable error— The term reliability is used to refer to the degree of variable error in a measurement. And A common conceptual definition for validity is the extent to which the measure provides an accurate representation of what one is trying to measure 2] Unit of analysis and characteristics of interest are same in problem definition False The unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analysing in your study. That determines what the unit is. The characteristics of interest identify what there is about the units that is of concern to the decision maker 3] type I error is accepting a false hypothesis False In the context of testing of hypotheses, there are basically two types of errors we can make. We may reject H0 when H0 is true and we may accept H0 when in fact H0 is not true. The former is known as Type I error and the latter as Type II error. In other words, Type I error means rejection of hypothesis which should have been accepted and Type II error means accepting the hypothesis which should have been rejected. Type I error is denoted by a (alpha) known as a error, also called the level of significance of test; and Type II error is denoted by b (beta) known as b error
4] chi square test of independence is based on 2 way classified nominal data True c2 test enables us to explain whether or not two attributes are associated. For instance, we may be interested in knowing whether a new medicine is effective in controlling fever or not, c2 test will helps us in deciding this issue. In such a situation, we proceed with the null hypothesis that the two attributes (viz., new medicine and control of fever) are independent which means that new medicine is not effective in controlling fever. On this basis we first calculate the expected frequencies and then work out the value of c2 . If the calculated value of c2 is less than the table value at a certain level of significance for given degrees of freedom, we conclude that null hypothesis stands which means that the two attributes are independent or not associated (i.e., the new medicine is not effective in controlling the fever). But if the calculated value of c2 is greater than its table value, our inference then would be that null hypothesis does not hold good which means the two attributes are associated and the association is not because of some chance factor but it exists in reality (i.e., the new medicine is effective in controlling the fever and as such may be prescribed). It may, however, be stated here that c2 is not a measure of the degree of relationship or the form of relationship between two attributes, but is simply a technique of judging the significance of such association or relationship between two attributes. 5] principle of replication is a meant of increasing statically accuracy in data analysis True In Principle of Replication, the experiment should be repeated more than once. Thus, each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one. By doing so the statistical accuracy of the experiments is increased. For example, suppose we are to examine the effect of two varieties of rice. For this purpose we may divide the field into two parts and grow one variety in one part and the other variety in the other part. We can then compare the yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. But if we are to apply the principle of replication to this experiment, then we first divide the field into several parts, grow one variety in half of these parts and the other variety in the remaining parts. We can then collect the data of yield of the two varieties and draw conclusion by comparing the same. The result so obtained will be more reliable in comparison to the conclusion we draw without applying the principle of replication. The entire experiment can even be repeated several times for better results. Conceptually replication does not present any difficulty, but computationally it does. Q2] Explain Following
1] Simple random sampling Simple Random Sampling. This method of sampling is also known as the Probability method' or the method of 'Chance selection'. Under this method the various items of the sample are selected from the universe purely on a chance basis. As such, under this method of selection, each and every item of the universe has the equal chance of being included in the sample. In the words of W.H. Harper, "A random sample is a sample selected in such a way that every item in the population has an equal chance of being included." A random sample is one where each item in the universe has an equal or knows opportunity of being selected." Simple Random sampling may be done in any one of the following ways:
Lottery Method: According to this method paper slips are made for each item the universe. These slips are shuffled in a box. Then, impartially, some of the slips drew to form a sample of the universe. Example: Suppose from a village of 60 cultivators we choose a sample of cultivators. In the lottery method, we give one rank each to 60 cultivators. Now, these 60 chits are mixed and 6 chits are drawn. The number of cultivators bearing the num of these selected chits will be taken as a sample.
Random Number Tables: These tables are constructed in such a way that various digits from 0 to n appear with approximately the same frequency and independently each other. Example. If a sample of 200 units out of 2000 units is to be chosen, the first 2 numbers which appear row wise or column wise up to a value of 2000 will constitute the sample 2] Stratified Sampling Stratified sampling is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata.
USES OF STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING
Stratified random sampling is used when the researcher wants to highlight a specific subgroup within the population. This technique is useful in such researches because it ensures the presence of the key subgroup within the sample. Researchers also employ stratified random sampling when they want to observe existing relationships between two or more subgroups. With a simple random sampling technique, the researcher is not sure whether the subgroups that he wants to observe are represented equally or proportionately within the sample. With stratified sampling, the researcher can representatively sample even the smallest and most inaccessible subgroups in the population. This allows the researcher to sample the rare extremes of the given population. With stratified sampling technique, you have a higher statistical precision compared to simple random sampling. This is because the variability within the subgroups is lower compared to the variations when dealing with the entire population. Because this technique has high statistical precision, it also means that it requires a small sample size which can save a lot of time, money and effort of the researchers. TYPES OF STRATIFIED SAMPLING
PROPORTIONATE STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING The sample size of each stratum in this technique is proportionate to the population size of the stratum when viewed against the entire population. This means that the each stratum has the same sampling fraction. For example, you have 3 strata with 100, 200 and 300 population sizes respectively. And the researcher chose a sampling fraction of ½. Then, the researcher must randomly sample 50, 100 and 150 subjects from each stratum respectively. Stratum Population Size Sampling Fraction Final Sample Size A 100 ½ 50 B 200 ½ 100 C 300 ½ 150
The important thing to remember in this technique is to use the same sampling fraction for each stratum regardless of the differences in population size of the strata. It is much like assembling a smaller population
that is specific to the relative proportions of the subgroups within the population. DISPROPORTIONATE STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING The only difference between proportionate and disproportionate stratified random sampling is their sampling fractions. With disproportionate sampling, the different strata have different sampling fractions. The precision of this design is highly dependent on the sampling fraction allocation of the researcher. If the researcher commits mistakes in allotting sampling fractions, a stratum may either be overrepresented or underrepresented which will result in skewed results.
3] questionnaire and schedule
A questionnaire is quite different from a schedule; a questionnaire will feature a series of queries which must be answered by a person, whereas a schedule is a listing of events and meetings over a defined period. A questionnaire may also be called a survey, and it is used to collect information about specific subjects. Often, a questionnaire may be used for the following purposes: Reasons To Use A Questionnaire • Marketing Campaigns - Commonly, marketing executives will use questionnaires to get valuable feedback from customers or potential clients. By getting answers to questions that pertain to a business concern or market sub-segment, marketing executives can prepare timely and relevant ad campaigns that meet the needs of their target demographic. Sometimes, marketing executives will pay people to fill out questionnaires. At other times, these will be filled out voluntarily, for no compensation. • Healthcare - In clinics or hospitals, patients seeking healthcare are often asked to fill out questionnaires that outline their medical histories, habits, and needs. These sorts of questionnaires allow medical professionals to achieve accurate diagnoses, and to design courses of treatment that should design or plan the experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of “chance.” For instance, if we grow one variety of rice, in the first half of the parts of a field and the other variety is grown in the other half, then it is just possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in comparison to the other half. If this is so, our results would not be realistic. In such a situation, we may assign the variety of rice to are safe and effective.
Reasons For Using Schedules • Organization - A schedule can be an essential component of time management; for example, knowing what is happening during a weekly, biweekly, or monthly period will allow a person to plan ahead and be prepared for every circumstance. Without a schedule, appointments may be forgotten, or important events may be missed. • Goal Setting - By analysing a schedule, a person can determine whether or not they are moving closer to his or her goals. For example, if a person wants to get fitter, he or she can track their workouts via a schedule, and record results based on the success of their regimen over time. Questionnaires and schedules are different; each services a unique purposes and an individual function.
Q5 Principle of Randomization in experimental design
The Principle of Randomization provides protection, when we conduct an experiment, against the effect of extraneous factors by randomization. This principle indicates that we be grown in different parts of the field on the basis of some random sampling technique i.e., we may apply randomization principle and protect ourselves against the effects of the extraneous factors (soil fertility differences in the given case). As such, through the application of the principle of randomization, we can have a better estimate of the experimental error.
Justify following statement 1] Alternate hypothesis decide whether test is 2 tailed or I Tailed During stastical hypothesis testing we first consider null hypothesis, in which we consider the distribution and perform a test to determine whether or not the null hypothesis should be rejected If the null hypothesis is not rejected then it is said 1 tailed & if the null hypothesis is rejected it is said 2 tailed both in favour of alternate hypothesis
2] in census method of data collection , there will not be any sampling error.
3] completely randomized experimental design needs population to be homogeneous For the region at the factor which we are studying is the only known source of variation result in one way classified data. Sample in completely randomized is taken purely on random basis 4]in cluster sampling, cluster are homogeneous between and homogeneous with in
For the region that it is easier to identify group for cluster which are homogeneous between and homogeneous with in connection of two sample will lead to representation of whole population
5] nominal data cannot be ranked Nominal data is categorised data in the frequency form it is acceptable any for mathematical operations as it can not be ranked.
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