REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the writer presents literature review, which related to the topic of the

research. A. Concept of Reading The definition of reading will be discussed as follow: 1. Mortemer and Charles (1972: 6) say reading is complex activity, just as writing is it consist of large number of separate act, all of which be perform ed in a good reading. 2. Jeremy (1991: 190) states that reading is an exercise dominated by th e eyes and brain. The eyes receive the message and the brain the has to work out the significance of these messages. 3. Harnby (1989: 1043) say that reading is an action of a person who reads be found of reading in reading matter. 4. Rozakis (1995: 3) say that reading is a process by which our mind transl ate symbols into ideas. 5. Falk (1973: 273) conveys that reading is more than the ability to conv ert written symbols into sands, for the propose of reading is ultimately to det ermine meaning form to printer page. 6. Also & Robert (1979: 147) express that reading is not just saying the words but reading must always be a meaning getting process 7. Nuttal (1982: 18) say that reading is essentially concerned with meani ng especially with the transfer of message from writer to reader 8. Dubin (1981: 218) defines that reading in depth you made us of what y ou know to understand what is before Form explanation above given by experts, we can notice several points reading: they are: a. Reading is process, which is an active process b. The aim of reading is to grass symbolization used the written message c. There is always a medium, namely written or sound so, reading activity on ly take place when is a written act d. There is an active attempt of reader e. There is a process in our mind to form good ideas and determine meanin g text f. Reading is also thinking process g. Reading is a complex act that must be learned B. Reading Comprehension The various definition of reading comprehension have been formulated some defin itions of the given reading comprehension are presented in the following space s. According to Kustaryo (1998). Reading comprehension is an active thinking proc ess which is not only depends on comprehension skill. He quoted â Reading Compreh ension understand what has been read it is an active thinking process that depe nds not only on comprehension skill but also the studentsâ experiences and prior knowledge comprehension involves understanding the vocabulary seeing the re lationship among words and concepts, organizing, ideas, recognizing authors purpose, judgment and evaluating. From this point of view, we can say that reading comprehension is important be cause of the students do not understand what they have read and they cannot catch the idea of the writer through reading. Johnson in Burn, (1989: 148) state that reading comprehension is one unitary process and a set of discreet process. So, the students explore comprehension from two angels. The written units that the reader must understand the diffe rent levels of comprehension that students should achieve. Charles in Tahir (2001: 5) states that reading is a transmitting of informatio nâ s process where the outhor regarded as the informants (sender) and reader on the another hand is receiver, during reading process it means that the reader inter

act with the author directly/the word directly means that what the reader can b e done during reading activity is only grasping and decoding information, meanw hile he can not ask question or comment to outhor directly. Smith and Robinson (1980: 205) state that reading comprehension means understan d, evaluating and utilize of information and ideas gained through an interactio n between the reader and the outhor and a reader in which the written language becomes the medium that cause the dialogue happen when the two persons communi cate through the medium print. By looking over those definitions above, it can be conduced that reading is an active process where the readers try to gain the information given by the ou thor and understand what is actually the purpose of the outhor. 1. Kinds of Reading According to Nurbaya (2005: 7) there are three kinds of reading. They are as fol lows: a. Silent reading Silent reading is a period of uninterrupted Silent reading intends to improve reading comprehension, the face students' reading, vocabulary skill and spe lling. Students and ideally their teacher, silently read book of their choice fo r a set amount of time. b. Reading aloud Reading aloud is very important device that cannot be overlooked because it is a great aid in developing our reading skill. in reading aloud, the students will get experience in producing the sound. By reading aloud, the students can improv e their skill in pronunciation, intonation, and through reading aloud, they can increase their vocabulary. c. Speed reading This kind of reading is used to improve speed and comprehension in reading. This skill is very important to students. If they do not have skill of speed reading , all the process of studying will be slow and ineffective. That is why speed re ading should be regarded or one of the main skill in reading. 2. Reading Strategies The reading strategies can be categorized into several kinds. They are effective reading, survey reading, skimming, scanning, intensive reading and strategies w ith bottom-up and top-down reading understanding system. a. Effective reading The effective reading means be able to read accurately and efficiently and to un derstand as much of the passage as you need in order to achieve your purpose (Gr eenal, et, Al: 1986) b. Survey reading The survey reading is specialized techniques, for getting top view of an article , chapter, or entire book. Whit if you catch a board, overall picture of basic e ssential. c. Skimming Skimming means enable of people to select content that they want to read and to discard that which is quintile for their purpose. Skimming can also be called as the eyes quickly over the text to discover what is about, the main ideas, and t he gist (Abbott, et. Al: 1981). d. Scanning Scanning is to serve two functions. They are uncover relevant, information and a ccelerates your reading speed flexibility (Brown Alfiah, 2000: 8) or the reader work out for particular item believes is in the text (Abbott, et, Al: 1981), sca nning is to read a test quickly on order to locate a spesifik item of informati on e. Intensive reading The intensive reading strategy is study reading. This involves close study of th e text. As amount of comprehension should be high, the speed of reading is corre spondently slower (Abbott, et. Al: 1981). 3. Reason for Reading

According to Jeremy Harmer (1995: 190), there are reasons for reading . There are: a. Reading in language learning Reading is an exercise Dom mated by the eyes and the bring. The eyes receives message and the brain has to work out the significance of thes e message. b. Reading for information In most cases, reading for information is relevant to accurate study of the read er. They read to find out information to reduce their uncertain. c. Reading for pleasure Reading for pleasure is done without other people order but according to an individual reader wish and taste. 4. Levels of comprehension The following are levels of reading comprehension according to Smith and Wayne i s: 1. Literal comprehension; mat is the skill of getting primary direct litera l meaning of a word, idea, or sentence in context. 2. Interpretation that is identify ideas and meaning that is not explicitly stated in the written test 3. Critical reading that is to evaluate what is read, and to examine critic ally the thought of the writer. 4. Creative reading; that is to apply ideas from the text to new situation and to recombine authors ideas with other ide-ts to form new concept or to expen d old ones Levels of reading comprehension (Carnine in Gamine 1 990) are: 1. Comprehension skill for the primary level consist of; a) Literal comprehension: mar is to receive information stared in a passage . b) Sequencing comprehension; that is to order several events from a passage according to when they happened. c) Summarization: that to receive information state in a passage. 2. Comprehension skill for the intermediate level consist of a) Inferential comprehension that is to reveal relationships between two o bject and events (staled or not scared] b) Critical reading; mat is to identify the authorâ conclusion to determine w hat evidence is presented, and to identify fealty argument c) Comprehension skill for the advanced level mat is the appreciation of th e author work, . 5. Factor Influencing Comprehension There are external internal factor in reading comprehension. All of which share the success in reading 1) Motivation Motivation is very important to the success and failure in reading depends on on e's motivation to read, when the students have high motivation to read they will work ha/d to overcome the difficult material. One's motivation could be influen ce by external and internal factors, such as the material used by the teacher an d prior knowledge 2) Concentration Concentration means to focus our attention clearly on purpose. Concentration is very easy to do if we are interest in what we read, concentration is much needed in reading comprehension. 3) Teacher's guidance Teacher guidance influences how the students understand particular assignment be cause lack of sufficient guidance may also be a major factor in low reading com prehension, 4) The length and difficult to the material for reading 5) Vocabulary acquisition and the ability to form concept are essential for reading.

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