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ISOLATED BIDIRECTIONAL FULL-BRIDGE DCDC CONVERTER WITH A FLYBACK SNUBBER

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

NIJITH BABU PRAISE JOSEPH SABIN.S SAJITH BABU

(Reg.No.92208121037) (Reg.No.92208121042) (Reg.No.92208121048) (Reg.No.92208121049)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

VICKRAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ENATHI


APRIL 2012

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600 025


BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report ISOLATED BIDIRECTIONAL FULL BRIDGE DC-DC CONVERTER WITH A FLYBACK SNUBBER is the bonafied work of NIJITH BABU (92208121037), PRAISE JOSEPH (92208121042), SABIN.S (92208121048), SAJITH BAU(92208121049) who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Prof.P.Sivachandran, M.E, (PhD) HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Mr.Harikrishnan M.E SUPERVISOR Lecturer

Electrical and Electronics Engineering VICKRAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Sreenivasa gardens, Madurai-Sivagangai road, Enathi, Tamilnadu-630561

Electrical and Electronics Engineering VICKRAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Sreenivasa gardens, Madurai-Sivagangai road, Enathi, Tamilnadu-630561

Submitted for the project work (EE1452) viva held at Vickram College of Engineering on......................

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS

PAGE NO. i ii iii iv v 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 vi 7 8 vii 9 9 37

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Renewable DC system 1.2 Dc-Dc converter 1.2.1 Bidirectional operation 1.2.2 Need of snubber circuit 1.2.2.1 Snubber circuit 1.2.2.2 RCD snubber circuit 1.2.2.3 Flyback snubber circuit 1.2.3 Current fed and voltage fed switches 1.3 Buck -Boost operation

II

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Converter using Snubber 2.2 Existing system limitation

III

PROPOSED SYSTEM 3.1 Proposed system merit 3.2 Converter using flyback snubber 5.3.8.3 Features
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5.3.8.4 Absolute Maximum Ratings 5.3.8.5 Recommended Operating Conditions 38 5.3.8.6Applications 5.3.9 Transistor 5.3.9.1 Transistor as an Amplifier 5.3.9.2 General Description 5.3.9.3 Darlington Pair Circuit 5.3.9.4 Transistor-2n2222 5.3.9.5 Features 5.3.9.6 Pinning VI 1 APPENDICES PIC16F877A Microcontroller 6.1.1 Features 6.1.2 Block diagram 2 Memory organization 6.2.1 Program memory organization 6.2.2 Data memory organization 3 4 VII VIII Interrupts MOSFET switch-IRFP250N CONCLUSION REFERENCES 45 45 40 41

38 38 38 38 40

41 41 x 42 42 44 45

48 50 xi xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS SL NO. 1 ABBREVIATIONS PIC EXPANSION PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROL 2 RCD RESISTOR, CAPACITOR AND DIODE 3 RISC REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING 4 Vhv VOLTAGE IN HIGH VOLTAGE SIDE 5 Vlv VOLTAGE IN LOW VOLTAGE SIDE 6 7 8 CC LED Vcc CLAMPING CAPACITOR LIGHT EMITING DIODE SUPPLY VOLTAGE

ABSTRACT An isolated bidirectional full-bridge dcdc converter with high conversion ratio, high output power, and soft start-up capability is proposed in this paper. The use of a capacitor, a diode, and a flyback converter can clamp the voltage spike caused by the current difference between the current-fed inductor and leakage inductance of the isolation transformer, and can reduce the current flowing through the active switches at the current-fed side. Operational principle of the proposed converter is first described, and then, the design equation is derived. A 1.5-kW prototype with low-side voltage of 48 V and high-side voltage of 360 V has been implemented, from which experimental results have verified its feasibility.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. 1 2 3 4

NAME OF TABLES Status register Pin details Opcode field descriptions PIC 16F877A instruction set

PAGE NO. 46 47 48 48

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. 1.1 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3(a) 3.3(b) 3.3(c) 3.3(d) 3.3(e) 3.4(a) 3.4(b) 3.4(C) 3.4(D) 3.4(E) 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 NAME OF FIGURE RCD snubber circuit Existing system limitation Converter using flyback snubber Circuit diagram Operating modes of step up conversion MODE 2 MODE3 MODE 4 MODE 5 Operating modes of step down conversion MODE2 M0DE3 MODE4 MODE5 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF FORWARD DIRECTION SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF BACKWARD DIRECTION 32 SIMULATION OF INPUT SUPPLY SIMULATION OF INPUT PULSE SIMULATION OF OUTPUT OUTPUT WAVEFORM PROPOSED SYSTEM BLOCKDIAGRAM OPERATION OF PROPOSED SYSTEM POWER SUPPLY DIAGRAM DIODE BRIDGE RECTIFIER
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PAGENO. 4 8 9 10 14 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 28 28 31 33 33 34 34 35 38 39 40

5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 6.1 6.2

VOLTAGE REGULATOR DRIVER CIRCUIT OPTO COUPLER PINN DIAGRAM SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM DARLIGTON PAIR PIC BLOCK DIAGRAM MOSFET switch-IRFP250N

41 42 43 45 45 48 52 59

CHAPTER I 1.INTRODUCTION This paper introduces a flyback snubber to recycle the absorbed energy in the clamping capacitor. The flyback snubber can be operated independently to regulate the voltage of the clamping capacitor; therefore, it can clamp the voltage to a desired level just slightly higher than the voltage across the low-side transformer winding. Since the current does not circulate through the full-bridge switches, their current stresses can be reduced dramatically under heavy-load condition, thus improving system reliability significantly. Additionally, during start-up, the flyback snubber can be controlled to precharge the high-side capacitor, improving feasibility significantly. A bidirectional converter with low-side voltage of 48 V, high-side voltage of 360 V, and power rating of 1.5 kW has been designed and implemented, from which experimental results have verified the discussed performance. 1.1 RENEWABLE DC SYSTEM In Renewable dc-supply systems, batteries are usually required to back-up power for electronic equipment. Their voltage levels are typically much lower than the dc-bus voltage. Bidirectional converters for charging/discharging the batteries are therefore required. For high-power applications, bridge-type bidirectional converters have become an important research topic over the past decade . For raising power level, a dual full-bridge configuration is usually adopted, and its low side and high side are typically configured with boost type and buck-type topologies, respectively. 1.2 DC-DC CONVERTERS Dc-Dc converters are used to convert a fixed voltage DC source into a variable DC source. They are widely used for traction motor control in electric
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automobiles,tolly,cars,marine hoists, forklift trucks and mine haulers. They provide smooth acceleration control, high efficiency and fast dynamic response .DC converters can be used in regenerative braking of dc motors to return energy back into the supply, and this feature results in energy savings for transportation system with frequent stops. Dc converters are used in dc voltage regulators and also used in conjunction with an inductor to generate a dc current source especially for the current source inverter. 1.2.1 BI-DIRECTIONAL OPERATION The system can be operated bi-directionally with respect to the direction of power flow. In forward mode of operation it converts low voltage dc to high voltage dc. This time it acts as a boost converter. In reverse mode of operation it converts high voltage dc to low voltage dc and store in the renewable dc systems. This time it acts as a buck converter. 1.2.2 NEED FOR SNUBBER CIRCUITS The major concerns of these studies include reducing switching loss, reducing voltage and current stresses, and reducing conduction loss due to circulation current. A more severe issue is due to leakage inductance of the isolation transformer, which will result in high voltage spike during switching transition. Additionally, the current freewheeling due to the leakage inductance will increase conduction loss and reduce effective duty cycle. An alternative approach is to precharge the leakage inductance to raise its current level up to that of the current-fed inductor, which can reduce their current difference and, in turn, reduce voltage spike. However, since the current level varies with load condition, it is hard to tune the switching timing diagram to match these two currents. Thus, a passive or an active clamp circuit is still needed. An active commutation principle was published to control the current of leakage inductance; however, clamping circuits are additionally required. Passive and active clamping circuits have been
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proposed to suppress the voltage spikes due to the current difference between the current-fed inductor and leakage inductance of the isolation transformer. 1.2.2.1 SNUBBER CIRCUITS Switching devices and circuit components may fail due to the following reasons. 1. Overheating thermal failure 2. Over current 3. Overvoltage usually happens during turn-off 4. Switching loss excessive switching loss is a major contributing factor of Overheating. Power electronic circuits and their switching devices and components can be protected from over current by placing fuses at suitable locations. Heat sinks, fins andfans are used to take the excess heat away from switching devices and other components.Snubber circuits are required to limit dv/dt,di/dt and overvoltage during turn-on and turnoff. It consists of a fast recovery diode in series with a parallel combination of snubber capacitor and a resistor. The leakage inductance current of primary winding finds a low impedance path through the snubber diode to the snubber capacitor. It can be seen that the diode end of snubber capacitor will be height potential. To check the excessive voltage across the snubber capac]]itor a resistor is putting across it. Under steady state operation the resistor dissipate the leakage flux energy 1.2.2.2 RCD SNUBBER CIRCUITS

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Figure1.1 RCD snubber circuits RCD passive snubber to clamp the voltage, and the energy absorbed in the clamping capacitor is dissipated on the resistor, thus resulting in lower efficiency. A buck converter was employed to replace an RCD passive snubber, but it still needs complex clamping circuits. A simple active clamping circuit was proposed, which suits for bidirectional converters. However, its resonant current increases the current stress on switches significantly. This simplest approach is employing an proposed a topology to achieve soft-starting capability, but it is not suitable for step-down operation. 1.2.2.3 FLYBACK SNUBBER CIRCUIT The flyback snubbed to recycle the absorbed energy in the clamping capacitor. The flyback snubber can be operated independently to regulate the voltage of the clamping capacitor; therefore, it can clamp the voltage to a desired level just slightly higher than the voltage across the low-side transformer winding. Since the current does not circulate through the full-bridge switches, their current stresses can be reduced dramatically under heavy-load condition, thus improving system reliability significantly. Additionally, during start-up, the flyback snubber can be controlled to precharge the high-side capacitor, improving feasibility significantly.

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1.2.3 CURRENT FED AND VOLTAGE FED SWITCHES The power MOSFETS are used as the switching devices. 9 MOSFETS are used in this particular unit. The low voltage side switches are called as current fed switches and the high voltage side switches are called as voltage fed switches .the snubber unit is located at the low voltage side, because of limiting the inrush current flows through the circuits. 1.3 BUCK-BOOST OPERATION The boost conversion takes place during the forward mode of operation of device. It converts the low voltage dc to high voltage dc in accordance with the demand at load. Similarly the buck conversion takes place during the reverse mode of operation. When demand at the load is low, it reduces the excess current and stores the low current at the renewable supply systems.

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CHAPTR II 2. LITERATURE REVIEW In renewable dc-supply systems, batteries are usually required to back-up power for electronic equipment. Their voltage levels are typically much lower than the dc-bus voltage. Bidirectional converters for charging/discharging the batteries are therefore required. For high-power applications, bridge-type bidirectional converters have become an important research topic over the past decade . For raising power level, a dual full-bridge configuration is usually adopted, and its low side and high side are typically configured with boost type and buck-type topologies, respectively. The major concerns of these studies include reducing switching loss, reducing voltage and current stresses, and reducing conduction loss due to circulation current. A more severe issue is due to leakage inductance of the isolation transformer, which will result in high voltage spike during switching transition. Additionally, the current freewheeling due to the leakage inductance will increase conduction loss and reduce effective duty cycle. An alternative approach is to precharge the leakage inductance to raise its current level up to that of the current-fed inductor, which can reduce their current difference and, in turn, reduce voltage spike. However, since the current level varies with load condition, it is hard to tune the switching timing diagram to match these two currents. Thus, a passive or an active clamp circuit is still needed. An active commutation principle was published to control the current of leakage inductance; however, clamping circuits are additionally required. Passive and active clamping circuits have been proposed to suppress the voltage spikes due to the current difference between the current-fed inductor and leakage inductance of the isolation transformer. The simplest approach is employing an RCD passive snubber to clamp the voltage, and the energy absorbed in the clamping capacitor is
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dissipated on the resistor, thus resulting in lower efficiency. A buck converter was employed to replace an RCD passive snubber, but it still needs complex clamping circuits. A simple active clamping circuit was proposed which suits for bidirectional converters. However, its resonant current increases the current stress on switches significantly. The proposed a topology to achieve soft-starting capability, but it is not suitable for step-down operation. This paper introduces a flyback snubber to recycle the absorbed energy in the clamping capacitor. The flyback snubber can be operated independently to regulate the voltage of the clamping capacitor; therefore, it can clamp the voltage to a desired level just slightly higher than the voltage across the low-side transformer winding. Since the current does not circulate through the full-bridge switches, their current stresses can be reduced dramatically under heavy-load condition, thus improving system reliability significantly. Additionally, during start-up, the flyback snubber can be controlled to precharge the high-side capacitor, improving feasibility significantly. A bidirectional converter with low-side voltage of 48 V, high-side voltage of 360 V, and power rating of 1.5 kW has been designed and implemented, from which experimental results have verified the discussed performance. 2.1 CONVERTER USING SNUBBER DC-DC Converters are being increasingly needed for applications such as battery charge/discharge systems uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) hybrid electric vehicles, aero power systems, a and etc. Converter consists of many switching circuits according to the needs. So there will be the chance for voltage drops and voltage spikes during the switching process. In order to avoid these

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switching losses we are using snubber circuits. Snubber circuits are required to limit dv/dt,di/dt and overvoltage during turn-on and turnoff. 2.3 EXISTING SYSTEM LIMITATION In earlier literature we are using an RCD passive snubber to clamp the voltage, and the energy absorbed in the clamping capacitor is dissipated on the resistor, thus resulting in lower efficiency.

Figure 2.1 RCD Snubber A buck converter was employed to replace an RCD passive snubber, but it still needs complex clamping circuits. A simple active clamping circuit was proposed which suits for bidirectional converters. However, its resonant current increases the current stress on switches significantly.

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CHAPTER III 3.1 PROPOSED SYSTEM MERITS There is no dissipation of energy as that of RCD circuits. Circuit complexity is reduced. Switching losses are reduced. The energy losses are flyback to the system directly, so the efficiency is improved. It can work in forward and reverse direction. 3.2 CONVERTER USING FLYBACK SNUBBER Here we are replacing the RCD snubber with a flyback snubber as shown in the figure. The flyback snubber to recycle the absorbed energy in the clamping capacitor. The flyback snubber can be operated independently to regulate the voltage of the clamping capacitor; therefore, it can clamp the voltage to a desired level just slightly higher than the voltage across the low-side transformer winding. Since the current does not circulate through the full-bridge switches, their current stresses can be reduced dramatically under heavy-load condition, thus improving system reliability significantly.

Figure 3.1converter using flyback snubber


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3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Converter is the most commonly used SMPS circuit for low output power applications where the output voltage needs to be isolated from the input main supply. The output power of fly-back type SMPS circuits may vary from few watts to less than 100 watts. The overall circuit topology of this converter is considerably simpler than other SMPS circuits. Input to the circuit is generally unregulated dc voltage obtained by rectifying the utility ac voltage followed by a simple capacitor filter. The circuit can offer single or multiple isolated output voltages and can operate over wide range of input voltage variation. In respect of energy-efficiency, fly-back power supplies are inferior to many other SMPS circuits but its simple topology and low cost makes it popular in low output power range. Here we are using a flyback snubber circuit to avoid the switching losses and work on both boost and buck operation.While using this converter the losses which are present in RCD passive snubber circuit is reduced .Hence we can use this type of dc-dc converters in high power application. 3.2.2 DESCRIPTION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure 3.2 operation of isolated bidirectional full bridge dc-dc converter with flyback snubber
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The proposed isolated bidirectional full-bridge dcdc converter with a flyback snubber is shown above. The converter is operated with two modes: buck mode and boost mode. Fig. 1 consists of a current-fed switch bridge, a flyback snubber at the low-voltage side, and a voltage-fed bridge at the high-voltage side. Inductor Lm performs output filtering when power flows from the high-voltage side to the batteries, which is denoted as a buck mode. On the other hand, it works in boost mode when power is transferred from the batteries to the high-voltage side. Furthermore, clamp branch capacitor CC and diode DC are used to absorb the current difference between current-fed inductor Lm and leakage inductance Lll and Llh of isolation transformer Tx during switching commutation. The flyback snubber can be independently controlled to regulate VC to the desired value, which is just slightly higher than VAB. Thus, the voltage stress of switchesM1M4 can be limited to a low level. The major merits of the proposed converter configuration include no spike current circulating through the power switches and clamping the voltage across switches M1M4, improving system reliability significantly. Note that high spike current can result in charge migration, over current density, and extra magnetic force, which will deteriorate in MOSFET carrier density, channel width, and wire bonding and, in turn, increase its conduction resistance. A bidirectional dcdc converter has two types of conversions: step-up conversion (boost mode) and step-down conversion (buck mode). In boost mode, switches M1M4 are controlled, and the body diodes of switches M5M8 are used as a rectifier. In buck mode, switches M5M8 are controlled, and the body diodes of switches M1M4 operate as a rectifier. To simplify the steady-state analysis, several assumptions are made, which are as follows.

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1) All components are ideal. The transformer is treated as an ideal transformer associated with leakage inductance. 2) Inductor Lm is large enough to keep current iL constant over a switching period. 3) Clamping capacitor CC is much larger than parasitic capacitance of switches M1M8 . A. Step-Up Conversion In boost mode, switches M1M4 are operated like a boost converter, where switch pairs (M1, M2) and (M3 , M4 ) are turned ON to store energy in Lm. At the high-voltage side, the body diodes of switches M5M8 will conduct to transfer power to VHV. When switch pair (M1 , M2) or (M3 , M4 ) is switched to (M1 , M4) or (M2 , M3 ), the current difference iC (= iL ip ) will charge capacitor CC , and then, raise ip up to iL . The clamp branch is mainly used to limit the transient voltage imposed on the current-fed side switches. Moreover, the flyback converter can be controlled to charge the high-voltage-side capacitor to avoid over current. The clamp branch and the flyback snubber are activated during both start-up and regular boost operation modes. A non phase-shift PWM is used to control the circuit to achieve smooth transition from start-up to regular boost operation mode. Referring to Fig. 1, the average power PC transferred to CC can be determined as follows: PC = 1/2CC [(iLZo) 2 + 2iLZoVC(R)] fs Where Zo = (Leq/CC) Leq = Lll + Llh (N2P/N2S) .. (3.2) .. (3.3) .. (3.1)

VC (R) stands for a regulated VC voltage, which is close to (VHV (NP /NS)), fs is the switching frequency, and Lm _Leq. Power PC will be transferred to the highside voltage source through the flyback snubber, and the snubber will regulate clamping capacitor voltage VC to VC (R) within one switching cycle Ts (=1/fs ).
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Note that the flyback snubber does not operate over the interval of inductance current ip increasing toward iL. The processed power PC by the flyback snubber is typically around 5% of the full-load power for low-voltage applications. With the flyback snubber, the energy absorbed in CC will not flow through switches M1 M4, which can reduce their current stress dramatically when Leq is significant. Theoretically, it can reduce the current stress from 2iL to iL . The peak voltage VC (P) of VC will impose on M1M4 and it can be determined as follows: VC (P) = iL (M) Zo + VHV (Np/Ns) .. (3.4) Where IL (M) is the maximum inductor current of iL, which is related to the maximum load condition. Additionally, for reducing conduction loss, the high-side switchesM5M8 are operated with synchronous switching. Reliable operation and high efficiency of the proposed converter are verified on a prototype designed for alternative energy applications. The operation waveforms of step-up conversion are shown in Fig. 2.Adetailed description of a half-switching cycle operation is shown as follows. OPERATION MODES OF STEP-UP CONVERSION Mode 1 [t0 t < t1 ]:

Figure 3.3(a) Operation mode of step-up conversion mode 1

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In this mode, all of the four switches M1M4 are turned ON. Inductor Lm is charged by VLV. inductor current iL increases linearly at a slope of VLV /Lm, and the primary winding of the transformer is short-circuited. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.3..3(a). Mode 2 [t1 t < t2 ] At t1 , M1 and M4 remain conducting, while M2 and M3 are turned OFF. Clamping diode Dc conducts until the current difference (iL (t2) ip (t2)) drops to zero at t = t2 . Moreover, the body diodes of switch pair (M5,M8) are conducting to transfer power. During this interval, the current difference (IL (t) ip (t)) flows into clamping capacitor CC. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.3(b).

Figure 3.3(b) Operation mode of step-up conversion mode 2 Mode 3 [t2 t < t3]: At t2, clamping diode Dc stops conducting, and the flyback snubber starts to operate. At this time, clamping capacitor Cc is discharging, and flyback inductor is storing energy. Switches M1 and M4 still stay in the ON state, while M2 and M3 remain OFF. The body diodes of switch pair (M5,M8) remain ON to transfer power. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.3(c).

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Figure 3.3(c) Operation mode of step-up conversion mode 3 Mode 4 [t3 t<t4] At t3, the energy stored in flyback inductor is transferred to the high-voltage side. Over this interval, the flyback snubber will operate independently to regulate VC to VC (R) . On the other hand, switches M1 and M4 and diodes D5 and D8 are still conducting to transfer power from VLV to VHV. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (d).

Figure 3.3(d) Operation mode of step-up conversion mode 4

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Mode 5 [t4 t < t5] At t4, capacitor voltage VC has been regulated to VC (R), and the snubber is idle. Over this interval, the main power stage is still transferring power from VLV to VHV. It stops at t5 and completes a half-switching cycle operation.

Figure 3.3(e) Operation mode of step-up conversion mode 5 OPERATION MODES OF STEP-DOWN CONVERSION In the analysis, leakage inductance of the transformer at the low voltage side is reflected to the high-voltage side, as shown in Fig. 3.3(d), in which equivalent inductance Leq equals (Llh + Lll (N2 P/N2 S )). This circuit is known as a phaseshift full-bridge converter. In the step-down conversion, switches M5M8 are operated like a buck converter, in which switch pairs (M5 , M8 ) and (M6 , M7 ) are alternately turned ON to transfer power from VHV to VLV . SwitchesM1M4 is operated with synchronous switching to reduce conduction loss. For alleviating leakage inductance effect on voltage spike, switchesM5M8 are operated with phase-shift manner. Although, there is no need to absorb the current difference between iL and ip , capacitor CC can help to clamp the voltage ringing due to Leq equals (Llh + Lll (N2 P/N2 S )) and parasitic capacitance of M1M4 .The operation
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waveforms of step-down conversion are shown in Fig. 3.3(e). A detailed description of a half-switching cycle operation is shown as follows. Mode 1 [t0 t < t1 ]: In this mode, M5 and M8 are turned ON, while M6 and M7 are in the OFF state. The high-side voltage VHV is immediately exerted on the transformer, and the whole voltage, in fact, is exerted on the equivalent inductance Leq and causes the current to rise with the slope of VHV /Leq . With the transformer current increasing linearly toward the load current level at t1 , the switch pair (M1 , M4 ) are conducting to transfer power, and the voltage across the transformer terminals on the current-fed side changes immediately to reflect the voltage from the voltage-fed side, i.e., (VHV (Np /Ns )). The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.3.4 (a).

Figure 3.4(a) The equivalent circuit of step down conversion Mode 2 [t1 t<t2 ] At t1 ,M8 remains conducting, whileM5 is turned OFF. The body diode of M6 then starts to conduct the freewheeling leakage current. The transformer

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current reaches the load-current level at t1 , and VAB rise to the reflected voltage (VHV (Np /Ns )). Clamping diode Dc starts to conduct the resonant current of Leq and the clamp capacitor CC . This process ends at t2 when the resonance goes through a half resonant cycle and is blocked by the clamping diode Dc . The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.4(b).

Figure 3.4(b) The equivalent circuit of step down conversion mode 2 Mode 3 [t2 t < t3]: At t2, with the body diode of switchM6 conducting, M6 can be turned ON

Figure 3.4(c) The equivalent circuit of step down conversion mode 3


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with zero-voltage switching (ZVS). The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig 3.4(c). Mode 4 [t3 t<t4]: At t3 ,M6 remains conducting, whileM8 is turned OFF. The body diode of M7 then starts to conduct the freewheeling leakage current. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (d).

Figure 3.4(d) The equivalent circuit of step down conversion mode 4 Mode 5 [t4 t < t5 ] At t4 , with the body diode of switch M7 conducting, M7 can be turned ON

Figure 3.4(e) The equivalent circuit of step down conversion mode 5

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with ZVS. Over this interval,the active switches change to the other pair of diagonal switches, and the voltage on the transformer reverses its polarity.

Figure 3.5 graphical representation of step down transformer out put

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Figure3.6 Graphical representation of step up transformer out put

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CHAPTER IV 4. MATLAB SIMULATION OUTPUT OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 4.1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM FORWARD DIRECTION:

Figure 4.1 schematic diagram at forward direction

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REVERSE DIRECTION

Figure 4.2 schematic diagram at backward direction


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4.2 SIMULATION OUTPUT INPUT VOLTAGE:

Figure 4.3 simulation output of input voltage PULSE

Figure 4.4 simulation output of pulse


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OUTPUT VOLTAGE

Figure 4.5 simulation output of output voltage OUTPUT WAVEFORM

Figure 4.6 simulation output waveform


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CHAPTER V IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 5.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

DC SOURCE (BATTERY)

DC-DC CONVERTER WITH FLYBACK SNUBBER

DC BUS SYSTEM

DRIVER UNIT

SUPPLY UNIT PULSE GENERATING UNIT

Figure 5.1 block diagram of proposed system


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5.2 CONTENT OF BLOCK DIAGRAM 5.2.1. DC SUPPLY SOURCE The source is a renewable dc source, usually a rechargable battery. Initially 230 V AC supply is reduced to 50V with the help of a step down transformer having a capacity of 1A.This AC supply is converted to a DC voltage by using a diode bridge rectifier. Output from the rectifier unit having harmonic contents, so we provided the filter circuit, filter circuit is used to reduce the harmonics. Here we can use the electrolytic capacitor. This eliminates the harmonics from both voltage and current signals. 5.2.2. DC-DC CONVERTER WITH A FLYBACK SNUBBER It includes flyback snubber circuit, inverter unit, isolation transformer and rectifier unit. Here in our project for full wave rectification we use bridge rectifier. Two diodes(say D2 & D3) are conducting while the other two diodes (D1 & D4) are in off state during the period t = 0 to T/2.Accordingly for the negative cycle of the input the conducting diodes are D1 & D4 .Thus the polarity across the load is the same. DC to AC converters are known as inverters. The function of an inverter is to change a dc input voltage to a symmetrical ac output voltage of desired magnitude and frequency. The output voltage could be fixed or variable at a fixed or variable frequency. A variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the input dc voltage and maintaining the gain of the inverter constant. 5.2.3. DC BUS It is the high voltage side of the system. The voltage in the bus system determines the mode of operation of the circuit, that is the step up and step down

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convertion.The dc voltage level in the bus system may be around 360V and the input voltage level is 48V. 5.2.4. DRIVER UNIT The driver circuit forms the most important part of the hardware unit because it acts as the backbone of the inverter as it gives the triggering pulse to the switches in the proper sequence. This driver circuit, which produces amplified, pulses for the Mosfets power circuit, which uses emitter coupled amplifier circuit to boost the triggering pulse low voltage to the high voltage. It is used to provide 9 to 20 volts to switch the MOSFET Switches of the inverter. Driver amplifies the voltage from microcontroller which is 5volts. Also it has an optocoupler for isolating purpose. So damage to MOSFET is prevented. 5.2.5.PULSE GENERATOR UNIT Here we have used PIC microcontroller(PIC 16F877A) to make a switching signal.The Pic microcontroller are driven via the driver circuit so as to boost the voltage triggering signal to 9V.To avoid any damage to micro controller due to direct passing of 230V supply to it we provide an isolator in the form of optocoupler in the same driver 5.2.6. AC SUPPLY UNIT Here we are using a stepdown transformer 230V-12V in order to provide proper supply to the driver and the pulse generating unit. In order to obtain a dc voltage of 0 Hz, we have to use a low pass filter. So that a capacitive filter circuit is used where a capacitor is connected at the rectifier output& a dc is obtained across it. The filtered waveform is essentially a dc voltage with negligible ripples & it is ultimately fed to the load.
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5.3 DESCRIPTION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Figure 5.2operation of isolated bidirectional full bridge dc-dc converter with flyback snubber The proposed isolated bidirectional full-bridge dcdc converter with a flyback snubber is shown in Fig.1. The converter is operated with two modes: buck mode and boost mode. Fig.1 consists of a current-fed switch bridge, a flyback snubber at the low-voltage side, and a voltage-fed bridge at the high-voltage side. Inductor Lm performs output filtering when power flows from the high-voltage side to the batteries, which is denoted as a buck mode. On the other hand, it works in boost mode when power is transferred from the batteries to the high-voltage side. Furthermore, clamp branch capacitor CC and diode DC are used to absorb the current difference between current-fed inductor Lm and leakage inductance Lll and Llh of isolation transformer Tx during switching commutation. The flyback snubber can be independently controlled to regulate VC to the desired value, which is just slightly higher than VAB . Thus, the voltage stress of switchesM1M4 can be limited to a low level. The major merits of the proposed
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converter configuration include no spike current circulating through the power switches and clamping the voltage across switches M1M4, improving system reliability significantly. Note that high spike current can result in charge migration, over 5.3.1POWER SUPPLY DIAGRAM
POWER SUPPLY
JP1 3 2 1 POWER PIN D1 + 1 VIN VOUT U1 7805 3 R1 220 ohm D2 +5v

C1 470 uF

GND

C2 100 uF

C3 0.1 uF

Figure 5.3 power supply diagram 5.3.2 TRANSFORMER Mainly there are two types of transformers 1) 230v-12v 2) Isolation transformer 12v-12v

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5.3.3 DIODE BRIDGE RECTIFIER

Figure 5.4 diode bridge rectifier FEATURES High reverse voltage to 1000V Surge overload ratings to 50 amperes peak Good for printed circuit board assembly Mounting position: Any Weight: 1.20 grams Voltage Range 50 to 1000 Volts CURRENT 1.5 Amperes 5.3.4 FILTERING UNIT Passive filters Passive implementations of linear filters are based on combinations of resistors (R), inductors (L) and capacitors (C). These types are collectively known as passive filters, because they do not depend upon an external power supply and/or they do not contain active components such as transistors. Active filters Active filters are implemented using a combination of passive and active (amplifying) components, and require an outside power source. Operational
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amplifiers are frequently used in active filter designs. These can have high Q factor, and can achieve resonance without the use of inductors. However, their upper frequency limit is limited by the bandwidth of the amplifiers used.

5.3.5 Voltage Regulators

Figure 5.5 Voltage regulator Description The KA78XX/KA78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulator are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. Features Output Current up to 1A Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection
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5.3.6 DRIVER CIRCUIT

Figure 5.6 Driver circuit unit It is used to provide 9 to 20 volts to switch the MOSFET Switches of the inverter. Driver amplifies the voltage from microcontroller which is 5volts. Also it has an optocoupler for isolating purpose. So damage to MOSFET is prevented. The driver circuit forms the most important part of the hardware unit because it acts as the backbone of the inverter because it gives the triggering pulse to the switches in the proper sequence. The diagram given above the circuit operation of the driver unit. 5.3.6.1 COMPONENTS A. Optocoupler B. Capacitor C. Supply D. Diode E. Resistor

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5.3.7 OPTOCOUPLER Optocoupler is also termed as optoisolator. Optoisolator a device which contains a optical emitter, such as an LED, neon bulb, or incandescent bulb, and an optical receiving element, such as a resistor that changes resistance with variations in light intensity, or a transistor, diode, or other device that conducts differently when in the presence of light. These devices are used to isolate the control voltage from the controlled circuit. Uses of optocoupler Basically the simplest way to visualize an optocoupler is in terms of its two main components: the input LED and the output transistor or diac. As the two are electrically isolated, this gives a fair amount of flexibility when it comes to connecting them into circuit.

Figure 5.7 Optocoupler All we really have to do is work out a convenient way of turning the input LED on and off, and using the resulting switching of the phototransistor/ diac to
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generate an output waveform or logic signal that is compatible with our output circuitry. For example: just like a discrete LED, you can drive an optocouplers input LED from a transistor or logic gate/buffer. All thats needed is a series resistor to set the current level when the LED is turned on. And regardless of whether you use a transistor or logic buffer to drive the LED, you still have the option of driving it in pull down or pull up mode. 5.3.8 BUFFER IC The CD4049UB and CD4050B devices are inverting and non-inverting hex buffers, respectively, and feature logiclevel conversion using only one supply voltage (VCC). The input-signal high level (VIH) can exceed the VCC supply voltage when these devices are used for logic-level conversions. These devices are intended for use as CMOS to DTL/TTL converters and can drive directly two DTL/TTL loads. (VCC =

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5.3.8.1 PIN DIAGRAM

Figure 5.8 Pin diagram of buffer IC 5.3.8.2 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS

CD4049UB Figure 5.9 Schematic diagram

CD4050B

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5.3.8.3 Features CD4049UB Inverting CD4050B Non-Inverting High Sink Current for Driving 2 TTL Loads High-To-Low Level Logic Conversion 100% Tested for Quiescent Current at 20V Temperature Range; 100nA at 18V and 25oC 5V, 10V and 15V Parametric Ratings 5.3.8.4 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Supply voltage (v+ to v-). DC input current, any one input. -0.5V to 20V 10mA

5.3.8.5 RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS Temparature range.. 5.3.8.6 APPLICATIONS CMOS to DTL/TTL Hex Converter CMOS Current Sink or Source Driver CMOS High-To-Low Logic Level Converter. 5.3.9 TRANSISTOR The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its development in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionized the field of
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-55 to 125

electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

5.3.9.1 TRANSISTOR AS AN AMPLIFIER First we must connect it appropriately to the supply voltages, input signal, and load, so it can be used. A useful mode of operation is the common emitter configuration. The emitter voltage is always 0.7V below Vb, so if Vb changes by Vin, so does Ve. Thus the emitter current increases by Vin/Re. But Ic=-Ie-Ie, so it also increases by Vin/Re. Thus the voltage at the collector will increase by -Vin RL/Re. (that is, it will decrease). In this case is RL/Re10, so the circuit amplifies the input voltage signal by a factor of -10. In general the gain is RL/Re. the negative sign indicates that a increase in input voltage leads to a decrease in output voltage. This is an example of an inverting amplifier. 5.3.9.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and power. It is composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the
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controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. 5.3.9.3 DARLINGTON PAIR CIRCUIT Transistors are an essential component in a sensor circuit. Usually transistors are arranged as a pair, known as a DARLINGTON PAIR.A Darlington pair is used to amplify weak signals so that they can be clearly detected by another circuit or a computer/microprocessor.

Figure 5.10 Darlington pair circuit

5.3.9.4 TRANSISTOR-2N2222 NPN switching transistors 2N2222; 2N2222A 5.3.9.5 FEATURES High current (max. 800 mA) Low voltage (max. 40 V).

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DESCRIPTION NPN switching transistor in a TO-18 metal package. PNP complement: 2N2907A.

5.3.9.6 PIN Description 1 Emitter 2 Base 3 Collector, connected to case 5.3.9.7 APPLICATIONS Linear amplification and switching Used as amplifier High speed applications Low power application Linear amplification Switching Fabrication of ICs

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APPENDIX I 6.1 PIC16F877A MICROCONTROLLER We are using PIC 16F877A for producing switching pulses to multilevel inverter. So as to use those vectors which do not generate any common mode voltage at the inverter poles. .This eliminates common mode voltage

Also it is used to eliminate capacitor voltage unbalancing. The microcontroller are driven via the driver circuit so as to boost the voltage triggering signal to 9V.To avoid any damage to micro controller due to direct passing of 230V supply to it we provide an isolator in the form of optocoupler in the same driver circuit. 6.1.1 FEATURES OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER The microcontroller has the following features: 1. High-Performance RISC CPU: Only 35 single- word instructions to learn .Hence it is user friendly. Easy to use All single - cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle Operating instruction speed: cycle 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data DC 20 MHz clock input DC 200 ns

Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM), Up to Memory. It is huge one 2. Peripheral Features: Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter synchronization
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with 8 bit presaler. It is used for

Timer1:16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during Sleep Timer2:8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler Two Capture, Compare and some PWM modules, having following features Capture is 16-bit, max. Resolution is 12.5 ns Compare is 16-bit, max. Resolution is 200 ns PWM maximum resolution that is 10-bit Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master mode) and I2C(Master/Slave) Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter with 9 bit address Parallel Slave Port (PSP) controls 3 .Analog features: It has an analog Comparator module with: (1)Two analog comparators (2) Programmable on-chip voltage input multiplexing thus 3 parts from device reference (VREF) module (3) Programmable inputs and internal voltage reference 8 bits wide with external RD, WR and CS

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6.1.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 6.1 block diagram of PIC

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APPENDIX II 6.2 MEMORY ORGANIZATION: There are three memory blocks in each of these PICmicro MCUs. The Program Memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that concurrent access can occur 6.2.1PROGRAM MEMORY ORGANIZATION The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. 6.2.2 DATA MEMORY ORGANIZATION: The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 (STATUS<6>) and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits. Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special Function Registers. Some high use Special Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in another bank for code reduction and quicker access. GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE The register file can be accessed either directly, or indirectly through the File Select Register FSR.
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SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired operation of the device. These registers are implemented as static RAM. The Special Function Registers can be classified into two sets; core (CPU) and peripheral. STATUS REGISTER: The STATUS register contains the arithmetic status of the ALU, the RESET status and the bank select bits for data memory. Bits RP1 (STATUS<6>) and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits.

TABLE 1 I/O PORTS: PIC16F877 has 5 PORTS, named PORTA through PORTE. All are bidirectional ports. Each ports are having corresponding data direction registers i.e. TRISA for PORTA etc. Setting a TRISx bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORT pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a hi-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISx bit (=0) will make the corresponding PORTx pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the

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PORTx register reads the status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are read, the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. Port Pins are multiplexed with peripherals Eg.PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and analog VREF input. All PORT pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. PORTA and PORTE requires additional register configuration to select the ports as ANALOG or DIGITAL. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the control bits in the ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register1). Pin Details: PORT PORTA PORTB PORTC PORTD PORTE PINS 6 8 8 8 3 TABLE 2

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APPENDIX III

6.3 INTERRUPTS The PIC16F87X family has up to 14 sources of interrupt. The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual and global interrupt enable bits. A global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>) enables (if set) all un-masked interrupts or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. When bit GIE is enabled, and an interrupts flag bit and mask bit are set, the interrupt will vector immediately. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. Individual interrupt bits are set regardless of the status of the GIE bit. The GIE bit is cleared on reset. The return from interrupt instruction, RETFIE, exits the interrupt routine, as well as sets the GIE bit, which re-enables interrupts. The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register. The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers, PIR1 and PIR2. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special function registers, PIE1 and PIE2, and the peripheral interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON. When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE bit is cleared to disable any further interrupt, the return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts. For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency depends when the interrupt event occurs. The
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latency is the same for one or two cycle instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit.

TABLE 3 OPCODE FIELD DESCRIPTIONS

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TABLE 4 PIC 16F877A INSTRUCTION SET

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APPENDIX IV 6.4 MOSFET SWITCH-IRFP250N

Figure 6.2 MOSFET switch-IRFP250N The metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-

FET,or MOSFET)isa transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. Although the MOSFET is a four-terminal device with source (S), gate (G), drain (D), and body (B) terminals, the body (or substrate) of the MOSFET often is connected to the source terminal, making it a three-terminal device like other fieldeffect transistors. The MOSFET is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common.

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In enhancement mode MOSFETs, a voltage drop across the oxide induces a conducting channel between the source and drain contacts via the field effect. The term "enhancement mode" refers to the increase of conductivity with increase in oxide field that adds carriers to the channel, also referred to as the inversion layer. The channel can contain electrons (called an nMOSFET or nMOS), or holes (called a pMOSFET or pMOS), opposite in type to the substrate, so nMOS is made with a p-type substrate, and pMOS with an n-type substrate (see article on semiconductor devices). In the less common depletion mode MOSFET, described further later on, the channel consists of carriers in a surface impurity layer of opposite type to the substrate, and conductivity is decreased by application of a field that depletes carriers from this surface layer.

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CHAPTER VII 7.1 CONCLUSION This paper has presented an isolated bidirectional full-bridge dcdc converter with a flyback snubber for high-power applications. The flyback snubber can alleviate the voltage spike caused by the current difference between the current-fed inductor and leakage inductance of the isolation transformer, and can reduce the current flowing through the active switches at the current fed side by 50%. Since the current does not circulate through the full-bridge switches, their current stresses can be reduced dramatically under heavy-load condition, thus improving system reliability significantly. The flyback snubber can be also controlled to achieve a soft start-up feature. It has been successful in suppressing inrush current which is usually found in a boost-mode start-up transition. A 1.5kW isolated full-bridge bidirectional dcdc converter with a flyback snubber has been implemented to verify its feasibility.

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CHAPTER VIII 8.1 REFERENCES 1. B. Bai, C. Mi, and S. Gargies, The short-time-scale transient processes in highvoltage and high-power isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 26482656, Nov. 2008. 2. H.Bai andC.Mi, Eliminate reactive power and increase system efficiency of isolated bidirectional dual-active-bridge DC-DC converters using novel dualphase-shift control, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 3. R. Huang and S. K. Mazumder, A soft-switching scheme for an isolated DC/DC converter with pulsating DC output for a three-phase highfrequency- link PWM converter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 22762288, Oct. 2009.vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 29052914, Dec. 2008. 4. F. Krismer and J. W. Kolar, Accurate small-signal model for the digital control of an automotive bidirectional dual active bridge, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 27562768, Dec. 2009. 5. G. Ma, W. Qu, and Y. Liu, A zero-voltage-switching bidirectional DC-DC converter with state analysis and soft-switching-oriented design consideration, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 21742184, Jun. 2009. 6. H. Xiao and S. Xie, A ZVS bidirectional dc-dc converter with phased shift plus PWM control scheme, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 813 823, Mar. 2008.

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