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First Certificate Expert
English headword Part of Speech Pronunciation Example sentences
skim v /sIim/ Marion skimmed the article to see what it was about.
scan v /sIæn/ I scanned the page quickly looking for his name.
gist n /d¸isì/ The gist of the article is that the fighting is getting worse rather than better.
collocation n /,Iﬂlo'Ioi|on/ ‘Commit a crime’ is a typical collocation in English.
luxurious adj /lng'z|oorios, log'¸oorios/ The bathroom was luxurious, with gold taps and a thick carpet.
traditional adj /ìro'di|onol/ It is traditional for the bridegroom to make a speech after the meal.
material adj /mo'ìioriol/ We live in a material world, so you’d better go out and get yourself a job.
nation n /'nci|on/ The President is going to address the nation this evening.
average adj /'ævorid¸/ The average student spends about two or three hours a night studying.
extract n /'cIsìræIì/ I’ve only read a couple of extracts from the article but it looks interesting.
represent v /,rcpri'zcnì/ This school, with its modern facilities and excellent grades, represents a model for other schools in the area.
Spaniard n /'spæn|od/ There were some French students on the course, as well as a couple of Spaniards.
for the time being phr /fo ðo ,ìaim 'bi:iq/ You can stay in the spare room for the time being.
christening n /'Irisoniq/ I’ve bought a new dress for the christening next Sunday.
avoid v /o'void/ Organic gardeners try to avoid using chemical fertilisers and pesticides.
chore n /ì|o:/ I hate having to help my mum with the household chores.
provider n /pro'vaido/ After her husband died she became the sole provider for her five children.
to a large extent phr /ìo o ,lo:d¸ iI'sìcnì/ To a large extent alcohol is responsible for the increase in domestic violence.
workshop n /'v‰:I|ﬂp/ He would spend hours alone in his workshop.
basement n /'bcismonì/ They are thinking of turning the basement into a flat.
kindergarten n /'Iindogo:ìn/ Can you remember your first day at kindergarten?
accompaniment n /o'Inmponimonì/ The job losses are an unfortunate accompaniment of this reorganisation.
outskirts n pl /'aoìsI‰:ìs/ They live on the outskirts of London.
portable adj /'po:ìobol/ She never goes anywhere without her portable typewriter.
nomad n /'noomæd/ My uncle is writing a book on nomads in Africa.
dweller n /'dvclo/ City-dwellers suffer from more pollution-related illnesses than those who live in the country.
commute v /Io'm|u:ì/ Jim commutes from Oxford to London every day.
construction n /Ion'sìrnI|on/ Local labour was used in the construction of the dam.
dispensary n /di'spcnsori/ After being examined by the doctor, I had to go and pick up my medicines from the hospital dispensary.
divide v /di'vaid/ The money is to be divided equally among the six grandchildren.
put in phr v /poì 'in/ You have to put in a lot of effort to learn a new language.
take (time) off phr v /,ìciI ìaim 'ﬂf/ She decided to take a week off when her mother got ill.
value v /'væl|u:/ I value your friendship very much.
prized adj /praizd/ Martin’s bicycle is his most prized possession.
possession n /po'zc|on/ I packed my remaining possessions into the suitcase.
inherit v /in'hcriì/ She inherited the land from her grandfather.
benefit n /'bcnofiì/ She has had the benefit of a first-class education.
progress n /'proogrcs/ We have made enormous progress in the past decade.
permanent adj /'p‰:mononì/ I need a permanent job.
have sth down to a science phr /,hæv snmOiq ,daon ìo o/ 'saions/ He has got his evening activities down to a science.
supremely adv /su:'pri:mli, s|u:-, so-/ She is a supremely talented player.
gather v /'gæðo/ Tens of thousands of people had gathered outside the US embassy.
exhausting adj /ig'zo:sìiq/ You’d better sit down and have a cup of tea after such an exhausting journey.
schedule n /'|cd|u:l/ Mr Smith has got a very full schedule today so please make an appointment for tomorrow.
hectic adj /'hcIìiI/ I’ve had a pretty hectic day at the office.
attend v /o'ìcnd/ Only seven people attended the meeting.
essential adj /i'scn|ol/ If you’re going walking in the mountains, strong boots are essential.
income n /'iqIom, 'in-/ Most of my income goes on my rent and bills.
identify v /ai'dcnìifai/ Scientists have identified the virus that causes the disease.
express v /iI'sprcs/ Bill’s never been afraid to express his opinions.
self-employed adj /,sclf im'ploid/ One advantage of being self-employed is that no one can tell you what to do.
domestic adj /do'mcsìiI/ I suspect Mary’s been having a few domestic problems.
duty n /'d|u:ìi/ Illness prevented her from carrying out her official duties.
justify v /'d¸nsìifai/ How can you justify making everyone wait for so long?
doze v /dooz/ I managed to doze for half an hour on the plane.
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annoying adj /o'noi-iq/ David has an annoying habit of interrupting whenever I talk.
long-term adj /,lﬂq 'ì‰:m/ No one can predict the long-term effects of the crisis.
temporary adj /'ìcmporori, -pori/ A lot of work now is temporary or part-time.
appropriate adj /o'proopri-oì/ Your clothes are not really appropriate for a job interview.
endless adj /'cndlos/ I hated the endless meetings and interviews.
client n /'Ilaionì/ She has a meeting with an important client tomorrow morning.
retire v /ri'ìaio/ Most men retire when they are sixty-five.
surf v /s‰:f/ Sally spent the entire night surfing the net with a high-speed modem.
entertain v /,cnìo'ìcin/ He entertained us with a stream of anecdotes about his time in Mexico.
become acquainted v phr /bi,Inm o'Ivcinìid/ We became acquainted when we caught the same bus to the office.
inhabitant n /in'hæbiìonì/ Athens is a city of four million inhabitants.
opportunity n /,ﬂpo'ì|u:noìi/ I just thought it was too good an opportunity to miss.
despatch v /di'spæì|/ A reporter was despatched to the border to write about the war.
customary adj /'Insìomori/ It is customary for the head of the family to sit at the end of the table.
talkative adj /'ìo:Ioìiv/ She’s a nice girl, but I wish she wasn’t quite so talkative.
arise v /o'raiz/ A number of problems arose from the delay.
drop sb a line v phr /,drﬂp snmbodi o 'lain/ Drop me a line and let me know how you’re getting on.
conversational adj /,Iﬂnvo'sci|onol/ Business letters are not usually written in conversational style.
contraction n /Ion'ìræI|on/ ‘Haven’t’ is a contraction of ‘have not’.
convenience n /Ion'vi:nions/ I’m not going to organise my day entirely for your convenience!
sincerely adv /sin'sioli/ I sincerely hope I’ll see her again.
predict v /pri'diIì/ The report predicted that more jobs would be lost in the coal industry.
parade n /po'rcid/ Everyone turned out to watch the victory parade.
bracelet n /'brcisliì/ He gave her a diamond bracelet for her birthday.
procession n /pro'sc|on/ We watched the funeral procession move slowly down the street.
specific adj /spo'sifiI/ Is this game meant for a specific age group?
refer v /ri'f‰:/ The figures in the left-hand column refer to our sales abroad.
play a part in sth v phr /,plci o 'po:ì in ,snmOiq/ Besides dieting, exercising plays an important part in losing weight.
act out phr v /,æIì 'aoì/ The children acted out the story to entertain the adults.
tend v /ìcnd/ Sally tends to interfere in other people’s business.
compare v /Iom'pco/ The report compares the different types of home computer currently available.
contrast v /Ion'ìro:sì/ In the film, the peaceful life of a farmer is contrasted with the violent existence of a gangster.
extended adj /iI'sìcndid/ We had an extended holiday in Cornwall.
section n /'scI|on/ The spoons go in the front section of the drawer.
similarity n /,simi'læroìi/ When studying children and other young animals we can see similarities in their behaviour.
whereas conj /vcor'æz/ Why are some cancers cured by chemotherapy alone, whereas others are unaffected by drugs?
occasion n /o'Ici¸on/ I’ve seen Jane with them on several occasions.
defeat n /di'fi:ì/ After the defeat of the enemy, the victors marched home triumphantly.
enthusiastically adv /in,O|u:zi'æsìiIli/ The audience applauded enthusiastically.
Independence Day n phr /,indi'pcndons dci/
American Independence Day is July 4
recent adj /'ri:sonì/ In recent years, terrorism has become a greater threat.
promote v /pro'mooì/ The minister gave a passionate speech promoting equality.
participation n /po:,ìisi'pci|on/ We want more participation in the decision-making process.
sensational adj /scn'sci|onol/ The effect of the discovery was sensational.
commercialise v /Io'm‰:|olaiz/ Christmas has become so commercialised nowadays.
crowded adj /'Iraodid/ Sometimes the classes were very crowded.
spicy adj /'spaisi/ I adore pasta with a spicy tomato sauce.
mild adj /maild/ She didn’t like spicy food so he cooked a mild curry instead.
dish n /di|/ Henry makes a wonderful pasta dish.
bland adj /blænd/ The potato soup was rather bland.
hospitality n /,hﬂspi'ìæloìi/ Thanks for your hospitality over the past few weeks.
custom n /'Insìom/ It’s the customfor the bride’s father to pay for the wedding
cross out phr v /,Irﬂs 'aoì/ I crossed it out and wrote it again.
ignore v /ig'no:/ As far as homelessness goes, the vast majority of people just sit back and ignore it.
servant n /'s‰:vonì/ She remembers growing up with a house full of servants.
ancient adj /'cin|onì/ I’d love to know more about the ancient civilisations of Asia.
consider v /Ion'sido/ Any reasonable offer will be considered.
intend v /in'ìcnd/ I didn’t intend her to see the painting until it was finished
universal adj /|u:ni'v‰:sol/ This is a topic of universal interest.
host n /hoosì/ Our host brought in some more wine.
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receive v /ri'si:v/ She only receives guests on Sundays.
provide v /pro'vaid/ I’ll provide the food if you bring the wine
admire v /od'maio/ We stopped half way up the hill to admire the view.
straightaway adv /,sìrciìo'vci/ Let’s start work straightaway.
greet v /gri:ì/ Mr Peterson got up from behind his desk to greet me.
dip v /dip/ Dip your finger in the soup and taste it
abroad adv /o'bro:d/ She often goes abroad on business.
particularly adv /po'ìiI|ololi/ Steve was in a particularly bad mood when he got back.
embarrassed adj /im'bærosì/ I spilled water all over one of the guests – I was so embarrassed!
customary adj /'Insìomori/ It is customary for a man to take off his hat when he enters a church
globe n /gloob/ We export our goods all over the globe.
look after phr v /loI 'o:fìo/ Don’t worry; I’ll look after the kids tomorrow.
take after phr v /'ìciI ,o:fìo/ Jennifer really takes after her mother.
support v /so'po:ì/ She needs a large income to support such a big family.
survive v /so'vaiv/ A few pages of the original manuscript still survive.
preserve v /pri'z‰:v/ I think these traditional customs should be preserved.
precise adj /pri'sais/ The precise details of the sale have not yet been released
distinct adj /di'sìiqIì/ Linguists have agreed that they are two entirelydistinct languages.
require v /ri'Ivaio/ You are required by law to wear seat belts.
desire v /di'zaio/ Anyone desiring to vote must come to the meeting.
alien adj /'cilion/ She felt lost in that alien culture.
dense adj /dcns/ Dense jungle covered the whole area.
keep on phr v /,Ii:p 'ﬂn/ I’ve told him to stop but he keeps on scratching his head!
take up phr v /,ìciI 'np/ Glenn has taken up pottery.
come off phr v /Inm 'ﬂf/ The hook came off the wall when I hung my coat on it
turn down phr v /,ì‰:n 'daon/ Pauline has turned down offers from several different law firms.
combination n /,Iﬂmbi'nci|on/ Certain combinations of sounds are not possible in English
sharp adj /|o:p/ Add mustard to give the salad dressing a sharper taste.
acid adj /'æsid/ The wine had a very acid taste.
sting v /sìiq/ The antiseptic might sting a little.
bad-tempered adj /,bæd 'ìcmpod/ He’s always bad-tempered in the mornings.
attitude n /'æìiì|u:d/ Pete’s attitude towards women really scares me.
influence n /'influons/ She used her influence with the chairman to get me the job.
heel n /hi:l/
variety n /vo'raioìi/ The girls come from a variety of different backgrounds.
grin n /grin/ Take that cheeky grin off your face!
gap n /gæp/ The politician promised to destroy the wideninggap between the rich and the poor
directions n pl /di'rcI|onz, dai-/ A very helpful woman gave me directions to the police station.
break into phr v /'brciI inìo, inìo/ Her face broke into a smile when I told her I could stay for the weekend
damage v /'dæmid¸/ I damaged the computer while I was moving it.
pick sb up phr v /,piI snmbodi 'np/ I’ll pick my things up later.
turn down phr v /,ì‰:n 'daon/ Can you please turn the TV down? I can’t hear myself think!
keep down phr v /'Ii:p 'daon/ You can use herbicides to keep down the weeds.
pull down phr v /,pol 'daon/ The old chapel is dangerous and will have to bepulled down.
fill up phr v /,fil 'np/ Brad just kept filling up everyone’s glasses with champagne.
settle down phr v /,scìl 'daon/ Mel settled down in his chair and closed his eyes
put up phr v /poì 'np/ They’re putting up several new office blocks in the centre of town
tidy up phr v /,ìaidi 'np/ You’re not allowed to go out until youtidy up your room.
wrap up phr v /,ræp 'np/ I haven’t even wrapped my presents up yet!
take down phr v /,ìciI 'daon/ After the Christmas party, she took down all the decorations.
look up phr v /,loI 'np/ Look up the word in the dictionary
let down phr v /,lcì 'daon/ I’m counting on you to support me – don’t let me down!
do up phr v /,du: 'np/ They did up the house and sold it for a huge profit
decorate v /'dcIorciì/ I’m going to decorate the bathroom next.
erect v /i'rcIì/ This town hall was erected in 1892.
mail-order n /,mcil 'o:do/
slightly adv /'slaiìli/ Alison is slightly older than the others.
satisfying adj /'sæìisfai-iq/ It was very satisfying that the play was such a success after all the hard work we did
lively adj /'laivli/ He’d always been a bright and lively child.
present v /pri'zcnì/ We were presented with a difficult choice
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pressurise v /'prc|oraiz/ They would have enjoyed the party more if they hadn’t beenpressurised into going.
remove v /ri'mu:v/ Reference books may not be removed from the library.
application n /,æpli'Ici|on/ There were more than three hundred applications for the six jobs.
demanding adj /di'mo:ndiq/ Teaching is a very demanding job.
summarise v /'snmoraiz/ Jack quickly summarised the main points of his plan.
Scot n /sIﬂì/ He lived with a Scot and two Irishmen when he was a student
privileged adj /'privolid¸d/ Only those from privileged homes were able to afford luxuries.
on the contrary prep phr /ﬂn ðo 'Iﬂnìrori/ It wasn’t a good thing; on the contrary it was a huge mistake.
district n /'disìriIì/ We had a semi-detached house in a pleasant suburbandistrict of Manchester.
the (Great) Depression n phr /ðo ,grciì di'prc|on/ My grandmother grew up during the Depression in a small Yorkshire town.
unemployment n /,nnim'ploimonì/ The government has promised to do something about levels of unemployment.
unusual adj /nn'|u:¸uol, -¸ol/ Earlier this century, it was unusual for women to have a career.
glad adj /glæd/ I’m really glad I don’t have to go back there again.
dawn n /do:n/ We talked almost until dawn.
deliver v /di'livo/ Could you deliver this letter to the accounts department?
determination n /di,ì‰:mi'nci|on/ Her determination to do well made her keep on studying
destiny n /'dcsìoni/ Juan accepted his destiny without complaint.
throughout prep /Oru:'aoì/ He had lied to the court throughout the trial.
dusk n /dnsI/ The streetlights go on at dusk.
milk round n phr /'milI raond/ The good old traditional milk round seems to be dying out in England
cart n /Io:ì/ They loaded the cart with pieces of old metal they found at the dump
approach v /o'prooì|/ He was in his fifties and approaching retirement.
extend v /iI'sìcnd/ We extended the kitchen by 6 feet.
objection n /ob'd¸cI|on/ If no one has any objection, I’ll declare the meeting closed.
sign on phr v /,sain 'ﬂn/ He signed on as a soldier in the US army.
navy n /'ncivi/ My grandfather joined the navy when he was fifteen years old.
boast v /boosì/ She boasted that she could speak six languages fluently
be off phr v /bi 'ﬂf/ I’m off to the shops now. Does anyone want anything?
thorough adj /'Onro/ My doctor gave me a thorough check-up.
rigorous adj /'rigoros/ We had to perform a set of rigorous fitness exercises every morning.
doubt v /daoì/ I don’t doubt that he’s a brilliant scientist, but can he teach?
independent adj /,indi'pcndonì/ I quite like living alone; it’s made me more independent.
on the one hand … on the other hand conj /ﬂn ðo ,vnn hænd ... ﬂn ði 'nðo hæOn the one hand I want to sell the house, but on the other hand I can’t bear the thought of moving.
with his tail between his legs idm /við hiz 'ìcil biìvi:n hiz ,lcgz/ After losing the fight at school, he walked home with his tail between his legs.
disability n /,diso'biloìi/ She manages to lead a normal life in spite of her disabilities.
pension n /'pcn|on/ They both have their pensions to live on now that they’ve retired
unsettled adj /nn'scìld/ The dream made her feel even more unsettled than she had before.
take on phr v /,ìciI 'ﬂn/ Mum is taking on too much at the moment – I think we should all try and help her more
coal n /Iool/ Bring in some coal for the fire.
labourer n /'lciboro/ Her father was a farm labourer.
polisher n /'pﬂli|o/ I used an electric floor polisher to clean the marble.
subsidise v /'snbsidaiz/ Farming is partly subsidised by the government.
leisure adj/n /'lc¸o/ She enjoys gardening, sailing and other leisure activites.
pursuit n /po's|u:ì/ She concentrated mainly on her academic pursuits.
on the grounds that prep phr /ﬂn ðo 'graondz ðoì/ Zoe was awarded compensation on the grounds that the doctor had made a number of mistakes.
gradually adv /'græd¸uoli/ The cat gradually became less frightened when she realised she was safe
open up phr v /,oopon 'np/ A move to New York would open up all kinds of exciting new possibilities
turning point n phr /'ì‰:niq poinì/ Meeting Picasso was a turning point in her career as an artist.
on the strength of prep phr /ﬂn ðo 'sìrcqO ov, 'sìrcnO/ I bought the book on the strength of your recommendation.
attract v /o'ìræIì/ What attracted me most to the job was the chance to travel.
admirer n /od'maioro/ She never told anyone about her secret admirer.
unfold v /nn'foold/ As the tale unfolds we learn more about Max’s childhood
lead on to phr v /,li:d 'ﬂn ìo, ìo/ Starting the business led on to the creation of lots of new jobs.
screenplay n /'sIri:nplci/ Her first screenplay was an immediate success.
household name n phr /,haoshoold 'ncim/ Coca-Cola is a household name around the world.
background n /'bæIgraond/ He’s always talking about his working class background.
accept v /oI'scpì/ I wish I’d accepted your advice and kept my money in the bank
order n /'o:do/ You will report to me at eight o’clock tomorrow – and that’s an order.
ashamed adj /o'|cimd/ I was ashamed of having lied to my mother.
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whilst conj /vailsì/
impress v /im'prcs/ Steve borrowed his dad’s sports car to impress his girlfriend.
relevant adj /'rclovonì/ For further information, see the relevant sections of the book.
deduce v /di'd|u:s/ I deduced that she was married by the ring on her finger
strict adj /sìriIì/ You had strict instructions not to tell anybody
physical adj /'fiziIol/ You need to do more physical exercise if you want to get stronger.
assistant n /o'sisìonì/ a clerical assistant.
experience n /iI'spiorions/ The interviewer asked if I had any previous experience.
candidate n /'Iændidoì/ They’re interviewing three candidates for the post of sales manager.
camping site n phr /'Iæmpiq saiì/ The camping site was so full of caravans that we couldn’t find anywhere to pitch our tent
course n /Io:s/ Andy’s doing a one-year journalism course.
reasonably adv /'ri:zonobli/ The car is in reasonably good condition.
case n /Icis/ In this case, the doctors think they will have to operate
specify v /'spcsifai/ Names and numbers were not specified.
exhausted adj /ig'zo:sìid/ Jill lay on the grass, exhausted by her long run.
colleague n /'Iﬂli:g/ A colleague at the bank is looking for a new house.
apply v /o'plai/ I applied to four universities and was accepted by all of them.
prospects n pl /'prﬂspcIìs/ You can’t marry a man with no prospects!
salary n /'sælori/ She’s on a monthly salary of £1000.
qualification n /,Ivﬂlifi'Ici|on/ Eva had excellent academic qualifications.
suitable adj /'su:ìobol, 's|u:-/ The house is not really suitable for us.
available adj /o'vcilobol/ The president was not available for comment.
recommend v /,rcIo'mcnd/ I recommend the roast garlic chicken – it’s delicious.
have a go at sth v phr /hæv o 'goo oì snmOiq/ Daisy had six goes at her driving test before she passed.
uni n, abbrev /'|u:ni/ I wish I was still a student at Bristol Uni.
stuff n /sìnf/ I’ve got so much stuff to do this weekend.
valuable adj /'væl|uobol, -|obol/ She made a valuable suggestion that I will never forget.
reference n /'rcforons/ We will need references from your former employers.
drop in phr v /,drﬂp 'in/ I think I’ll drop in on Jill on my way home.
chat n /ì|æì/ We had a long chat about the old days.
position n /po'zi|on/ Richard held the position of sales manager.
at present prep phr /oì 'prczonì/ Ms Hall is busy at present – can she ring you later?
command n /Io'mo:nd/ I was very impressed by Janice’s command of French.
manner n /'mæno/ The manner in which she spoke to the visitors was rather strange.
regards n pl /ri'go:dz/
faithfully adv /'fciOfoli/ She faithfully carried out every single promise she had made to him.
Yours faithfully /,|o:z 'fciOfoli
edit v /'cdiì/ We had only two weeks to edit the manuscript before publication.
recall v /ri'Io:l/ Afterwards Olivia could not recall what they had talked about.
achievement n /o'ì|i:vmonì/ Winning three gold medals is a remarkable achievement.
assess v /o'scs/ It’s difficult to assess the effects of the new law just yet.
continual assessment n phr /Ion,ìin|uol o'scsmonì/ Many students would prefer to have continual assessment.
presenter n /pri'zcnìo/ They’ve just offered her a job as presenter of a new radio show.
primary school n phr /'praimori ,sIu:l/ Can you recall your first day at primary school?
masculine adj /'mæsI|olin/ He had a dark, masculine face and spoke with a deep voice.
absolutely adv /'æbsolu:ìli, ,æbso'lu:ìli/ Oh yes, absolutely. I think it’s a great idea.
shock v /|ﬂI/ It shocked me to think how close we had come to being killed.
influence v /'influons/ Don’t let me influence your decision.
current adj /'Inronì/ Her current boyfriend is in a rock band.
benefit v /'bcnofiì/ The new pension system will benefit workers over the age of fifty-eight.
encourage v /in'Inrid¸/ Good public transport encourages people to leave their cars at home.
separate adj /'scporoì/ The poor travelled in a separate carriage.
quote n /Ivooì/ She read me a quote from the Bible.
discussion n /di'sIn|on/ On Friday we had a long discussion about what to do about the children’s education.
degree n /di'gri:/ Isabelle’s doing a law degree.
follow through phr v /,fﬂloo 'Oru:/ The success of any business plan depends on your ability to follow through.
promise n /'prﬂmis/ My son shows great promise as a chess player.
end up phr v /,cnd 'np/ We were going to go out, but ended up watching videos.
respond v /ri'spﬂnd/ Clive responded to my suggestion with a laugh.
laboratory n /lo'bﬂroìri/ I feel very strongly about performing laboratory tests on animals – especially to test cosmetic products!
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uniform n /'|u:nifo:m/ We had to wear a school uniform.
tentative adj /'ìcnìoìiv/ We’ve fixed a tentative date for the meeting.
field n /fi:ld/ She’s well known in the field of ancient history.
develop v /di'vclop/ In less than ten years it develops from a seed into a full-grown tree.
yet conj /|cì/ It’s only a little shop and yet it always has such lovely decorations.
outstanding adj /aoì'sìændiq/ We drove through an area of outstanding natural beauty.
fail v /fcil/ I failed my driving test the first time I took it.
eventually adv /i'vcnì|uoli, -ì|oli/ She eventually passed her driving test.
admit v /od'miì/ The UK was admitted to the European Community in 1973.
institute n /'insìiì|u:ì/ The Institute for Contemporary Arts was just across the street.
graduation n /,græd¸u'ci|on/ After graduation, Helen went into accountancy.
extremely adv /iI'sìri:mli/ I’m extremely sorry to have troubled you.
patent n /'pciìnì, 'pæ-/ She took out a patent on her latest invention.
huge adj /h|u:d¸/ Your room’s huge compared to mine.
appetite n /'æpoìaiì/ Paul has no appetite for hard work.
relativity n /,rclo'ìivoìi/
publish v /'pnbli|/ Her second novel was published in July.
intellectual adj /,inìo'lcIì|uol/ The student showed enormous intellectual ability.
reserved adj /ri'z‰:vd/ Ellen was a shy, reserved girl.
continent n /'Iﬂnìinonì/ We had to study the continents of Asia and Africa.
state n /sìciì/ The roads are in a terrible state after the severe winter weather.
majority n /mo'd¸ﬂroìi/ The majority of lone parents are divorced or separated women.
lecture n /'lcIì|o/ She’s giving a series of lectures on molecular biology.
flexible adj /'flcIsibol/ We can be flexible about your starting date.
be in touch v phr /,bi:…in 'ìnì|/ I’ll be in touch when I get back from Paris.
definite adj /'dcfonoì/ We have to set a definite date for the concert.
fare n /fco/ Children under four don’t have to pay the full fare.
cheque n /ì|cI/ Can I pay by cheque?
come through phr v /Inm 'Oru:/ Has your passport come through yet?
lend v /lcnd/ I wish I’d never lent him my car.
pay back phr v /,pci 'bæI/ If you lend me £10, I’ll pay you back on Friday.
tuition n /ì|u'i|on/ I had to have extra tuition in maths.
legal adj /'li:gol/ Sean was given free legal advice.
obligation n /,ﬂbli'gci|on/ You can look at the books without any obligation to buy them.
effective adj /i'fcIìiv/ The ads were simple, but remarkably effective.
qualified adj /'Ivﬂlifaid/ He’s qualified to teach at a primary school, but not at a secondary school.
access n /'æIscs/ The public didn’t have access to these papers until one hundred years later.
materials n pl /mo'ìioriolz/ The artists’ materials consisted of simple brushes and oil paints.
model adj /'mﬂdl/ His lawyers tried to show him as a model husband and father.
pupil n /'p|u:pol/ This school has about seven hundred pupils.
by far conj /bai 'fo:/ The grass snake is by far the most common snake in the UK.
socialise v /'soo|olaiz/ I enjoy socialising with my students after class.
at ease prep phr /oì 'i:z/ Nurses do all they can to make patients feel at ease.
responsible adj /ro'spﬂnsobol/ They’re not my children, but I still feel responsible for them.
academic adj /,æIo'dcmiI/ She loved the city of Oxford with its academic atmosphere.
suit v /su:ì, s|u:ì/ Finding a date that suits us all is very difficult.
attentive adj /o'ìcnìiv/ The professor was pleased to have such an attentive audience.
sympathy n /'simpoOi/ He wants your sympathy so he’s pretending to be sick.
decisive adj /di'saisiv/ She showed a talent for decisive action.
freeze v /fri:z/ The water at the edge of the lake froze last night.
dishonest adj /dis'ﬂnosì/ Unfortunately there are dishonest traders about.
naughty adj /'no:ìi/ You’re a very naughty boy! Look what you’ve done!
courage n /'Inrid¸/ Sue showed great courage throughout her illness.
passion n /'pæ|on/ Brazilian children grow up with a passion for football.
experiment n /iI'spcrimonì/ James carried out a series of simple experiments to test his theory.
horror n /'hﬂro/ The crowd gasped in horror as Senna’s car crashed.
irresponsible adj /,iro'spﬂnsobol/ It was irresponsible of him to leave the children by themselves in the pool.
illegible adj /i'lcd¸obol/ I’m not sure what this note says – Dad’s writing is almost illegible!
italics n pl /i'ìæliIs/ This example is written in italics.
principal n /'prinsopol/ The principal wants to see you in her office at once!
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hand in phr v /,hænd 'in/ Hand your papers in at the end of the exam.
resignation n /,rczig'nci|on/ Rupert decided to hand in his resignation, rather than betray a colleague.
turn up phr v /,ì‰:n 'np/ Steven turned up late as usual.
get across phr v /,gcì o'Irﬂs/ How can I get it across to you that I never want to see you again?
work out phr v /,v‰:I 'aoì/ We’ll have to work out how much food we’ll need for the party.
stay on phr v /,sìci 'ﬂn/ After finishing her contracted work, they asked her to stay on as an advisor.
get down to phr v /gcì 'daon ìo, ìo/ After Christmas I’m going to get down to some serious job-hunting.
keep up with phr v /,Ii:p 'np við, viO/ I’m having trouble keeping up with the rest of the class.
carry out phr v /,Iæri 'aoì/ They are carrying out urgent repairs to the church.
survey n /,s‰:vci/ A recent survey revealed that children of divorced parents have more stability than children of unhappy marriages.
staff n /sìo:f/ We now employ a staff of twenty-five people.
go over phr v /goo 'oovo/ I had gone over and over what had happened in my mind.
in charge prep phr /in 'ì|o:d¸/ Who’s in charge around here?
remain v /ri'mcin/ She remained at home to look after the children.
coursework n /'Io:sv‰:I/ I have to write an essay on the French Revolution as part of my history coursework.
heritage n /'hcroìid¸/ The cultural heritage of Italy.
site n /saiì/ We visited an interesting archaeological site.
cultural adj /'Inlì|orol/ There have been many cultural influences on these people.
glory n /'glo:ri/ As a child he dreamt of future glory as an Olympic champion.
pressure n /'prc|o/ Paul changed jobs because he couldn’t stand the pressure.
Venetian n /vo'ni:|on/ There are still many Venetian castles on the Greek islands.
face v /fcis/ The President faces the difficult task of putting the economy back on its feet.
secure adj /si'I|oo/ There is no such thing as a secure job these days.
unique adj /|u:'ni:I/ Each person’s fingerprints are unique.
remarkable adj /ri'mo:Iobol/ There’s nothing particularly remarkable about the landscape.
invader n /in'vcido/ Invaders from the south entered the town during the night.
mainland n /'mcinlond/ There is a very good ferry service between the islands and the mainland.
mud bank n phr /'mnd bæqI/ Roger pushed the boat away from the mud bank.
protect v /pro'ìcIì/ Try to protect your skin from the sun.
frontier n /frnn'ìio/ Lille is close to the frontier between France and Belgium.
city state n phr /,siìi 'sìciì/ the city state of Athens.
trade route n phr /'ìrcid ru:ì/ Columbus dreamed of discovering a new trade route between Europe and India by crossing the Atlantic.
commercial adj /Io'm‰:|ol/ Our top priorities must be profit and commercial growth.
naval adj /'ncivol/ Her grandfather was a naval officer during the war.
force n /fo:s/ Most military forces will remain loyal to the President.
explorer n /iI'splo:ro/ Marco Polo was history’s most famous explorer.
increasingly adv /in'Iri:siqli/ The classes at the college have become increasingly full over the past five years.
play a role in v phr /,plci o 'rool in/ Mandela played a leading role in ending apartheid in South Africa.
decline n /di'Ilain/ There has been a sharp decline in profits.
wealth n /vclO/ The country’s wealth comes from its oil.
come under phr v /'Inm ,nndo/ All doctors come under the same rules of professional conduct.
domination n /,dﬂmi'nci|on/ In many societies, there is still a state of male domination.
quality n /'Ivﬂloìi/ A nurse needs special personal qualities.
industrialisation n /in,dnsìriolai'zci|on/ Industrialisation has created a lot of jobs.
trade n /ìrcid/ There has been a marked increase in trade between East and West.
manufacturing n /,mæn|o'fæIì|oriq/ Thousands of jobs had been lost in manufacturing.
prosperity n /prﬂ'spcroìi/ It was a time of peace and prosperity.
replace v /ri'plcis/ Well, if he can’t manage, he’ll have to be replaced.
vessel n /'vcsol/ We saw a number of fishing vessels.
impressive adj /im'prcsiv/ We toured the remains of an impressive Roman villa.
line v /lain/ Crowds lined the route to the palace.
former adj /'fo:mo/ The coal industry is not even half its former size.
warehouse n /'vcohaos/ The warehouse where they keep the carpets is near the port.
turn into phr v /,ì‰:n 'inìo, 'inìo/ In a few weeks, the caterpillar will turn into a butterfly.
pour into phr v /,po:r 'inìo, 'inìo/ The men poured into the hall for the meeting.
outnumber v /aoì'nnmbo/ In the nursing profession, women still outnumber men by four to one.
resident n /'rczidonì/ Only residents can drink in the hotel bar.
industry n /'indosìri/ A decline in manufacturing industry.
threaten v /'Orcìn/ Hunting still threatens the survival of the rhino.
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fragile adj /'fræd¸ail/ The country’s fragile economy is threatened by the floods
flood n /flnd/ Floods in Bangladesh have caused hundreds of deaths
highlight v /'hailaiì/ A test to highlight students’ strengths and weaknesses.
rising damp n phr /,raiziq 'dæmp/ We decided not to buy the house because it had rising damp.
tremendous adj /ìro'mcndos/ I learned a tremendous amount in a short time.
tide n /ìaid/ We searched for driftwood on the beach, brought in by thetide.
painfully adv /'pcinfoli/ Progress in the negotiations has been painfully slow.
cope v /Ioop/ A family and a full-time job is a lot to cope with.
affordable adj /o'fo:dobol/ The college fees just weren’t affordable.
shrink v /|riqI/ The number of students has shrunk from one hundred and twenty to seventy
concern n /Ion's‰:n/ The depletion of the ozone layer is causing widespreadconcern among scientists.
lace n /lcis/ There were lace curtains at the windows.
at all costs prep phr /oì 'o:l Iﬂsìs, oì ,o:l 'Iﬂsìs/ We must avoid a scandal at all costs.
effectively adv /i'fcIìivli/ They managed to effectively reduce the scale of the problem.
take into account v phr /,ìciI inìo o'Iaonì/ His boss took into account his previous service record.
conserver n /Ion's‰:vo/
location n /loo'Ici|on/ Could you give me your precise location?
awareness n /o'vconos/ Health officials have tried to raise awareness about AIDS among teenagers.
will n /vil/ The survivors never lost the will to live.
adapt v /o'dæpì/ The children are finding it hard to adapt to their new school.
crucial adj /'Iru:|ol/ He often made crucial decisions involving millions of dollars
pros and cons n phr /,prooz on 'Iﬂnz/ What are the pros and cons of owning your own home?
grand adj /grænd/ We attended a grand ceremony at the Palace.
decrease v /di'Iri:s/ In the last ten years, cars have generally decreased in size.
recognise v /'rcIognaiz, 'rcIon-/ Samson came home so thin and weak his own children hardlyrecognised him.
have sth in common v phr /hæv ,snmOiq in 'Iﬂmon/ Their methods have a lot in common.
actively adv /'æIìivli/ She got actively involved in the discussion.
reserve n /ri'z‰:v/ The park is the largest wildlife reserve in the US.
fascinating adj /'fæsonciìiq/ I found his tale of a wild and lawless lifefascinating.
bleak adj /bli:I/ It was a bleak January afternoon.
withdraw v /við'dro:, viO-/ They have withdrawn their support for the party candidate.
membership n /'mcmbo|ip/ I forgot to renew my membership of the sailing club.
context n /'IﬂnìcIsì/ Can you guess the meaning of this word from its context?
exception n /iI'scp|on/ With one or two notable exceptions, there are few women orchestra conductors.
incredible adj /in'Ircdibol/ It’s incredible how much Tom has changed since he met Sally
well-preserved adj /,vcl pri'z‰:vd/ The ancient pots and statues were well-preserved although a number were broken
nominate v /'nﬂminciì/ He was nominated for the Nobel Prize.
gorgeous adj /'go:d¸os/ He watched a gorgeous woman walk up the street with his mouth hanging open
marvellous adj /'mo:volos/ It’s marvellous what they can do with plastic surgery these days
dull adj /dnl/ Bill’s friends are a pretty dull bunch.
smart adj /smo:ì/ Chris was looking very smart in his new grey suit.
casually adv /'Iæ¸uoli/ I think I’ll dress casually to go to the cinema.
restore v /ri'sìo:/ The church was carefully restored after the war.
conference n /'Iﬂnforons/ Representatives from over twenty countries attended the International PeaceConference in Geneva.
connection n /Io'ncI|on/ If this train gets delayed we’ll miss our connection to Paris.
medieval adj /,mcdi'i:vol/ Susan is studying French medieval literature.
react v /ri'æIì/ Ellie reacted by marching out of the room.
delighted adj /di'laiìid/ We’re delighted that you’ll be there.
thrilled adj /Orild/ We were so thrilled to hear about the baby.
put sb up phr v /,poì snmbodi 'np/ They agreed to put two foreign students up over the summer.
unpack v /nn'pæI/ Let’s go upstairs and unpack our cases.
bother v /'bﬂðo/ I’m too busy to bother about fixing it now.
give sb a ring v phr /,giv snmbodi o 'riq/ I’ll give you a ring later in the week.
hesitate v /'hcziìciì/ Don’t hesitate to contact me if you need any more information
cheers interj /ì|ioz/ Cheers mate, and thanks for the coffee!
date back to v phr /,dciì 'bæI ìo, ìo/ This church dates back to the thirteenth century.
ruin n /'ru:in/ We saw the ruins of a bombed-out office block.
cathedral n /Io'Oi:drol/ They got married in Durham Cathedral.
sandstone n /'sændsìoon/
rainforest n /'rcin,fﬂrosì/ There has been an increase in the number of environmental groups campaigning against the destruction of therainforest.
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jaguar n /'d¸æg|uo/
disappointed adj /,diso'poinìid/ Of course I’m disappointed I didn’t get an invitation.
male adj /mcil/ You can easily recognise the male lion by his huge mane of hair
territory n /'ìcriìori/ A male cat may mark his territory by scratching noticeable features like trees.
threat n /Orcì/ Nuclear weapons are a threat to the world.
contact n /'IﬂnìæIì/ Children need close physical contact and interaction with a caring adult
illustrate v /'ilosìrciì/ He tried to illustrate his point by drawing a diagram on the board
cricket n /'IriIiì/ I love listening to the sound of the crickets in the fields by the river.
temperature n /'ìcmporoì|o/ The temperature in New York dropped to minus ten degrees last night
storm n /sìo:m/ We knew we had to get home before the storm broke.
restless adj /'rcsìlos/ The children had been indoors all day and were gettingrestless.
earthquake n /'‰:OIvciI/ Mexico City was badly hit in the 1985earthquake.
insect n /'inscIì/ The air was full of mosquitoes and other flying insects.
dazed adj /dcizd/ Dazed survivors staggered from the wreckage of the train crash.
hibernation n /,haibo'nci|on/ Bears are the largest mammals that go into hibernation.
minor adj /'maino/ We have made some minor changes to the programme.
tremor n /'ìrcmo/ Did you feel that slight tremor last night?
concern v /Ion's‰:n/ The tax changes will concern large companies rather than small businesses.
cattle n /'Iæìl/ We saw herds of cattle lying down in the fields
evacuate v /i'væI|uciì/ The city-dwellers were evacuated to the countryside.
strike v /sìraiI/ Tragedy struck two days later when Tammy was in a serious car accident
countless adj /'Iaonìlos/ I spent countless hours on trains and buses.
nevertheless adv /,ncvoðo'lcs/ He insisted that everything would be alright.Nevertheless, I could not help feeling anxious
demonstrate v /'dcmonsìrciì/ Edwin Hubble demonstrated that ours was not the only galaxy
warning n /'vo:niq/ The police issued a warning against speeding.
sensitive adj /'scnsoìiv/ Make sure you protect sensitive areas of your skin with a good sun cream.
magnetic field n phr /mæg,ncìiI 'fi:ld/ Metal objects around the compass can affect its magnetic field.
detect v /di'ìcIì/ Many forms of cancer can be cured if detected early.
seismic adj /'saizmiI/ An increase in seismic activity lately has concerned scientists
pity n /'piìi/ It’s a pity that Jan and George can’t make it to the party.
keen adj /Ii:n/ Daniel’s very keen on tennis.
discount n /'disIaonì/ Do I get a discount if I buy a whole case of wine?
eager adj /'i:go/ There was a queue of eager schoolchildren outside the theatre
solar eclipse n phr /,soolor i'Ilips/
owl n /aol/ Owls were symbols of wisdom in ancient Greece.
bat n /bæì/ Did you know that bats are the only mammals that can fly?
breeze n /bri:z/ Flowers were waving in the breeze.
spectator n /spcI'ìciìo/ The match attracted thousands of spectators.
regret v /ri'grcì/ She deeply regretted losing her temper.
awesome adj /'o:som/ Looking after their three children is an awesome responsibility.
protective adj /pro'ìcIìiv/ We were told to wear protective clothing.
camcorder n /'Iæm,Io:do/ I bought a camcorder to take with me when I go to Paris.
pint n /painì/ I’d like a pint of milk and a loaf of bread, please.
Northern Lights n phr /,no:ðon 'laiìs/ Did you see the Northern Lights from Aberdeen?
insist v /in'sisì/ Her parents insisted on speaking to the headmistress.
object v /ob'd¸cIì/ Do you think anyone wouldobject if I parked my car here?
rarely adv /'rcoli/ She very rarely complains about anything
prevent v /pri'vcnì/ The rules are intended to prevent accidents.
ambition n /æm'bi|on/ My ambition is to become a pilot.
Groundhog n /'graondhﬂg/
optimistic adj /,ﬂpìi'misìiI/ Sally is very optimistic about her exam results, but I’ll be surprised if she’s passed
furry adj /'f‰:ri/ She wanted to stroke the furry little kittens.
shadow n /'|ædoo/ Look how long our shadows are!
reporter n /ri'po:ìo/ There were reporters all over their front garden!
focus v /'fooIos/ He focused his binoculars on the building opposite
burrow n /'bnroo/ The proper name for a fox’s burrow is its ‘earth’.
just around the corner phr /,d¸nsì oraond ðo 'Io:no/ Economic recovery is just around the corner.
celebrity n /so'lcbroìi/ It must have been difficult living in a family of celebrities.
prediction n /pri'diI|on/ I’d find it very hard to make a prediction about who will win Big Brother
fog n /fﬂg/ Thick fog is making driving conditions dangerous.
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apparent adj /o'pæronì/ Her anxiety was apparent to everyone.
fair adj /fco/ That morning the weather was fair and the air was warm.
severe adj /si'vio/ There has been severe flooding in many parts of the country
rude adj /ru:d/ Don’t be so rude to your father!
advanced adj /od'vo:nsì/ By this time, the disease was too far advanced to be treated.
immature adj /,imo'ì|oo/ The immature plants are less likely to survive a cold winter
bend n /bcnd/ The taxi swung around the bend at a terrifying speed.
stiff adj /sìif/ There was a stiff wind blowing.
dense adj /dcns/ We struggled through the dense forest to the road.
call off phr v /,Io:l 'ﬂf/ There’s no rush now – the game’s been called off.
come on phr v /Inm 'ﬂn/ I can feel a headache coming on.
look over phr v /,loI 'oovo/ Do you have a few minutes to look over these samples?
otherwise adv /'nðovaiz/ You’ll have to go now; otherwise you’ll miss your bus.
drizzle n /'drizol/ A light drizzle had started by the time we left.
hail n /hcil/ Hail the size of golf balls, was falling from the sky.
shower n /'|aoo/ Heavy showers are forecast in the hills tomorrow.
gust n /gnsì/ A sudden gust of wind blew the door shut
hurricane n /'hnriIon/ I will never forget when Hurricane Andrew hit Florida.
thunder n /'Onndo/ There was a sudden clap of thunder and the dog hid under the bed
gale n /gcil/ The fence was blown down in the gale.
lightning n /'laiìniq/ They say that lightning never strikes in the same place twice.
downpour n /'daonpo:/ We got caught in the downpour and by the time we got home we were soaking wet
extreme adj /iI'sìri:m/ Extreme poverty still exists in many rural areas.
crop n /Irﬂp/ The main crop in China is rice.
whirling adj /'v‰:liq/ Whirling snowflakes fell to the ground.
torrential adj /ìo'rcn|ol/ There was torrential rain for most of our holiday.
pouring adj /'po:riq/ The animals were left out in the pouring rain all night.
chilly adj /'ì|ili/ The wind’s a bit chilly.
cancel v /'Iænsol/ The football game had been cancelled due to rain.
soaked adj /sooIì/ Get those clothes off; they’re soaked right through!
stormy adj /'sìo:mi/ They had a stormy argument and she left the house.
heated adj /'hi:ìid/ They were in the middle of a heated argument when I walked in
icy adj /'aisi/ Jo fixed the other woman with an icy stare.
sunny adj /'snni/ He has a lovely, sunny smile.
breezy adj /'bri:zi/ She walked in with a breezy and relaxed air of confidence.
stare n /sìco/ She ignored the stares of everyone around her.
encounter n /in'Iaonìo/ She didn’t remember our encounter last summer.
quarrel n /'Ivﬂrol/ She got into a silly quarrel with the other children
renovate v /'rcnovciì/ They are living in temporary accommodation while their apartment is beingrenovated.
fee n /fi:/ The entrance fees have gone up by 50 per cent.
reduce v /ri'd|u:s/ We were hoping that they would reduce the rent a little.
domesticate v /do'mcsìiIciì/ Dogs were one of the first animals to be domesticated by people.
migrate v /mai'grciì/ Robins don’t migrate in winter, and you often see their little red breasts in the snow
fairly adv /'fcoli/ The house had a fairly large garden.
faithful adj /'fciOfol/ Russell remained faithful to his bosses even though their competitors offered him more money
miserable adj /'mizorobol/ There’s nothing like a bad cold to make you feel miserable.
shelter n /'|clìo/ We eventually reached the shelter of the caves.
regional adj /'ri:d¸onol/ Have you tried the regional cooking?
global adj /'gloobol/ AIDS is a global problem that needs a global response.
issue n /'i|u:, 'is|u:/ Drugs testing of employees is a sensitive issue.
dump v /dnmp/ I hate it when people dump their rubbish in the river.
waste n /vcisì/ It’s a good idea to recycle household waste.
equal adj /'i:Ivol/ We believe that all men and women are equal and have the same rights, whatever their colour, race or religion
forecaster n /'fo:Io:sìo/ The forecaster announced rain.
challenge n /'ì|ælond¸/ I liked the challenge of playing chess with such a skilful player
conjunction n /Ion'd¸nqI|on/
collaborative adj /Io'læboroìiv/ Building the barn was a collaborative project.
error n /'cro/ Mrs Lawson’s huge phone bill was the result of a computererror.
scary adj /'sIcori/ It was a really scary film.
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inhospitable adj /,inhﬂ'spiìobol/ We walked for miles through the inhospitable arctic landscape.
desert n /'dczoì/ The Sahara Desert.
raise v /rciz/ We are raising money for a new hospital ward
charity n /'ì|æroìi/ Several charities sent aid to the flood victims.
dear to one’s heart phr /,dio ìo vnnz 'ho:ì/ The idea of spending Christmas with her family in the mountains was verydear to her heart.
set out phr v /,scì 'aoì/ Columbus and his crew set out from Europe in 1492.
awful adj /'o:fol/ The weather was awful.
task n /ìo:sI/ Dad said we could go out and play when we had finished our weekendtasks.
set v /scì/ She had set herself to write a novel.
sponsorship n /'spﬂnso|ip/ The expedition is looking for sponsorship from one of the major banks.
set up phr v /,scì 'np/ They want to set up their own import–export business.
special needs n phr /,spc|ol 'ni:dz/ She works as a volunteer to help children withspecial needs.
disabled adj /dis'cibold/ This building was designed with disabled people in mind.
route n /ru:ì/ We weren’t sure about which route we should take.
hell n /hcl/ Central London was hell the Saturday before Christmas.
depressed adj /di'prcsì/ She felt lonely and depressed.
keep going v phr /,Ii:p 'gooiq/ I don’t think I can keep going any longer.
collapse v /Io'læps/ Her whole world collapsed when Mike was diagnosed with cancer
rare adj /rco/ This species of plant is becoming increasingly rare.
wheelchair n /'vi:lì|co/ The theatre has a special entrance for people in wheelchairs.
quality of life n phr /,Ivﬂloìi ov 'laif/ They weren’t rich, but they had a good quality of life.
fund-raising n phr /'fnnd ,rciziq/ We started fund-raising in June and by August, we had collected enough for two new ambulances
consultant n /Ion'snlìonì/ Jeremy had to see a consultant about his back problem.
confirm v /Ion'f‰:m/ The President refused to confirm the rumour.
condition n /Ion'di|on/ People suffering from this condition should not smoke.
untreatable adj /nn'ìri:ìobol/
stretch n /sìrcì|/ The boat rocked as it entered the stretch of rough water.
precious adj /'prc|os/ Don’t waste precious time talking to him, he’s not worth it.
coastal adj /'Ioosìol/ The coastal waters of Britain.
windswept adj /'vindsvcpì/ The wild, windswept moors of Yorkshire.
ideal adj /ai'diol/ It seemed like an ideal place for a picnic.
preparation n /,prcpo'rci|on/ Justin had opened several bottles of wine inpreparation for the party.
salt flat n phr /'so:lì flæì/
point out phr v /,poinì 'aoì/ Mr Rogers had pointed out to us that we should keep well away from the lake
trap v /ìræp/ We were trapped by the rising water.
roasting adj /'roosìiq/ I’m absolutely roasting in this suit.
set off phr v /,scì 'ﬂf/ I wanted to set off early in order to avoid the traffic.
set n /scì/ I asked for a new set of tools.
split v /spliì/ Harry split his trousers climbing over the fence.
bury v /'bcri/ The pirates buried their treasure somewhere on the island
admit v /od'miì/ You may not like her, but you have to admit that she’s good at her job.
suffer v /'snfo/ At least the poor little dog died suddenly and didn’tsuffer.
brave adj /brciv/ It was very brave of you to tell her the truth.
living proof phr /,liviq 'pru:f/ I’m living proof that you don’t need a college degree to be successful
hardship n /'ho:d|ip/ They lived in a time of great economic hardship.
punish v /'pnni|/ More and more people are starting to believe that smacking is not an acceptable way topunish a child.
mood n /mu:d/ You’re in a good mood this morning.
sit back phr v /,siì 'bæI/ Don’t just sit back and wait for success to come to you.
hostile adj /'hﬂsìail/ The jungle was a very hostile place to spend the night alone
potential adj /po'ìcn|ol/ The agents were eager to impress potential buyers.
cruel adj /'Iru:ol/ The little boys were being cruel to the kittens.
achieve v /o'ì|i:v/ Women have yet to achieve full equality in the workplace
for a good cause n phr /for o ,god 'Io:z/ I don’t mind giving some money if it’s for a good cause.
establish v /i'sìæbli|/ My grandfather established the family business in 1938.
anticipate v /æn'ìisipciì/ Daniel was eagerly anticipating her arrival.
use up phr v /|u:z 'np/ Don’t use up all the hot water.
run down phr v /,rnn 'daon/ The batteries in my phone had run down and I couldn’t call anyone
argue v /'o:g|u:/ Did you hear the couple next door arguing last night?
actually adv /'æIì|uoli, -ì|oli/ We had quite a good time, actually.
officer n /'ﬂfiso/ My uncle was the officer in charge of the murder inquiry.
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react v /ri'æIì/ How did William react when you told him you wanted a divorce?
cheer v /ì|io/ Everybody cheered when the firemen arrived.
sequence n /'si:Ivons/ Please check that the page numbers are in sequence.
robber n /'rﬂbo/ A bank robber.
take off phr v /,ìciI 'ﬂf/ As the plane was taking off, I remembered I hadn’t turned the iron off at home.
relieved adj /ri'li:vd/ His mother was relieved to see him eating properly again.
resign v /ri'zain/ She’s just resigned from the committee.
collapse v /Io'læps/ The business finally collapsed because of rising debts.
caviar n /'Iævio:/ They offered us caviar and champagne.
vivid adj /'vivid/ He gave me a vivid account of their journey across the desert.
move v /mu:v/ I was deeply moved by their story.
set the scene v phr /,scì ðo 'si:n/ We all sat around the campfire as Mike began to set the scene for his ghost story.
impact n /'impæIì/ Warnings about the dangers of smoking seem to have little impact on this age group.
amazement n /o'mcizmonì/ Ralph gasped in amazement.
naturally adv /'næì|oroli/ Naturally, you’ll want to discuss this with your wife
take part v phr /,ìciI 'po:ì/ Greg was too sick to take part in the awards ceremony.
equivalent adj /i'Ivivolonì/ It’s equivalent to the rank of captain in our army.
go off phr v /goo 'ﬂf/ They went off together at the end of the concert.
persuade v /po'svcid/ I finally managed to persuade her to go out for a drink with me.
advise v /od'vaiz/ You are strongly advised to take out medical insurance when visiting China
prove v /pru:v/ Evidence has been found that proves his innocence.
donation n /doo'nci|on/ All donations will be gratefully received.
medical research n phr /,mcdiIol ri's‰:ì|/ Not everyone agrees that using live animals in medical research can help us.
parachute n /'pæro|u:ì/ For a moment it looked as if his parachute wasn’t going to open.
scuba diving n phr /'sIu:bo ,daiviq/ You can do a scuba diving course on the island.
fancy v /'fænsi/ Fancy a quick drink, Emma?
sign up phr v /,sain 'np/ I’ve signed up for French lessons on Wednesday evenings
from the word go phr /from ðo ,v‰:d 'goo/ Lena was against me from the word go.
give sth a go v phr /,giv snmOiq o 'goo/ I don’t think I can make him change his mind, but I’ll give it a go.
be into phr v /bi 'inìo, 'inìo/ She’s really into classical music at the moment, but I’m sure it won’t last long.
snooker n /'snu:Io/ The world snooker champion.
enrol v /in'rool/ Five hundred people enrolled to join the Western Civilisation class.
interrupt v /,inìo'rnpì/ Don’t interrupt – I haven’t finished yet.
put forward phr v /poì 'fo:vod/ The working party has put forward a good suggestion for moving to a new site.
conclusion n /Ion'Ilu:¸on/ Becky came to the conclusion that David must have forgotten about their date.
run out of phr v /,rnn 'aoì ov, ﬂv/ The van’s run out of petrol again.
extrovert n /'cIsìrov‰:ì/ Kelly was an extrovert who loved to perform to a crowd.
serve v /s‰:v/ And let’s not forget the women who served their country in the war.
champion n /'ì|æmpion/ The world heavyweight champion.
confidence n /'Iﬂnfidons/ Living on her own in a foreign country for a year gave her a lot ofconfidence.
opponent n /o'poononì/ Tyson knocked his opponent out in the first round.
cash n /Iæ|/ I’m bringing £400 in travellers’ cheques and £100 in cash.
iron v /'aion/ Have you ironed my shirt?
press v /prcs/ I’ll need to press my suit.
quantity n /'Ivﬂnìoìi/ Your work has improved in quantity and quality this term.
coin n /Ioin/ Have you got any coins for the drinks machine?
racket n /'ræIiì/
glove n /glnv/ Wear your gloves outside – it’s freezing!
beat v /bi:ì/ I always beat my brother at chess.
luxury n /'lnI|ori/ They led a life of luxury, in a huge house in the countryside
accommodation n /o,Iﬂmo'dci|on/ The family lived in rented accommodation.
injure v /'ind¸o/ One of the players injured his knee and had to be carried off.
cricket n /'IriIiì/ India defeated Pakistan in the cricket match yesterday.
improve v /im'pru:v/ Many dishes are greatly improved by adding fresh herbs.
facility n /fo'siloìi/ The club has childcare facilities.
pride n /praid/ They talked about their son with obvious pride.
lack n /læI/ A lack of iron in your blood can cause you to feel dizzy and tired
honesty n /'ﬂnosìi/ He is a politician of rare honesty and courage.
shave v /|civ/ I washed and shaved, then hurried out of the house
sunstroke n /'snnsìrooI/ We all had a wonderful holiday but it was a shame Jimmy gotsunstroke on the second day.
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occur v /o'I‰:/ Many accidents occur in the home.
boar n /bo:/ A few wild boar still exist in the northern mountains
convinced adj /Ion'vinsì/ I was convinced that we were doing the right thing
bet n /bcì/ Mum had a bet on one of the horses and won £20
creep v /Iri:p/ He crept back up the stairs.
by mistake prep phr /bai mi'sìciI/ It’s terribly cold in here – someone must have left the door open by mistake.
clockface n /'IlﬂIfcis/ I prefer clockfaces with Roman numerals.
score v /sIo:/ Arsenal scored in the final minute of the game.
debut n /'dcib|u:, 'dcb|u:/ Their debut album was recorded in 1991.
origin n /'ﬂrod¸in/ Have you ever thought about the origins of language?
religious adj /ri'lid¸os/ I don’t agree with her religious beliefs.
rope n /roop/ Use the rope to tie the boat to the tree.
palm n /po:m/ He held the stone in the palmof his hand.
class n /Ilo:s/ In all societies, there are different social classes.
vary v /'vcori/ Teaching methods vary greatly from school to school.
leather n /'lcðo/ The book was bound in leather and looked very old.
wool n /vol/ Is this coat made from pure wool?
spread v /sprcd/ News of the explosion spread swiftly.
confusion n /Ion'f|u:¸on/ There was some confusion as to whether we had won or lost
hand n /hænd/ When the hour hand points to the eight, and the minute hand points to the six, what time is it?
abbreviate v /o'bri:viciì/ ‘Information technology’ is usually abbreviated to ‘IT’.
demand v /di'mo:nd/ I demand to know what’s going on!
claim v /Ilcim/ Gregory claimed he’d been dining with friends at the time of the murder
request v /ri'Ivcsì/ I wrote and officially requested that they come to New York.
confess v /Ion'fcs/ After three hours of questioning the suspect broke down andconfessed.
alike adj /o'laiI/ My mother and I are alike in many ways.
punch v /pnnì|/ I punched the wall in anger.
pop v /pﬂp/ A button popped off my shirt when I sneezed.
bring up phr v /,briq 'np/ Why did you have to bring up the subject of money?
set out phr v /,scì 'aoì/ Auntie Louise set out the dinner on the table
put on phr v /,poì 'ﬂn/ We’re putting on a concert to raise money for famine victims.
previous adj /'pri:vios/ She has two children from a previous marriage.
beforehand adv /bi'fo:hænd/ When you give a speech, it’s natural to feel nervous beforehand.
preceding adj /pri'si:diq/ We made more money this month than in the whole of thepreceding year.
get out phr v /gcì 'aoì/ They said they’d try and get the catalogue out by the end of the month.
take off phr v /,ìciI 'ﬂf/ The business is really taking off now.
turn on phr v /'ì‰:n ﬂn/ The discussions turned on getting the minister to agree.
come out phr v /Inm 'aoì/ It was several weeks before the truth of the matter came out.
occupied adj /'ﬂI|opaid/ I’ve invented a game that will keep the kids occupied for hours.
mark v /mo:I/ A simple wooden cross marked her grave.
actual adj /'æIì|uol/ I’m not joking. Those were his actual words.
pleasant adj /'plczonì/ I know you don’t like her, but at least try to be pleasant.
sympathetic adj /,simpo'OcìiI/ I tried to explain my problems but they weren’t being verysympathetic.
sensitive adj /'scnsoìiv/
sensible adj /'scnsobol/ I think that’s a very sensible suggestion.
nervous adj /'n‰:vos/ I was so nervous about my exams that I couldn’t sleep.
excited adj /iI'saiìid/ Maria’s starting to get quite excited about the wedding.
usual adj /'|u:¸uol, '|u:¸ol/ It seemed colder than usual in the house.
typical adj /'ìipiIol/ It’s a typical British summer.
tough adj /ìnf/ Life as a single mother can be tough and depressing.
guy n /gai/ Dave’s a nice guy when you get to know him
final n /'fainl/ Do you remember the 1994 World Cup final?
professional adj /pro'fc|onol/ She gave up her job in insurance to concentrate on becoming aprofessional tennis player.
glamorous adj /'glæmoros/ On the outside, Marilyn Monroe was aglamorous film star.
annoy v /o'noi/ The way Tina orders us around really annoys me.
terrify v /'ìcrofai/ Her husband’s violence terrified her.
amuse v /o'm|u:z/ What amused me most was the thought of Martin in a dress.
take to phr v /'ìciI ìo, ìo/ I took to Paul as soon as I met him.
take over phr v /ìciI 'oovo/ Who will take over the department now that Mr Roberts has retired?
darts n pl /do:ìs/ We decided to go down to the pub and have a game of darts.
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enormously adv /i'no:mosli/ That dog is enormously fat!
discovery n /di'sInvori/ Astronomers have made significant discoveries about our galaxy.
invention n /in'vcn|on/ The dishwasher is a wonderful invention.
genetics n /d¸o'ncìiIs/
forensic adj /fo'rcnsiI, -ziI/ A specialist in forensic science was called as a witness.
linguistics n /liq'gvisìiIs/ He’s a linguistics professor at Cambridge.
remain v /ri'mcin/ What remains of the original art collection is now in the city museum
grave n /grciv/ She stood beside his grave for hours.
characteristic n /,IæriIìo'risìiI/ A characteristic of this species is the blue stripe on its back.
pass on phr v /,po:s 'ﬂn/ Haemophilia is a disease that is passed on from mother to son.
guilty adj /'gilìi/ The jury found her guilty of murder.
review v /ri'v|u:/ Sandy Collins reviews the latest releases by best–selling authors
up-to-date adj /,np ìo 'dciì/ She switched on the car radio to hear the latest up-to-date news.
influential adj /,influ'cn|ol/ ‘Canvas’ is a highly influential art magazine.
unite v /|u:'naiì/ We must unite to fight against racism.
the stuff of life n phr /ðo ,sìnf ov 'laif/
gene n /d¸i:n/
descend v /di'scnd/ These ideas descend from those of the ancient philosophers
forefront n /'fo:frnnì/ The Pasteur Institute has been at the forefront of research into the AIDS virus.
trait n /ìrci, ìrciì/ Anne’s generosity is one of her most pleasing traits.
thrilling adj /'Oriliq/ The final round was a thrilling climax to the championship.
finding n /'faindiq/ Surveys conducted in other countries reported similar findings.
gaze v /gciz/ Patrick was gazing into the fire.
investigate v /in'vcsìigciì/ I heard a noise and went downstairs to investigate.
insight n /'insaiì/ The article gives us a real insight into the causes of the present economic crisis.
packed adj /pæIì/ A new magazine packed with exciting recipes.
eye-catching adj /'ai ,Iæì|iq/ Julie was wearing an eye-catching new outfit.
reluctant adj /ri'lnIìonì/ She seemed reluctant to join in the discussion.
institution n /,insìi'ì|u:|on/ It was one of the most advanced medical institutions in the world.
objective n /ob'd¸cIìiv/ The main objective of this policy is to reduce unemployment
reserve v /ri'z‰:v/ She said it in the tone of voice she usuallyreserved for dealing with officials.
fine art n /,fain 'o:ì/ People have often wondered whether photography should be consideredfine art.
intelligence n /in'ìclid¸ons/ Don’t act like such an idiot – use your intelligence!
pre-determined adj /,pri:di'ì‰:mind/ They agreed to leave the suitcase in a pre-determined location.
providing conj /pro'vaidiq/ You can borrow the car, providing you get it back to me before six o’clock.
tie-in n phr /'ìai in/ The CD is a tie-in with the latest Hollywood blockbuster
consequence n /'IﬂnsiIvons/ He broke the law, and now he must face the consequences of his actions.
detail n /'di:ìcil/ Todd had planned the journey down to the smallestdetail.
instinct n /'insìiqIì/ The lion’s instinct was to hunt.
effortlessly adv /'cfoìlosli/ Her fingers darted effortlessly over the piano keys.
structure v /'sìrnIì|o/ You need to structure your arguments more carefully.
anecdote n /'æniIdooì/ I told him an anecdote of the time I travelled through the rainforest.
linguist n /'liqgvisì/
geese n pl /gi:s/
to great effect phr /ìo ,grciì i'fcIì/ Jim rubbed hard at the old plate to great effect, and could soon see gold shining through the rust
in order to prep phr /in 'o:do ìo, ìo/ In order to understand how the human body works, you need to have some knowledge of chemistry
source n /so:s/ Broccoli is a very good source of calcium.
original adj /o'rid¸inol/ What an original idea!
light reading n phr /,laiì 'ri:diq/ I thought I would spend the evening doing a bit oflight reading.
nonetheless conj /,nnnðo'lcs/ The region was extremely beautiful. Nonetheless, Gerard could not imagine spending the rest of his life there
appeal v /o'pi:l/ Does the idea of working abroad appeal to you?
specialist n /'spc|olisì/ She is a specialist in African history.
follow on phr v /,fﬂloo 'ﬂn/ The next chapter follows on from the moment when Angus had discovered his wife was still alive
gift n /gifì/ The earrings were a gift from my aunt.
disprove v /dis'pru:v/ They managed to disprove the original theory through a number of experiments
reflect v /ri'flcIì/ Does this letter reflect how you really feel?
aim n /cim/ The main aim of the course is to improve students’ communication skills.
topical adj /'ìﬂpiIol/ She’s producing a new TV comedy dealing withtopical issues.
illustration n /,ilo'sìrci|on/ Children like books with lots of illustrations.
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travel-sick adj /'ìrævol siI/ Many children get travel-sick on long journeys.
intention n /in'ìcn|on/ I have no intention of helping him after what he said to me.
coach n /Iooì|/ We went to Paris by coach.
project n /'prﬂd¸cIì/ We are working on a long-term project to help the homeless.
quotation n /Ivoo'ìci|on/ I read it in a dictionary of quotations.
confident adj /'Iﬂnfidonì/ We are confident that next year’s profits will be higher
Mars n /mo:z/ People have always written stories about visitors from Mars.
element n /'clomonì/ Poetry is just one of the elements of the literature course.
in progress prep phr /in 'proogrcs/ No talking! Examination in progress.
aerial adj /'coriol/ We had a fantastic aerial view of the city.
vehicle n /'vi:iIol/ ‘Is this your vehicle, sir?’ asked the police officer.
flying saucer n /,flai-iq 'so:so/ That’s no flying saucer! That was just my Frisbee!
overpopulation n /,oovopﬂp|o'lci|on/ Global overpopulation is perhaps the most serious problem of all.
routinely adv /ru:'ìi:nli/ She routinely checked the cooker was off every time she left the house
recover v /ri'Invo/ After this war, the country will take a long time to recover.
exhibition n /,cIsi'bi|on/ An exhibition of black and white photographs.
exhibit n /ig'zibiì/ Many exhibits were donated by local people
affect v /o'fcIì/ How will the new law affect families with children?
booking n /'boIiq/ We should make the theatre booking in plenty of time or we might not get seats.
in advance prep phr /in od'vo:ns/ I should warn you in advance, we may be delayed.
refreshments n pl /ri'frc|monìs/ Refreshments will be served after the meeting.
grateful adj /'grciìfol/ Dr Cameron has received hundreds of letters from grateful patients.
cloakroom n /'IlooIru:m, -rom/ We left our coats in the cloakroombefore entering the main hall
credit card n /'Ircdiì Io:d/ We accept all major credit cards.
distract v /di'sìræIì/ Meg was distracted from her work by the noise outside.
wind-up adj /'vaind np/ We only used to have wind-up toys when we were kids.
examine v /ig'zæmin/ The police will have to examine the weapon for fingerprints.
outdated adj /aoì'dciìid/ With such outdated teaching methods, is it surprising that our children don’t learn anything?
financially adv /fi'næn|oli, fai-/ The film was an artistic success, but it didn’t do well financially.
motivated adj /'mooìivciìid/ They’re a really good bunch of students – highlymotivated and very intelligent.
lack v /læI/ Alex’s real problem is that he lacks confidence.
response n /ri'spﬂns/ His question failed to get a response from any of the students.
participate v /po:'ìisipciì/ Everyone in the class is expected to participate in these discussions.
complicated adj /'IﬂmpliIciìid/ He gave me a very complicated set of instructions.
destroy v /di'sìroi/ The school was completely destroyed by fire.
blunder n /'blnndo/ A last-minute blunder by the goalkeeper cost them the match.
operate v /'ﬂporciì/ You need a licence to drive or operate heavy machinery.
have sth at your fingertips v phr /,hæv snmOiqœæì |o: 'fiqgoìips/ We have all the facts and figures at our fingertips.
furious adj /'f|oorios/ Dad was furious when he found out Mike had taken the car without asking him
recover v /ri'Invo/ Police have so far failed to recover the stolen jewellery.
keyboard n /'Ii:bo:d/ A computer keyboard.
terror n /'ìcro/ There was a look of sheer terror on his face.
bump v /bnmp/ It was so dark I bumped into a tree.
repair v /ri'pco/ I’ll have to get the car repaired.
iron n /'aion/ There were huge iron gates in front of the mansion.
artificial adj /,o:ìi'fi|ol/ It was impossible to tell that he had an artificial leg.
eagle n /'i:gol/ The American bald eagle is no longer facing extinction.
take to the air v phr /,ìciI ìo ði 'co/ As soon as the cage door opened, the parrot took to the air.
delicate adj /'dcliIoì/ The negotiations are at a delicate stage.
operation n /,ﬂpo'rci|on/ She’s going to have an operation on her knee.
would rather v phr /vod 'ro:ðo/ To be honest, I’d rather have a quiet night in front of the TV.
surgeon n /'s‰:d¸on/ They told me I would have to see a surgeon about the lump on my leg.
penicillin n /,pcni'silin/ Penicillin is an antibiotic that has saved many people’s lives
comet n /'Iﬂmoì/ Halley’s comet comes round the Earth every 73 years.
displacement n /dis'plcismonì/
principle n /'prinsipol/ Can you explain the principle of gravity again?
gravity n /'grævoìi/ The moon orbits the Earth because it is pulled by its gravity.
by accident prep phr /bai 'æIsidonì/ I met her quite by accident.
advance n /od'vo:ns/ His book argues that there have been major advances for women since 1945.
look into phr v /,loI 'inìo, 'inìo/ Police are looking into the murder.
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germ n /d¸‰:m/ This disinfectant kills all known germs.
come upon phr v /'Inm o,pﬂn/ Suddenly I came upon a clearing in the wood.
mould n /moold/ Throw that bread away, there’s mould on it.
bacteria n pl /bæI'ìiorio/
isolate v /'aisolciì/ The hepatitis B virus has been isolated from breast milk.
substance n /'snbsìons/ There was a strange sticky substance on the bottom of my shoe.
puzzle v /'pnzol/ What puzzles me is how the burglar got into the house without setting off the alarm
infect v /in'fcIì/ People with the virus may feel perfectly well, but they can stillinfect others.
amateur adj /'æmoìo/ Jim is an amateur golfer at the weekends.
come about phr v /,Inm o'baoì/ How did it come about that humans speak so many different languages?
dot n /dﬂì/ There was a tiny dot far away on the horizon that looked like a ship
coincidentally adv /Ioo,insi'dcnìl-i/ Coincidentally, two of the men came up with the same idea.
combine v /Iom'bain/ I’m looking for a job in which I can combine the different aspects of my experience so far.
profession n /pro'fc|on/ What made you choose law as a profession?
supervise v /'su:povaiz, 's|u:-/ She was supposed to supervise the children while I went to work
construct v /Ion'sìrnIì/ The Golden Gate Bridge was constructed in 1933–1937.
observe v /ob'z‰:v/ The police have been observing his movements.
equip v /i'Ivip/ The boys equipped themselves with torches and rope, and set off.
failure n /'fcil|o/ Harry’s ambitious plans ended in failure.
departure n /di'po:ì|o/ I saw Simon shortly before his departure for Russia.
assistance n /o'sisìons/ One of her fellow passengers came to her assistance.
performance n /po'fo:mons/ The orchestra will give two more performances this week.
presence n /'prczons/ The police scientists detected the presence of poison in the dead woman’s blood
correspondence n /,Iﬂro'spﬂndons/ A secretary came in twice a week to deal with his correspondence.
determined adj /di'ì‰:mind/ I am determined to find out who is responsible for this
generous adj /'d¸cnoros/ I’d like to thank Simon, who’s been very generous with his time.
loneliness n /'loonlinos/ She felt incredible loneliness when she lived on the island
travelogue n /'ìrævolﬂg/ Did you see that travelogue about the Costa del Sol yesterday?
account n /o'Iaonì/ He gave us an account of his travels in Africa.
calculate v /'IælI|olciì/ Sally calculated that she’d have about £100 left.
come across phr v /'Inm o,Irﬂs/ I came across some old photos in the attic.
come off phr v /Inm 'ﬂf/ Irene tried, but her joke didn’t quite come off.
come up phr v /Inm 'np/ Your name came up in our conversation once or twice.
come round phr v /Inm 'raond/ Why don’t you come round for lunch?
come up against phr v /Inm 'np o,gcnsì, o,gcinsì/ He had no idea of the problems he was going to come up against.
come up with phr v /Inm 'np við, viO/ Is that the best excuse you can come up with?
come in for phr v /Inm 'in fo, fo:/ The police came in for a lot of criticism for the way they treated the suspects.
praise n /prciz/ The film has won praise from audiences and critics alike.
attempt n /o'ìcmpì/ He made one last attempt at the world record.
court n /Io:ì/ There are three squash courts available this evening.
annoyed adj /o'noid/ She was annoyed with Duncan for forgetting to phone
expedition n /,cIspo'di|on/ They went on an expedition to the Arctic.
destination n /,dcsìo'nci|on/ When we set off on our travels, we didn’t know our finaldestination.
government n /'gnvomonì, 'gnvonmonì/ A new government was elected last week.
enterprise n /'cnìopraiz/ a state-owned enterprise.
fit adj /fiì/ John’s very fit – he runs almost thirty miles a week.
principal adj /'prinsipol/ My principal source of income is teaching.
breathtaking adj /'brcO,ìciIiq/ We couldn’t believe the breathtaking natural beauty of the rainforests.
audience n /'o:dions/ The audience began clapping and cheering.
final curtain n phr /,fainl 'I‰:ìn/ After the final curtain, the stars all came back on stage to take a bow.
rush v /rn|/ We rushed home to find out what had happened to Julie.
backstage n /,bæI'sìcid¸/ We were invited backstage to meet the actors.
emotional adj /i'moo|onol/ He became very emotional when we had to leave.
sink in phr v /,siqI 'in/ For a moment her words didn’t sink in but then I realised she wanted a divorce.
get under one’s feet v phr /gcì ,nndo vnnz 'fi:ì/ She tried to get the dinner ready but the children kept getting under her feet.
audition n /o:'di|on/ He failed the audition for the part of the prince.
academy n /o'Iædomi/ He joined a military academy when he was only seventeen.
stand out phr v /,sìænd 'aoì/ Natalie stands out from the rest of the singers.
hostel n /'hﬂsìl/ The travellers managed to find a hostel just before dark.
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homesick adj /'hoomsiI/ Samantha felt so homesick when she was at college, that she thought about giving up the course.
pay off phr v /,pci 'ﬂf/ They took a huge risk but it paid off.
scholarship n /'sIﬂlo|ip/ My father won a scholarship to go to Cambridge.
big fish in a little pond idm /,big 'fi| in o ,liìl 'pﬂnd/ Mrs Williams really annoys me – she acts like she’s a big fish in a little pond.
stretch v /sìrcì|/ The work’s too easy. The students aren’t being stretched enough.
ultimately adv /'nlìimoìli/ Ultimately, the decision rests with the child’s parents.
triumphant adj /ìrai'nmfonì/ The triumphant army returned home to national celebrations.
adore v /o'do:/ Dimitra adores her grandchildren.
meteoric adj /,mi:ìi'ﬂriI/ Nobody could believe her meteoric rise to fame.
stardom n /'sìo:dom/ Her triumphs were clouded by the loneliness of stardom.
deserve v /di'z‰:v/ You’ve been working all morning – I think you deserve a rest.
unprepared adj /,nnpri'pcod/ Doug was unprepared for the boredom that followed his retirement.
impatient adj /im'pci|onì/ After an hour’s delay, passengers were becoming impatient.
dissatisfied adj /di'sæìisfaid, dis'sæ-/ If for any reason you are dissatisfied with this product, please return it to the address below.
lucky break n phr /,lnIi 'brciI/ My lucky break came when I was spotted singing in a club by a talent scout.
gain v /gcin/ She gained high grades in physics and maths.
content adj /Ion'ìcnì/ John is quite content to watch television this evening.
sacrifice v /'sæIrifais/ It’s not worth sacrificing your health for your career.
give up phr v /,giv 'np/ Peter had given up a promising career in law to become a teacher.
commit v /Io'miì/ Women commit fewer crimes than men.
extra-terrestrial n /,cIsìro ìo'rcsìriol/ One day, perhaps extra-terrestrials will come to Earth!
destined adj /'dcsìind/ She seemed destined for a long and successful career.
write off phr v /,raiì 'ﬂf/ I’m going to write off for that free gift.
omit v /oo'miì, o-/ Please don’t omit any details, however unimportant they may seem.
mining n /'mainiq/ They lived in a small mining town.
poverty n /'pﬂvoìi/ Thousands of children live in extreme poverty.
novel n /'nﬂvol/ She read three Agatha Christie novels while on holiday.
alien n /'cilion/ We watched a film about aliens from Mars.
established adj /i'sìæbli|ì/ Her father was an established political figure in this country during the eighties.
star v /sìo:/ She will star in the Los Angeles production of ‘Phantom’ this year.
touch on phr v /'ìnì| ﬂn/ The article touched briefly on the ecological consequences of the development.
motivate v /'mooìivciì/ A good teacher has to be able to motivate his or her students.
obvious adj /'ﬂbvios/ It was obvious to everyone that Gina was lying.
convenient adj /Ion'vi:nionì/ I’m afraid this isn’t a very convenient time – could you call back later?
overlook v /,oovo'loI/ Our room overlooks the ocean.
replacement n /ri'plcismonì/ It will be difficult to find a replacement for Ted.
satire n /'sæìaio/ She’s writing another political satire.
gangster n /'gæqsìo/ The Godfather is a fantastic gangster movie.
appear v /o'pio/ Vanessa Redgrave is currently appearing at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
cast n /Io:sì/ Films like ‘Ben Hur’ have a cast of thousands.
reduce v /ri'd|u:s/ The report can be reduced to three main points.
guarantee n /,gæron'ìi:/ This video recorder has a one-year guarantee.
release v /ri'li:s/ Madonna’s new album will be released next month.
neutral adj /'n|u:ìrol/ Official news reports are supposed to use neutral language.
attention-grabbing adj /o'ìcn|on ,græbiq/ A good article should have an attention-grabbing headline.
decade n /'dcIcid/ During the 1980s and most of the following decade, we lived in New York.
be on the edge of one’s seat phr /bi ﬂn ði ,cd¸ ov vnnz 'si:ì/ We were all on the edge of our seats when the first half ended.
superb adj /su:'p‰:b, s|u:-/ The food was superb.
varied adj /'vcorid/ The work’s very varied.
gusto n /'gnsìoo/ Brian always sang all the songs with great gusto.
plus point n phr /'plns poinì/ Knowledge of Spanish could be a plus point in this job.
plot n /plﬂì/ The plot was so complicated that I couldn’t follow it.
satisfactory adj /,sæìis'fæIìori/ None of the solutions was entirely satisfactory.
thin adj /Oin/ The evidence for Viking settlements in America is pretty thin.
vision n /'vi¸on/ With my new glasses my vision is perfect!
speculate v /'spcI|olciì/ We can only speculate about why he did it.
impression n /im'prc|on/ What’s your impression of Frank as a boss?
brief adj /bri:f/ I don’t have much time so please be brief.
overhear v /,oovo'hio/ Christie overheard the men saying they were going to rob the bank!
discuss v /di'sIns/ I’d like to discuss my contract with you.
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lay out phr v /,lci 'aoì/ The garden is laid out in a formal pattern.
be on show v phr /bi ﬂn '|oo/ The painting will be on show until the end of the month.
on display prep phr /ﬂn di'splci/ The children’s exhibition which is on display at the village hall, is really quite impressive.
convert v /Ion'v‰:ì/ The whole office converted to a new computer system last year.
power station n /'paoo ,sìci|on/ It’s a lovely area but unfortunately the power station spoils the view.
industrial adj /in'dnsìriol/ There is too much industrial pollution in this country.
feature n /'fi:ì|o/ The house has many interesting features, including a large Victorian fireplace.
approach n /o'prooì|/ The school has developed a new approach to teaching languages.
congratulations n pl /Ion,græì|o'lci|onz/ Give Marie my congratulations and tell her I’ll come soon.
skilful adj /'sIilfol/ He’s a skilful team player.
deal with phr v /'di:l við, viO/ Simone seems to be dealing with the problem very well.
comparison n /Iom'pærison/ In comparison with the USA, the UK is tiny.
expert n /'cIsp‰:ì/ He’s an expert in electronic music.
accurate adj /'æI|oroì/ Your analysis of the situation was extremely accurate.
reputation n /,rcp|o'ìci|on/ This restaurant has a very good reputation.
puzzled adj /'pnzold/ I’m still slightly puzzled as to why she never called us.
means n /mi:nz/ What is the most successful means of passing the exam?
suspicious adj /so'spi|os/ His behaviour made the police suspicious.
shocked adj /|ﬂIì/ We were shocked at their terrible working conditions.
accustomed adj /o'Insìomd/ I’m not accustomed to getting up so early.
inventive adj /in'vcnìiv/ Samson Shaw is one of the most talented and inventive drummers in modern music.
blind adj /blaind/ He was nearly blind in one eye.
beyond prep /bi'|ﬂnd/ Most people do not choose to work beyond the normal retirement age.
master v /'mo:sìo/ Jeremiah had a lot of difficulty mastering the Chinese language.
range n /rcind¸/ We have students from a wide range of backgrounds.
contract n /'IﬂnìræIì/ Tyler has just agreed a seven-year contract with a Hollywood studio.
run n /rnn/ The cast did a run of performances over the Christmas holidays.
limited adj /'limiìid/ My time is more limited now that I have a baby.
potential n /po'ìcn|ol/ He’s a young player but he has great potential.
account for v phr /o'Iaonì fo, fo:/ Recent pressure at work may account for his behaviour.
curious adj /'I|oorios/ A curious noise was coming from the garden.
credible adj /'Ircdibol/ A thief is not a credible witness.
estimate v /'csìimciì/ It is difficult to estimate how many deaths are caused by passive smoking each year.
astonish v /o'sìﬂni|/ Diana astonished her family by winning three competitions in a row.
compose v /Iom'pooz/ Could you compose a piece for the concert?
conduct v /Ion'dnIì/ The orchestra is conducted by John Williams.
string adj /sìriq/ She plays in a string orchestra.
quartet n /Ivo:'ìcì/ He’s the trombonist in a jazz quartet.
cello n /'ì|cloo/
contemporary adj /Ion'ìcmporori, -pori/ Have you seen the Hayward’s exhibition of contemporary Japanese prints?
vocal n /'vooIol/ Vocals by John Lennon and Paul McCartney.
memorable adj /'mcmorobol/ Jackson gave a truly memorable performance.
inconvenient adj /,inIon'vi:nionì/ It’s a bit inconvenient for me to get to the centre of town. Can we meet somewhere else?
illegal adj /i'li:gol/ They were caught selling illegal drugs.
loyal adj /'loiol/ Dennis will always be loyal to his football team, whatever it does.
literate adj /'liìoroì/ She’s been literate since the age of four.
graduate n /'græd¸uoì/ Pauline’s a history graduate from Birmingham University.
prayer n /prco/ We all had to say our prayers before going to bed.
speak one’s mind v phr /,spi:I vnnz 'maind/ She spoke her mind and told them exactly what she thought of the idea.
tell sb’s fortune v phr /,ìcl snmbodiz 'fo:ì|on/ I gave the gypsy silver and she told me my fortune.
talk nonsense v phr /,ìo:I 'nﬂnsons/ Do be quiet John – you’re talking nonsense as usual!
jealous adj /'d¸clos/ Why are you so jealous of his success?
be in a hurry v phr /,bi in o 'hnri/ Sorry, I can’t stop. I’m in a hurry.
permission n /po'mi|on/ Who gave you permission to leave class early?
speculation n /,spcI|o'lci|on/ There is some speculation that the president was aware of the situation.
deduction n /di'dnI|on/ Sherlock Holmes was famous for his powers of deduction.
dress code n phr /'drcs Iood/ You must follow the dress code if you want to enter this club.
giant n /'d¸aionì/ He works in public relations for the German chemicals giant, ‘BASF’.
dig (up) v phr /,dig 'np/ I’ll dig up that plant and move it.
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civilisation n /,sivol-ai'zci|on/ I have always been fascinated by the ancient civilisations of Greece and Rome.
come across phr v /,Inm o'Irﬂs/ I came across this old Roman coin while I was digging in the garden.
revolution n /,rcvo'lu:|on/ Computer technology has caused a revolution in business practices.
enormous adj /i'no:mos/ He gave her an enormous bouquet of flowers on St Valentine’s Day.
innovation n /,ino'vci|on/ Recent technological innovations have made life much easier for the working woman.
automobile n /'o:ìomobi:l/ Her grandfather was a pioneer in the automobile industry in the early twentieth century.
be/become attached to v phr /bi, bi,Inm o'ìæì|ì ìo, ìo/ It’s easy to become attached to the children you work with.
employ v /im'ploi/ The company employs 2000 people worldwide.
prefer v /pri'f‰:/ Many people living in cities would actually prefer to live in the country.
constantly adv /'Iﬂnsìonìli/ As I walked through the town, I was constantly reminded of my childhood.
crockery n /'IrﬂIori/ She had the finest china crockery.
cutlery n /'Inìlori/ Can you put the cutlery on the table?
a way round sth phr /o ,vci 'raond ,snmOiq/ I just can’t see any way round this mess.
drawback n /'dro:bæI/ One drawback of New York in the summer is the heat.
come up with phr v /Inm 'np við, viO/ Jim came up with a brilliant idea for saving water in the hot summer months.
streamline v /'sìri:mlain/ The company have made huge efforts to streamline the production process.
straightforward adj /sìrciì'fo:vod/ The system itself is perfectly straightforward.
get rid of v phr /gcì 'rid ov, ﬂv/ It’s time we got rid of all these old toys.
unskilled adj /,nn'sIild/ Unskilled labour is much cheaper than hiring a professional.
regulation n /,rcg|o'lci|on/ The company is very strict on enforcing health and safety regulations.
uniformity n /,|u:ni'fo:moìi/ I remember the dull uniformity of the houses in the area.
chain n /ì|cin/ He owns a major American hotel chain.
reliability n /ri,laio'biloìi/ We couldn’t convince him of the reliability of the witness.
consumer n /Ion's|u:mo/ We now stock a wider choice of goods for the consumer.
guarantee v /,gæron'ìi:/ It’s guaranteed against failure of parts for three years.
process v /'prooscs/ She always puts processed cheese in her sandwiches.
handbook n /'hændboI/ Look in the handbook and see if it tells you how to switch the thing off!
grill n /gril/ Chicken, cooked on the grill.
retail n /'ri:ìcil/ I work in the retail trade.
property n /'prﬂpoìi/ Property prices have shot up recently.
corporate adj /'Io:poroì/ This policy is a key feature of our long-term corporate planning.
arch n /o:ì|/ There are thirty arches supporting the bridge.
lookalike adj /'loIolaiI/ a lookalike product.
spread out phr v /,sprcd 'aoì/ The valley spread out before us.
associated adj /o'soo|iciìid, o'soosi -/ Most forms of cancer are associated with an unsuitable lifestyle.
produce n /'prﬂd|u:s/ The majority of fresh produce is grown locally.
have had one’s day idm /hov ,hæd vnnz 'dci/ It seems as if Communism has had its day.
simplicity n /sim'plisoìi/ For the sake of simplicity, the tax form is divided into three sections.
demand n /di'mo:nd/ There’s not much demand for oil heaters any more.
acceptance n /oI'scpìons/ Feminist ideas have now found widespread acceptance.
evidence n /'cvidons/ Astronomers claim to have found evidence of life on other planets.
junk food n phr /'d¸nqI fu:d/ My doctor advised me to cut down on junk food and start eating healthily.
tip n /ìip/ It’s customary to leave a 10 per cent tip.
dessert n /di'z‰:ì/ There’s ice cream for dessert.
delicious adj /di'li|os/ This cake is absolutely delicious!
prohibit v /pro'hibiì/ Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the factory.
obligation n /,ﬂbli'gci|on/ He has obligations to his family.
starter n /'sìo:ìo/ Would you like soup or melon as a starter?
recommendation n /,rcIomcn'dci|on/ The committee made a number of recommendations for improving safety standards.
full up adj /,fol 'np/ No more, thanks. I’m full up.
force v /fo:s/ Firemen attempted to enter the building but were forced back by the flames.
board v /bo:d/ Flight AA 554 for Buenos Aires is now boarding at Gate 11.
pier n /pio/ The transport ship docked at the pier.
sharp adj /|o:p/ We came to a sharp bend in the road.
elegant adj /'clogonì/ Marion was a tall, elegant woman.
fashion victim n phr /'fæ|on ,viIìim/ Susanna is such a fashion victim! Yesterday she was wearing those dreadful plastic trousers that teenagers wear!
linen n /'linon/ He wore a white linen jacket.
baggy adj /'bægi/ She was wearing jeans and a baggy T-shirt.
checked adj /ì|cIì/ A checked blouse doesn’t go with striped trousers!
high-heeled adj /,hai 'hi:ld/ High-heeled shoes are forbidden on deck.
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scruffy adj /'sIrnfi/ I wish he would stop wearing those scruffy old jeans.
fitted adj /'fiìid/ a fitted jacket.
cotton n /'Iﬂìn/ A crisp cotton shirt.
patterned adj /'pæìond/ The cottage was decorated with wallpaper patterned with roses.
navy adj /'ncivi/ She wore a navy skirt and matching hat.
viscose n /'visIoos/ 43 per cent viscose, 57 per cent cotton.
khaki adj /'Io:Ii/ Most soldiers wear khaki uniforms because it hides them in the forest and the desert.
striped adj /sìraipd/ The girl in the blue and white striped T-shirt.
silk n /silI/ She was wearing a dress made of the finest silk.
the media n pl /ðo 'mi:dio/ The media have launched a bitter attack on the Health Minister.
delay v /di'lci/ We were delayed by the heavy traffic.
plastic surgery n phr /,plæsìiI 's‰:d¸ori/ She had to have plastic surgery after the accident to repair her nose.
yawn v /|o:n/ The boy stretched and yawned.
designer label n phr /di,zaino 'lcibol/ She always buys designer labels.
counterfeit adj /'Iaonìofiì/ The police were looking for counterfeit money.
brand name n phr /'brænd ncim/ The shop stocks many famous brand names.
no matter what phr /noo ,mæìo 'vﬂì/ I’ll call you tonight no matter what.
extensively adv /iI'sìcnsivli/ Despite reading extensively, I still failed the exam.
staggering adj /'sìægoriq/ The cost was a staggering $10 million.
identically adv /ai'dcnìiIli/ They lived in identically designed houses and drove identical cars.
assume v /o's|u:m/ I didn’t see your car, so I assumed you’d gone out.
labour n /'lcibo/ The garage charges £30 an hour for labour.
affair n /o'fco/ They were accused of interfering in China’s internal affairs.
permit v /po'miì/ Smoking is only permitted in the public lounge.
consent v /Ion'scnì/ Her father reluctantly consented to the marriage.
announce v /o'naons/ A government spokesman announced that the hostages had been released.
reveal v /ri'vi:l/ He revealed that he had been in prison twice before.
display v /di'splci/ We strolled past shop windows displaying the latest fashions.
debate v /di'bciì/ We debated for several hours before taking a vote.
item n /'aiìom/ There was a purse, a note-book and other personal items in the bag.
pure adj /p|oo/ Is this sweater made of pure wool?
on the whole phr /ﬂn ðo 'hool/ On the whole, life was much quieter after John left.
guarantee n /,gæron'ìi:/ Can you give me a guarantee that the work will be finished on time?
at all times prep phr /oì ,o:l 'ìaimz/ Identification badges must be worn at all times.
at the moment prep phr /oì ðo 'moomonì/ Julia’s on holiday in Spain at the moment.
in favour of prep phr /in 'fcivor ov, ﬂv/ Are you in favour of the death penalty?
contract v /Ion'ìræIì/ He contracted pneumonia.
dreadful adj /'drcdfol/ We’ve had some dreadful weather lately.
go from bad to worse phr /,goo from ,bæd ìo 'v‰:s/ The evening went from bad to worse as more and more people left the party.
from time to time prep phr /from ,ìaim ìo 'ìaim/ I still see her from time to time.
at least prep phr /oì 'li:sì/ I’ll take at least twenty minutes to get there.
by the way prep phr /,bai ðo 'vci/ By the way, have you seen my umbrella anywhere?
porter n /'po:ìo/ I hailed a porter and then got a taxi to the airport.
embarrassment n /im'bærosmonì/ His embarrassment at his children’s rudeness was clear.
from then on phr /from ,ðcn 'ﬂn/ They met in 1942 and from then on they were firm friends.
to a certain extent prep phr /ìo o 's‰:ìn iI,sìcnì/ To a certain extent, it was my fault that we lost the contract.
on purpose prep phr /ﬂn 'p‰:pos/ Jack’s been really annoying me and I think he’s doing it on purpose.
for a change prep phr /for o 'ì|cind¸/ Let’s go out to a restaurant for a change.
for nothing prep phr /fo 'nnOiq/ Why pay a plumber when my brother will do it for nothing? We went all that way for nothing.
out of sight prep phr /,aoì ov 'saiì/ Karen waved until the car was out of sight.
out of breath prep phr /,aoì ov 'brcO/ We were completely out of breath by the time we reached the top of the hill.
valid adj /'vælid/ Your return ticket is valid for three months.
deliberately adv /di'liboroìli/ I don’t think he deliberately tried to push you.
emerge v /i'm‰:d¸/ Eventually the truth emerged.
earn v /‰:n/ He earns nearly £20,000 a year.
scandal n /'sIændol/ The papers reported a financial scandal involving several government officials.
post n /poosì/ She has been offered the post of ambassador to India.
wound n /vu:nd/ Too many children nowadays suffer the mental wounds caused by parental neglect.
cure v /I|oo/ When I left hospital, I was completely cured.
heal v /hi:l/ It took three months for my arm to heal properly.
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enclosure n /in'Iloo¸o/ There were many people at the bear enclosure at the zoo.
throw out phr v /,Oroo 'aoì/ We usually throw out all our old magazines.
blouse n /blaoz/ A silk blouse.
helmet n /'hclmoì/ It is the law to wear a motorcycle helmet.
break in phr v /,brciI 'in/ Someone broke in and stole several computers.
stall n /sìo:l/ She has a clothes stall in the market.
supportive adj /so'po:ìiv/ I can always count on Gail to be supportive when things go wrong.
devote v /di'vooì/ He devoted a lot of time and energy to running the theatre club
dating agency n phr /'dciìiq ,cid¸onsi/ She would never have married Bob if she hadn’t called thatdating agency!
tube n /ì|u:b/ Smoking is forbidden on the tube.
anniversary n /,æni'v‰:sori/ On Wednesday, it will be our twentieth weddinganniversary.
underground n /'nndograond/ You will definitely have to use theunderground to get around London.
a chance in a million phr /o ,ì|o:ns in o 'mil|on/ I couldn’t pass up going to Japan; it was a chance in a million.
drop off phr v /,drﬂp 'ﬂf/ Just as I was dropping off, I heard a noise.
catch sb’s eye v phr /,Iæì| snmbodiz 'ai/ An interesting headline in the newspapercaught my eye.
nod v /nﬂd/ She nodded to us as she walked by.
briefly adv /'bri:fli/ We stopped off briefly in London on our way to Geneva
get on phr v /gcì 'ﬂn/ Get on with your work!
blush v /bln|/ He blushes every time he speaks to her.
to sb’s horror prep phr /ìo ,snmbodiz 'hﬂro/ To her horror, Rachel realised her wallet was missing
to this day prep phr /ìo ,ðis 'dci/ To this day, I don’t know who told Katy about Duncan
be out of character prep phr /bi ,aoì ov 'IæriIìo/ I can’t believe she lied to me – it seems so out of character.
(not) make a habit of sth v phr /(nﬂì) ,mciI o 'hæbiì ov ,snmOiq/ I don’t make a habit of breaking glasses. It happened by accident!
ridiculous adj /ri'diI|olos/ She looked absolutely ridiculous in those trousers.
occur to sb v phr /o'I‰:…ìo ,snmbodi/ Didn’t it even occur to you that you might be wrong?
refuse v /ri'f|u:z/ Mrs Sutton refused a second piece of cake.
threatening adj /'Orcìn-iq/ His voice sounded threatening.
instantly adv /'insìonìli/ All four victims died instantly.
flustered adj /'flnsìod/ Eliza got really flustered during the interview.
scribble v /'sIribol/ I scribbled his phone number in my address book
scrap of paper n phr /,sIræp ov 'pcipo/ He wrote his address on a scrap of paper and gave it to me.
the (truth) hit sb phr /ðo ,ìru:O 'hiì ,snmbodi/ The full truth of what had occurred hit me and I fainted.
slip v /slip/ Suddenly, Frank slipped and fell over the edge.
knock out phr v /,nﬂI 'aoì/ Tyson knocked out his opponent in round five
slip of paper n phr /,slip ov 'pcipo/ I wrote my phone number on a slip of paper and gave it to her.
dash v /dæ|/ Olive dashed into the room, grabbed her bag and ran out again
trolley n /'ìrﬂli/ He wheeled a small trolley into the room to serve us tea.
stunned adj /sìnnd/ Simone was too stunned by what had happened to say anything
fate n /fciì/ Fate plays cruel tricks sometimes.
pound v /paond/ Patrick rushed to the door, his heart pounding with excitement.
platform n /'plæìfo:m/ The Edinburgh train departs from platform six.
clutch v /Ilnì|/ Tom fell to the ground clutching his stomach.
tap n /ìæp/ He gave me a tap on the shoulder and I turned round
irritated adj /'iriìciìid/ John was irritated by the necessity for polite conversation
briefcase n /'bri:fIcis/ I wonder what he’s got in his briefcase? He won’t go anywhere without it
appreciation n /o,pri:|i'ci|on/ We would like to express our appreciation to the doctors and nurses at the hospital.
see the funny side v phr /,si: ðo 'fnni said/ I dropped the cream cake on his suit, but luckily, he saw the funny side.
incredibly adv /in'Ircdibli/ I’m sorry I haven’t phoned. I’ve been incredibly busy this week.
be made for each other phr /bi 'mcid for i:ì| ,nðo/ Jacqueline and Dean were clearly made for each other.
propose v /pro'pooz/ Sean proposed to me only six months after we met.
out of the question idm /,aoì ov ðo 'Ivcsì|on/ You can’t go to the wedding in that old shirt – it’s quite out of the question.
queue n /I|u:/ The queue for the cinema went right round the building
soul mate n phr /'sool mciì/ When I met Jason, I knew I had found my soul mate.
appearance n /o'piorons/ You mustn’t worry about your appearance – you look fine.
go out with phr v /goo 'aoì við, viO/ How long have you been going out with each other?
accept v /oI'scpì/ Are you going to accept their invitation?
nosy adj /'noozi/ Don’t be so nosy! It’s none of your business.
have sth in mind idm /,hæv snmOiq in 'maind/ It’s a nice house, but it wasn’t quite what we had in mind.
accuse v /o'I|u:z/ Are you accusing me of lying?
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deny v /di'nai/ He denied ever having been there.
remind v /ri'maind/ Will you remind me about that appointment?
warn v /vo:n/ We warned them that there was a bull in the field
rhetorical question n phr /ri,ìﬂriIol 'Ivcsì|on/ ‘Who knows what might happen?’
qualify v /'Ivﬂlifai/ He qualified his enthusiasm for the project by saying that not all the problems had been solved yet
sum up phr v /,snm 'np/ The last chapter sums up the arguments.
overall adj /,oovor'o:l/ My overall impression of his work is good.
point of view n /,poinì ov 'v|u:/ No one seemed to want to listen to my point of view.
on balance prep phr /ﬂn 'bælons/ I think on balance I prefer the old system.
mate n /mciì/ I’m going out with my mates tonight.
what’s more phr /vﬂìs 'mo:/ He’s good-looking and charming, and what’s more, he’s very rich!
consistent adj /Ion'sisìonì/ I’m afraid your arguments are not very consistent in this essay.
for instance prep phr /for 'insìons/ We could go to one of the Greek islands, Mykonos, for instance.
take (sth in) turns idm /,ìciI (snmOiq in) 'ì‰:nz/ You’ll have to take turns being captain of the team.
moreover adv /mo:r'oovo/ The rent is reasonable and, moreover, the location is perfect.
besides adv /bi'saidz/ Of course I trust him, and besides, I’ve known him since we were children
even so idm /,i:von 'soo/ It doesn’t look like rain but even so, perhaps we should take an umbrella
regard v /ri'go:d/ Edith wore strange clothes and was widely regarded as eccentric.
be (all) the rage exp /bi (,o:l) ðo 'rcid¸/ Platform shoes were all the rage then.
pass the time v phr /,po:s ðo 'ìaim/ We played cards to pass the time until morning.
hang about phr v /,hæq o'baoì/ I hung about the station for an hour but he never came
wind down phr v /,vaind 'daon/ I find it difficult to wind down after a day at work.
make a good impression v phr /mciI o ,god im'prc|on/ It was their first meeting, and Richard was determined to make a good impression.
assessor n /o'scso/ The assessor said I had done well.
origami n /,ﬂri'go:mi/
appreciate v /o'pri:|iciì/ Her abilities are not fully appreciated by her employer.
court official n phr /,Io:ì o'fi|ol/ The court official said he would take us through to meet the Queen
gifted adj /'gifìid/ She’s a gifted pianist.
decorative adj /'dcIoroìiv/ There was a decorative panel above the door.
squash n /sIvﬂ|/ Fancy a game of squash after work?
hike v /haiI/ He wants to hike in the Himalayas.
get away phr v /gcì o'vci/ Will you manage to get away this summer?
slim adj /slim/ You’ve got such a slim waist.
battle v /'bæìl/ She had battled bravely against cancer for many months.
warrior n /'vﬂrio/ He was a fine and noble warrior.
get sb down phr v /,gcì snmbodi 'daon/ All this waiting and delay is reallygetting her down.
get together phr v /,gcì ìo'gcðo/ We must get together some time for a drink.
negotiate v /ni'goo|iciì/ The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists.
reduction n /ri'dnI|on/ There is going to be a slight reduction in the price of oil.
get away with phr v /gcì o'vci við, viO/ I think you could just about get away with wearing navy shoes with that dress
get (sth) across phr v /,gcì snmOiq o'Irﬂs/ However hard I tried, I couldn’t get across what I wanted to say.
get round phr v /gcì 'raond/ There’s no way your mother can stay here – we’ll just have toget round it somehow.
get off to phr v /gcì 'ﬂf ìo, ìo/ As far as school goes, Johnny has got off to an extremely good start.
get off (work) phr v /gcì 'ﬂf, ,gcì ﬂf 'v‰:I/ What time do you get off work?
get back phr v /gcì 'bæI/ We’ll probably get back at about nine.
get down to phr v /gcì 'daon ìo, ìo/ I’ve had my break and it’s time to get down to work again now.
renewed adj /ri'n|u:d/ The article has prompted renewed concern about the effects of acid rain.
enable v /i'ncibol/ The money from her aunt enabled Jan to buy the house.
convince v /Ion'vins/ I managed to convince them that the story was true.
get by phr v /gcì 'bai/ Her old age pension gives her barely enough to get by.
get through phr v /gcì 'Oru:/ At last I managed to get through to one of the managers.
get round sb phr v /gcì 'raond ,snmbodi/ He’s determined he won’t give in – see if you can get round him.
give sb a lift v phr /,giv snmbodi o 'lifì/ I’ll give you a lift back to London.
get over phr v /gcì 'oovo/ Some people never really get over the early death of a parent.
get up to sth phr v /gcì 'np ìo ,snmOiq/ Go upstairs and see what the kids are getting up to.
cheer up phr v /,ì|ior 'np/ I’m taking Angie out to cheer her up.
owing to conj /'ooiq ìo, ìo/ Owing to a lack of funds, the project will not continue next year
representative n /,rcpri'zcnìoìiv/ He is an elected representative of the people.
on behalf of prep phr /ﬂn bi'ho:f ov, ﬂv/ On behalf of everyone here, may I wish you a very happy retirement
take on phr v /,ìciI 'ﬂn/ We’re taking on fifty new staff this year.
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cheat v /ì|i:ì/ Jack always cheats at cards.
fine n /fain/ I got a £40 fine for speeding.
consumer society n phr /Ion,s|u:mo so'saioìi/ As a consumer society, we throw away over one million tons of household rubbish every week.
funding n /'fnndiq/ Funding for the project was provided by the UN.
supply v /so'plai/ His company supplies laundry services to the hotel industry.
make a fortune v phr /,mciI o 'fo:ì|on/ Whoever invented Post-It notes must have made a fortune by now.
turn away phr v /,ì‰:n o'vci/ They turned about 1000 people away at the Arena because all the tickets were gone.
keep on phr v /,Ii:p 'ﬂn/ Do you have to keep on about your medical problems the whole time?
be in it for sth v phr /bi 'in iì fo ,snmOiq/ Don’t believe what Jane tells you – she’sonly in it for the money!
financial adj /fi'næn|ol, fai-/ It was a wonderful film, but not exactly a financial success.
reward n /ri'vo:d/ £100 was a poor reward for all my work!
at the end of the day idm /oì ði ,cnd ov ðo 'dci/ At the end of the day, it’s his decision and there’s nothing you can do.
wealthy adj /'vclOi/ His grandparents were wealthy landowners in these parts.
coaching n /'Iooì|iq/ Did you go to the tennis coaching session?
lie ahead phr v /,lai o'hcd/ We should try to predict the type of problems that may lie ahead.
take no notice of sth v phr /,ìciI noo 'nooìis ov ,snmOiq/ Take no notice of Henry – he’s just being silly.
grant n /gro:nì/ We’re hoping to get a grant from the local council for the project.
mentally disabled phr /,mcnìoli dis'cibold/ She works in a special school for mentally disabled children.
administrative adj /od'minisìroìiv/ I mainly deal with the administrative side of the business.
struggle n /'sìrngol/ Reading is a struggle for Tim.
innovative adj /'inovciìiv/ ‘Brainchild’ is a young innovative company that designs software for schools.
expand v /iI'spænd/ The business has gone very well this year, so we may expand it in the near future.
accessory n /oI'scsori/ We sell handbags and other fashion accessories.
hectic adj /'hcIìiI/ I need to relax after the hectic day I’ve had.
socialise v /'soo|olaiz/ I enjoy socialising with my students after class.
profitable adj /'prﬂfiìobol/ It turned out to be a highly profitable business investment.
proud adj /praod/ You should see them with the baby – they’re so proud!
project v /pro'd¸cIì/ The company projected an annual growth rate of 3 per cent.
turnover n /'ì‰:noovo/ The company has an annual turnover of 5.6 million.
investment n /in'vcsìmonì/ Jones made a number of high-risk investments in the property market during the late 80s.
treat n /ìri:ì/ Steven took his son to the zoo as a birthday treat.
reinvest v /,ri:in'vcsì/ Jackson reinvested the $7 million he made into a new project.
tear up phr v /,ìcor 'np/ Crying, she tore up his letter.
reaction n /ri'æI|on/ What was Jeff’s reaction when you told him about the job?
pile n /pail/ There was a big pile of wood to light the fire with.
peanuts n pl /'pi:nnìs/ The hotel workers get paid peanuts.
blockbuster n /'blﬂI,bnsìo/ It’s going to be the latest blockbuster from Hollywood.
splash (money) around phr v /,splæ| 'mnni oraond/ Stop splashing your money around and put some in the bank.
save up for a rainy day v phr /sciv ,np for o ,rcini 'dci/ I don’t really want to spend much – I’m saving up for a rainy day.
carry on phr v /,Iæri 'ﬂn/ When she left, I carried on her research.
further education n phr /,f‰:ðor cd|o'Ici|on/ She’s enrolling for one of those further education courses at the college.
motivation n /,mooìi'vci|on/ What was your motivation for becoming a teacher?
initial adj /i'ni|ol/ She overcame her initial shyness and really enjoyed the evening.
disappointment n /,diso'poinìmonì/ Frankly, I’ve been a disappointment to my father; he wanted me to be a lawyer.
willing adj /'viliq/ I told them I was perfectly willing to help.
aspect n /'æspcIì/ Alcoholism affects all aspects of family life.
recognition n /,rcIog'ni|on/ Despite a life devoted to helping the poor, she never won any recognition before her death.
promising adj /'prﬂmisiq/ You have a promising career in law ahead of you.
annual adj /'æn|uol/ Are you going to the annual conference in Manchester?
community n /Io'm|u:noìi/ We meet once a month to discuss community problems.
panel n /'pænl/ A panel of experts was consulted.
imaginary adj /i'mæd¸inori/ All the characters in this book are imaginary.
oversleep v /,oovo'sli:p/ I had overslept that morning, and was late for work.
get the sack v phr /gcì ðo 'sæI/ He got the sack for stealing.
millionaire n /,mil|o'nco/ I plan to marry a millionaire and live in a mansion.
invest v /in'vcsì/ Jones invested $7 million in an ultra-modern video studio.
profit n /'prﬂfiì/ They sold the business and bought a yacht with the profits.
tax n /ìæIs/ The government claimed it would lower taxes.
elect v /i'lcIì/ She was elected to Parliament in 1978.
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well-off adj /,vcl 'ﬂf/ She’s not exactly rich, but she’s quite well-off.
even if conj /'i:von if/ Charlie’s going to have problems finding a job even if she does well in her exams.
provided conj /pro'vaidid/ Guy can come with us, provided he pays for himself.
as long as conj /oz 'lﬂq oz/ You can go out to play as long as you stay in the back yard.
bargain n /'bo:gon/ I might buy a TV, if I can find a bargain in the sales.
sale n /scil/ I picked up some real bargains in the January sales this year.
complain v /Iom'plcin/ The neighbours complained to the police about our dogs.
misleading adj /mis'li:diq/ The article was misleading, and the newspaper has apologised.
administration n /od,mini'sìrci|on/ They spend too much on administration and not enough on doctors and nurses.
claim n /Ilcim/ The insurance company are refusing to meet our claim.
dissatisfaction n /di,sæìis'fæI|on, dis,sæ-/ She has been feeling considerable dissatisfaction with her job.
fed up adj /,fcd 'np/ I’m getting fed up with your stupid comments.
assure v /o'|oo/ I can assure you that the document is genuine.
turn out phr v /,ì‰:n 'aoì/ That guy we met turned out to be Maria’s second cousin.
furthermore adv /,f‰:ðo'mo:/ Furthermore, my aim is to provide the best service possible under these difficult circumstances.
charge v /ì|o:d¸/ The restaurant charged us £40 for the wine.
enter v /'cnìo/ I’ve entered you and Dan in the three-legged race.
alternative n /o:l'ì‰:noìiv/ Check out the alternatives before deciding whether to go to a nearby college.
pronunciation n /pro,nnnsi'ci|on/ Make sure you give each word its correct pronunciation.
paraphrase v /'pærofrciz/ She had to paraphrase his words so that the children would understand.
hesitation n /,hczi'ìci|on/ After some hesitation one of them began to speak.
board game n phr /'bo:d gcim/ Backgammon is my favourite board game.
faulty adj /'fo:lìi/ If the goods are faulty you are entitled to get your money back.
goods n pl /godz/ The demand for goods and services is lower this year.
blame v /blcim/ It’s not fair to blame me – it’s not my fault we lost.
sector n /'scIìo/ Due to understaffing in all sectors of the educational system, academic achievements are lower.
e-commerce n phr /,i: 'Iﬂm‰:s/ More and more businesses are turning to e-commerce solutions.
refund n /'ri:fnnd/ You can apply for a refund of your travel costs.
credit note n phr /'Ircdiì nooì/ Please go to our claims department to get a credit note.
rip off phr v /,rip 'ﬂf/ They really ripped us off at that hotel!
compensation n /,Iﬂmpon'sci|on/ The workers were given thirty days’ pay as compensation.
purchase n /'p‰:ì|os/ Fill in the date of purchase.
bargain v /'bo:gon/ The workers attempted to bargain for better pay.
window shopping n phr /'vindoo ,|ﬂpiq/ I often go window shopping on Saturdays.
addicted adj /o'diIìid/ The kids are addicted to computer games.
stamina n /'sìæmino/ You need stamina to be a long-distance runner.
patience n /'pci|ons/ I wouldn’t have the patience to sit sewing all day.
discerning adj /di's‰:niq/ Amanda liked to think she was discerning in her tastes.
well-furnished adj /,vcl 'f‰:ni|ì/ The apartment was well-furnished in art deco style.
concord n /'IﬂqIo:d/
military n /'miliìori/ The military have taken control of the government.
spice n /spais/ They need gossip to add a bit of spice to their dull lives.
significant adj /sig'nifiIonì/ A background in computing will give you a significant advantage.
tip n /ìip/ Steve gave me some useful tips on how to draw.
set meal n phr /,scì 'mi:l/
frustrate v /fro'sìrciì/ I think the fact that he’s working with amateurs really frustrates him.
disturbing adj /di'sì‰:biq/ There has been a disturbing increase in the crime rate.
trend n /ìrcnd/ The current trend is towards more part-time jobs.
contribute v /Ion'ìrib|u:ì/ Most people contributed towards the new church buildings.
exhaust v /ig'zo:sì/ I find a full day’s teaching exhausts me.
adopt v /o'dﬂpì/ The courts have been asked to adopt a more flexible approach to young offenders.
sterling n /'sì‰:liq/ Susan had to change her cash into pounds sterling.
do well v phr /,du: 'vcl/ Elizabeth’s done well for herself – a well-paid job, a nice house and a sports car.
department store n phr /di'po:ìmonì sìo:/
exchange rate n phr /iI'sì|cind¸ rciì/ We got a more favourable exchange rate in the bank than in the hotel.
thorough adj /'Onro/ The police are carrying out a thorough search of the neighbourhood.
spokesperson n /'spooIs,p‰:son/ A White House spokesperson appeared in front of the cameras.
short of phr /'|o:ì ov, ﬂv/ Your little girl’s not short of confidence, is she?
live from hand to mouth v phr /,liv from hænd ìo 'maoO/ We’ve been living from hand to mouth for the past three years.
make ends meet v phr /,mciI cndz 'mi:ì/ Since Mike lost his job, we can hardly make ends meet.
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hard up adj phr /,ho:d 'np/ We were too hard up to afford new clothes.
comfortable adj /'Inmfìobol, 'Inmfoì-/ The Austins aren’t rich, but they’re comfortable.
in debt prep phr /in 'dcì/ She was still $600 in debt.
deposit n /di'pﬂziì/ We put down a deposit on a house last week.
keep n /Ii:p/ It’s time you got a job and started earning your keep.
interest n /'inìrosì/ The interest on the loan is 16.5 per cent per year.
loan n /loon/ We’re repaying the loan over a three-year period.
share n /|co/ He decided to sell his shares in Allied Chemicals.
go up phr v /goo 'np/ I see cigarettes are going up again.
withdrawal n /við'dro:ol, viO-/ The gentleman would like to make a withdrawal of £2000.
in the red phr /in ðo 'rcd/ These car payments are going to put me in the red again.
speeding n /'spi:diq/ Liz was found guilty of speeding and fined £50.
online banking n phr /,ﬂnlain 'bæqIiq/ With online banking, it is much easier to control your investments.
enlarge v /in'lo:d¸/ We’re planning to enlarge the garden.
import n /'impo:ì/ Farmers are protesting about cheap imports of grain from Europe.
common sense n /,Iﬂmon 'scns/ Use your common sense for once!
contemporary adj /Ion'ìcmporori, -pori/ an exhibition of contemporary paintings.
in retrospect prep phr /in 'rcìrospcIì/ In retrospect, I should have known that he was untrustworthy the first time he lied to me.
go for it v phr /'goo for iì/ If you really want the job, go for it!
opt v /ﬂpì/ Many young people are opting to go on to higher education.
hippy n /'hipi/ The park was full of hippies singing peace songs.
backpacker n /'bæIpæIo/ I joined a group of backpackers making their way across the hills.
trail n /ìrcil/ The trail led over Boulder Pass down to a lake.
resort n /ri'zo:ì/ June and Oliver run a small resort hotel in Blackpool.
rucksack n /'rnIsæI/ He managed to pack all his things into his rucksack.
subsequent adj /'snbsiIvonì/ Their skills were passed on to subsequent generations.
a must n phr /o 'mnsì/ Warm clothes are a must in the mountains.
adventurous adj /od'vcnì|oros/ They are planning an adventurous expedition up the Amazon.
youngster n /'|nqsìo/ The park was full of youngsters playing.
boom n /bu:m/ They were very popular during the jazz boom of the 1950s.
exotic adj /ig'zﬂìiI/ Parrots are exotic birds.
commonplace adj /'Iﬂmonplcis/ Car thefts are commonplace in this part of town.
undertake v /,nndo'ìciI/ She undertook full responsibility for the new changes.
put off phr v /poì 'ﬂf/ This awful weather is enough to put anyone off camping.
leap n /li:p/ Bill cleared the ditch with a single leap.
barrier n /'bærio/ He creates his own psychological barriers to becoming successful.
head for phr v /'hcd fo, fo:/ The ship was heading for Cuba.
progressive adj /pro'grcsiv/ He’s a young politician with progressive and forward-looking policies.
humble adj /'hnmbol/ My parents were just humble country people.
up front phr /,np 'frnnì/ We need two hundred pounds up front.
gear n /gio/ He’s crazy about photography – he’s got all the gear.
outward adj /'aoìvod/ My suitcases got lost on the outward journey.
inoculation n /i,nﬂI|o'lci|on/ All the children had to have inoculations against hepatitis.
obtain v /ob'ìcin/ Further information can be obtained from head office.
bundle n /'bnndl/ He wrapped his clothes into a bundle, tied it to the end of a stick and set off for the town.
kit n /Iiì/ Has anyone seen my football kit?
scan v /sIæn/ All luggage has to be scanned at the airport.
vital adj /'vaiìl/ Regular exercise is vital for your health.
document n /'dﬂI|omonì/ Do you have the legal documents?
hassle n /'hæsol/ I don’t feel like cooking tonight, it’s too much hassle.
along the way phr /o,lﬂq ðo 'vci/ She had gone through school and university, winning academic awards along the way.
permit n /'p‰:miì/ You’re not allowed to park here unless you have a permit.
rights n pl /raiìs/ We must stand up and fight for our rights!
cover v /'Invo/ Her house was completely burned down, and she wasn’t even covered.
underestimate v /,nndor'csìimciì/ People often underestimate the importance of training.
capacity n /Io'pæsoìi/ The theatre has a seating capacity of five hundred.
horizons n pl /ho'raizonz/ This course of study will broaden your horizons.
itinerary n /ai'ìinorori/ His itinerary would take him from Bordeaux to Budapest.
bear in mind v phr /,bcor in 'maind/ Bearing in mind that he’s only ten, I think he did very well.
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self-catering adj /,sclf 'Iciìoriq/ We’ve reserved self-catering accommodation in Brighton.
buffet n /'bofc/ We had a buffet lunch after the baby’s christening.
patio n /'pæìioo/ We sat on the patio, sipping cocktails and watching the sunset.
barbecue n /'bo:biI|u:/ We had a barbecue on the beach.
be situated v phr /bi 'siì|uciìid/ All the apartments are beautifully situated overlooking the beach.
request n /ri'Ivcsì/ They have made an urgent request for international aid.
install v /in'sìo:l/ They’ve installed the new air-conditioning system at last.
reservation n /,rczo'vci|on/ Customers are advised to make seat reservations well in advance.
brochure n /'broo|o, -|oo/ They sent us a glossy holiday brochure featuring the Canary Islands.
indicate v /'indiIciì/ The survey results seem to indicate a connection between poor housing conditions and bad health.
caravan n /'Iærovæn/ The campsite was full of caravans and we couldn’t find a place to pitch our tent.
crowd n /Iraod/ A vast crowd had assembled in the main square
cheer v /ì|io/ The audience cheered when the star came onto the stage.
customs n pl /'Insìomz/ She was stopped at customs and questioned.
arrest v /o'rcsì/ Wayne was arrested for a hit-and-run accident.
election n /i'lcI|on/ The Socialists won the 1948 election by a huge majority.
antique adj /æn'ìi:I/ It was a beautiful antique rosewood desk.
demolish v /di'mﬂli|/ Several houses were demolished to make way for the new road.
brand new adj /,brænd 'n|u:/ She was carrying a brand new handbag in the latest style.
committee n /Io'miìi/ The committee have decided to raise membership fees for next year.
viewpoint n /'v|u:poinì/ From an ecological viewpoint, the new motorway has been a disaster.
broaden v /'bro:dn/ Broaden your knowledge of English with this book.
on the decline prep phr /ﬂn ðo di'Ilain/ The number of children who read books is on the decline.
inadequate adj /in'ædiIvoì/ An inadequate supply of vitamin A can lead to blindness.
amenity n /o'mi:noìi/ It’s a small town but with all the amenities of a larger city.
outlet n /'aoìloì/ McDonald’s have opened a new fast foodoutlet there.
multi-media adj /,mnlìi 'mi:dio/ Encarta is a multi-media encyclopaedia that you can buy on CD-ROM.
clarification n /,Ilærifi'Ici|on/ Your clarification of the situation has helped us to work out what was going on.
dye v /dai/ Priscilla’s hair was dyed jet black.
imply v /im'plai/ Are you trying to imply that I haven’t helped you at all?
practically adv /'præIìiIli/ Practically all my friends are away for the summer holidays.
clubbing n /'Ilnbiq/ She goes clubbing with her mates every Saturday night.
respectable adj /ri'spcIìobol/ Let’s make you look a bit more respectable before you go out.
rely v /ri'lai/ I think we can rely on Derek not to tell anyone.
beat n /bi:ì/ Try to follow the beat of the music as you dance.
link v /liqI/ They believe that this illness is linked to the use of chemical pesticides.
economy n /i'Iﬂnomi/ For better or for worse, we live in a capitalist economy.
closure n /'Iloo¸o/ Today the government announced the closure of Bart’s Hospital in London.
resigned adj /ri'zaind/ Isabelle seems resigned to the fact that she’s going to lose her job.
surfer n /'s‰:fo/
depend on phr v /di'pcnd ﬂn/ Children depend on their parents for all of their material needs.
peer v /pio/ We tried to peer through the window but it was too dark to see anything inside.
well-being n /,vcl 'bi:iq/ We are responsible for the care and well-being of the hospital patients.
cheerful adj /'ì|iofol/ Despite feeling ill, she managed to keep cheerful.
define v /di'fain/ The powers of the President are clearly defined in the constitution.
contentment n /Ion'ìcnìmonì/ He gave a sigh of contentment, turned over and went to sleep.
materially adv /mo'ìiorioli/ Materially, we are better off than ever before.
leading adj /'li:diq/ I’m going to see a leading heart specialist.
determine v /di'ì‰:min/ Usually the size of the practice will determine the number of doctors.
be stuck with v phr /bi 'sìnI við, viO/ We’re renting the house, so we’re stuck with this ugly wallpaper.
temperament n /'ìcmporomonì/ I found her to be a very friendly person with a sunny temperament.
fortunate adj /'fo:ì|onoì/ You’re fortunate that you’ve still got a job.
spiritual adj /'spiriì|uol/ As a priest I’m responsible for your spiritual welfare.
individual n /,indi'vid¸uol/ You should know that the results of the test can vary from individual to individual.
relate to phr v /ri'lciì ìo, ìo/ Laurie finds it difficult to relate to children.
affection n /o'fcI|on/ Their mother never shows them much affection.
choir n /'Ivaio/ Anna has been singing in the school choir for five years.
tension n /'ìcn|on/ The tension was becoming unbearable, and I wanted to scream.
balance n /'bælons/ There is a delicate balance between man and nature.
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misery n /'mizori/ Her face was a picture of misery.
meaningful adj /'mi:niqfol/ We had a meaningful relationship that ended when she moved abroad.
latter adj /'læìo/ The system brings both financial and environmental benefits, the latter being especially welcome.
in response to prep phr /in ri'spﬂns ìo, ìo/ The law was passed in response to public pressure.
frustration n /fro'sìrci|on/ Sam watched in frustration as his team lost again.
anxiety n /æq'zaioìi/ There is a great deal of anxiety among staff about job losses.
take sth for granted v phr /,ìciI snmOiq fo 'gro:nìid/ In the west, we take it for granted that we will always have running water when we need it.
maintain v /mcin'ìcin/ Sally maintained that she had never spoken to the defendant before.
due to conj /'d|u: ìo, ìo/ The 15.30 train to Sheffield has been cancelled due to circumstances beyond our control.
promotional adj /pro'moo|onol/ She is scheduled to give a series of interviews and promotional appearances on her British tour.
bring on phr v /,briq 'ﬂn/ The dust in the house brought on a sneezing attack that lasted twenty minutes.
strain n /sìrcin/ The drought has put a heavy strain on our water resources.
since conj /sins/ Since you are unable to answer perhaps we should ask someone else.
unwind v /nn'vaind/ I love cooking – it helps me unwind.
amusing adj /o'm|u:ziq/ I don’t find his jokes at all amusing.
overstimulate v /,oovo'sìim|olciì/ The film overstimulated the children and they couldn’t get to sleep afterwards.
aggressive adj /o'grcsiv/ The men were drunk, aggressive and looking for a fight.
patient adj /'pci|onì/ Lisa was very patient with me when I was ill and complaining all the time.
round my way phr /raond 'mai vci/ There aren’t many facilities for young people round my way.
go along with phr v /,goo o'lﬂq við, viO/ I don’t go along with your theory at all – it sounds ridiculous to me.
generalisation n /,d¸cnorolai'zci|on/ You’re making too many generalisations about an issue that you don’t really understand.
consideration n /Ion,sido'rci|on/ Jeff never shows any consideration for his mother’s feelings.
reckon v /'rcIon/ Do you reckon they’ll get married?
tolerant adj /'ìﬂloronì/ Luckily, my parents were tolerant of my choice of music.
presumably adv /pri'z|u:mobli/ If you’ve already eaten, presumably you won’t want to go to a restaurant.
frankly adv /'fræqIli/ Frankly, I’m not very interested.
surely adv /'|o:li/ Surely we can’t just stand back and let this happen?
strictly speaking adv phr /,sìriIìli 'spi:Iiq/ Strictly speaking, you shouldn’t be in here, as only employees are allowed to enter the building.
roughly speaking adv phr /,rnfli 'spi:Iiq/ Roughly speaking, there must be about three hundred people at this meeting.
admittedly adv /od'miìidli/ This has led to financial losses, though admittedly on a fairly small scale.
as far as I’m concerned phr /oz ,fo:r oz 'aim Ion,s‰:nd/ As far as I’m concerned the whole idea is crazy.
according to phr /o'Io:diq ìo, ìo/ According to George, she’s a great player.
muscle n /'mnsol/ The next day the muscles in my arm felt sore.
associate v /o'soo|iciì, o'soosi -/ People usually associate Japan with high tech consumer products.
(have a) lie-in v phr /,lai 'in/ I intend to have a lie-in on Sunday morning.
convenience food n /Ion'vi:nions fu:d/ People with busy lifestyles tend to use more convenience foods.
put sth across phr v /,poì snmOiq o'Irﬂs/ The union representative put her argument across very effectively.
acceptable adj /oI'scpìobol/ Smoking is no longer considered socially acceptable by many people.
unfit adj /nn'fiì/ She never gets any exercise – she must be really unfit.
protein n /'prooìi:n/ Children need a lot of protein.
au pair n /,oo 'pco/ I remember Anna-Marie, who was a Swedish au pair we had when I was seven.
patient n /'pci|onì/ The doctor tried to explain to the patient that the procedure was very simple.
spectacular adj /spcI'ìæI|olo/ We watched a spectacular fireworks display.
luggage n /'lngid¸/ Shall I help you with your luggage?
spa n /spo:/ They travelled to Germany to try the spas.
wounded adj /'vu:ndid/ They carried the wounded soldiers from the field of battle.
damaged adj /'dæmid¸d/ I returned the clock because it was damaged.
spring n /spriq/ The islands are famous for their thermal springs.
mineral n /'minorol/ The area is rich in minerals.
volcanic spring n phr /vﬂl,IæniI 'spriq/ We visited the volcanic springs – they were amazing!
ensure v /in'|oo/ All the necessary steps had been taken to ensure their safety.
workout n /'v‰:Iaoì/ She does a thirty-minute workout every morning before she sits down at the computer.
vigorous adj /'vigoros/ Most dogs needs at least twenty minutes of vigorous exercise every day.
massage n /'mæso:¸/ Massage helps ease the pain.
soak n /sooI/ I had a good long soak after shopping all day.
urgent adj /'‰:d¸onì/ There’s an urgent message for you on the answering machine.
have time on one’s hands idm /hæv 'ìaim ﬂn vnnz ,hændz/ Now that her sons have left home, she’s got a lot of time on her hands.
under the weather idm /,nndo ðo 'vcðo/ You look a bit under the weather today.
accommodate v /o'Iﬂmodciì/ The hall can only accommodate two hundred people.
cool down phr v /,Iu:l 'daon/ You’ll need to let your tea cool down before you drink it.
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warm up phr v /,vo:m 'np/ You need to warm up before you start any vigorous exercise.
chill v /ì|il/ Chill the champagne in a bucket of ice.
bite n /baiì/ Can I have a bite of your apple?
feel one’s age idm /,fi:l vnnz 'cid¸/ She was only thirty-five, but she was already feeling her age.
be off one’s food idm /bi ,ﬂf vnnz 'fu:d/ I was off my food the whole time I was pregnant.
run-down adj /,rnn 'daon/ You look a bit run-down – maybe you need a rest.
recharge one’s batteries idm /ri:,ì|o:d¸ vnnz 'bæìoriz/ I’m going to spend a week in the mountains to recharge my batteries.
in good shape idm /in ,god '|cip/ After three months of training the former champion was in good shape again.
give sb a clean bill of health idm /,giv snmbodi o ,Ili:n bil ov 'hclO/ Just because the doctor has given you a clean bill of health, it doesn’t mean you should start smoking again.
be still going strong idm /bi ,sìil gooiq 'sìrﬂq/ I’m glad to see that the painting classes are still going strong.
cut down phr v /,Inì 'daon/ You smoke too much – you should try to cut down.
get over phr v /gcì 'oovo/ She’s still trying to get over that bout of flu she had.
come down with phr v /Inm 'daon við, viO/ I think I’m coming down with a cold.
cut out phr v /,Inì 'aoì/ If you cut out sugar from your diet you’d feel much healthier.
pick up phr v /,piI 'np/ Where can I pick up a cheap video camera?
put on phr v /poì 'ﬂn/ Rosie’s put on five kilos since she gave up smoking.
bug n /bng/ You must have picked up that stomach bug that’s going round.
go round phr v /goo 'raond/ There’s a lot of flu going round at the moment.
backache n /'bæIciI/ I always get backache from sitting at the computer.
sneeze v /sni:z/ The baby keeps sneezing – she must be getting a cold.
overweight adj /,oovo'vciì/ Sally was thirteen kilos overweight.
dehydrated adj /,di:hai'drciìid/ She was walking for three hours in the hot sun without any water to drink and became dehydrated.
medium n /'mi:diom/ Politicians prefer to use the medium of television to get their message across.
bookworm n /'boIv‰:m/ Alex is such a bookworm – yesterday he got through a whole book in four hours.
fiction n /'fiI|on/ She’s one of the best writers of children’s fiction of modern times.
manual n /'mæn|uol/ I couldn’t understand a word of that instructionmanual.
still n /sìil/ The book contained some stills from the film.
crime thriller n phr /'Iraim ,Orilo/ ‘The Black Cross’ is an exciting new crime thriller involving a young New York detective.
science fiction n phr /,saions 'fiI|on/ ‘Alien’ was one of the greatest science fiction movies of the twentieth century.
pretence n /pri'ìcns/ How long are you going to keep up the pretence of being ill?
bony adj /'booni/ The old lady’s hand felt cold and bony.
arrogant adj /'ærogonì/ I found him arrogant and unpleasant.
signet ring n phr /'signiì riq/ The baron used his signet ring to seal the official letters to the king.
cross one’s mind v phr /,Irﬂs vnnz 'maind/ It never crossed my mind that Lisa might be lying.
emotion n /i'moo|on/ The accused man showed little sign of emotion as he was sentenced.
swell v /svcl/ We asked them to come to the meeting to swell the numbers.
hamper v /'hæmpo/ Women’s progress in the workplace is still hampered by male attitudes.
impulse n /'impnls/ Gerry couldn’t resist the impulse to skip work and go down to the beach.
ingratitude n /in'græìiì|u:d/ I’ve never seen such ingratitude in all my life!
hostility n /hﬂ'sìiloìi/ There is a lot of hostility towards foreigners.
shove v /|nv/ There was no trouble at the rally apart from a little pushing and shoving.
leave sb out in the cold idm /,li:v snmbodi ,aoì in ðo 'Ioold/ If you don’t start working harder, you’ll beleft out in the cold when it comes to promotion time.
forge v /fo:d¸/ Someone stole my credit card and forged my signature.
(be) in sb’s shoes idm /,bi: in snmbodiz '|u:z/ If I were in your shoes, I’d tell Jan to get lost!
have sb eat out of your hand idm /,hæv snmbodi ,i:ì aoì ov |o The clients were suspicious at first, but he soon had them eating out of his hand.
inevitable adj /i'ncviìobol/ A further escalation of the crisis now seems inevitable.
temporariness n /'ìcmpororinos/ Despite the temporariness of the job, I think I will accept.
vaguely adv /'vcigli/ There was sth vaguely familiar about him.
cliff n /Ilif/ On a clear day, the white cliffs of Dover can be seen from France.
grab at phr v /'græb oì, æì/ Donny hid behind his mother, grabbing at her skirt.
thigh n /Oai/ She had a small dragon tattoo on her left thigh.
tint v /ìinì/ Is that your natural colour or has it been tinted?
slump v /slnmp/ His head slumped onto his chest.
pass out phr v /,po:s 'aoì/ He always passes out at the sight of blood.
air n /co/ She set about her task with an air of quiet confidence.
irritation n /,iri'ìci|on/ The neighbours’ parties were a constant source of irritation to the old couple.
reflex n /'ri:flcIs/ A tennis player needs to have good reflexes.
faint v /fcinì/ Several fans fainted in the blazing heat.
suspect n /'snspcIì/ Two suspects were arrested today in connection with the robbery.
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enquiry n /in'Ivaiori/ We’re getting a lot of enquiries from travel companies about our sailing holidays.
immigrant n /'imigronì/ The government wants to cut down on the number of immigrants coming into the country.
protagonist n /proo'ìægonisì/ In an early scene, the protagonist considers suicide but later, she changes her mind.
story line n phr /'sìo:ri lain/ The story line develops slowly but the characters hold it together.
setting n /'scìiq/ Athens is the setting for his latest novel.
passionate adj /'pæ|onoì/ It was so passionate when he swept her into his arms and kissed her.
predictable adj /pri'diIìobol/ I used to be interested in politics, but now it’s all getting very predictable.
convincing adj /Ion'vinsiq/ There is now convincing evidence that smoking causes lung cancer.
draft n /dro:fì/ Let’s make a rough draft of the letter.
repetition n /,rcpo'ìi|on/ I’m so fed up with his constant repetition of the same old jokes.
extraordinary adj /iI'sìro:donori/ What an extraordinary thing to do!
evil adj /'i:vol/ He was an evil dictator responsible for the deaths of millions.
feedback n /'fi:dbæI/ Most of the feedback we’ve received so far has been positive.
committed adj /Io'miìid/ The construction workers were confronted by a committed group of environmentalists.
insecurity n /,insi'I|ooroìi/ Student teachers often suffer from a great sense of insecurity.
disruption n /dis'rnp|on/ The strike caused widespread disruption to train services.
advert n /'ædv‰:ì/ The advert showed a man in a car with a spotty dog.
conservatory n /Ion's‰:voìori/ Malcolm and I are saving up to add a conservatory to our house.
bodywork n /'bﬂdiv‰:I/ The bodywork’s beginning to rust.
filthy adj /'filOi/ Simon never cleans his house – it’s absolutely filthy!
script n /sIripì/ The Gibson brothers wrote some excellent comedy scripts.
recruit v /ri'Iru:ì/ We’re having difficulty recruiting enough properly qualified staff.
shoot v /|u:ì/ When one of the actors died, they had to shoot the final scene again.
blunt adj /blnnì/ All I could find was a blunt pencil.
sharpen v /'|o:pon/ Sharpen all your pencils before the test.
optician n /ﬂp'ìi|on/ Molly’s gone to the optician’s to have her eyes tested.
manicurist n /'mæniI|oorisì/ My manicurist tells me I have the most beautiful hands she’s ever seen.
tailor n /'ìcilo/ Mr Williams has his clothes made by a tailor.
paparazzi n /,pæpo'ræìsi/ Some people believe that the paparazzi were responsible for Princess Diana’s death.
defend v /di'fcnd/ How can you defend the torture of animals for scientific research?
go to great lengths v phr /goo ìo ,grciì 'lcqOs/ Gerald is prepared to go to great lengths to get his daughter back.
glamour n /'glæmo/ Young actors are often dazzled by the glamour of Hollywood.
embarrass v /im'bæros/ She tried to embarrass me by talking about my childhood.
broadcast v /'bro:dIo:sì/ The interview was broadcast live across Europe.
in a good light idm /in o ,god 'laiì/ They tried to portray the minister in a good light.
moral adj /'mﬂrol/ He was a man of high moral standards.
leaflet n /'li:fliì/ I picked up a leaflet on dog training at the vet’s.
recycle v /,ri:'saiIol/ We take all our bottles and newspapers to be recycled.
victim n /'viIìim/ Most murder victims are under thirty.
considerate adj /Ion'sidoroì/ It was very considerate of you to let us know you were going to be late.
stimulate v /'sìim|olciì/ An inspiring teacher can stimulate students to succeed.
insult v /in'snlì/ I hope Andy won’t feel insulted if I turn down his invitation.
offend v /o'fcnd/ His attitude to women offends many people.
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