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BASIC SCOPE OF CHEMISTRY

Vocabulary:
elements separate part or group chemical reaction process involving changes to substances classic phase common stage or period bound fastened or tied volume amount of space inside an object mass large amount of something that has no particular shape or arrangement shape - form illustrate demonstrate or explain recurring happening again particles tiny pieces reactants substance undergoing chemical reaction imply suggest or hint at ratio proportional relationship

Chemistry is the study of matter and its composition.

What are atoms? An atom is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction. It means that the atoms define the chemical composition of a certain element. The three parts of an atom: Electrons have a negative charge. They are smaller and more numerous than the bigger protons and neutrons. Protons are positive and are located in the nucleus of an atom, along with the neutrons. Neutrons have no charge because they are neutral. They keep the protons in balance because they hold them together inside the nucleus Identify the different parts of an atom.

What is Matter? Matter has three different classic phase. The SOLID, LIQUID and GAS phase. There are also other phases in matter but they are discussed in the advance level of chemistry. These phases include plasma and Borne-Einstein.

The three classic phase of matter: Solid: The solid phase has atoms that are closely bound together thats why it has volume, mass and shape. Example: wood, paper, book, etc. Liquid: The atoms in the liquid phase is much farther compared to those in the solid phase. Liquids have mass and volume but it doesnt take any shape. This makes liquid need containers. Examples of liquid: water, oil, milk, vinegar, etc. Gas: The gaseous phase of matter is commonly defined as matter that one cant hold. The atoms in this phase has atoms that are really far from each other. Examples of GAS: oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, smoke, etc. The Periodic Table

Periodic Table is a table of the chemical elements arranged to illustrate patterns of recurring chemical and physical properties. What is a Molecule? Molecules are small particles that make up all living and non-living things. They are made up of even tinier particles called atoms. Molecules in living things are made from only about 25 of more than 100 known atoms in the universe. Molecules are made from as few as two atoms to hundreds of millions of atoms.

Molecules of Carbon Dioxide Less than 1% of the air is carbon dioxide, but it is essential for life. Plants use carbon dioxide to build energy-rich molecules. C10H14N2 10 black carbon atoms 14 white hydrogen atoms

Molecules of Nicotine Nicotine is in cigarette tobacco. It interacts with receptors in our brain and activates nerve cells. It is addictive and a poison. C10H14N2 10 black carbon atoms

Chemicals A substance that contains distinct molecular composition that is produced by or used in chemical processes. Examples of Chemical Elements hydrogen H 1 helium He 2 lithium Li 3 beryllium Be 4 boron B 5 carbon C 6 nitrogen N 7 oxygen O 8

Compounds A chemical compound or called as compound for short is a combination of two or more elements or parts.

It can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions - A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the changes of one set of chemical substances to another.

Atomic Molecular Theory Law 1: Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass of all products of a chemical reaction is equal to the total mass of all reactants of that reaction. The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as principle of mass/matter conservation is that the mass of a closed system will remain constant over time, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. A similar statement is that mass cannot be created/destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space, and changed into different types of particles. This implies that for any chemical process in a closed system, the mass of the reactants must equal the mass of the products. Ex. 1.00g carbon + 5.34g sulphur = 6.34g carbon disulphide 2.00g carbon + 10.68g sulphur = 12.68g carbon disulphide Law 2: Law of Definite Proportions When two or more elements combine to form a compound, their masses in that compound are in a fixed and definite ratio. In chemistry, the law of definite proportions and also the elements states that a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. An equivalent statement is the law of constant composition, which states that all samples of a given chemical compound have the same elemental composition. For example, oxygen makes up 8/9 of the mass of any sample of pure water, while hydrogen makes up the remaining 1/9 of the mass. For example, a water molecule (H2O) consists of two hydrogen atoms each of relative mass of 1 and one oxygen atom of relative mass of 16 (rounded to nearest integer number). By putting a sensible unit measurement this means that there are 2 g of hydrogen and 16 g of oxygen in a sample of 18 g of water. The ratio is 1 to 8. Thus, a sample of 51.435 g of water always contain 5.715 g of hydrogen and 45.720 g of oxygen. The ratio, again, is 1 hydrogen to 8 oxygen.

Source:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/The_smallest_particle_that_can_take_part_in_a_chemical_re action_is

http://www.nyhallsci.org/marvelousmolecules/marveloussub.html