Robert Gagne

Robert Gagne (1916-2002) Education
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Yale, A.B. 1937 Brown, Ph.D. 1940

Career Highlights
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Professor, Connecticut College (1940-49) Professor, Penn State University (1945-46) Director of Perceptual and Motor Skills Laboratory, U.S. Air Force (1949-58) Professor, Florida State University

Major Contributions to Instructional Development
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co-developer of "Instructional Systems Design" wrote The Conditions of Learning, 1965 co-wrote Principles of Instructional Design

Findings, Research, Studies Although Gagne’s earlier work reflected behaviorist thought, he is considered to be an experimental psychologist who is concerned with learning and instruction. In 1965, Gagne published The Conditions of Learning which outlined the relation of learning objectives to appropriate instructional designs. Gagne identifies five categories of learning: Taxonomy of Critical Learning Learning Example Conditions Outcomes 1. Draw attention to distinctive features by variations in print or speech. 2. Present information so that it can be made into chunks. 3. Provide a meaningful context for effective encoding of information. 4. Provide cues for effective recall and generalization of

Stating previously learned materials such as facts, concepts, Verbal Information principles, and procedures, e.g., listing the seven major symptoms of cancer

information. Discriminations: Distinguishing objects, features, or symbols, e.g., hearing different pitches played on a musical instrument Concrete Concepts: Identifying classes of concrete objects, features, or events, e.g., picking out all the green M&Ms from the candy jar Defined Concepts: Intellectual Skills: classifying new Discriminations, examples of events or Concrete Concepts, ideas by their definition, Defined Concepts, e.g., noting "she sells Rules, Higher sea shells" as Order Rules alliteration Rules: Applying a single relationship to solve a class of problems, e.g., calculating the earned run averages (ERA) of the Atlanta Braves Higher Order Rules: Applying a new combination of rules to solve a complex problem, e.g., generating a balanced budget for a state organization Employing personal ways to guide learning, thinking, acting, and feeling, e.g., devising a corporate plan to improve customer relations

1. Call attention to distinctive features. 2. Stay within the limits of working memory. 3. Stimulate the recall of previously learned component skills. 4. Present verbal cues to the ordering or combination of component skills. 5. Schedule occasions for practice and spaced review. 6. Use a variety of contexts to promote transfer.

Cognitive Strategies

1. Describe or demonstrate the strategy. 2. Provide a variety of occasions for practice using the strategy. 3. Provide informative feedback as to the

creativity or originality of the strategy or outcome. 1. Establish an expectancy of success associated with the desired attitude. 2. Assure student identification with an admired human model. 3. Arrange for communication or demonstration of choice of personal action. 4. Give feedback for successful performance; or allow observation of feedback in the human model. 1. Present verbal or other guidance to cue the executive subroutine. 2. Arrange repeated practice. 3. Furnish immediate feedback as to the accuracy of performance. 4. Encourage the use of mental practice.

Attitudes

Choosing personal actions based on internal states of understanding and feeling, e.g., deciding to exercise daily as a part of preventive health care

Motor Skills

Executing performances involving the use muscles, e.g., doing a triple somersault dive off the high board

Information from: Driscoll, M.(1991) Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Allyn and Bacon. Gagne’s idea is tied to Skinner’s idea of sequenced learning events as displayed in his Nine Events of Instruction. The table below shows Gagne’s events of instruction and an example lesson that follows it. Example Lesson: Be Inspired Using Kidspiration

Objective: Students will learn how to use the Kidspiration multimedia software program to create a diagram. Note: This lesson is geared for K-5 teachers with basic computer skills. Event of Instruction Lesson Example Rationale Teacher tells learners how she has used Kidspiration in the classroom. Shows an example 1. Gaining Attention diagram made using Kidspiration on projection screen/TV monitor. Asks learners questions about diagramming. 2. Informing the Learner of the Objective Teacher says, "Today I am going to show you how to use a multimedia presentation software called Kidspiration." For this particular group of learners, they have learned previously about Mind Mapping and Schemata. Teacher associates this knowledge with lesson at hand. Teacher gives students step-by-step tutorial on using Kidspiration. (My eCoach Kidspiration Guide) and has installed Kidspiration software on their computers. Teacher demonstrates how to create a diagram on the video projection screen/TV monitor. Teacher shows students how to use Kidspiration tools to type in text, add links, Giving background information creates validity. The use of multimedia grabs the audience’s attention. Asking questions in the beginning creates an interactive atmosphere.

Make learners aware of what to expect so that they are aware and prepared to receive information.

3. Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning

When learning something new, accessing prior knowledge is a major factor in the process of acquiring new information.

4. Presenting the Stimulus

The goal is information acquisition, therefore, the stimulus employed is written content and the actual software program. Teacher uses "discovery learning" because learners are adults and it gives them the freedom to explore. Teacher facilitates the learning process by giving hints and cues when needed. Since the

5. Providing Learner Guidance

add symbols, use sounds, etc. Learners are allowed to try the tools demonstrated in partners on their computers. 6. Eliciting Performance Teacher asks students to demonstrate Kidspiration tools.

audience are teachers with some basic level of technology skills and the software program is easy to follow and understand, guidance is minimal. Requiring the learner to produce based on what has been taught enables the learner to confirm their learning. Regular feedback enhances learning. Independent practice forces students to use what they learned and apply it. Assessing such gives instructors a means of testing student learning outcomes.

Teacher gives immediate feedback to 7. Giving Feedback learners after eliciting responses. Assign a practice activity - Create a diagram that focuses on Farm Animals. Teacher checks work.

8. Assessing Performance

9. Enhancing Retention and Transfer

Teacher asks learners to create activities using Kidspiration for 2nd Applying learning in realgrade students. life situations is a step Teacher also charges towards Mastery Learning. learner with teaching another learner how to use Kidspiration.

Sources Conditions of Learning: Gagne http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html Robert Gagne’s Instructional Design Approach http://www.gsu.edu/~mstswh/courses/it7000/papers/robert.htm Driscoll, M.(1991) Psychology of Learning for Instruction: Allyn and Bacon.

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