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# Estructuras de Aeronaves Cuestionario Materiales Estructurales de Aeronaves Prof.

## Fernando Perez Nombre: Edwin Pitty Cdula: 4-771-2393 Grupo: 301

1. Mencione las propiedades de los metales utilizados en aviacin. R= Strength, Hardness, Malleability, Ductility, Brittleness, Conductivity, Expansion, Elasticity, Toughness, Fusibility and Density. 2. Como se determina la fuerza(Strength) de los materiales? R= The strength is determined by the percentage of parent metal and other elements used to make an alloy. 3. Mencione los tipos de fuerza que deben soportar los metales? R= Tensible, Yield, Shear, Bearing STRENGTH. 4. Como se define Tensible Strength y con que unidades se representa? R= Tensible Strength is the ability to withstand tension, and is measured in pounds per square inch. When we have 3 zeros put the letter K >> KSI PSI 5. Como se define Yield Strength? R= Yield Strength is the ability of a metal to resist deformation. 6. Como se define Shear Strength? R= Shear Strength is the metals ability to resist opposing forces. 7. Como se define Bearing Strength? R= Bearing Strength is the ability of a joint to withstand any form of crushing or excessive compressive distortion. 8. Que es dureza y que proceso se puede utilizar para lograr esto? R= Hardness is the ability to resist cutting, penetration or abrasion. The process that some metals are hardened through heat-treating or work hardening.

17. Que es la densidad de los metales y en base a que se toma su referencia? R= Density is a material mass per unit volumen. The standard from which a metal density is determined is water. 18. Con que procesos se le da forma util a los metales una vez han sido aleados? R= Wrought and Cast 19. A que se le conoce como hot working? R= Hot working is the process of forming metal at an elevated temperature when it is in its annealed or soft condition. 20. Que es rolling? R= Rolling consists of forming hot metal ingots with rollers to form sheets, bars, and beams. 21. Que es Forging? R= Forging is typically used to form intricate shapes and is accomplished through either pressing or hammering. 22. Para que se utiliza el mtodo de pressing y que beneficios se obtienen de el? R= Pressing is used to form large and heavy parts. The interior grain structure resulting in the best possible structure throughout. 23. Describa brevemente el proceso de drop forging. R= Drop Forging is a Hammering process whereby a hot ingot place between a pair of formed dies in a machine (drop hammer). Several tons is dropped on the upper die, this results in the hot metal being forced to take form of the dies. The process is very rapid, the grain structure of the metal is altered. Significant increases in the strength of the finished part.

24. Describa muy brevemente el proceso de hammering cual otro nombre se le da y que ventajas nos da. R= Hammering is a type of forging that is usually used on small parts because it requires a metalworker to physically hammer a piece of metal in its finished shape. An Advantage is the operator has control over both amount of pressure applied and the finishing temperature. Another name of hammering is Smith Forging and is used extensively where only a small number of parts are needed. 25. Defina cold working y sus 2 subprocesos mas comunes? R= Cold working is performed well below a metals critical temperature and ranges from the manual bending of sheet metal for skin repairs to drawing seamless tubing and wire. (increase the strength and hardness but decrease the ductility) H14 before use. -Cold Rolling: usually refers to the rolling of metal at room temperature to its approximate size. Metal is pickled to remove any scale, then passed through chilled finishing rolls= results smooth surface and extremely accurate dimensions. -Cold Drawing: is used in making seamless tubing wire, streamlined tie rods, and other forms of stock. 26. Que es una extrusion y de ejemplos de formas de extrusion? R= Extrusion is the process of forcing metal through a die which imparts a required cross-section to the metal. Some metals (lead, tin and aluminum) may be extruded cold. >>advantage of the extrusion process is its flexibility<< Some forms: Channels, Angles, T sections, and Z-sections 27. A que se le conoce como metales no ferrosos y de ejemplos de ellos? R= Nonferrous describe metals which have elements other than iron. Aluminum, Copperm Titanium and Magnesium

28. Mencione los agentes con los que se hacen las aleaciones de aluminio y como se identifican. R= Aluminum alloys are classified by their major alloying ingredient. The elements most commonly used for aluminum alloying are copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. 1 digit : identifies the major alloying element used in the formation of the alloy 2 number: represents a specific alloy modification. 1xxx aluminum 2xxx copper 3xxx manganese 4xxx silicon 5xxx magnesium 6xxx magnesium and silicon 7xxx- zinc 8xxx other elements 29. Que es el aluminio ALCLAD y cual es su funcin? R= Alcad is a pure aluminum coating that is rolled on to the surface of heat-treated aluminum alloy. The clad surface greatly increases the corrosion resistance of an aluminum alloy. 30. Que son y para que son los tratamientos trmicos? R= Heat Treatment is a series of operations involving the heating and cooling of metals in their solid state. The purpose is to make the metal more useful, serviceable and safe for a definite purpose. (made harder, stronger, and more resistant to impact). 31. Mencione los 2 tipos de tratamientos trmicos realizados a las aleaciones de aluminio. R= Solution Heat Treatment Precipitation Heat Treatment

32. Defina el proceso de annealing. R= Annealing is the process that softens a metal and decreases internal stress. -The metal temperature is raised to an annealing temperature and hed there until the metal becomes thoroughlt heat soaked. -Then cooled to 500F at a rate of about 50 per hour. Below 500F, the rate of cooling is not important. 33. Mencione las aleaciones de aluminio que no son termo-tratables. R= 1100 3003 5052 34. Como se identifican los tratamientos trmicos en las aleaciones de aluminio? R= Letter T and followed by number -T Solution heat treated -T2 Annealed -T3 Solution heat-treated followed by strain hardening -T4 Solution heat-treated followed by natural aging at Room Temperature -T5 Artificially aged at an elevated temperature. -T6 Solution heat-treated followed by artificial aging. -T7 Solution heat-treated followed by stabilization -T8 Solution heat-treated followed by strain hardening, then artificial aging -T9 Solution heat-treated followed by artificial aging, then strain hardening. -T10 Artificially aged and then cold worked. 35. De ejemplos de aleaciones de aluminio que pueden ser termotratadas varias veces y cuales estan sujetas a un numero fijo de tratamientos termicos. R= Rivets made of 2017 or 2024 are extremely hard and typically receive several reheat treatments to make them soft enough to drive.

Clad material is generally limited to no more than three reheat treatments. 36. A que se le conoce como cold working o work hardening? R=Heat-treatable and nonheat-treatable aluminum alloys can be strengthened and hardened through straun hardening. This process requires mechanically working a metal at a temperature below its critical range. 37. Como es designado el temple o dureza de los metales? R= -F As fabricated -O Annealed, Recrystallized (wrought materials only) -H Strain hardened. -H1 Strain hardened only. -H2 Strain hardened and partially annealed. -H3 Strain hardened and stabilized. O indicates an annealed state. The most common designations include: -Hx2 Quarter-hard -Hx4 Half-hard -Hx6 Three-quarter hard -Hx8 Full-hard -Hx9 Extra-hard 38. En que formas son encontradas generalmente las aleaciones de magnesio? R= Are used for castings and in its wrought form is available in sheets, bars, tubing, and extrusions. 39. A que tipo de inconveniente es susceptible el magnesio al ser manejado? R= Magnesium is highly susceptible to corrosion and tends to crack. The cracking contributes to its difficulty in forming and limits its used for thin sheet metal parts.

40. Que precauciones hay que tener en cuenta cuando se trabaje con magnesio? R= Caution must be exercised when grinding and machining magnesium. If a fire should occur, extinguish it by smothering it with dry sand or some other dry material that excludes air from the metal and cools its surface. If water is used, it will only intensify the fire. 41. Cuando se trabajan trmicamente las aleaciones de magnesio, que ventajas se obtienen? R= Increases tensile strength, ductility, and resistance to shock. 42. Mencione las designaciones asignadas por ASTM a las aleaciones de magnesio? R= A Aluminum E rare earth H thorium F - as fabricated O annealed H24 strain hardened and partially annealed

## K zirconium M Manganese Z zinc

T4 solution heat treated T5 artically aged only T6 solution heat treated and artificially aged

43. Mencione las caractersticas del titanio y descrbalas brevemente. R= *Light weight *High Strength *Soft and Ductile

44. Cuales son las clasificaciones del titanio y descrbalas brevemente. R= Alpha alloys: have mdium strengths of 120 KSI to 150KSI and good elevatedtemperature stregth. Used in forgings. The standard identification number is 8A11Mo-1V-Ti > Ti-8-1-1 Alpha-beta Alloys: most versatile. Medium strength in the annealed condition and much higher strength when heat treated. Good forming characteristics Beta alloys: medium strength, excellent forming characteristics, and contain large quantities of high density 45. Cuales son las 2 aleaciones de nickel utilizadas en aviacion? R= Monel and Inconel 46. Donde es utilizado el monel? R= Monel is used in gears and parts that require high strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures (exhaust system)