You are on page 1of 74

How do Bruneis users of Facebook and Twitter construct meaning around

authority through social media, does this challenge notions of authority? How
are these meanings restricted by the regulation of social media?
Fatin Haziyah Mohamad Safri
BA (Hons) Media and Communications
2012
How do Bruneis users of Facebook and Twitter construct meaning around
authority through social media, does this challenge notions of authority? How
are these meanings restricted by the regulation of social media?
Fatin Haziyah Mohamad Safri
BA (Hons) Media and Communications
2012
11,384 words
Abstract:
This study is about the relationship that Brunei users have between social media and
authority. It was found that the meanings constructed were limited to their cultural
values of the Malay Islamic Monarchy and regulation of social media. Given the
restrictions, and even if they were repealed, it was found that Brunei users were
generally content with not partaking in any political activity, developing a mindset that
is resistant to change posing possible development factors. These were found through
an analysis of ndings through open-ended questionnaires and virtual ethnography
through a Bruneian group on Facebook called the CCPB (Bruneis hottest news).
I dedicate this to the Brunei Governments Ministry of Education, I am forever in your
debt for giving me the opportunity to pursue my education in the UK and by doing so
fullling a childhood ambition. Thank you.
Acknowledgments
I would like to rst of all thank my parents for their kind love and support throughout
my life, for bringing me up in an open household. My mother for feeding my love of
reading, encouraging me to be independent and to always challenge traditional ideas. I
love you both very much. My siblings for being a huge inspiration in my life. Without
you all I am nothing.
I give many thanks to my lecturers and members of staff who have helped me
throughout my years in the UK, you gave me the opportunities to think outside the box
and opened my mind to new ideas. Special thanks to Faye Davies, my dissertation
supervisor, for the patience and support you have given me throughout this research.
Last but not least, to Hanis Jefri, for believing in me when I didnt.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION! 8
LITERATURE REVIEW! 10
Online Communities?! 10
Facebook, Twitter and Political Social Media! 17
Politics, Authority and the Online challenge! 22
METHODOLOGY! 27
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS! 30
Social Media and Authority! 36
Observing CCPB! 39
CONCLUSION! 43
BIBLIOGRAPHY! 46
APPENDICES! 51
INTRODUCTION
" Social media websites Facebook and Twitter have revolutionised the way in
which people communicate with one another. It has helped them connect or form
relationships in different parts of the world, allowed room for change, ideas, and news
to be shared and discussed in a virtual space despite the difference in time zone and
geographical locations. It has brought people together physically as ash mobs, and in
the recent uprisings in the middle east we have seen social media being put to other
uses, in the form political protests and mobilizing movements against their
governments. It has also exposed the authorities actions to an international level,
used as a force to break down autocratic practices. This shows the importance of
social media, that has etched itself into many individuals daily lives (Social Capital,
2011).
" Brunei Darussalam is a small country in South East Asia, with a population of
just over 400,000 people, consisting of many different ethnicities, 40% of which is
malay. It is an Islamic country and although it has a legal system based on the UK
common law, the country practices Sharia law. Brunei has become known as a welfare
society, where many amenities such as education, health care and fuel are subsidized
by the government. Bruneians have a zero tax, and 70% of the working population are
in the government. As a constitutional sultanate, and Bruneians are expected to follow
the concept of Melayu Islam Beraja, or Malay Islamic Monarchy. It is based on the
ideology that Bruneians observe a malay culture as an Islamic country under the
rulings of the Sultan and his government. Brunei does not have freedom of speech;
opinions and comments are exercised through social networking sites as well as local
blogs and websites (World FactBook, 2012).
" Brunei was recently found to have the highest Facebook usage in Asia, showing
to have penetration 55.37% of its population on Facebook (Borneo Bulletin, 2012).
Brunei users are also active on Twitter and a growing number are on YouTube. Over
the past year, Brunei has launched an e-government website, aware of the
technological advances in this digital age, and almost all the Ministries have joined
social networking site Facebook to build a more transparent and accountable
government, as it enables better participation from the citizens and the community.
This is what this study will attempt to investigate. How does social media work in a
Malay Islamic Monarchy? Does participation in social media websites encourage
conversations about government practices, and in turn change ideas about them? How
does the government regulate social media, and how does this affect Brunei users of
these websites?
" This study will be looking into online communities and theoretical approaches
surrounding them, social media; how and why they are used by online communities, its
political uses. This thesis will investigate politics, authority and the online challenge,
Bruneis background, the theory behind its culture, Islamic religion and monarchy
history and how this affects the communities decision to voice out their opinions. Do
these actions depend on the mindset and identity of Bruneians? This study will also be
discussing the impacts of social media on the public sphere. As very little research has
been done in Brunei, primary research will be carried out in surveys and virtual
ethnography, with secondary research into information and publications on government
websites.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Online Communities?
" Both Facebook and Twitter are social networking websites. They are virtual
spaces that allow people to create and maintain relationships, sharing of daily
experiences through photos, videos and links to other websites. Bruneis users on
these websites make up what is theoretically or metaphorically an Online Community.
One way to start with the terminology of community is through the origin of the word.
The Oxford Dictionary denes community as;
1. A group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in
common... (the community) the people of a district or country considered collectively,
especially in the context of social values and responsibilities; society... 2. The
condition of sharing or having certain attitudes and interests in common..
Coupled with the term online or virtual, the meaning of the term is shifted. Howard
Reingold (1993) saw virtual communities in webs of personal connection (that)
transcended time and distance to create new social formations. This is echoed in
Bayms (2010) denition which is when an online group develops a strong sense of
group memberships. They develop relationships through common interests regardless
of their locations, synchronously or asynchronously. To Baym (2010), online
communities, also known as virtual communities are dened through certain aspects
such as Space, the idea of a shared space, in this study, within the social networking
websites Facebook and Twitter. Secondly, Practice, where similarities in individual
ways, uses of the site were observed, Shared Resources and Support, an area they
can share their experiences by uploading pictures, status updates and attain mutual
support by doing so- a shared interest through emotional and informational support.
Shared Identities, the ability of nding others with comparable personalities and roles,
lastly; Interpersonal Relationships, the formation of intimate relationships, whether
romantic or close connections. Steven Jones (2003) says that;
The primary reason why Rheingold came up with the community metaphor to
originally describe online interaction ... is that it feels right. Subjectively, when one
looks into a virtual forum, it feels like what one knows as a community.
" The problem with these denitions are often associated with the geographical
location of these users. This very problem is irrelevant to this study as the virtual
community is within one location, although tting more into the context of a collective
community, online. The reason these denitions do not t properly to this study is
perhaps due to the assumption that people are more likely to communicate ofine in
the proximity of their residences. Other criticisms associated with virtual communities
is that it is hard to do a study on, worries about users not having a sense of place, and
that it reduces the engagement with other, more meaningful communities. However,
relevant to this study is Hampton and Wellmans (2003) ndings that those who had
high speed access had three times the local connections and communicated more with
neighbours online and ofine.
" In terms of engagement with the local community, Baym (2010) looks into two
types; Civic Engagement and Political Engagement. Civic engagement can be studied
by asking people how many of their neighbours they knew. Katz and Rice (2002) found
in their study that people were more likely to know their neighbours if they were non-
users of the internet, however if the intention of using the internet was for connecting
to their neighbours, it would enhance the connections between one another and to
their communities. This is of interest because it shows that people have to have the
interest and intention of connecting with their neighbours to build a stronger sense of
community. The weakness of this study is that it does not take into account the cultural
backgrounds of these individuals.
" An online local community allows individuals to be more politically engaged.
Twitter has been the reason behind protesting ash mobs in the middle east uprisings
and other places such as Macedonia. Facebook users have also made their opinions
known through global events such as Draw Mohamad Day. It has been seen as a
powerful tool for political action. The ways in which these social engagements can
impact upon civic and political action are not clear as what has happened so far have
been attempts, some successful, others failed for unclear reasons. What is clear to
Baym is that it can inspire more political activity.
" For Wood and Smith (2005), Community is about a sense of belonging.
Although the emphasis in this study is about sharing a geographical location, they
argue that being part of a community is more than being physically in each others
presence. Therefore it is implied that in the case of Brunei, an online community may
exist in terms of geographical location and a shared experience, but not necessarily a
sense of belonging. Perhaps what brings them together into a community where they
belong is a combination of other factors Baym (2010) has suggested. This then
suggests that an online community may not be a real community, Wellman and Gulia
found this a key question in their study, but concluded that online communities can
meet any reasonable denition of community, and consequently not a pale, articial
substitute for more traditional forms of community.
" To increase the understanding of online communities and the way they function,
this study will delve into cases and theories surrounding this topic to give an idea as to
other factors that may attract one into an online community.
" Theories of race surround the concept which signies and symbolizes
sociopolitical conicts and interests in reference to different types of human
bodies. (Howard Winant, 2000). Online, an individual is allowed to have a persona
without the attachment of a physical being. This allows them to be free of ofine
stereotypes and ideologies. Instead these ideas are implanted from news websites or
built by others who form opinions from online interaction. However, like local
communities, the emphasis is placed upon the intentions of the said individual.
According to Smith and Kollock (1999), Racial self-identication is used by authors to
establish a social position. These include social positions from which to safely make
potentially controversial comments
Within an online community this could mean that the likeness of race could be
important in discussions online. Taking Brunei users into account, the social position of
being Malay comes with its cultural background. With this in mind, the implication that
Brunei users are involved in social interactions only with other Brunei users is a high
probability. Bringing this into relation with the theory of race online, this allows them to
interact online without the boundaries of their racial backgrounds and stereotypes,
unless other factors come into account. Smith and Kollock (1999) add;
The medium that technologically constrains participants interactions is also
constrained by participants methods of interaction.
" The next theory that this study will focus on is gender. Different from sex, which
is the biological differences from birth that makes a person male or female, gender is a
state of being male or female, typically used with reference to social and cultural
differences. The gender theory states that individuals internalize cultural expectations
about their gender because social pressures external to the individual favor behavior
consistent with their prescribed gender role (Kidder, 2002, p. 630). When applied
online this typically suggests, like race that being online allows a separation of mind
and body; This allows individuals to be who they truly are, without taking into account
their sex. Stone (1992) summarizes this;
I am interested in the nets for what they make visible about the real world, things that
might otherwise go unnoticed. I am interested because of their potential for emergent
behaviour, for new social forms that arise in circumstances in which body meeting
place and even space mean things quite different from our accustomed
understanding ... how do groups of friends evolve when their meeting room exists in a
purely symbolic space? How does narrowing the bandwidth - that is, doing without the
customary modes of symbolic exchange and tryst, how do inhabitants of virtual
systems construct and maintain categories such as gender and race?
In an Islamic country and within a distinct culture, what are the chances of different
masculinities, femininities or even sexualities, sexual preferences being tolerated?
Given the idea that homosexuality is controversial in Brunei, would this be a reason to
venture online, to nd others who feel the same way?
" Presented to this study is a case by Theresa Senft, The WeirdJews described
themselves as a community of different types of practicing Jews, also welcoming
converts. It was a group of young Jewish people that felt they werent able to go to the
synagogue due to feelings of inadequacy, of not feeling Jewish enough through
differences in upbringing, tattoos, queerness amongst other reasons. Many also felt
they didnt feel they has the right to worship in a place where they couldnt pay their
dues. They expressed the idea of being able to connect with others like themselves in
a safe place. Member Ephraim Oakes summarized the idea into the statement;
The communication tools produce discussion, they allow emphases or perspectives
radically different from ones own, and theyre a starting point for do-it-your-own culture
building that is not necessarily beholden to the political or religious or cultural agendas
of mainstream institutions."
The case of WeirdJews is interesting as it brings religion into attention, It allows one to
engage with religion rather than abandon it, and doing this with others who feel the
same way. In this case, a sense of belonging is observed, individuals are allowed to
question without the fear of being judged for it. At the same time it serves as an area
where users are enlightened, hence in return strengthen their ties to religion.
" Both Facebook and Twitter have the objectives of building a community and
reaching a billion users. () Given the denitions, theory and cases behind online
communities, It seems that to make it a community, there has to be an individual sense
of belonging, but on Facebook, Twitter, are there a communal sense of belonging
within their friends lists? Where is the shared sense of belonging for Brunei users?
What is the basis of belonging, Could it be shared experiences, amongst others that
Baym suggests? Perhaps, one could say that there is an overemphasis in attempting
to call it a community, based on geographical similarities. Sherry Turkle, in her book
titled Alone Together (2011) argues;
" Perhaps community should have not a broader but a narrower denition. We
used to have a name for a group that got together because of shared interests: we
called it a club ... We have come to a point at which it is near heresy to suggest that ...
Facebook is not a community. I have used the word myself and argued that these
environments correspond to what sociologist Ray Oldenberg called the great good
place. I think I spoke too quickly. I used the word community for worlds of weak ties.
" Turkle suggests that communities should be based on strong ties. On Facebook,
where one has around six hundred friends, where even Facebook allows an individual
to categorize them according to Acquaintances or Close Friends, is it safe to
assume these circles as a community? Perhaps the very act of trying to explain online
communities defeats itself as it lies at the heart of human relationships, where one
may feel like they belong, another may use it as a space to play games online. On
Twitter, although one would say interaction is almost like a group discussion in the
through hash-tags and trends, through this type of interaction people do not become
friends or anything more. Similarly when one posts an update and a friend replies, the
character limit prevents any actual conversations, unlike Facebook chat.
Facebook, Twitter and Political Social Media
" On covering online communities, this study will now move on to the platform that
have allowed these interactions: Social Media. The very terminology that is Social
Media carries different denitions, argued by scholars and professionals. Some of the
denitions differ according to the context it is within, such as business. However
generally most agree that it is a platform for social interaction, that includes the
sharing of different forms of media whether it be videos, images or articles. Ultimately
it is a form of worldwide communication, despite location, language and time barriers.
Doreen Moran denes social media as;
... a collection of online platforms and tools that people use to share content, proles,
opinions, insights, experiences, perspectives and media itself, facilitating
conversations and interactions online between groups of people.
" Included in the different platforms for social media, are social networking sites
Facebook and Twitter. Boyd and Ellison (2007) dened social networks in conforming
to three criteria. A system that allows individuals to construct a public or semi-public
prole within a bounded system, secondly articulate a list of other users with whom
they share a connection and lastly view and traverse their list of connections and those
made by others within the system. Both Facebook and Twitter t into this denition.
" In investigating these social networks, this study aims to look at the reasons
behind the success of these websites. As taken from their website, Twitter is a real
time information network that connects you to the latest stories, ideas, opinions and
news about what you nd interesting. The site boasts about 100 million active users.
55% of Twitter users access it on their phones, and a signicant 40% not tweeting but
keeping up to date with who they follow on their timeline. Twitter allows a conversation
between anyone anywhere in real time, provided that security settings are for this
interaction. From this it can be derived that the uses of twitter surround those of which
relate to keeping up with news whether this be in the form of updates from friends,
celebrities or online personas, news groups such as the BBC, or businesses, clubs,
organizations.
" For some, as Oliver Toubia (2012) argues, tweet for two main reasons, to gain
followers, as he sees Twitter as a site primarily for self-promotion and as a broadcast
channel, where users become consumers instead of content-creators. This is seen
through public proles that tweet about something they do daily -- because they are
paid to do so by a company. There is indeed a marketing aspect on Twitter than is less
obvious on Facebook. In this sense, many businesses use the site as a means of
promoting their products and services. In relation to communities, Twitter assumes the
role of helping others by creating an awareness about a story through its real time feed
and through the availability of inuential individuals from celebrities to presidents,
ministers and so on, whether on a local or global basis. An example of this is the
recent Kony 2012 campaign that went viral on YouTube, and became a trend on
Twitter because of celebrities. It gave an awareness and allowed individuals around
the world to share this story and ght together for the cause. This shows how fast
information spreads on twitter. So it is now established that individuals use Twitter for
keeping up to date with news, some do so to gain followers, others to share within a
community.
" Adam Zeis, an author of Crackberry.com tells of his use of Twitter as simple
means of virtual interaction or small talk when you feel like being alone, he also sees
it to replace instant messaging on phones, for nding answers that can be directed to
anyone, as well as for getting coupons from businesses.
" What has appealed half of Bruneis population to create Facebook accounts?
Facebook have stated online that they have the mission to give people the power to
share and make the world more open and connected. It is a social networking website
that allows individuals to have an online prole, adding friends and within that circle
share updates, news, photos, videos, links, play games. It is the biggest social
networking website, with over 500 million active users, half of which log on everyday.
Daniel Miller, who studied Facebook subjects in Trinidad found that people used
Facebook for different reasons, he suggests looking at Facebook within the context of
culture, allowing specied uses of Facebook. Moreover he argues that;
the starting point in understanding Facebook is to appreciate that each and every
individual was quite literally a social networking site long before Facebook existed ...
Facebook doesnt invent social networking but it certainly facilitates and expands it.
To Miller, Facebook helps to develop relationships; making new friends and building on
existing relationships, It helps those who struggle with relationships, providing a space
for personal expression to those who have shy, introverted personalities or those who
come from backgrounds with restricted social lives (due to culture or religion). It also
serves as what Miller addresses as a meta-friend; seeing Facebook itself as a reliable
friend, a space where one can talk as much as they like, whether it receives responses
or not, and despite its limits, ultimately defeats boredom. Miller also sees Facebook as
the transformation of self and self-consciousness where he argues that Facebook
allows individuals to be who they really are; The self being represented into ones
Facebook prole, While self-consciousness develops from being able to reect upon it,
much like looking into a mirror. Some also see Facebook almost like a diary, where
users see it as a witness to their lives.
"
" In relation to the community, he notes four reasons, rstly that Facebook has
reversed two centuries of ight from community. He talks about the decline of
community and how people instead form close-knit communities on Facebook, and
sees Facebook as an end to the natural weakening of relationships over a long period
of time due to family, work or other reasons. He found that Facebook in allowed people
to extend their social interactions ofine, sometimes facilitating them. Secondly, the
view that Facebook reacquaints us with the downside of community, this points
towards the ip-side that come with the solidarity and common background of a
community, this could be in the form of oppression, gender inequality, or strict values
that many wanted to break free from. He found that people saw Facebook as a lighter
version of their communities, more accepting and forgiving, while still having mutual
values. This in turn shows Facebook as a site of normativity and netiquette; formed
by cultural values on what is normal or morally right being brought into the virtual
world, being mixed into those created by having an online prole on Facebook. Lastly,
Miller points out the connection between Facebook and Politics. He sees the site as a
virtual place to talk about politics, again facilitating rather than substituting political
action, usually in the form of groups or circles on Facebook. Again, his emphasis is in
the culture of the country. Although this study was based on Trinidad, he derived these
overall uses from his experiences in India, London and the States.
" What can be derived from these two social networking sites is its uses of
interaction, most importantly, the sharing of ideas, sparking from small groups into
online communities that both Facebook and Twitter claim to have. What is more
interesting is the idea that these sites can be used politically, although Baym has said
that the impact of social media on politics is unclear, Loader and Mercea argue that;
the more widespread use of social media and Internet technologies and their
absorption into the mundane practices of lived experience their potential to shape
social relations of power becomes all the greater.
They see this happening through the sharing of government secrets, the organizing of
students protests and so on. They see such activities playing an important role in
democratic politics, what is unclear to them is how social media can be regulated by
authorities, and how this in turn can effect the authorities. Furthermore they introduce
the idea of User-Generated democracy where democracy is observed on social
networking websites based on the freedom to upload stories and sharing them
amongst each other, without being controlled. Papacharissi (2010) suggests that this
can all be employed as discursive forms of democratic engagement, capable of
enabling a more inclusive democracy. An example of this is the United States, where
they acknowledge that they cannot control conversations on social networking
websites, leading to politicians joining these sites; to join the conversation as ignoring
them would present a negative image. One cannot deny the possibility that this could
be a contributing factor, part of the Brunei governments efforts in controlling
conversations on Facebook.
" Research so far has suggested that the forming of online communities on social
networking sites, having political conversation depends on its cultural context in the
country that it takes place. Within the boundaries of Bruneis philosophy how do its
users operate on these social networking sites? What meanings around authority do
they generate? To answer these questions an investigation into Brunei, its culture, faith
and politics will rst be observed.
Politics, Authority and the Online challenge
" The Malay population of Brunei makes up to 66% of the total population and
speak the Malay language, with English widely used for business. Their culture is
focused on four main concepts. First is that of Family, it is seen as the centre of the
culture. This consists of those not only in the immediate family, but to the extended
family, including those of grandparents on both sides, close friends. This can be seen
in weddings where hundreds, sometimes thousands, invited to attend the ceremony.
From a young age, children are taught to respect and always listen to their elders. It is
emphasized that success can only be achieved through the support and love of a
family, creating a very close-knit community.
" Second is their Image. Maintaining a good and presentable image is of utmost
importance to a Bruneian. This pressures them to be polite and well-mannered, and
not cause problems that will compromise this. This is due to Brunei being such a small
country, and with family as the focal point of their culture, issues that arise can bring
shame upon themselves and affect everyone around them. This can come in the
simple form as a public dispute towards another person that would cause them to be
humiliated, their image shattered. Due to this the form of communication is restricted,
or otherwise indirect.
" The culture intermingles with Islamic beliefs and practices. Almost 70% of the
population is Muslim, however as the ofcial religion of the country, all Bruneians are
expected to conform to these beliefs, however they are tolerant towards other religions
and are open in some aspects. While out in public women are not required to wear
headscarves however it is frowned upon for Muslim women who dont wear them.
Similarly individuals of the opposite sex are not allowed to be in secluded places alone
if they are not married, and there is a segregation of men and women in formal
functions. Premarital sex is an offense against the law and homosexuality and
lesbianism is illegal and taboo. As an Islamic country, this reinforces strict codes of
social relations.
" Lastly is its Monarchy. Bruneians are proud of the generations of royal heritage
and being the only Malay Islamic Monarchy in the world. The current ruler, His Majesty
Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Muizzadin Waddaulah brought Brunei to independence
from the United Kingdom in 1984. Bruneians are grateful to His Majesty for being a
passionate and caring ruler.
"
" The politics of Brunei lie in its status as a constitutional monarchy, which sees
its ruler, the Sultan as head of the state and head of government, within the limitations
of the Brunei 1959 Constitution. Part of this gives the Sultan full executive authority.
He is also the countrys Prime Minister, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence over a
cabinet of ministers he appoints, some of which are lled by other members of the
royal family. He also appoints a legislative council. All of these authorities take a
consultative role. In addition there is only one party formed, although it is not
inuential, and any formal groups are required by law to register with the government ,
their activities are observed and restricted, also limiting the number of people in a
group.
" The Sultan has made Brunei into a welfare society. His government provides
free education for Brunei citizens, on top of that they subsidize healthcare, housing, oil
fuel for vehicles amongst others and is one of the least taxed countries in the world.
The Malay Islamic Monarchy concept was introduced in line with Bruneis
Independence Day, and is actively used to control the media and its education systems
(Gunaratne, 2000). According to a report by U.S. Department of State on Human Right
Practices (2003),
Citizens did not have the right to change the Government, and they generally avoided
political activity of any kind because of the ofcial atmosphere of disapproval
concerning such activities. Citizens do not exercise freedom of speech, freedom of
press, freedom of assembly, or freedom of association .... Other human rights
problems continued, including restrictions on religious freedom.
The same observation was noted again in the more recent report in 2010. This started
from the Emergency State put into effect in 1962 after a revolt, restricting such
freedoms.
Under the emergency powers, the government signicantly restricted freedom of
speech and of the press. Members of the Legislative Council are allowed to "speak
their opinions freely," but they are prohibited from using language or exhibiting
behavior deemed "irresponsible, derogatory, scandalous, or injurious."
Under the Sedition Act, it is an offense to challenge in any way the authority of the
sultan or members of the royal family. The act also makes it an offense to challenge
"the standing or prominence of the national philosophy, the Malay Muslim Monarchy
concept."
Although there are no actual laws passed for freedom of speech, this is generally
controlled by the Governments authority in morals. The only broadcasting media in
Brunei is Radio Televisyen Brunei, which is also controlled by the Prime Ministers
Ofce. The Emergency (Broadcasting) Order 1997 is reective of this fact.()
"
" The evidence suggests that there is a stronger inclination towards an online
community on Facebook and Twitter due to the importance of family ties. They may be
using these sites in the purpose of connecting without the social, cultural, religious and
political restraints set upon them. However the loyalty towards the monarchy and the
government due to the privileges and treatment they are given may suggest that there
may not be little to no political activity on these sites. Two points need to be taken into
account; Firstly that as research has shown, the possibility of some bringing aspects of
their culture online, suggesting that Brunei users may still be pressured to conform to
certain, if not fully within the Malay Islamic Monarchy context. This study needs to
accept the possibility as found in the Human Right Practices report that people
avoided any political activity altogether, that this has become a mindset for any, as
they are happy with what the government has provided them and see no reason for a
dispute. This is supported by the report that shows no evidence of political detainees.
" Secondly, the regulation of the internet by authorities. The 2010 Human Right
Practices report on Brunei, it states that;
According to International Telecommunication Union statistics for 2009, approximately
81 percent of the country's inhabitants used the Internet. The government monitored
private e-mail and Internet chat room exchanges of citizens believed to be subversive.
There was anecdotal information that fear of government surveillance reduced the
number of visitors to Internet forums. The primary internet service provider was state
owned.
Interestingly, research by Mitton (1997) found that bruneians were willing to engage
openly about politics and ofcial accountability. There were ofcial discussions about
implementing limited democracy that brought about some change although not enough
to restructure the political system. He noted that letters with critical comments about
the government handling certain matters appeared in the Borneo Bulletin (Gunaratne,
2000). This was also in line with what was found by the U.S. Department of State that
added that the government would respond occasionally.
"
" Freedom House (Sussman, 1999) however categorized Brunei as not free and
that in order to change Brunei would have to allow multi-party democracy as well as
amend laws that affect multiplicity of media. In addition to this Tinggal (1989) argued
that Bruneis media would develop if they encouraged students to pursue media
studies.(Gunaratne, 2000) Although this research dates back more than 10 years ago,
it provides relevant details for comparison in the present date."
" TAccording to Jon Custer (2012), Social media should complement rather than
replace ofine conversations. This means that individuals should be conversing both
online and ofine. However Social Capital (2011) argue that this is more successful in
a country that has some form of democracy. This could suggest that in autocratic
countries such as Brunei some conversations are done online instead of ofine. This
being the opposite of the present monarch, it would be interesting to see the situation
in the current climate.
METHODOLOGY
" It cannot be simply deduced based on cases, theories and factual information as
the root of this is more complex -- social relations and individual intentions behind their
actions. This study will implement qualitative surveys and virtual ethnography as
research methods. A qualitative survey is a questionnaire with open-ended answers.
This research will be benecial to nd the views of Brunei users without having too
much data to process, allowing easier generalizations, but will also allow enough for
the audience to express their thoughts and opinions. This survey will be aimed at 55
Bruneians of all ages, of both sexes, to those in different economic backgrounds, the
employed and unemployed alike. This is due to the fact that not much research has
been done in Brunei, this will allow a much deeper analysis on open ended questions.
It will also distributed to those students studying in the United Kingdom and other parts
of the world such as Australia, Malaysia and New Zealand to allow the possibilities of a
different point of view having been exposed to a different political environments.
Responses will be compiled online and ofine, due to the differences in geographical
locations. This type of research method has also been employed to be exible to
individual schedules, allowing them to do this in their own time.
" The questionnaire will feature ten questions, three of which are open ended.
There are only three as the questions pose the possibility for lengthy answers, again
taking into consideration the amount of time an individual may take to complete, also
as a form of encouragement to complete the survey. This will include general
questions of name, age group, level of education and occupation. Respondents will
have the option to remain anonymous as research has suggested a fear of a backlash.
The age group is to indicate the different age groups on Facebook and Twitter. While
level of education and occupation can probably help to determine the reasoning
behind their answers. The next three questions are about the use of social networking
sites; which do they use, how active are they, and why they have created those
proles. These will be given with multiple choices as well as an other box to ll in if
they feel the need to.
" The open ended questions follow after, about Facebook usage, Brunei being the
highest in Asia in terms of the number of users as a percentage of their population,
respondents are required to suggest reasons why this is so. This question has been
asked to put research so far to the test, to see how Brunei users t or otherwise into
suggested theories of usage as presented beforehand. This is also to look at any
current cultural trends that may have been missed out from studies so far. The next
question asks about expressing political views regarding Brunei on Facebook and
Twitter, and how comfortable Brunei users are in doing so. This is to investigate
openness, willingness to talk about the subject as well as the possibility of political
action on social networking sites. Lastly this survey will pose the question of the
inuence of Malay Islamic Monarchy and if this inuences interactions on Facebook
and Twitter, this is to look at whether they are content in expressing themselves fully
on these sites, or if they abide by the concept online.
" Virtual ethnography on the other hand is research carried out online. This study
will undertake an observational view on Facebook and Twitter. Christine Hine (2000)
talks about how the internet can be seen as a place where culture can be formed and
reformed. This means that the internet can be seen as a product of culture and a
piece of technology that can be shaped. This is the reason that this research method
has been chosen. As the main issue here is ethical problems, this study will be looking
into open proles that can easily be accessible, or otherwise with the permission of
those involved. This research method is considered to not only widen the scope of
research, but to eliminate the bias of ndings that may come from the handing out of
questionnaires, this being due to this author personally choosing a certain audience.
" Although these methods are useful for this study, there is no denying that it has
its limitations and ethical issues. In terms of questionnaires, one can only attempt to
make generalizations and assumptions based on analysis given, although this may not
be reective of the population on Facebook, or on Twitter. Analysis might also be
difcult pertaining to the nature of the survey and the audience that is expected to
answer it; it is open to individual interpretations and cultural background within the
context of the question. Disadvantages also like in the questions itself and trying to get
the message across without creating leading questions. Inconsistency can arise with
the ndings as language is a barrier, with Malay as the national language of Brunei;
due to this there may be a possibility that the question is only half-grasped and is not
answered according to the expectations of the study or answers may be irrelevant.
With virtual ethnography this author recognizes that privacy is an issue in observing
others online. However it can be argued that Facebook and Twitter allow free access
into the sites just by the use of an email and a password, which can be done by
anyone. Open proles as well as groups can easily be accessed without the
requirement of being friends. One problem with this study is that if repeated, there is
no guarantee that the ndings will be the same, as humans are ever-changing and
unpredictable.
" This author realizes that probably the most important is a need for objectivity
where possible, especially in this authors position as a Bruneian. This research is not
perfect as the looking only in online proles already poses a huge limitation, where it
may miss out on private accounts that may have more valuable information. The study
could have beneted with a larger sample as well as constant attention in a longer
period of time. This could have allowed time to build relationships and make focus
groups that would make give this study a stronger base for research.
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
" The questionnaires gathered fty-ve responses, from Bruneians with mixtures
of backgrounds and ethnicities, although most Malay. Fifteen out of fty-ve
respondents gave their real names. In handing out these questionnaires a short
description was provided at the top of the page revealing the intentions of the
research, asking respondents to keep an open mind so as not to be misunderstood as
challenging the ideology of the country.
" In other demographics it was found that ve out of the fty-ve respondents
were over the age of 26, showing the emphasis of youths online, the rest being in
between ages 16-25. Most were found to have academic qualications, with more than
30 participants qualied with an undergraduate degree, most were students, others
working in the government and private sectors. In terms of social networking sites,
100% have Facebook, 69% have Twitter accounts, 76% have YouTube accounts.
Other social networks that were used included Instagram, Path, Tumblr, Pinterest. In
using these social networking websites, 47% (26 respondents) said they used it on an
Average basis, checking everyday and updating once in awhile, 25% (14
respondents) were Quite Active, visiting and updating these sites everyday, while
18% (10 respondents) saw themselves as Very Active, as they are constantly on
these websites or applications throughout the day.
" Upon asking why they created these online proles, they were given ve
statements of which they had to rate its importance using numbers one to ve, one
being the least important. The lowest rated were statements I want to play games
online with seventeen people seeing this as somewhat, very or extremely important
and I followed a current trend with 27 people. Thirty-seven people saw little to full
importance in making new friends. Fourty people saw the importance in discussing
thoughts and sharing ideas, and fty-two people saw the importance of building and
maintaining current relationships. This is interesting because it reects studies on their
culture, the emphasis of family, relatives and friends in the Brunei society. Even more
interesting is the signicance of discussing thoughts and sharing ideas. Although this
is something that could be used to bring themselves closer in social relations, most of
what is shared is interesting content (Infographic, Social Media Statistics 2012) that
could relate to other things, some political.
" In reasons around Bruneis top position in Asia for usage over population, some
answers were common and seemed to connect to all other reasons given, one of the
rst things pointed out was it Facebook being a cheap way of communicating due to
the cheap internet costs in Brunei, and as it is a small country, wireless internet is
vastly available. Hand in hand is Bruneis high standards of living, leading to a
materialistic society with many people being able to afford smart phones (Bookrags,
2012). Another recurring reason was that Brunei was lacking in entertainment and
social activities other than sport which was encouraged. Concerts are restricted, with
theatre, opera, nightclubs and bars not available due to the Malay Islamic Monarchy
concept (Cities Of The World, 2002).
" With cultural aspects of wanting to keep in touch and updated on their friends
and family, especially students in different countries and the latest trends only
intensied their usage on Facebook, thus to some there is a certain peer pressure to
have a Facebook account, as it popular. Many also see it as a new way of building
their online identities through shares and likes. As one response from an
anonymous writer says;
Bruneis a tiny country, and every Bruneian friend you have on Facebook is likely a
mutual friend of another. Were all linked, and since we also love gossip and intruding
on other peoples lives, it only makes sense that wed do this on Facebook, which has
become all the more stalker-friendly recently. In the same way, its additionally a way
for us to control the impression that we give people (through the kinds of things we
like and share so any gossip about is to some degree, based on information we
willingly shared, and thus, that we controlled.
Many saw this demographic as associated with the youths of Brunei. With the lack of
entertainment, high spending power, availability of internet connection and wide use of
technology, a number had their own gadgets to go online on such as iPod touches,
tabs and smart phones. A number of users saw this as being inuenced by their elders,
alongside a high literacy level among the youths, and most primary schools have
computer studies, making children computer literate at a very young age. Almost 90%
of the answers revolved around these factors.
" Another reason for the high penetration of Facebook that was regularly
mentioned was the creation of multiple accounts, rstly the emergence of local
businesses online, thus creating extra accounts for these businesses to that of the
owners personal account as fan pages restricted connectivity with its customers. Extra
accounts were also created by the government, in efforts of creating two-way
communication with its citizens. In addition to this, some people created few accounts,
for different reasons, some because they had reached the full capacity of friends in
one account, hence creating another account to continue adding people. This again,
holds a cultural aspect, maintaining friends because deleting them goes against their
culture, as suggested by Nadiah Mohamed, who said that;
... It has something to do with the size of the community. Everybody knows everybody,
everybody adds everybody.
This has also resulted in what is described by an Anonymous student,
Some users create 2 or more accounts just so one can be more important than the
other, eg: an extra account is created because there has been a lot of friend requests
in the other account, so the rst account (is) more privatised and contain(s) close
friends only whilst the other would have more accepted friends that he doesnt even
know.
This was also seen as a trend among youths, each creating their own groups as
Facebook accounts such as geng budak smokers (Young Smokers Gang) or the
best football team in the world Kunakoshi FC as suggested by respondent Yamin Jazli
Ahmed.
" One of Bruneis most famous blogger, Muhammad Reeda Hj Malik, and also
leading the Brunei Chanel Ops Committee that regulated Brunei mIRC channels in
case of any abuse or unnecessary incidents spoke of this occurrence;
I think this is a clear indication of Bruneians endemic desire to express themselves in
a manner that they may not have done in real life, particularly in the socio-political
sphere. Voyeurism is another factor. In such a small community, Bruneians are brought
up in a everyone knows everyone environment. Hence we have this innate desire to
see what everyone else is up to in their daily lives. Siapa kawin siapa? Siapa bekawan
sama siapa? (Who is marrying who? Whos friends with who?) etc.
This was also echoed and elaborated in Khalidah Hussins response, who stated;
...the internet is a (relatively) safe space for self-expression, thoughts, opinions etc
and with Brunei having very limited outlets for an individuals frustration, may it be
political or social or cultural [usually in the case of ones sexuality] (no partial or free
press, no unions etc) it may be the case that they turn to Facebook or Tumblr or what
have you, to express their opinions and ideas anonymously without fear of their
identity being revealed. and this should remain the internets strong point. i guess in
this light the internet offers some kind of escapism to the frustrated or repressed
individual.
One of the respondents also spoke about the group called CCPB or Cerita-Cerita
Panas Brunei (Bruneis hottest stories) that offered Bruneians an area to share their
thoughts, ideas and frustrations, attaining feedback from other Facebook users. This
group will be discussed further upon revealing the ndings of virtual ethnography.
" This question was posed with the purpose of nding out uses of Facebook
within the cultural context and to test against theories of online communities. As
previously discussed, online communities had more to it than sharing a geographical
location. It was about shared interest, values, practices and most importantly a sense
of belonging. It was also about intention. Intention was also mentioned in investigating
social networking site Facebook within the emphasis of a cultural context.
" Evidence has put forward that Bruneis culture is of high importance to its users.
The practise of keeping in touch, whether through an observational or participatory
point of view is in line with their interest in keeping up with trends, new stories. This is
intensied by their lack of entertainment and high standard of living, allowing them to
keep up with these trends. It is a feeling shared by many, the use of social networking
sites only opening up another way for them to communicate. They have brought the
culture of being a close-knit community online, ticking all the boxes that Baym has set.
To some it gives them a chance to be themselves, or show an online persona,
indicating a milder, more open version of community as racial and gender theory
suggests the removal of a physical being. This could be due to the youths online being
exposed to western culture, from a young age, encouraging them to be more open.
Smith and Kollocks (1999) arguments is well tted here as although individuals are in
a virtual space that allows freedom of self-expression, this depends on the individuals
themselves and their willingness to express. Sherry Turkles (2011) argument of not
calling online communities communities as they are worlds of weak ties is deemed
irrelevant in this study as Bruneians priority in the concept of Face signies that their
ofine interactions are likely to match those online due to this freedom.
" Something that should be taken into account is the argument produced by Baym
(2010) that online communities are more likely to express themselves politically.
Although only a few respondents have mentioned it, overall it seems an unlikely event.
This supports the evidence found by U.S Department of State (2002) that citizens were
unwilling to take part in any political activity. This presented the next question asked to
those who partook in the survey, Do you feel comfortable expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook or Twitter? Why?
Social Media and Authority
" Out of the fty-ve respondents, only six answered with a denite Yes. Twenty
people responded with answers in between Yes and No, Twenty participants replied
with a direct No. The remaining nine were unsure or werent interested in politics.
Those who responded with a Yes believed the public should be made aware of these
political views. They pressed that this should be in the form of constructive feedback
towards the Government. One Anonymous banker said people slandered it by the
mouth anyway. Affy Rahman expressed the need to celebrate a healthy debate, not
frown upon it. The backlash of posting political views were generally the reason behind
those who said yes, but no. They held no qualms about positive views, but were
concerned with sensitive issues, and how by expressing these views their social
status would be at risk as news would spread fast. If it was done, most preferred to do
this anonymously. Many also revealed that even if they were happy to talk about their
views, they were limited by the nations values (Anonymous, government employee),
laws of defamation, emergent law for arbitrary arrest (Muhammad Reeda Haji Malik,
General Manager), fear of government surveillance (anonymous, analyst). They found
that talking about their political views was controversial and would only talk about it
with people with the same interests (Bakhtiar, student). Individuals were concerned
with the arguments that would be sparked by their actions, not against authorities, but
against other users.
" The twenty participants that answered with No had common reasons. The
importance of social status and being sought out by authorities is shown in Ayyubs
answer,
No, because I would hate to have skeletons in my closet. Imagine how that would
affect my promotion 20 years down the line.
Many participants had personal preferences of not getting involved. Another
anonymous student explained;
Bruneians lack the urge to express political views because of (the) lacking in political
activity in Brunei. Not to say that Bruneians have no idea what politics is but Bruneians
are content with what they have.
This was also echoed in Babu, a students response, raising other issues as well;
... Brunei isnt like the middle east where uprising due to whatever corrupting leaders
and poverty/economic problems... Brunei is a small stable safe country, what is there
to complain about? Well maybe a few things... the complaint is THERE, but the action
is ZERO!
Most Brunei users felt safer on Twitter as there was better privacy, and they could
voice out their opinions regardless of the character limit (Affy Rahman, Student).
" These responses show an image that has been made surrounding authority,
Brunei users feared crossing the line, making comments that could bring a negative
affect upon themselves, whether in the short run or long run. Bruneians have a
mindset based on what has happened, or rumored to happen (Anonymous, Student)
that makes them think that by putting across political views they will be challenged by
strongly loyal, unquestioning citizens behind the government. Their image of the
government is a strong one, the fact that none have even mentioned the monarchy
system that rules the government shows undoubted loyalty towards the Sultan. There
is a mindset that they should be grateful to the His Majestys government for giving
them many privileges enjoyed by Brunei citizens. The image surrounding the
government is also a passive one, yet many recognize the efforts in the government
trying to communicate with the Bruneians, by trying to reach Brunei users online.
" Does this loyalty come hand in hand with the Malay Islamic Monarchy
philosophy? For twenty-four participants, living within this ideology has inuenced their
interactions of Facebook and/or Twitter. In addition to this, ten others said it inuenced
them to a certain extent. Twenty-one responses were negative. Those in favour saw
the concept as woven into their identities, being brought up in it. They tended to self-
censor in consideration of others, even with international friends so as not to offend
them, some adamant in keeping a healthy image for themselves and for Brunei. There
were careful in what they said, shared and uploaded, how they conversed out of a
mutual sense of respect. Those who were not in favour were either not brought up with
this philosophy or were loosely brought up with it, taking into account where they were
educated. For Anonymous banker, his or her interactions were inuenced by parents,
suggesting that although they werent raised in the philosophy they were rmly
embedded in their parents culture. Similar responses were recorded amongst youths,
who although grew up without the concept still respected it. This was stated by
Anonymous student who says;
... it all depends on how you are brought up as an individual... If someone thinks that
interacting on Facebook and Twitter have to be under the context of MIB then he/she
may be more reserved than someone who still respects MIB as culture of Brunei but
that doesnt stop him/ her from being themselves on Facebook or Twitter.
This shows that the Malay Islamic Monarchy is integral to Bruneian lives, despite
respective backgrounds. The three words in this philosophy are pillars that support one
another. Even with leaving the Malay culture behind, in terms of language, once
cannot deny Islam, being the ofcial religion of the country, and the Monarchy, the
loved and trusted gure ruling the country and keeping Brunei in its position as a
welfare country. With its history of royal and cultural heritage, reinforcing the Malay
culture.
Observing CCPB
" Virtual ethnography was made primarily into the group Cerita-Cerita Panas
Brunei (CCPB) otherwise translated Bruneis hottest stories as it was found to be an
open group that was easily accessible, with over 68, 900 following the page, growing
by 200 followers everyday. Set up in 2010, the page is dedicated to the discussion and
sharing of news, stories, experiences, articles, lessons in life (mostly religious),
business promotions and humor amongst others. Stories shared on the page are all by
anonymous writers who have sent their stories through inbox. This author nds this
page important and relevant to the study as all of these members spoke malay, some
having very bad English language. It was a general idea that Malay should be spoken
instead of English. The stories complied with cultural trends discussed in the
questionnaires. They shared stories of Islam, and addressed themselves as Hamba
Allah, or servitude to Allah, although some shared stories of forbidden love, gender
preferences and so on. The page is updated everyday, each story averagely liked 100
times, commented and shared, showing a high level of activity.
" Relevant to this study are their discussions of authority, many had shared
stories about rich people, or people with titles in general, coming across as snobbish.
However this study will be concerned with the news shared, and looking at the
comments in response to these news regarding authority. The selection of news
shared by the CCPB does not include all news regarding the authorities, It mostly
surrounded those that affected their welfare. Two cases are presented to obtain a
grasp of the situation.
" The rst is that of an article posted titled Do Not Misuse Education Allowance,
this was pressed on by the second Minister of Finance, Pehin Orang Kaya Laila Setia
Dato Seri Setia Awang Haji Abdul Rahman Abdul Ibrahim. The article was aimed at
parents who misused the allowance intended to lift the burden on their childrens
school fees in private schools. Some of the comments were as follows;
"
The second lowest comment translates into Mr. Putih being disheartened. He sees
these Ministers as aiming to please the Sultan, without taking into consideration the
situation of Brunei citizens. He accuses them of not caring, and they only show it in
front of His Majesty, and that only the Sultan knows what they are going through. He
ends by wishing longevity for the Sultan as the ruler of Brunei. The lowest
commentator requests cuts to those with high salaries, for example $10,000 down to
$2,000, taking away their privileges such as their maids and drivers, so that they would
know what its like to be in their shoes. He doesnt mean to say that those with low
incomes cant help but do so, but as incomes stay and prices hike up he doesnt have
enough to save up. He asks the Ministers to think about their situation, and not to talk
about things they dont know much about.
" In the second case, it is an article about progressing development, in which the
Sultan voices out his plans, how he plans to carry them out in achieving his target for
the nations vision 2035. He talks about different aspects that will lead up to achieving
this, leading his people to be have strength in moving forward and keeping to religious
practices and traditions, also touching on road safety and the issue of fatalities from
accidents. Below are some of the comments by people;
Daus HMS brings up the notion that if the Sultan cares about road safety, they should
too. The rest are wishes for the Sultan to remain the ruler of Brunei, continuing to bring
peace, as well as expressing their love and affections for His Majesty.
This presents a different side to that of the ndings from the questionnaires. They are
willing to challenge the government as far as the Ministers. The image that they have
in terms of authority of the government is a fairly low one, but they hold the Sultan in
the highest regards. Investigations into the group that showed similarities in ndings
with those of the questionnaires is the emphasis of culture, although there they are
able to express what they want, although with anonymity, and still within the context of
of the Malay Islamic Monarchy. In the CCPB they more of a community with mutual
support for one another, and still continuing activities even when some are negatively
viewed. What is surprising is their willingness to talk about things that is controversial
in from the perspectives of some Brunei users, perhaps this is inspired by the high
level of activity.
CONCLUSION
" Through social media, Bruneis users of Facebook and Twitter construct
meaning through interactions, through content available on authorities within a cultural
context. Due to Brunei policies, media content is in the full hands of authorities. From
the perspective of interactions, Many exist within the theoretical ideas of online
communities due to the cultural emphasis in social relations. Evidence has indicated
that political activity in the public sphere is either that of praise or constructive
feedback, as long as they do not cross the boundaries of law and the philosophy of
which they live in. The Malay Islamic Monarchy ideology reinforces this and is still
widely practised, with Bruneians being proud of it, some seeing it as their identity.
Others are inuenced by others who practise it, and or greatly respect it.
" Although in groups such as CCPB, notions of authority may be challenged, this
is quickly reversed due to the loyalty and respect of the community towards their King,
the Sultan of Brunei. Despite certain individuals not being satised with the lack of
freedom of speech and press, there is an equally large, if not bigger, community that is
prepared to defend it. As a welfare society, Brunei users feel in debt to him for their
privileged lives. The regulations imposed by the government in terms of law and
internet surveillance are inuential on these meanings. Brunei users wish to be more
vocal about their opinions, however due to the strength of their culture in their
everyday lives and to some, identities, it is still unclear as to what would be expressed.
"
" Some conversations online replaced those ofine in terms of existing political
views. What progress can be expected for future Brunei users between social media
and authority? As previously mentioned, social media works better in a country that
has some form of democracy (Social Capital, 2011). This is where the conclusion of
this study lies. What should also be taken into account is the mindset of Brunei users
and how their responses indicate a resistance to change. This is noteworthy as the
Sultan has recently brought in talks of democracy at the Bali Democracy Forum 2010,
through small but carefully planned steps. He judges success on two points;
Firstly, on the way they add to our peoples capacity to achieve what they want to do
with their lives.
And secondly, how they help them to take responsibility for their personal decisions
and choices.
We see this as the way for each family and each community to respect each other and
to respect people from other countries. In other words, for us, the Forums theme this
year [democracy] suggests that lasting peace and stability have to come from the
people themselves. And this is the ideal we search for.
Efforts can be seen through the Bruneis BSB (Bandar Seri Begawan) Development
Masterplan, sending students to study in the eld of media, and in others such as the
e-government and Ministries joining social media platforms to fulll the Sultans own
vision of democracy, building a future city with a government that involves guiding
decisions of the people.
" Democracy has been within the visions of the Sultan since 2008, however there
is more to it than steps taken by his government, Its also about changing the
Bruneians perspective towards the government, joining these conversations. Moving
within the boundaries of the Malay Islamic Monarchy will be a slow one due to the
sensitivity of culture and generations of values. Slowly bringing it into the modern
world will be challenging, but as stated before, they are pillars that rely upon one
another to work and the faith and loyalty to the government is enough to bring Bruneis
social media users forward.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Online Communication, Second Edition, Linking Technology, Identity and Culture,


Andrew F. Wood, Matthew J. Smith, 2005, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Pg 121-143

Communities in Cyberspace, Marc A.Smith and Peter Kollock, 1999, Routledge, Pg


29-106

http://dmitriwilliams.com/LFGpapernal.pdf Racial Theory by Dmitri Williams, 2005

The Body and The Screen, Theories of Internet Spectatorship, Michele White, 2006,
MIT Press Books, Pg 57-67

Cam Girls, Celebrity and Community in the age of social networks, Theresa M. Senft,
2008, Peter Lang Publishing. Pages 97-113

Alone Together, Why We Expect More From Technology and Less From Each Other,
Sherry Turkle, 2011, Basic Books Publishing. Pg 229-239

Virtual Culture, Identity and Communication in Cybersociety, Steven G. Jones, 1998,


Sage Publications, Pages 102-130

Being Virtual, Who you really are online, Davey Winder, 2008, John Wiley and Sons
Ltd, pages 13-37 and pages 83-101

http://www.joomvision.com/social-media-business/, 5 reasons why social media is


important for business, Admin, Feb 5 2012 on joomvision.

http://socialcapital.wordpress.com/2011/01/26/twitter-facebook-and-youtubes-role-in-
tunisia-uprising/ Twitter, Facebook and YouTubes Role in Tunisia Uprising, Social
Capital, 26th Jan, 2011.

http://www.mofat.gov.bn/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=26:statement-by-
his-majesty-the-sultan-and-yang-di-pertuan-of-brunei-darussalam-at-3rd-bali-
democracy-forum&Itemid=277 HMs statement on democracy at Bali forum.

http://www.bt.com.bn/news-national/2011/12/10/hms-vision-democracy-brought-
prosperity-brunei Article by Brunei Times on HM attending democracy forum, Dec
10th 2011.

http://dmitriwilliams.com/LFGpapernal.pdf Looking for Gender, Demetri Williams et


al, Journal of Communication, 2009 on dmitriwilliams.com

Personal Connections in The Digital Age, Digital Media and Society Series, Nancy K.
Baym, 2010, Polity Press. Pg 72-98

http://heidicohen.com/social-media-denition/ Social Media denitions

Tales from Facebook, Daniel Miller, 2011, Polity Press, Pages 164 to 204

http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/social-media-statistics-stats-2012-infographic/ Social
Media statistics 2012, Digital Buzz Blog, Jan 3, 2012.

http://www4.gsb.columbia.edu/ideasatwork/feature/7322610/Why+Do+You+Tweet
%3F Why do you tweet? Oliver Toubia, Feb 28 2012, Columbia Business Schools.

Twitter Revolution: How Social Media and Mobile Marketing Is Changing the Way We
Do Business & Market Online, Deborah Micek, Warren Whitlock, 2008, Xeno Press.

http://www.jpost.com/Sci-Tech/Article.aspx?id=268160 Social Media changes


Political Conversation, Ben Hartman, May 5th 2012, Jerusalem Post.

Social Media and Democracy, Innovations in Participatory Politics, Brian D. Loader


and Dan Mercea, 2012, Routledge Press, Pages 1-10

The Myth Of The Lazy Native, A study of the image of the Malays, Filipinos and
Javanese from the 16th to the 20th century and its function in the ideology of colonial
capitalism, Syed Hussein Alatas, 1977, Frank Cass and Company Ltd, Pg 35-50 and
166- 181

http://www.fridae.asia/newsfeatures/2011/01/17/10577.homosexuality-in-brunei
Homosexuality in Brunei by News Editor, Jan 17th, 2011 on Fridae.

http://bruneitimes.com.bn/news-national/2011/01/14/research-tackles-gay-community
Research on Bruneis Gay Community, Brunei times, Jan 14th, 2011

http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/brunei.html Brunei culture,


customs and etiquette by Kwintessential, (no date)

http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18236.htm and http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/


hrrpt/2010/eap/154379.htm Country Reports on Human Rights Pratices, U.S
Department of State, 2002.

http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacic/Brunei-
Darussalam-POLITICS-GOVERNMENT-AND-TAXATION.html Brunei Politics on
Nations Encyclopedia (no date)

http://www.bookrags.com/research/bruneipolitical-system-ema-01/ Brunei Politics,


(no authors, no date) on bookrags.com

http://rano360.com/ranoadidas2/ Brunei Channel Ops Commitee; regulation of mIRC


by social blogger Rano Adidas, May 3rd 2012.

Handbook Of The Media In Asia, Shelton A Gunaratne, 2000, Sage Publications India
Pvt Ltd, Pg 225-240

Asian Media Studies, John Nguyet Erni, Siew Keng Chua, 2005, Blackwell
Publishing Ltd, Pg 227-225

http://www.hufngtonpost.com/dana-radcliffe/can-social-media-
undermine_b_1011290.html Can Social Media Undermine Democracy? Dan
Radcliffe, 18th October, 2011, Hufngton Post.

http://www.cipe.org/blog/2012/02/16/ve-ways-to-use-social-media-for-economic-
reform-and-democracy-advocacy/#.T6HEju2Ee_Y Five Ways To Use Social Media
For Economic Reform and Democracy, Jon Custer, 18 Feb 2012, Centre for
International Private Enterprise.

Virtual Ethnography, Christine Hine, 2000, Sage Publications

http://sixrevisions.com/content-strategy/viral-content-why-we-share-some-things-and-
not-others/ Why We Share Some Things And Not Others, Kristina Bjoran, September
6, 2011, Six Revisions.

http://engtutorgrp1.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/illegal-concerts-in-brunei-you-know.html
Illegal Concerts In Brunei, Athirah Ayyub, 8 April 2012

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3410700173.html "Brunei." Cities of the World.


2002, Encyclopedia.com

https://www.facebook.com/CCPB.FANPAGE Cerita Cerita Panas Brunei by Anna Meya


and Poisonz White Peach, Joined 7th Dec 2010.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=soUzmX6VcrM BSB Development Master Plan by


bsbmasterplan, April 12, 2012

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bx.html World FactBook,


Central Intelligence Agency, Apr 2012.
APPENDICES
anonymous 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 3 3 2 3 2
the population generally
prefers not to spend money to
interact with family and
friends if possible and it's a
convenient way of
communicating, wherever in
the world the sender and
receiver are and it is also
user-friendly so even those
who are not good in
technology can use them.
also, since the population is
small, so it's easy for
everyone to get into the hype
of things; facebook. peer
pressure plays a role too. it's
the 'it' thing, so not having
one would make you
outdated?
no. it shouldnt be a place to
express political views
regarding Brunei.
maybe, to a certain extent.
after all, MB influences the
way people thinks, so it
affects how people judge
things and how they
express their views.
Lydia Mohd
Erman 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 3 4 1 1 3
guess its a necessary for kids
this days to update their
status like an open diary for
everyone to know. sometimes
i do used it to stalk people, so
other people would probably
do the same thing.
and lately it seems there's an
increase in advertising or
online FB shop. seems this is
one of the main attractiveness
for brunei online shopping for
the easiest way.
not really. but i do enjoy
reading people debating about
this here and there in fb. Absolutely not.
Anonaymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 5 4 4 3 2 2
High internet/smart phone
penetration per capita. High
quality of living among
population
Yes, as long as they're healthy
and constructive.
Yes as it influences on how
should interact or appear
online, keeping Brunei a
healthy image
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
1
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
tumblr 3 3 5 4 1 3
Brunei has a relatively small
population which is
concentrated in an urban
area. The internet is quite
accessible to most people,
even if not constantly i.e.
internet cafes, school
computers, shared home
computers, etc. The Bruneian
lifestyle is very family-oriented
so people tend to stay at
home rather than go out and
this facilitates higher internet
usage. Also, mobile phone
tariffs in Brunei are relatively
expensive so facebook is an
inexpensive means of
communication. The Bruneian
community is also highly
interconnected thus social
networking sites merely
increases the effect of living in
such a small community.
t depends on the view. f it
were a radical, extremely
critical one, no. When even a
non-political but
"unprofessional" tweet can
result in removal from a
position, it is better to keep
opinions on official matters off
of social networking sites
unless it is a positive one.
Yes. As a scholarship
student, it is best to be
discreet on social
networking sites especially
those which allow user
profiles to be easily found
and perused. As Brunei is
a highly interconnected
community, information
can unwittingly be spread
through a profile with low
privacy settings.
Bakhtiar 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
YouTube 3 3 5 1 1 2
The improved access to
internet perhaps may play a
part in this, also with shorter
school hours compared to
many countries (especially in
schools which finish at 12.30
and where students have
finished ugama), students
have more free time to use
Facebook.t would also be
interesting to get an idea of
the age groups that are
spending the most time on
Facebook, could be
completely wrong and it could
be older groups spending the
most time and it would be
interesting to find this out.
don't because don't feel it as
an appropriate platform on
which to do so. feel people
often create controversy for the
sake of wanting to create
controversy or just because
they want to say something,
regardless of its relevance or
whether it is appropriate.
People are often sensitive to
such issues and thus feel its
only appropriate to discuss
such things with people
interested in discussing these
issues.
think it definitely does,
with regards to the pictures
that you are tagged in on
Facebook, the language
you may use and various
other interactions.
Especially when you have
family members on the
network that does
influence your usage of the
site especially when the
Bruneian society is
relatively conservative.
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
tumblr 4 3 4 4 4 1
Because of the new
generation influenced by the
advanced technology, people
encouraging each other,
portable gadgets that are
impressive and accessible wifi
connection being everywhere.
it depends.
yes, because to make
awareness to the social media
users.

no, because it may offend
people and this resulting to
"trolls".
yes it is. it helps to educate
the people who are new to
it or simply want to know
more about it. insya Allah.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
2
Anonymous 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC Student Facebook 1 1 2 1 1 4
believe that Brunei is lacking
in entertainment other than
sports activity which is a good
thing from time to time. And
because of this, people have
no choice but to entertain
themselves through Facebook
since they provide new,
games, etc.
No, as 've never expressed
any political views regarding
Brunei and the reason for that
is because don't think anyone
would care, not in this era.
Not at all. am sorry to
say, but not a lot of people
follow M..B anymore.
think media has more
effect on me and everyone
in Brunei.
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 2 4 3 1 1
There isn't much going on in
brunei.
Yes and No. wouldn't mind
expressing anything positive,
anything negative would be
taboo.
Yes, being brought up with
MB values, it influences
the way i interact in
facebook. MB is the
values that i adopt as a
Bruneian, try my best to
have these values in reality
or virtually.
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter 3 3 4 4 2 4
this could be due to the
increase in the number of
people studying abroad and
as a result, more people
create Facebook account to
keep in touch with families
and friends back home or
around the world. t is
important to have a social
networking sites to check on
how your family and friends
are from time to time.
Sometimes there is a need to
express as to how it could be
improve but rarely, there isn't
any political views arising.
There are both a good and bad
side to it. The good side is that
people will know what exactly
is happening and finding ways
to improve it. Bad site is can
cause a misunderstanding
among the public.
Not really, it doesn't really
have an impact.
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 3 5 3 1 4
Lack of entertainment and
activities in Brunei to cater to
the youth population.
Technology and social status
has played an important role
in building this need in Brunei
to keep up to date with
everyone. Children from a
young age have learnt to
imitate parents and siblings,
and play with iPads, iPhones,
etc and create facebook
accounts at a very young age.
Depends as feel we often
have to be careful about what
is said about Brunei due Brunei
being so small and the fact that
words spread like wild fire there
no matter who you are. Also,
social status would play a part
in comfortability in truly
expressing political views,
especially on Facebook where
information is visible to
everyone.
Not really. don't really
know anything about MB.
Obviously being a Muslim,
there are restrictions we
must obey, such as
drinking which feel many
Bruneians have started
doing whilst overseas.
However, it depends highly
on the individual itself.
don't drink but am friends
with many people who do.
Anonymous 16-25
Postgraduate
degree Student Facebook 3 3 3 2 4 1
believe it is the in-thing for
Bruneians especially the
teenager. t is easily
accessible, cheap way to
contact friends and gather
everyone for a hang out as
nearly everyone have a
facebook account.
Personally am fine with Brunei
as it is. However, if am to
express my political views, am
on the fence. This is because
Bruneians (usually teenagers)
tend to not investigate or ask
any reason as to why people
express their dislike and turn it
into an ugly matter and
eventually the matter got
dragged on and exaggerated.
believe that it does, in a
good way.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
3
'd like to be
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Legal Counsel
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 4 4 2 1 4
Maybe bruneian know each
and everyone on their
friendslist so they tend to use
facebook to update them very
often.
Sometimes, because it is
where you will get the most
feedback. Although there are
some very sensitive issues that
people rather not comment on.
don't really get the
question. nfluence my
interactions as in are my
interactions on
facebook/twitter limited to
certain topics only so as
not to offend other people
living in Brunei? f that is
the case, yes. tend to be
more careful as to how
word my statements
sometimes. have to be
careful not to offend one's
religion i.e slam mostly.
Ayyub 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
nstagram 3 2 4 3 1 4
One could say that there is
not much to do in Brunei and
hence people stay indoors
and on their computers.

However, think the reason
why we have the highest
usage (per capita assume) is
simply because we are well-
connected. t would only
make sense that a small yet
prosperous country would
have good infrastructure to
include telecommunications
and the internet.
No, because would hate to
have skeletons in my closet.
magine how that would affect
my promotion 20 years down
the line.
Yes, and am confident
that speak for many here
when say that we do not
want to cross lines..

But then again, there are
lots of things that we can
do as a nation within the
current political framework.
People do give and take
criticism - see BruDirect
and the Opinion page in
the Borneo Bulletin, for
example.
Ada
(anonymous) 16-25
Postgraduate
degree Engineer
Facebook,
YouTube 3 5 1 1 3 1
Everyone is using facebook
as the main source of the
latest news, communication
and advertisement.
Nope, the mentality of us
thinking it might be an illegal
act to do so.
Not really, it is living with
difficult people who
misrepresent the concept
of our MB.

For example, a malaysian
friend of mine gave salam
to this government
personnel, the personnel
never answered her salam
but unwillingly continued
on entertaining her.

At one point, she pointed
something on her form with
her finger. The personnel
scolded her for doing so for
being an ignorant not to
know the MB of Brunei.
(As it's rude to point things
with your index finger
instead with your thumb).

One word : Hypocrite.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
4
Nurul
Khairunnisa 16-25
Postgraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter 4 2 5 3 3 3
Business purposes, high rate
of unemployment, multiple
accounts for an individual for
different purposes and
audiences or/and lack of
social places/activities
available in the country.
'm not comfortable as 'm not a
political person myself :)
Yes it does, especially in
setting limitations and
barriers towards the way
interact with people or in
personal status updates
through my choice of
words and always trying to
be as polite as possible.
Van 16-25
Undergraduate
degree
Technical
Officer
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 3 5 5 2 4
Because not much
entertainment is available in
Brunei, people just end up
staying at home log on to
Facebook.
Yes, so that everyone can read
and is aware of it, especially for
the youngsters who rarely read
newspaper everyday.
Not now. But in future,
maybe it might.
Nick Osman 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 1 1 5 2 2
The country doesn't have
much to entertain its people.
Only if another person is
confidently passing on false
information, or anything that
deserves to be argued against. Not at all.
Anonymous 26-35 A' Levels Public servant Facebook 1 5 5 4 5 5
Showing off....?.....to get
attention....?.....nothing to
do?....grow d business?
Depends on d level of the
sensitivity..... Depends on d mood.....
lydia 26-35
Postgraduate
degree
Administrative
Officer
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 5 5 3 4 5
Facebook is increasingly
being used as a way to
connect with other peoples be
it family, friends. Facebook
pages also provides news
update on Brunei in an
instance. Furthermore,
Governmental departments is
also increasing use Facebook
as their media to reach the
public.
No, because Facebook or
Twitter are not the right
channel to do so because of
the impact that it can cause
when the views express is
personal not objective.
Furthermore, as government
servants and the public, it is
considered as an offence to
express negative views on
political issues relating to the
monarch.
Yes, because it gives you
boundaries on what to say
and what not to say. This
can be perceive as not
having freedom of speech.
But what is freedom of
speech? it's a subjective
matter for different peoples
and ideologies.
Furthermore, it shows that
you respect your country
and monarch and the
country's philosophy by not
bashing it in the world
arena.
shinju 16-25 A' Levels Student
Facebook,
Twitter 3 2 3 2 3 2
Single person creating
multiple accounts. No. No.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
5
Babu 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC Student
Facebook,
YouTube 3 3 4 2 5 1
Brunei Darussalam is a small
stable country relatively with a
surprisingly high standard
living life style in Asia,
henceforth our spending
culture and leisure attitude.

ts due to these main reasons,
that enable the majority of the
Brunei population to afford the
devices and have access to
the nternet, whether via
mobile phones wifi or home
application electronics
pc/laptop or what EVER?
giving us more freedom to
browse the web and erh...
make a Facebook account? i
dun know?

Early childhood exposure to
modern items and ideas, have
become a mainstream thing in
each passing generation, they
all may be different in a lot of
ways, but the end result is
that it still influence the way
how we view and do things in
general. like Younger
generations are far more
open and knowledgeable
about current celebrity affairs
or what ever pop dol they
worship Eg: (Justin bieber/
one direction) or i dun know?

same thing, t could be a
popular HOT selling item in
the market like during my era
(tamagotchi) toy, or when a
new shopping Mall just
recently open nearby, people
would be soo Sakai about it,
making such a huge fuzz and
all to the point their are mini
long queues. similar affect to
the Facebook, people r talking
about it, u hear about it from
radios, on TV, youtube,
advertisement contacts, u see
it on logos sumwhere? even
business and mini
organization use Facebook or
what ever? as a form of
communication customer
service thing?

but a huge portion of
Facebook users in brunei are
students, post graduates, or
bugang lah singles, where
their average friends count
could be ranging from 250 to
400 as their Facebook
friends, and there also
minority who are facebook
sun worshippers! got 1000+
friends WOW!!!

soo its like a must have
everyday item, juz like
phones. f your friends at
school have a account, and
everyone else around you,
family, cus or who ever have
a Facebook account, at the
end of the day it becomes a
trend that u cant beat it, soo u
join them lah.. what to do
one.. its the easiest and
cheapest way to keep in
contact ah.
politics is usually a sensitive
area where most Bruneians
well not speak much about it in
public, gossiping behind closed
doors yes (masa kahwin or hari
raya mauahahaha), BUT
people would be slightly brave
enough to talked about it, F.. i
repeat F its a trend where
everyone is boldly speaking
about it wherever u go, in
broad daylight.

another thing, Brunei isnt like
the middle east where uprising
due to whatever corrupting
leaders and poverty/economic
problems. as i mention earlier
Brunei is a small stable safe
country, what is there to
complain about? well maybe a
few things, and news could
spread like WLD fire from KB
to temburong sudah sampai.

besides the fact that u could
remain anonymous online, by
making a fake name, or
account and we know that we r
FAR FAr.. away from harm,
safe inside our lovely house
behind our monitors, people
would be daring to type stuff
online.. without thinking twice
what they just wrote, swearing
and mambo jambo about why
didnt they do this, why not that
and etc..

the complaint is THERE, but
the action is ZERO! making
there words cheap and empty
promises and meaningless,
giving them a false heaven of
no harm shall fall upon them if
they say this and that, making
some people comfortable
saying things online, but for
me, NO its better to avoid such
topics.
NOPE! not at all, its safe
for me to say, that (M..B)
does not influence much of
my interactions on
facebook. i mean like
HUH? for me the first
thing.. that comes straight
away on my mind at that
VERY moment when ever
log into my Facebook
account is erh...

is their any notifications for
me? who is it from? why
did they sent it? is there an
messages from the people
who i want to see? and not
the people who i would
LOVE to block them on
Facebook.. and blah blah..
blah... and soo on and etc..
and what soo ever!

(M..B) is not constantly
24hours 7days a week the
first thing that comes out
from our mind when ever
we do things, separately
YES.. agree they do
effect the way we interact
on Facebook, like slamic
teachings will always
reminds us who we are as
Muslims (prayers) and the
do's and don'ts, Malay
traditions reinforce our
national pride and the
things we love backed
home (if we are overseas)
like Malay food, or ritual
customs (weddings), and
Monarchy the benefits we
get from our generous
beloved Sultan, by being
thankful at a certain event.
but i would never mixed
them together when ever
use Facebook.

Besides, should be
honest with myself, i even
forgotten some of the (M..
B) codes, seriously man,
ask any other students or
older people what they hav
learnt from (M..B) and how
could they apply it to real
life situations, it would take
some time for us to
generate a proper answer,
since it soo difficult to say
things about it due to what
ever reasons, which i dun
know?

Generally speaking, people
normally use Facebook on
their personal own interest
being served first, before
anything else comes to
mind, if separately Malay
topic, slamic involvement
and Monarchy related
YEs.. it would definitely
influence how we see and
judge things around us on
Facebook, but putting them
together as (M..B) no.. i
dun think soo... that's from
my opinion.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
6
Babu 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC Student
Facebook,
YouTube 3 3 4 2 5 1
Brunei Darussalam is a small
stable country relatively with a
surprisingly high standard
living life style in Asia,
henceforth our spending
culture and leisure attitude.

ts due to these main reasons,
that enable the majority of the
Brunei population to afford the
devices and have access to
the nternet, whether via
mobile phones wifi or home
application electronics
pc/laptop or what EVER?
giving us more freedom to
browse the web and erh...
make a Facebook account? i
dun know?

Early childhood exposure to
modern items and ideas, have
become a mainstream thing in
each passing generation, they
all may be different in a lot of
ways, but the end result is
that it still influence the way
how we view and do things in
general. like Younger
generations are far more
open and knowledgeable
about current celebrity affairs
or what ever pop dol they
worship Eg: (Justin bieber/
one direction) or i dun know?

same thing, t could be a
popular HOT selling item in
the market like during my era
(tamagotchi) toy, or when a
new shopping Mall just
recently open nearby, people
would be soo Sakai about it,
making such a huge fuzz and
all to the point their are mini
long queues. similar affect to
the Facebook, people r talking
about it, u hear about it from
radios, on TV, youtube,
advertisement contacts, u see
it on logos sumwhere? even
business and mini
organization use Facebook or
what ever? as a form of
communication customer
service thing?

but a huge portion of
Facebook users in brunei are
students, post graduates, or
bugang lah singles, where
their average friends count
could be ranging from 250 to
400 as their Facebook
friends, and there also
minority who are facebook
sun worshippers! got 1000+
friends WOW!!!

soo its like a must have
everyday item, juz like
phones. f your friends at
school have a account, and
everyone else around you,
family, cus or who ever have
a Facebook account, at the
end of the day it becomes a
trend that u cant beat it, soo u
join them lah.. what to do
one.. its the easiest and
cheapest way to keep in
contact ah.
politics is usually a sensitive
area where most Bruneians
well not speak much about it in
public, gossiping behind closed
doors yes (masa kahwin or hari
raya mauahahaha), BUT
people would be slightly brave
enough to talked about it, F.. i
repeat F its a trend where
everyone is boldly speaking
about it wherever u go, in
broad daylight.

another thing, Brunei isnt like
the middle east where uprising
due to whatever corrupting
leaders and poverty/economic
problems. as i mention earlier
Brunei is a small stable safe
country, what is there to
complain about? well maybe a
few things, and news could
spread like WLD fire from KB
to temburong sudah sampai.

besides the fact that u could
remain anonymous online, by
making a fake name, or
account and we know that we r
FAR FAr.. away from harm,
safe inside our lovely house
behind our monitors, people
would be daring to type stuff
online.. without thinking twice
what they just wrote, swearing
and mambo jambo about why
didnt they do this, why not that
and etc..

the complaint is THERE, but
the action is ZERO! making
there words cheap and empty
promises and meaningless,
giving them a false heaven of
no harm shall fall upon them if
they say this and that, making
some people comfortable
saying things online, but for
me, NO its better to avoid such
topics.
NOPE! not at all, its safe
for me to say, that (M..B)
does not influence much of
my interactions on
facebook. i mean like
HUH? for me the first
thing.. that comes straight
away on my mind at that
VERY moment when ever
log into my Facebook
account is erh...

is their any notifications for
me? who is it from? why
did they sent it? is there an
messages from the people
who i want to see? and not
the people who i would
LOVE to block them on
Facebook.. and blah blah..
blah... and soo on and etc..
and what soo ever!

(M..B) is not constantly
24hours 7days a week the
first thing that comes out
from our mind when ever
we do things, separately
YES.. agree they do
effect the way we interact
on Facebook, like slamic
teachings will always
reminds us who we are as
Muslims (prayers) and the
do's and don'ts, Malay
traditions reinforce our
national pride and the
things we love backed
home (if we are overseas)
like Malay food, or ritual
customs (weddings), and
Monarchy the benefits we
get from our generous
beloved Sultan, by being
thankful at a certain event.
but i would never mixed
them together when ever
use Facebook.

Besides, should be
honest with myself, i even
forgotten some of the (M..
B) codes, seriously man,
ask any other students or
older people what they hav
learnt from (M..B) and how
could they apply it to real
life situations, it would take
some time for us to
generate a proper answer,
since it soo difficult to say
things about it due to what
ever reasons, which i dun
know?

Generally speaking, people
normally use Facebook on
their personal own interest
being served first, before
anything else comes to
mind, if separately Malay
topic, slamic involvement
and Monarchy related
YEs.. it would definitely
influence how we see and
judge things around us on
Facebook, but putting them
together as (M..B) no.. i
dun think soo... that's from
my opinion.
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Self-employed
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 2 3 5 5 1 3
A few ideas? have many.

1. Brunei's current
demography is dominated by
youths.

2. Relatively high literacy level
among the younger
generation.

3. Relatively high familiarity
with and exposure to
technology among the
younger generation.

4. Tendency to 'keep up with
local trends', which is deeply
etched within Bruneian
mentality.
No. n conformity with the lack
of 'freedom of speech' in
Brunei, criticality is highly
disapproved (unlike in
academia where it is a virtue).
Even among the younger
generation who are supposedly
intellectually objective, any
political expressions that
suggestively veer off 'the
traditional path' can quickly be
associated with treason
tendencies. This means often
TEND to agree with
acknowledged opinions rather
than state my own. Example:
Saying yes to absolute
monarchy being the BEST type
of polity for the country. would
never even TRY to be objective
- at least not on Facebook.
Question ambiguous.
interpret 'living in the
context of the M..B.' as
'being observant of moral
values that are enshrined
by the M..B.'. Therefore,
my answer to this question
is yes. The M..B. strongly
warrants moderation &
decency, so often find
myself interacting within
the moral boundaries of
the ideology: No swearing,
no criticality, no offensive
statements etc.

Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
7
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Writer
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 5 2 5 4 3 3
Brunei's a tiny country, and
every Bruneian friend you
have on Facebook is likely a
mutual friend of another.
We're all linked, and since we
also love gossip and intruding
on other people's lives, it only
makes sense that we'd do this
on Facebook, which has
become all the more stalker-
friendly recently. n the same
way, it's additionally a way for
us to control the impression
we give people (through the
kind of things we "like" and
"share") so any gossip about
us is, to some degree, based
on information we willingly
shared, and thus, that we
"controlled".
would only express indirect
opinions that can be applicable
to any society. wouldn't
directly refer to Brunei because
you can get into serious trouble
with the government if you
question the way they work -
and publishing it on the internet
like that could be used in real
ways against you. n this
sense, 'd be much more
comfortable expressing these
views in person.
Yes. just stay away from
topics that are obviously
critical of things to do with
Brunei's way of life. t's a
criminal offence to oppose
these rules, after all.
nsamf 16-25
Undergraduate
degree student
Facebook,
YouTube,
instagram 5 5 3 4 3 5
-technology become
advanced and gadgets are
high-tech and widely-used
such as smartphones
-people are becoming more
educated
-globalization driven people to
move around the cyberspace
freely
-Brunei has cheap internet
network i dont like to talk abt politic.
in term of language used,
yes. rarely used vulgar
words
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 4 5 5 1 1
guess it's due to influence.
And having facebook may
thought to be something
linked to popularity and if you
don't have one, peers will
force you to have one (peer
pressure).
Maybe. But am not really into
politics and all that. ts not my
area anyway so yeah..
Somewhat yes and no. but
more to yes i think. You
would like behave yourself
and not to expose anything
that would harm your
country, share what you
know about Brunei and
more important the islamic
side of MB, you don't
expose your aurat, you
would respect others, etc.
am sure if im making
sense here.
anonymous 16-25
Postgraduate
degree student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 4 5 5 3 3
Perhaps because a person
might have more than 1
facebook account and this
increases the number of
people using Facebook in
Brunei.
No. Firstly because it's just my
personal preference not to
bring up my political views, i
prefer keeping it to myself.
Secondly, the subject of
"politics" is controversial,
especially in the context of
Brunei. As much as love
transparency and getting it all
out there but when things get
too political,it could get out of
hands.
Yes. A person's identity is
reflected in the way he/she
talks or acts. MB is our
identity, Malay and slam
taught us to have a sense
of humility, modesty and to
always have a feeling of
shyness.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
8
sham 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 5 4 3 2 2 4
Because everyone is on
facebook due to the trend. not sure no
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree banker
Facebook,
Twitter,
instagram 5 3 5 4 2 2
nternet and the 3g networks
are easily accessible. Most
people have some sort of
internet accessible device
whether it's a phone, tablet or
pc hence Facebook being
simple to reach.

Facebook is just one of those
networks that everyone in
Brunei has, no matter what
your age is. People use it for
networking and promoting of
products, events, etc. t's a
very convenient method of
spreading news and updates.
Yes, am. 'm sure 'm not the
only one who wouldn't mind
expressing political views.
People slander about it by
mouth anyways. One other
reason is that anything that has
been expressed could be taken
as constructive criticism and
not taken personally. We
shouldn't feel afraid about
sharing our thoughts and ideas
that could help the sultanate
improve.
personally didn't grow up
so much in an MB
environment thus my
answer is no. The only
people who do influence
my interactions are my
parents. They see
something they don't like,
've to take action on it.
Bruneian 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
nstagram 3 1 4 2 1 4
Yes. Social pressure.
Facebook is accepted for all
ages. To remain in contact
with families living abroad.
ncrease in technology, young
children are now exposed to
iphones, ipads this gives them
an encouragement perhaps to
get invovled in social
networks too. To follow up on
celebrities. Etc etc
No. think these sort of issues
should be dealt amongst
people who actually know what
is going on. Often, we read
articles about something and
usually we will find these lowly
sarcastic comments on it. Esp
since the recent hooligans in
brunei posts. (not quite sure if
this is political) but understand
that ppl were upset, but it got to
a point where people were just
saying negative things based
on something they read but
possibly not even half of them
even saw personally.
You never really think
about it. But if this is
related to the question
above i guess you could
say that it does. The
principles of sopan santun
and abad. So i personally
try not to include any
personal thoughts/ideas on
social networks just to
avoid offending anyone
and hateful negative
updates is just wrong.. ts
bad enough you dislike
someone/something, but
posting it up publicly
increases not only dosa
but also inviting others to it
as well.
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 4 4 4 3 3 peer pressure.
yes, maybe because in my
course i am required to know
social trends and any progress
in Brunei. not really
Anonymous 16-25
Postgraduate
degree Officer
Facebook,
YouTube 2 1 5 4 4 1
There is a need for them to
enter, a reason for them to
continue using it and easily
accessible. Socializing,
keeping in touch, reading viral
news and rumours, and some
consider it as a cheaper way
to connect.
Not quite, only to a certain
degree. There are limitations to
how much we can express,
whether we like it or not, online
or on paper, it's just the same
and that is a fact.
guess it's all about how
much that concept has
penetrated you. Me?
guess to a certain extent.
don't express much
political views on facebook,
only focus on the reason
the social network was set
up and never bother more.
anonymous 16-25 O' Levels
ntern Sales
Concierge
Facebook,
YouTube 4 3 4 2 1 1
Because there's nothing else
to do? Nope. Not really.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
9
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 5 5 5 1 4
Some users create 2 or more
accounts just so one can be
more important than the
other, eg. an extra account is
created because there has
been a lot of friend requests
in the other account, so the
user would like the keep the
first account more privatised
and contain close friends only
whilst the other would have
more accepted friends that he
doesn't even know.

A lot of the accounts in Brunei
are used for businesses. t's
like online shopping but they
promote their products and
order/delivery through
facebook.
am not comfortable with it
because am not political
enough to express what think
and not as statuses and it
might offend the other half of
the population. Who knows.
However, people who are more
straight-forward would express
their views on any events that
are happening in Brunei, to
receive comments from friends
and debate on the points.
would still read them but won't
get involved in commenting on
facebook or twitter.
t doesn't really influence
me that much on what do
on facebook and twitter. t
is my choice on how want
my interacting style to be
as facebook and twitter are
social networks. Everyone
is free to do what they
want as long as it doesn't
cross the line of being too
offensive or insulting
(although you still can't
stop that from happening
due to the large population
of users).
think it all depends on
how you are brought up as
an individual as well. f
someone thinks that
interacting on facebook
and twitter have to be
under the context of MB
then he/she may be more
reserved and be more
precautious then someone
who still respects MB as a
culture of Brunei but that
doesn't stop him/her from
being themselves on
facebook and twitter.
Fez 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
Tumblr, Flickr,
nstagram,
Foursquare 4 4 4 3 1 3
Something to do with the
youths probably. No. Probably.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
10
Don Hadi is
Awesome 16-25
Undergraduate
degree
Student(still
learning)
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
nstagram
Pinterest 5 5 5 5 2 3
One(mathematical):
Probably it has something to
do with "how" they calculate
"facebook usage" in a
particular country. believe
the maths works out
something like this:

FB = N/Pt
where
FB:"facebook usage"
N=:Number of Facebook
users in the country
Pt: Total of population in the
country
(pretty much similar to why
Brunei has a relatively high
GDP compared to its
neighbours. Oil
production/profits is higher in
malaysia and indonesia than
brunei but brunei's $$ is more
than enough to support the
entire population as
compared to indonesia)


Two(social theory)
1)The social network density
Again Brunei has a relatively
small population. Social
networking services like
twitter,facebook, etc2 thrives
on the size/density of "social
network"as this services
works by the social
NTERACTON of the
network. Compared to
countries with a high number
of population, say indonesia;
the "social network density"
should be less dense than
Brunei's "Social network
density". Hence more activity
is present within the social
network circle in Brunei than
in indonesia.

2)Technological capacity.
Brunei is relatively advanced
in terms of the capacity(the
means) of its population to
access the such networking
services. More people is
capable to access such
services than a country which
is relatively poor, like
indonesia perhaps.
Furthermore social
networking sites strives on
being on the "go". meaning
users should not just be able
to access such services by
sitting on a laptop/pc with
internet connectivity but they
should be able to access such
services on the go, via
smartphones/phones.
Bruneians would actually
have the means to to access
such services when "on the
go" compared to it's
neighbours.

n simple words, pasal Brunei
kaya. (for the point above)
No comment. (Now that i think
of it, i hardly express political
views regarding brunei via
twitter or facebook. Not
because i am scared or
anything, i just don't.)
Nope. blocked my
Facebook photos. ;P n
essence, i will actually
becareful in allowing who
to follow me on twitter. The
same goes to facebook.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
11
Don Hadi is
Awesome 16-25
Undergraduate
degree
Student(still
learning)
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
nstagram
Pinterest 5 5 5 5 2 3
One(mathematical):
Probably it has something to
do with "how" they calculate
"facebook usage" in a
particular country. believe
the maths works out
something like this:

FB = N/Pt
where
FB:"facebook usage"
N=:Number of Facebook
users in the country
Pt: Total of population in the
country
(pretty much similar to why
Brunei has a relatively high
GDP compared to its
neighbours. Oil
production/profits is higher in
malaysia and indonesia than
brunei but brunei's $$ is more
than enough to support the
entire population as
compared to indonesia)


Two(social theory)
1)The social network density
Again Brunei has a relatively
small population. Social
networking services like
twitter,facebook, etc2 thrives
on the size/density of "social
network"as this services
works by the social
NTERACTON of the
network. Compared to
countries with a high number
of population, say indonesia;
the "social network density"
should be less dense than
Brunei's "Social network
density". Hence more activity
is present within the social
network circle in Brunei than
in indonesia.

2)Technological capacity.
Brunei is relatively advanced
in terms of the capacity(the
means) of its population to
access the such networking
services. More people is
capable to access such
services than a country which
is relatively poor, like
indonesia perhaps.
Furthermore social
networking sites strives on
being on the "go". meaning
users should not just be able
to access such services by
sitting on a laptop/pc with
internet connectivity but they
should be able to access such
services on the go, via
smartphones/phones.
Bruneians would actually
have the means to to access
such services when "on the
go" compared to it's
neighbours.

n simple words, pasal Brunei
kaya. (for the point above)
No comment. (Now that i think
of it, i hardly express political
views regarding brunei via
twitter or facebook. Not
because i am scared or
anything, i just don't.)
Nope. blocked my
Facebook photos. ;P n
essence, i will actually
becareful in allowing who
to follow me on twitter. The
same goes to facebook.
Affy
Rahman 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter 4 5 5 5 1 1
Facebook is now an integral
part of our everyday lives.
The nightmare of keeping up
with all your friends and
schedule meetings, to name a
few, are a thing of the past
with the introduction of
Facebook. As a student,
Facebook has a major role of
my university life--notes
shared, points discussed,
parties scheduled all done on
Facebook.

Why Brunei have the highest
Facebook usage in Asia?
believe the numbers are
skewed due to our small
population and high internet
penetration. am sure it will
be a completely different story
if China did not ban the use of
Facebook.
Yes. As an advocate of
freedom of speech and
conscience, have never felt
the need to completely censor
myself. Although, this does not
necessarily mean that should
say whatever like as believe
we should also take into
account basic human dignity
and mutual respect before
expressing ourselves.

see Twitter as a medium for
everyone to discuss pressing
issues. t is quick, easy and
points are limited to 140
characters. Twitter gives voice
to the voiceless. Therefore, it
should never ever be controlled
nor censored. This is evident in
the recent 'invite-only'
legislative council. People have
expressed their policy concerns
via social media. A healthy
debate, in my opinion, should
be celebrated and not frowned
upon. Twitter may have some
drawbacks but it's advantages
far out-weighs it. Ofcourse not (lol)
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student Facebook 5 3 5 3 1 3
oh wow, didn't know that!
maybe because majority of
the population has access to
internet? compared to some
Asian countries. Nope not political views Yes a bit
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
12
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 3 3 3 2 3
Bruneians have nothing better
to do!
Depending on the view and
issue they're talking about.
Some could be useful and be a
subject for us to think about.
Sometimes. Sometimes
forget and become very
indecent.
anonymous 26-35
Undergraduate
degree Analyst
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 3 4 4 1 1
Because of our high GDP per
capita, Brunei consumers
have higher spending power -
most of us are able to afford
smart phones and most
homes have internet
connectivity. PC Literacy is
also high in Brunei - nearly all
schools include computer
studies at a young age.
No. believe a few years ago
AGC and AT advised nternet
service and content providers
to monitor for content contrary
to public interest, national
harmony, and social morals.
This sort of makes me a bit
weary on what post on FB or
tweet. Still prefer expressing
my opinions within a trusted
circle of friends as Brunei has
very limited freedom of speech. No.
Muhammad
Reeda Hj
Malik 36-45
Postgraduate
degree
General
Manager
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 5 3 3 4 1 1
think this is a clear indication
of Bruneians' endemic desire
to express themselves in a
manner that they may not
have done so in real life,
particularly in the socio-
political sphere. Voyeurism is
another factor. n such a small
community, Bruneians are
brought up in a "everyone
knows everyone"
environment. Hence we have
this innate desire to see what
everyone else is up to in their
daily lives. Siapa kawin
siapa? Siapa bekawan sama
siapa? etc.
Still not as comfortable as
would like to be. Although the
authorities welcome
constructive feedback, there is
still provision for arbitrary arrest
in the Emergency Law, so you
never know. Unless and until
that law is repealed, do not
think anyone will be
comfortable expressing their
political views online or
otherwise.
Although wish it didn't,
must say to some extent
this philosophy does
influence my interactions, if
only out of consideration
for my family members and
respected friends and
relatives whom know are
on FB as well. Having a
few thousand FB "Friends"
doesn't help either!
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Accountant
Facebook,
Twitter 5 2 4 4 1 3
Brunei's standard of living is
quite high. and because of
this, the purchasing power of
people is high. users have
easy internet access and with
gadgets to access the web,
they are constantly logged in
to facebook. no.
yes, there's definitely more
respect with each other.
and though transparency is
lacking, hints here and
there about what is really
happening can still be
seen. so, it's more of a
matter of reading between
the lines, being aware of
the matters at a good
judgment but at the same
time, not speculating the
issues that are too
negative.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
13
Carla
Bumatay 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC
Part-time
worker
Facebook,
YouTube 3 5 5 3 1 1
The majority of locals are
quite wealthy, or at least well-
removed from the poverty
line. The people are also not
taxed and, due to this, they
may possibly have a much
higher amount of disposable
income available to them.
Having a laptop (or any other
device that connects them to
the World Wide Web, for that
matter) is considered normal
in Brunei and having internet
access (and paying for it) is
considered a normal part of
life, just like paying for
electricity, water, fuel,
groceries, etc. A considerable
percentage of locals are also
well-travelled and, in these
travels, connect with other
people abroad. The ease of
access to the internet plays a
huge role, in my opinion.
Having Facebook helps keep
them in the loop, and keeps
them connected with what's
happening overseas, or even
just within the country.
would say that would be very
hesitant in terms of expressing
negative comments regarding
the Brunei government or
culture. would have no
problem expressing praise,
though. However, that might be
because am not a local so
would be more wary about
posting anything negative
because have seen the
backlash that can occur when
the opinions of others
regarding Brunei (particularly
negative comments) are
broadcasted.
t probably does. Growing
up in Brunei and being
immersed in the culture
and learning about how to
interact with people, social
norms and taboos has
definitely influenced me in
the way that think, react ,
and respond when it
comes to talking about
Brunei. find that 'm more
likely to hold my tongue
regarding sensitive issues
happening within the
country, but it has also
made me more tactful in
expressing my views on
Facebook (and other social
networking sites).
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
14
Anoynymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree
Government
employee
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 3 5 5 1 1
Before explaining some of the
reasons can think of, would
like to note here that believe
the statistics you have
mentioned above are the
percentage of Facebook
users in proportion to the total
population of Brunei - which in
fact is not many compared to
our other Asian counterparts.
However, from there we can
still sum up that our country
has a high number of
Facebook users.

We need to take into account
users with multiple FB
accounts, as well as users
with both personal and online
business FB accounts.
Government agencies, private
companies and large
businesses have also been
using Facebook to be more
accessible and create a two-
way communication with their
customers.

Facebook started as a sort of
'ikut-ikutan' trend in Brunei,
where people signed up for
FB accounts just because
their friends or family were
doing it. Now FB is a platform
for business, playing games
and keeping updated with
social news in Brunei
(accidents, rumours and
such). Groups such as CCPB
(Cerita-cerita panas Brunei)
offers a space for Bruneians
to share their ideas / stories /
frustrations and get feedback
from other FB users.
feel that am rather careful
with what update / share /
retweet - only share what
feel can benefit my friends /
followers. On the contrary, 've
observed that other users are
more active; some update up to
50 times a day, depending on
their profession / personality /
what they are doing on that
particular day.

have no qualms about sharing
political views on social
networks, as long as the FB /
Twitter user does not go
overboard with what they are
sharing. Good suggestions can
lead to good change. With he
increasing number of
government agencies making
use of FB and Twitter, there is
a larger chance of the public
voices being heard.

However, before being critical
of our government laws and
policies, we need to
understand why they were put
into place.

The laws and policies of Brunei
are set in place for a reason,
most of which are for the
interest of Brunei and its
citizens. There is a need to
instil more knowledge and
understanding among the
public regarding Brunei policies
and laws. That way more
people can see why certain
things are done the way they
are. Of course some existing
laws and policies have
loopholes and can do with
improvements, but these
improvements must be in
accordance to Malay morals
and customs, slamic values
and way of life, as well as
conforming to our system of
monarchy.

The same goes with
suggesting new ideas, it needs
to conform to our nation's
values. Our people need a full
grasp on the MB concept and
overcome the stigma that MB
is hindering the development of
Brunei, or 'stail lama'.
Yes, strongly agree with
the statement above.
Personally have come to
learn and realise the MB
philosophy as Brunei
Malay people living in the
perfect way of life i.e.
slam, and putting full trust
in our ruler the Sultan. As
Bruneians, we need to
reflect those values even
behind our online
personas.

What we share on social
networks can be easily
shared or 'copied and
pasted' that one wrong
word can create either
make or break a person.
Social network users need
to understand the
platforms they are using
can either create a good
change or backfire on
them, therefore they need
to be careful of what they
share online.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
15
Anoynymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree
Government
employee
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 3 5 5 1 1
Before explaining some of the
reasons can think of, would
like to note here that believe
the statistics you have
mentioned above are the
percentage of Facebook
users in proportion to the total
population of Brunei - which in
fact is not many compared to
our other Asian counterparts.
However, from there we can
still sum up that our country
has a high number of
Facebook users.

We need to take into account
users with multiple FB
accounts, as well as users
with both personal and online
business FB accounts.
Government agencies, private
companies and large
businesses have also been
using Facebook to be more
accessible and create a two-
way communication with their
customers.

Facebook started as a sort of
'ikut-ikutan' trend in Brunei,
where people signed up for
FB accounts just because
their friends or family were
doing it. Now FB is a platform
for business, playing games
and keeping updated with
social news in Brunei
(accidents, rumours and
such). Groups such as CCPB
(Cerita-cerita panas Brunei)
offers a space for Bruneians
to share their ideas / stories /
frustrations and get feedback
from other FB users.
feel that am rather careful
with what update / share /
retweet - only share what
feel can benefit my friends /
followers. On the contrary, 've
observed that other users are
more active; some update up to
50 times a day, depending on
their profession / personality /
what they are doing on that
particular day.

have no qualms about sharing
political views on social
networks, as long as the FB /
Twitter user does not go
overboard with what they are
sharing. Good suggestions can
lead to good change. With he
increasing number of
government agencies making
use of FB and Twitter, there is
a larger chance of the public
voices being heard.

However, before being critical
of our government laws and
policies, we need to
understand why they were put
into place.

The laws and policies of Brunei
are set in place for a reason,
most of which are for the
interest of Brunei and its
citizens. There is a need to
instil more knowledge and
understanding among the
public regarding Brunei policies
and laws. That way more
people can see why certain
things are done the way they
are. Of course some existing
laws and policies have
loopholes and can do with
improvements, but these
improvements must be in
accordance to Malay morals
and customs, slamic values
and way of life, as well as
conforming to our system of
monarchy.

The same goes with
suggesting new ideas, it needs
to conform to our nation's
values. Our people need a full
grasp on the MB concept and
overcome the stigma that MB
is hindering the development of
Brunei, or 'stail lama'.
Yes, strongly agree with
the statement above.
Personally have come to
learn and realise the MB
philosophy as Brunei
Malay people living in the
perfect way of life i.e.
slam, and putting full trust
in our ruler the Sultan. As
Bruneians, we need to
reflect those values even
behind our online
personas.

What we share on social
networks can be easily
shared or 'copied and
pasted' that one wrong
word can create either
make or break a person.
Social network users need
to understand the
platforms they are using
can either create a good
change or backfire on
them, therefore they need
to be careful of what they
share online.
anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 1 5 3 1 2
t is because Brunei does not
offer much entertainment
places to especially teenagers
who feels they have the need
to always be entertained.

Since theres not much to do,
they do what is closest to
them. Go online. Update their
virtual self on social networks.
No. Because the results is very
unpredictable. You may end up
spreading good thoughts or
offending those of power and
Brunei being a small country,
you will be easily found. So
why risk it?
Yes it does mainly in the
sense of censorship. You
dont want to be updating
things that may get the
Malays talking about you
and you would have the
need to respect pious
people that you know will
be reading your posts.
anonymous 16-25
Postgraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
YouTube 3 2 4 1 2 1
Bruneians have been able to
accomodate current trends
faster and with the advantage
of a small population,this
trend of social networking
therefore has the ability to
spread fast and wide
No. Bruneians lack the urge to
express political views
beccause of lacking in political
activity in Brunei. Not to say
that Bruneians have no idea of
what politics is but Bruneians
are contempt with what they
have.At the same time,the
awareness of younger
generation in having political
views are starting to emerge.
Yes in some ways. For me,
the context of MB does
not end with the
boundaries of Brunei and
certainly does not end
when it comes to
interacting in facebook
and/or twitter. But i have
seen and read Bruneians
that do not usually apply
the national philosophy
while interacting in social
networking sites. i think
this is due to the "freedom"
of expression that the
virtual world provides.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
16
NSR 16-25
Postgraduate
degree STUDENT
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 2 3 4 1 2
Kebaruan? this wave of social
media networking thing has
hit brunei at quite a late time,
relatively comparing to other
countries in the region.

theres this thing called the
"techonology adoption
lifecycle" concept, http://en.
wikipedia.
org/wiki/Technology_adoption_lifecycle

and i believe brunei at the
moment is on the part of the
curve that is still rising up
quite rapidly.
Yes because i stand for what i
believe in. also believe that
ideas can be spread quickly
through social medias. So if
you really believe in what you
think is true, then i believe
there is no harm in spreading it.
Yes, the concept of living
in a country that puts
islamic values at its highest
priority has really shaped
my thinking to be more
"islamic". And i personally
share the same ambitions
as our sultan in trying to
build a "negara dzikir". So
if he (the sultan) is already
doing his part in making
this a realisation, then we
should do our best too.

As i have mentioned
earlier, if you really believe
that something is true, like
islam, you would do your
very best to make other
people realise it too. Here's
an analogy, you know how
people during ramadhan
try our all these sungkai
buffets all over the country
and at often times they
would spread the word
around if they find a good
restaurant with good
prices? And people would
try really hard to convince
other people to try it out
because they want other
people to feel that
satisfaction too right?

So i guess this how islam
is. slam is not only a way
of thinking, it is a complete
way of life. t is pure, divine
and most importantly
beautiful. Once you've
realised it, im sure you
would want other people to
taste this sweetness too.
So what better ways to do
this than by spreading the
good word of islam via
social media right?

But i suppose this concept
of spreading islam doesnt
have to be influenced by
the fact that we live in an
MB based country. n
shorter words, if you find
something amazing,
spread the word out via
any means possible :)
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
17
NSR 16-25
Postgraduate
degree STUDENT
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 4 2 3 4 1 2
Kebaruan? this wave of social
media networking thing has
hit brunei at quite a late time,
relatively comparing to other
countries in the region.

theres this thing called the
"techonology adoption
lifecycle" concept, http://en.
wikipedia.
org/wiki/Technology_adoption_lifecycle

and i believe brunei at the
moment is on the part of the
curve that is still rising up
quite rapidly.
Yes because i stand for what i
believe in. also believe that
ideas can be spread quickly
through social medias. So if
you really believe in what you
think is true, then i believe
there is no harm in spreading it.
Yes, the concept of living
in a country that puts
islamic values at its highest
priority has really shaped
my thinking to be more
"islamic". And i personally
share the same ambitions
as our sultan in trying to
build a "negara dzikir". So
if he (the sultan) is already
doing his part in making
this a realisation, then we
should do our best too.

As i have mentioned
earlier, if you really believe
that something is true, like
islam, you would do your
very best to make other
people realise it too. Here's
an analogy, you know how
people during ramadhan
try our all these sungkai
buffets all over the country
and at often times they
would spread the word
around if they find a good
restaurant with good
prices? And people would
try really hard to convince
other people to try it out
because they want other
people to feel that
satisfaction too right?

So i guess this how islam
is. slam is not only a way
of thinking, it is a complete
way of life. t is pure, divine
and most importantly
beautiful. Once you've
realised it, im sure you
would want other people to
taste this sweetness too.
So what better ways to do
this than by spreading the
good word of islam via
social media right?

But i suppose this concept
of spreading islam doesnt
have to be influenced by
the fact that we live in an
MB based country. n
shorter words, if you find
something amazing,
spread the word out via
any means possible :)
Zemah Ali 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
YouTube,
nstagram 4 3 4 3 1 1
assume that the business
industry in Brunei such as
food (cakes, cupcakes etc)
and clothing wear (mainly
head scarves, import goods
and cloth) have massively
increase hence fb is an easier
means of communications.
Thus other business have
followed this trend knowing
the positive outcome of fb
users in Brunei and so it has
been an increase in fb users.
Yes and No. Yes because feel
a lot of us should be aware of
what's going on and No
because there would be no
point as no action will take
place to change my views.
Yes. would not put up any
photos, comments etc that
would cross the line of our
MB.
Anonymous 36-45
Undergraduate
degree Management
Facebook,
YouTube 4 3 3 3 1 1
belief the number is actually
highest registration not users.

t's not a really a Brunei
phenomena, it's global, for the
same reason - to socialise on
line.

The margin for being the
highest user is also
contributed by the fact, we are
a small population. e.g. 50%
of 400k vs 50% of 40 million.


n 2 folds. Firstly, no. Secondly,
is there really any need to
express political views? or as a
means of getting engaged in
politics? s this done
elsewhere?

But if you mean, complains of
public service or a public
person, then that's not political.
However the usual laws of
defamation etc will still apply.

Social media's usage
popularity for f-commerce i.e.
selling and buying on
Facebook, networking and
most of all news reporting by
the layman and no longer the
news networks.

Being on Facebook
virtually and being
connected physically is no
different when it comes to
MB and its concept. Social
media merely brings
people closer in the digital
world.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
18
Yamin Jazli
Ahmed 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 3 1 5 4 1 2
1) the number of students
who are abroad who uses
facebook to keep in touch
with their loved ones back in
our country. this lead to
posting of alot of photos,
statuses,inboxes and
comment between each
other, as well as creation of
active societies from different
region and countries the
students currently studying at.
2) The high amount of
children that are exposed to
internet and facebook. while
other countries may have
either prevented their children
due to strict parenting, or may
not have mobile phones or
internet at home at an early
age, things are different in our
country, and the involvement
of alot of these children lead
to creation of multiple
accounts from each of them
and irrelevant groups such as
"geng budak smokers" or "the
best football team in the world
kunakoshi FC " . Youd be
surprised at how many
updates they can do per day.

3) On a positive notes,
Bruneians and their
government also make the
most out of the popularity of
the social networking. Event
invitations and updates,
Groups, and advertising were
used by the people, the
government, and domestic
businessess alike to benefit
each other , promote
themselves, providing
updates and create self
awareness on different issues
or event.
would only be comfortable
expressing positive aspects
regarding politics in Brunei, but
only to a certain extend (for
instance, the non-sensitive
topic such as Brunei being the
top 5-10-20 of something
positive i.e. economy, cities
hygiene, etc) . n no way i
would condemn my
government via social
networking as am in no
interest in creating or
encouraging any negative
issues. The most that i would
want to point out is the
behavior of people from my
own country towards certain
things (ex. racism, hooliganism
etc.) in which have minimal
relations towards our
government.
Yes. in general as make
sure my manner, way of
words or photos/videos i
posted are nothing against
M..B. (if you know what i
mean ;) )

Most of the time the
manner of my interactions
are based on what i have
said above, but whenever i
communicate with my
international friends,
make sure would not
bring or at least try to not
bring, any sensitive issue
that might make my friends
felt segregated or different
from me (religion, race)
Unless it is something that
might go against MB, for
instance drinking and
coming to an invitation
early (uwang melayu mana
datang awal ;) ) hehe all
the best in ur work tin!
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
19
Anonymous 16-25
Pre-university
qualifications eg,
Diploma,
Foundation,
HND, HNC Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
nstagram,
Tumblr, Path 4 2 4 4 1 2
This is because the growing
ideas of doing business in
Brunei has increased. Thus,
the usage of Facebook is ever
challenging. Competitors are
within reach. So Facebook as
one of the famous social sites
do its job on reaching the
target market of their
business.
would be comfortable saying it
on Twitter than on Facebook as
privacy have gone too far away
from it. So, whenever say
anything on political issues,
Twitter is where do. 've got
pretty much limited friends in
there and there, a privacy.
Except when have the famous
social media people;
Ranoadidas, BruneiTweet or
AnakBrunei commenting and
reposting on them. This
shouldn't be a big issue
though.
Generally saying, even
from what see, its hard to
differentiate context of MB
to others when being on
social media. Maybe just
for some religious matters
that needs to be restricted.
Anonymous 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube,
Tumblr 3 2 4 3 1 3
1. Online shopping
2. Kan cari boipren sama
galpren! Hahaha! Sorry. To
look for "soulmate" as some
would say.
No because 'm scared "people
on the inside" might find out.
Sort of. f we greet each
other, we say Salam. f
times like Raya or Puasa,
we would say Selamat Hari
Raya
Hafiyyan 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student Facebook 3 4 3 1 3 3
Social trends spread easily in
Brunei, a portion of the
younger generation are more
easily influenced with current
trends, social or otherwise Neither, dont know much. No
Nadiah
Mohamed 16-25
Undergraduate
degree Student
Facebook,
Twitter,
YouTube 2 1 5 1 3 1
Woah, is this fo realz? have
no idea why that might be.
Maybe it has something to do
with the size of the
community. Everybody knows
everybody, everybody adds
everybody.
rarely express anything on
facebook.
Come to think of it, do
tone down my actual
activities when it comes to
facebook. feel
uncomfortable having
everything advertised there
because maybe some of
the things do might upset
others on my list - like my
aunts and stuff. lol
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
20
khalidah
hussin -
anon 16-25
Postgraduate
degree student
Facebook,
YouTube 3 1 5 3 1 1
one idea may be that the
internet is a (relatively) safe
space for self-expression,
thoughts, opinions etc and
with Brunei having very
limited outlets for an
individual's frustration, may it
be political or social or cultural
[usually in the case of one's
sexuality] (no partial or free
press, no unions etc) it may
be the case that they turn to
Facebook or Tumblr or what
have you, to express their
opinions and ideas
anonymously without fear of
their identity being revealed.
and this should remain the
internet's strong point. i guess
in this light the internet offers
some kind of escapism to the
frustrated or repressed
individual.
have seen people post their
anger and frustration on the
internet on policies that don't
work, incompetent officers etc
so when it concerns an
individual's livelihood people
(Bruneians) do tend to take it to
their social networking sites to
express these grievances etc
but given the type of country
we live in it is prudent to
exercise a bit of caution when
you do do post things like that,
but of course i don't think
normatively this is how it
should be. 'm big on free
speech (and thought).
Personally don't use my
Facebook to express political
concerns about Brunei
(although sometimes have
particularly in relation to the
kind of sexism that exists in our
society) but do use it to get
news from Al Jazeera and such
and feel inclined to share
those with my internet friends,
but mostly to create awareness
because Brunei is so insular
and remote from the outside
world it is easy to forget that
there are injustices
everywhere.
yes and no. the internet is
by and large a safe space,
but there is a real fear and
reluctance within
Bruneians to challenge the
status quo of the structure
of our society, via internet
or real life. This in turn may
have an effect on self-
policing, or self-censoring.
And suspect this fear may
have derived from MB, in
contrast if the foundation of
our societies is, say, social
democracy then
Bruneians, on the internet
as well as real life, aren't
so self-regulating, and can
fully express themselves
with full individual
autonomy on Facebook or
real world.
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
21
Fadhlan
Yakob 16-25
Undergraduate
degree jobless
Facebook,
YouTube 5 5 5 5 3 4
Coke is a beverage product
and it's known worldwide.
Facebook is also a worldwide
product. A readily available
product is chosen over a
product that is scarcely
available. And it is natural to
think that if a product has
gone worldwide, you know it's
a good product. Due to our
advancement in our
infrastructure to cater social
media products like the
Facebook, having an account
on facebook is similar to
having a bottle of coke in the
fridge. Why are we on of the
highest facebook usage in
asia you ask? simple. There
is no other readily available
product that beats what
facebook offers. People in
other countries have more
choices of social sites that is
in par with Facebook than we
do. We don't have any
local/regional product that
could match facebook. So it is
not strange to have facebook
as our first choice of social
site. Hence the high usage
per population compare to
other countries.
There is no politics in Brunei.
This is something really
appreciate as a citizen. Many
would see politics as the
essential ingredient to the drive
a Nation. believe otherwise.
Politics create divisions among
the people and instability
towards the peace of the
country. But back to your
question. Do feel comfortable
of expressing my doubts on the
action of the authority of the
country? No. t is simple,
know next to nothing. Who am
to challenge the people who
have more understanding of
the chemistry of running a
country.

There are things in life that you
want to keep private. You can
talk about your disagreement
and frustration about things to
other people. But any friends of
yours would know that you're
just having a bad day and just
brush it off as if it was a joke.
And the best thing about
people, they forget. The
nternet however is spot on
cruel. t remembers
EVERYTHNG. The written
story. Who written it. When it
was written. Where it was
written. And what seems to be
a joke at the beginning spiral
down to become a disaster.
And thus the explosion would
begin, people would read
spread to others. They would
react to it and sometimes
violently or probably laugh at it,
it depends.

But the story that has been
written is never a full story. The
person might have cursed or
swear when he was expressing
his views. But for what reason
he has come up to result into
such incriminating method is
unknown, or in this case
unwritten. The person is being
judge on his action but never
his motivation.

This somehow shows the
shortcomings of Facebook and
Twitter. They can be
misleading. Now the question
towards the question. WHY
would you use Facebook to
express your political view?
see 2 reasons. One, that
person is an attention whore
with no authentic intention.
Secondly, They have resulted
in expressing their views in
facebook but not to the relevant
authority maybe because the
authorities are not 'listening'.
This disconnect between the
normal people and the
authority is a failure of the
authority to provide a sort of
"feedback box. And most
importantly a "feedback box
that works! People wants to
know that real actions are done
from what that has been
suggested.
yes. don't like to be judge.
Your account in the FB is
like a reflection of yourself.
Just that the mirrors are a
bit dull, they don't show
everything. So always
have to present myself in a
way that it is accepted
towards the majority of
audience that is able to
view my profile. and
majority are the muslim
malay bruneian. Hence
MB. (mati akal ku udah
banarnya)
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
22
Fadhlan
Yakob 16-25
Undergraduate
degree jobless
Facebook,
YouTube 5 5 5 5 3 4
Coke is a beverage product
and it's known worldwide.
Facebook is also a worldwide
product. A readily available
product is chosen over a
product that is scarcely
available. And it is natural to
think that if a product has
gone worldwide, you know it's
a good product. Due to our
advancement in our
infrastructure to cater social
media products like the
Facebook, having an account
on facebook is similar to
having a bottle of coke in the
fridge. Why are we on of the
highest facebook usage in
asia you ask? simple. There
is no other readily available
product that beats what
facebook offers. People in
other countries have more
choices of social sites that is
in par with Facebook than we
do. We don't have any
local/regional product that
could match facebook. So it is
not strange to have facebook
as our first choice of social
site. Hence the high usage
per population compare to
other countries.
There is no politics in Brunei.
This is something really
appreciate as a citizen. Many
would see politics as the
essential ingredient to the drive
a Nation. believe otherwise.
Politics create divisions among
the people and instability
towards the peace of the
country. But back to your
question. Do feel comfortable
of expressing my doubts on the
action of the authority of the
country? No. t is simple,
know next to nothing. Who am
to challenge the people who
have more understanding of
the chemistry of running a
country.

There are things in life that you
want to keep private. You can
talk about your disagreement
and frustration about things to
other people. But any friends of
yours would know that you're
just having a bad day and just
brush it off as if it was a joke.
And the best thing about
people, they forget. The
nternet however is spot on
cruel. t remembers
EVERYTHNG. The written
story. Who written it. When it
was written. Where it was
written. And what seems to be
a joke at the beginning spiral
down to become a disaster.
And thus the explosion would
begin, people would read
spread to others. They would
react to it and sometimes
violently or probably laugh at it,
it depends.

But the story that has been
written is never a full story. The
person might have cursed or
swear when he was expressing
his views. But for what reason
he has come up to result into
such incriminating method is
unknown, or in this case
unwritten. The person is being
judge on his action but never
his motivation.

This somehow shows the
shortcomings of Facebook and
Twitter. They can be
misleading. Now the question
towards the question. WHY
would you use Facebook to
express your political view?
see 2 reasons. One, that
person is an attention whore
with no authentic intention.
Secondly, They have resulted
in expressing their views in
facebook but not to the relevant
authority maybe because the
authorities are not 'listening'.
This disconnect between the
normal people and the
authority is a failure of the
authority to provide a sort of
"feedback box. And most
importantly a "feedback box
that works! People wants to
know that real actions are done
from what that has been
suggested.
yes. don't like to be judge.
Your account in the FB is
like a reflection of yourself.
Just that the mirrors are a
bit dull, they don't show
everything. So always
have to present myself in a
way that it is accepted
towards the majority of
audience that is able to
view my profile. and
majority are the muslim
malay bruneian. Hence
MB. (mati akal ku udah
banarnya)
Name Age
Level of
education Occupation
Are you a user
of..
How active
would you
say you
were on
these
social
networking
websites?
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles? [
enjoy
making
friends]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To build
and
maintain
current
relationships]
Why did you
create these
online
profiles? [
want to
discuss
thoughts
and share
ideas]
Why did
you create
these
online
profiles?
[To play
games
online]
Why did
you
create
these
online
profiles?
[ followed
a current
trend]
Brunei was recently found to
have the highest Facebook
usage in Asia, do you have a
few ideas on why this is so?
Do you feel comfortable
expressing political views
regarding Brunei on Facebook
or Twitter? Why?
Does living in the context
of Melayu slam Beraja (M.
.B.) or Malay slamic
Monarchy influence your
interactions on Facebook
and/or Twitter?
23