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Electrical substation

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and its voltage may change in several steps. Substations may be owned and operated by a transmission or generation electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally substations are un-attended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision and control. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.

Elements of a substation
Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations themselves do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in specialpurpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions. Where a substation has a metallic fence, it must be properly grounded (UK: earthed) to protect people from high voltages that may occur during a fault in the network. Earth faults at a substation can cause a ground potential rise. Currents flowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause metal objects to have a significantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet; this touch potential presents a

Elements of a substation
A:Primary power lines' side B:Secondary power lines' side 1.Primary power lines 2.Ground wire 3.Overhead lines 4.Transformer for measurement of electric voltage 5.Disconnect switch 6.Circuit breaker 7.Current transformer 8.Lightning arrester 9.Main transformer 10.Control building 11.Security fence 12.Secondary power lines

Main contents in a Sub-station:Indoor Oil Filled Transformer

Transformer oil or insulating oil is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. It is used in oil-filled transformers, some types of high voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of high voltage switches and circuit breakers. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant.


1 Explanation 2 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 3 Testing and oil quality 4 On-site testing 5 References 6 External links

The oil helps cool the transformer. Because it also provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts, transformer oil must remain stable at high temperatures for an extended period. To improve cooling of large power transformers, the oil-filled tank may have external radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Very large or highpower transformers (with capacities of thousands of kVA) may also have cooling fans, oil pumps, and even oil-to-water heat exchangers. .

Large, high voltage transformers undergo prolonged drying processes, using electrical selfheating, the application of a vacuum, or both to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. This helps prevent corona formation and subsequent electrical breakdown under load. Oil filled transformers with a conservator (an oil tank above the transformer) may have a gas detector relay (Buchholz relay). These safety devices detect the build up of gas inside the transformer due to corona discharge, overheating, or an internal electric arc. On a slow accumulation of gas, or rapid pressure rise, these devices can trip a protective circuit breaker to remove power from the transformer. Transformers without conservators are usually equipped with sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function as the Buchholz relay. The flash point (min) and pour point (max) are 140 C and 6 C respectively. The dielectric strength of new untreated oil is 12 MV/m (RMS) and after treatment it should be >24 MV/m (RMS). Large transformers for indoor use must either be of the dry type, that is, containing no liquid, or use a less-flammable liquid.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

Well into the 1970s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)s were often used as a dielectric fluid since they are not flammable. PCBs do not break down when released into the environment and accumulate in the tissues of plants and animals, where they can have hormone-like effects. When burned, PCBs can form highly toxic products such as furan. Starting in the early 1970s, production and new uses of PCBs have been banned[where?] due to concerns about the accumulation of PCBs and toxicity of their byproducts. In many countries significant programs are in place to reclaim and safely destroy PCB contaminated equipment. Polychlorinated biphenyls were banned in 1979 in the US. Since PCB and transformer oil are miscible in all proportions, and since sometimes the same equipment (drums, pumps, hoses, and so on) was used for either type of liquid, contamination of oil-filled transformers is possible. Under present regulations, concentrations of PCBs exceeding 5 parts per million can cause an oil to be classified as hazardous waste in California (California Code of Regulations, Title 22, section 66261). Throughout the US, PCBs are regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act. As a consequence, field and laboratory testing for PCB contamination is a common practice. Common brand names for PCB liquids include "Askarel", "Inerteen", "Aroclor" and many others. Today, non-toxic, stable silicon-based or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used, where the added expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Combustion-resistant vegetable oil-based dielectric coolants and synthetic pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid (C7, C8) esters are also becoming increasingly common as alternatives to naphthenic mineral oil. Esters are non-toxic to aquatic life, readily biodegradable, and have a lower volatility and a higher flash points than mineral oil.

Testing and oil quality

Transformer oils are subject to electrical and mechanical stresses while a transformer is in operation. In addition there is contamination caused by chemical interactions with windings and other solid insulation, catalyzed by high operating temperature. As a result the original chemical properties of transformer oil changes gradually, rendering it ineffective for its intended purpose after many years. Hence this oil has to be periodically tested to ascertain its basic electrical properties, make sure it is suitable for further use, and ascertain the need for maintenance activities like filtration/regeneration. These tests can be divided into:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Dissolved gas analysis Furan analysis PCB analysis General electrical & physical tests: Color & Appearance Breakdown Voltage Water Content Acidity (Neutralization Value) Dielectric Dissipation Factor Resistivity Sediments & Sludge Interfacial Tension Flash Point Pour Point Density Kinematic Viscosity

The details of conducting these tests are available in standards released by IEC, ASTM, IS, BS, and testing can be done by any of the methods. The Furan and DGA tests are specifically not for determining the quality of transformer oil, but for determining any abnormalities in the internal windings of the transformer or the paper insulation of the transformer, which cannot be otherwise detected without a complete overhaul of the transformer. Suggested intervals for these test are:

General and physical tests - bi-yearly Dissolved gas analysis - yearly Furan testing - once every 2 years, subject to the transformer being in operation for min 5 years.

On-site testing
Some transformer oil tests can be carried out in the field, using portable test apparatus. Other tests, such as dissolved gas, normally require a sample to be sent to a laboratory. Electronic online dissolved gas detectors can be connected to important or distressed transformers to continually monitor gas generation trends.

To determine the insulating property of the dielectric oil, an oil sample is taken from the device under test, and its breakdown voltage is measured on-site according the following test sequence:

In the vessel, two standard-compliant test electrodes with a typical clearance of 2.5 mm are surrounded by the insulating oil. During the test, a test voltage is applied to the electrodes. The test voltage is continuously increased up to the breakdown voltage with a constant slew rate of e.g. 2 kV/s. Breakdown occurs in an electric arc, leading to a collapse of the test voltage. Immediately after ignition of the arc, the test voltage is switched off automatically. Ultra fast switch off is crucial, as the energy that is brought into the oil and is burning it during the breakdown, must be limited to keep the additional pollution by carbonisation as low as possible. The root mean square value of the test voltage is measured at the very instant of the breakdown and is reported as the breakdown voltage. After the test is completed, the insulating oil is stirred automatically and the test sequence is performed repeatedly. The resulting breakdown voltage is calculated as mean value of the individual measurements.

Circuit breaker
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and an internal control power source. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting (opening) the circuit. Contacts are made

of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting the current. Miniature and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts have worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium the arc forms in

Types of circuit breakers

Front panel of a 1250 A air circuit breaker manufactured by ABB. This low voltage power circuit breaker can be withdrawn from its housing for servicing. Trip characteristics are configurable via DIP switches on the front panel.

Many different classifications of circuit breakers can be made, based on their features such as voltage class, construction type, interrupting type, and structural features.
Low voltage circuit breakers

Low voltage (less than 1000 VAC) types are common in domestic, commercial and industrial application, and include:

MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Breakers illustrated above are in this category. MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker)rated current up to 2500 A. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Trip current may be adjustable in larger ratings. Molded Case Circuit Breaker

Low voltage power circuit breakers can be mounted in multi-tiers in low-voltage switchboards or switchgear cabinets.

The characteristics of Low Voltage circuit breakers are given by international standards such as IEC 947. These circuit breakers are often installed in draw-out enclosures that allow removal and interchange without dismantling the switchgear. Large low-voltage molded case and power circuit breakers may have electric motor operators so they can trip (open) and close under remote control. These may form part of an automatic transfer switch system for standby power. Low-voltage circuit breakers are also made for direct-current (DC) applications, such as DC for subway lines. Direct current requires special breakers because the arc is continuousunlike an AC arc, which tends to go out on each half cycle. A direct current circuit breaker has blow-out coils that generate a magnetic field that rapidly stretches the arc. Small circuit breakers are either installed directly in equipment, or are arranged in a breaker panel.

Photo of inside of a circuit breaker

The 10 ampere DIN rail-mounted thermal-magnetic miniature circuit breaker is the most common style in modern domestic consumer units and commercial electrical distribution boards throughout Europe. The design includes the following components:
1. Actuator lever - used to manually trip and reset the circuit breaker. Also indicates the status of the circuit breaker (On or Off/tripped). Most breakers are designed so they can still trip even if the lever is held or locked in the "on" position. This is sometimes referred to as "free trip" or "positive trip" operation. 2. Actuator mechanism - forces the contacts together or apart. 3. Contacts - Allow current when touching and break the current when moved apart. 4. Terminals 5. Bimetallic strip. 6. Calibration screw - allows the manufacturer to precisely adjust the trip current of the device after assembly. 7. Solenoid 8. Arc divider/extinguisher

Magnetic circuit breakers

Magnetic circuit breakers use a solenoid (electromagnet) whose pulling force increases with the current. Certain designs utilize electromagnetic forces in addition to those of the solenoid. The circuit breaker contacts are held closed by a latch. As the current in the solenoid increases beyond the rating of the circuit breaker, the solenoid's pull releases the latch, which lets the contacts open by spring action. Some magnetic breakers incorporate a hydraulic time delay feature using a viscous fluid. A spring restrains the core until the current exceeds the breaker rating. During an overload, the speed of the solenoid motion is restricted by the fluid. The delay

permits brief current surges beyond normal running current for motor starting, energizing equipment, etc. Short circuit currents provide sufficient solenoid force to release the latch regardless of core position thus bypassing the delay feature. Ambient temperature affects the time delay but does not affect the current rating of a magnetic breaker
Thermal magnetic circuit breakers

Thermal magnetic circuit breakers, which are the type found in most distribution boards, incorporate both techniques with the electromagnet responding instantaneously to large surges in current (short circuits) and the bimetallic strip responding to less extreme but longer-term overcurrent conditions. The thermal portion of the circuit breaker provides an "inverse time" response
Common trip breakers

Three pole common trip breaker for supplying a three-phase device. This breaker has a 2 A rating

When supplying a branch circuit with more than one live conductor, each live conductor must be protected by a breaker pole. To ensure that all live conductors are interrupted when any pole trips, a "common trip" breaker must be used. These may either contain two or three tripping mechanisms within one case, or for small breakers, may externally tie the poles together via their operating handles. Two pole common trip breakers are common on 120/240 volt systems where 240 volt loads (including major appliances or further distribution boards) span the two live wires. Three-pole common trip breakers are typically used to supply three-phase electric power to large motors or further distribution boards. Two and four pole breakers are used when there is a need to disconnect multiple phase ACor to disconnect the neutral wire to ensure that no current flows through the neutral wire from other loads connected to the same network when workers may touch the wires during maintenance. Separate circuit breakers must never be used for live and neutral, because if the neutral is disconnected while the live conductor stays connected, a dangerous condition arises: the circuit appears de-energized (appliances don't work), but wires remain live and RCDs don't trip if

someone touches the live wire (because RCDs need power to trip). This is why only common trip breakers must be used when neutral wire switching is needed
Medium-voltage circuit breakers

Medium-voltage circuit breakers rated between 1 and 72 kV may be assembled into metalenclosed switchgear line ups for indoor use, or may be individual components installed outdoors in a substation. Air-break circuit breakers replaced oil-filled units for indoor applications, but are now themselves being replaced by vacuum circuit breakers (up to about 35 kV). Like the high voltage circuit breakers described below, these are also operated by current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. The characteristics of MV breakers are given by international standards such as IEC 62271. Medium-voltage circuit breakers nearly always use separate current sensors and protective relays, instead of relying on built-in thermal or magnetic overcurrent sensors. Medium-voltage circuit breakers can be classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc:

Vacuum circuit breakersWith rated current up to 3000 A, these breakers interrupt the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container. These are generally applied for voltages up to about 35,000 V,[7] which corresponds roughly to the medium-voltage range of power systems. Vacuum circuit breakers tend to have longer life expectancies between overhaul than do air circuit breakers. Air circuit breakersRated current up to 10,000 A. Trip characteristics are often fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Usually electronically controlled, though some models are microprocessor controlled via an integral electronic trip unit. Often used for main power distribution in large industrial plant, where the breakers are arranged in draw-out enclosures for ease of maintenance. SF6 circuit breakers extinguish the arc in a chamber filled with sulfur hexafluoride gas.

Medium-voltage circuit breakers may be connected into the circuit by bolted connections to bus bars or wires, especially in outdoor switchyards. Medium-voltage circuit breakers in switchgear line-ups are often built with draw-out construction, allowing breaker removal without disturbing power circuit connections, using a motor-operated or hand-cranked mechanism to separate the breaker from its enclosure.
High-voltage circuit breakers Main article: High-voltage switchgear Vacuum circuit breaker in H.T panel (Alstom):-

Electrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high-voltage breakers. The definition of high voltage varies but in power transmission work is usually thought to be 72.5 kV or higher, according to a recent definition by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. In substations the protective relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and buses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault. High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc.

Bulk oil Minimum oil Air blast Vacuum SF6

Some of the manufacturers are ABB, GE (General Electric), Tavrida Electric, Alstom, Mitsubishi Electric, Pennsylvania Breaker, Siemens, Toshiba, Konar HVS, BHEL, CGL, Square D (Schneider Electric).

Due to environmental and cost concerns over insulating oil spills, most new breakers use SF6 gas to quench the arc. Circuit breakers can be classified as live tank, where the enclosure that contains the breaking mechanism is at line potential, or dead tank with the enclosure at earth potential. High-voltage AC circuit breakers are routinely available with ratings up to 765 kV. 1200kV breakers were launched by Siemens in November 2011.[8] High-voltage circuit breakers used on transmission systems may be arranged to allow a single pole of a three-phase line to trip, instead of tripping all three poles; for some classes of faults this improves the system stability and availability.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) high-voltage circuit-breakers Main article: Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker

A sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulfur hexafluoride gas to quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level voltages and may be incorporated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. In cold climates, supplemental heating or de-rating of the circuit breakers may be required due to liquefaction of the SF6 gas.

Other breakers
The following types are described in separate articles.

Breakers for protections against earth faults too small to trip an over-current device: o Residual-current device (RCD, formerly known as a residual current circuit breaker) detects current imbalance, but does not provide over-current protection. o Residual current breaker with over-current protection (RCBO) combines the functions of an RCD and an MCB in one package. In the United States and Canada, panel-mounted devices that combine ground (earth) fault detection and over-current protection are called Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) breakers; a wall mounted outlet device or separately enclosed plug-in device providing ground fault detection and interruption only (no overload protection) is called a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). o Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB)This detects earth current directly rather than detecting imbalance. They are no longer seen in new installations for various reasons. AutorecloserA type of circuit breaker that closes automatically after a delay. These are used on overhead power distribution systems, to prevent short duration faults from causing sustained outages. Polyswitch (polyfuse)A small device commonly described as an automatically resetting fuse rather than a circuit breaker.

Bus coupler

Bus coupler is a device which is used to switch from one bus to the other without any interruption in power supply and without creating hazardous arcs. It is achieved with the help of circuit breaker and isolators.

Bus coupler configurations are available as non-terminated or internally terminated. If two or more non-terminated couplers are used on a bus, then the couplers at each end of the bus must be terminated externally with 78 ohm terminators on the unused bus connections of the end couplers. Alternately, internally single terminated couplers (with or without the non-functional bus connectors) can be supplied. Even if only one non-terminated coupler acts as the bus because all devices (bus controller, remote terminals, etc.) are connected to the couplers stubs, the external bus connections of the coupler must be terminated. A dual-terminated coupler (with or without non-functional bus connectors) can be employed where the coupler acts as the bus without other couplers. RFI dust caps (with or without safety chains) are recommended for all unused stub ports. Data bus couplers are readily available in 2 through 8 stubs and in various sizes and shapes of boxes and slim inline models. Also a variety of connectors are offered with couplers.


RTCC is Remote Tap Changer Control which is a Programmable device to control the output of the transformer through OLTC unit fitted in the transformer through control cables. The desired voltage will be achieved accordingly by controlling the OLTC with respect to the tap position through RTCC system. The output voltage of the transformer is been maintained through an inbuilt AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator), which continuously verifies the output power with the set / programmed reference voltage, which triggers the OLTC accordingly. Hence, by above said phenomena, the consistency of the transformer output is been maintained.

ON LOAD TAP CHANGER (OLTC) On load Tap Changer (OLTC) is used with higher capacity transformers where HT side voltage variation is frequent and a nearly constant LT is required. OLTC is fitted with the transformer itself. Multiple tapings from HV windings are brought to the OLTC chamber and connected to fixed contacts. Moving contacts rotates with the help of rotating mechanism having a spindle. This spindle can be rotated manually as well as electrically with a motor. Motor is connected in such a way that it can rotate in both the directions so as to rotate the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anti clock-wise direction. Two push buttons are fitted on the LCP (local control panel) to rotate the motor and hence the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anti-clockwise direction.

CHARACTERISTICS:Wide Range Voltage Class 11kv, 22kv, 33kv, 66kv and 132 neutral end Current Rating up to 500 Amps Single phase off circuit Tapchanger upto 2000 Amps Type tested as per IS and IEC standards Tapchangers for Furnace application 6, 9, 10,17, 21, positions Suitable for bidirectional power flow Supplied with Remote Tapchanger Control Cubicle Compatible for SCADA and computer control

Power factor
The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit,[1][2] and is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1. Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit. Due to energy

stored in the load and returned to the source, or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source, the apparent power will be greater than the real power. In an electric power system, a load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor for the same amount of useful power transferred. The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system, and require larger wires and other equipment. Because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy, electrical utilities will usually charge a higher cost to industrial or commercial customers where there is a low power factor. Linear loads with low power factor (such as induction motors) can be corrected with a passive network of capacitors or inductors. Non-linear loads, such as rectifiers, distort the current drawn from the system. In such cases, active or passive power factor correction may be used to counteract the distortion and raise the power factor. The devices for correction of the power factor may be at a central substation, spread out over a distribution system, or built into powerconsuming equipment. In a purely resistive AC circuit, voltage and current waveforms are in step (or in phase), changing polarity at the same instant in each cycle. All the power entering the load is consumed. Where reactive loads are present, such as with capacitors or inductors, energy storage in the loads result in a time difference between the current and voltage waveforms. During each cycle of the AC voltage, extra energy, in addition to any energy consumed in the load, is temporarily stored in the load in electric or magnetic fields, and then returned to the power grid a fraction of a second later in the cycle. The "ebb and flow" of this nonproductive power increases the current in the line. Thus, a circuit with a low power factor will use higher currents to transfer a given quantity of real power than a circuit with a high power factor. A linear load does not change the shape of the waveform of the current, but may change the relative timing (phase) between voltage and current. Circuits containing purely resistive heating elements (filament lamps, cooking stoves, etc.) have a power factor of 1.0. Circuits containing inductive or capacitive elements (electric motors, solenoid valves, lamp ballasts, and others ) often have a power factor below 1.0.
Power factor correction of linear loads

Using Capacitor panels-

A high power factor is generally desirable in a transmission system to reduce transmission losses and improve voltage regulation at the load. It is often desirable to adjust the power factor of a system to near 1.0. When reactive elements supply or absorb reactive power near the load, the apparent power is reduced. Power factor correction may be applied by an electrical power transmission utility to improve the stability and efficiency of the transmission network. Individual electrical customers who are charged by their utility for low power factor may install correction equipment to reduce those costs. Power factor correction brings the power factor of an AC power circuit closer to 1 by supplying reactive power of opposite sign, adding capacitors or inductors that act to cancel the inductive or capacitive effects of the load, respectively. For example, the inductive effect of motor loads may be offset by locally connected capacitors. If a load had a capacitive value, inductors (also known as reactors in this context) are connected to correct the power factor. In the electricity industry, inductors are said to consume reactive power and capacitors are said to supply it, even though the energy is just moving back and forth on each AC cycle. The reactive elements can create voltage fluctuations and harmonic noise when switched on or off. They will supply or sink reactive power regardless of whether there is a corresponding load operating nearby, increasing the system's no-load losses. In the worst case, reactive elements can interact with the system and with each other to create resonant conditions, resulting in system instability and severe overvoltage fluctuations. As such, reactive elements cannot simply be applied without engineering analysis.

1. Reactive Power Control Relay; 2. Network connection points; 3. Slow-blow Fuses; 4. Inrush Limiting Contactors; 5. Capacitors (single-phase or three-phase units, delta-connection); 6. Transformer for controls and ventilation fans)

An automatic power factor correction unit consists of a number of capacitors that are switched by means of contactors. These contactors are controlled by a regulator that measures power factor in an electrical network. Depending on the load and power factor of the network, the power factor controller will switch the necessary blocks of capacitors in steps to make sure the power factor stays above a selected value. Instead of using a set of switched capacitors, an unloaded synchronous motor can supply reactive power. The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is a function of its field excitation. This is referred to as a synchronous condenser. It is started and connected to the electrical network. It operates at a leading power factor and puts vars onto the network as required to support a systems voltage or to maintain the system power factor at a specified level. The condensers installation and operation are identical to large electric motors. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be adjusted; it behaves like an electrically variable capacitor. Unlike capacitors, the amount of reactive power supplied is proportional to voltage, not the square of voltage; this improves voltage stability on large networks. Synchronous condensors are often used in connection with high-voltage direct-current transmission projects or in large industrial plants such as steel mills. For power factor correction of high-voltage power systems or large, fluctuating industrial loads, power electronic devices such as the Static VAR compensator or STATCOM are increasingly used. These systems are able to compensate sudden changes of power factor much more rapidly than contactor-switched capacitor banks, and being solid-state require less maintenance than synchronous condensers.

Non-linear loads
A non-linear load on a power system is typically a rectifier (such as used in a power supply), or some kind of arc discharge device such as a fluorescent lamp, electric welding machine, or arc furnace. Because current in these systems is interrupted by a switching action, the current

contains frequency components that are multiples of the power system frequency. Distortion power factor is a measure of how much the harmonic distortion of a load current decreases the average power transferred to the load. In electric power distribution, capacitors are used for power factor correction. Such capacitors often come as three capacitors connected as a three phase load. Usually, the values of these capacitors are given not in farads but rather as a reactive power in volt-amperes reactive (VAr). The purpose is to counteract inductive loading from devices like electric motors and transmission lines to make the load appear to be mostly resistive. Individual motor or lamp loads may have capacitors for power factor correction, or larger sets of capacitors (usually with automatic switching devices) may be installed at a load center within a building or in a large utility substation.

Importance of power factor in distribution systems

Power factors below 1.0 require a utility to generate more than the minimum volt-amperes necessary to supply the real power (watts). This increases generation and transmission costs. For example, if the load power factor were as low as 0.7, the apparent power would be 1.4 times the real power used by the load. Line current in the circuit would also be 1.4 times the current required at 1.0 power factor, so the losses in the circuit would be doubled (since they are proportional to the square of the current). Alternatively all components of the system such as generators, conductors, transformers, and switchgear would be increased in size (and cost) to carry the extra current. Utilities typically charge additional costs to customers who have a power factor below some limit, which is typically 0.9 to 0.95. Engineers are often interested in the power factor of a load as one of the factors that affect the efficiency of power transmission. In electricity supply systems, an earthing system defines the electrical potential of the conductors relative to the Earth's conductive surface. The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply, and regulations can vary considerably among countries. Most electrical systems connect one supply conductor to earth (ground). If a fault within an electrical device connects a "hot" (unearthed) supply conductor to an exposed conductive surface, anyone touching it while electrically connected to the earth (e.g., by standing on it, or touching an earthed sink) will complete a circuit back to the earthed supply conductor and receive an electric shock. A protective earth, known as an equipment grounding conductor in the US National Electrical Code, avoids this hazard by keeping the exposed conductive surfaces of a device at earth potential. To avoid possible voltage drop no current is allowed to flow in this conductor under normal circumstances, but fault currents will usually trip or blow the fuse or circuit breaker protecting the circuit. A high impedance line-to-ground fault insufficient to trip the overcurrent protection may still trip a residual-current device (ground fault circuit interrupter or GFCI in North America) if one is present.

In contrast, a functional earth connection serves a purpose other than shock protection, and may normally carry current. Examples of devices that use functional earth connections include surge suppressors and electromagnetic interference filters, certain antennas and measurement instruments. But the most important example of a functional earth is the neutral in an electrical supply system. It is a current-carrying conductor connected to earth, often but not always at only one point to avoid earth currents. The NEC calls it a groundED supply conductor to distinguish it from the equipment groundING conductor. In most developed countries, 220/230/240V sockets with earthed contacts were introduced either just before or soon after WW2, though with considerable national variation in popularity. Until the mid 1990s, US 110V power outlets generally lacked protective earth terminals. In much of the developing world, the situation is stil unclear, and earthed outlets may or may not be provided, and where they are these may not always be reliably connected. In the absence of a supply earth, devices needing an earth connection often used the supply neutral. Some used dedicated ground rods. Many 110V appliances have polarized plugs to maintain a distinction between "live" and "neutral", but using the supply neutral for equipment earthing can be highly problematical. "Live" and "neutral" might be accidentally reversed in the outlet or plug, or the neutral-to-earth connection might fail or be improperly installed. Even normal load currents in the neutral might generate hazardous voltage drops. For these reasons, most countries have now mandated dedicated protective earth connections that are now almost universal.

Backup of electricity in a sub-station:In current time most of the sub-station have diesel generator when main electricity get failure, in that condition generator gets automatically on and our system runs asusual,this is very important part because some time sudden electricity failure may damages some activities so we need the backup for these conditions also.

Diesel generator
A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to the power grid, as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex applications such as peak-lopping, grid support and export to the power grid. Sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of power and is complicated by modern electronics, specifically non-linear loads. The packaged combination of a diesel engine, a generator and various ancillary devices (such as base, canopy, sound attenuation, control systems, circuit breakers, jacket water heaters and starting system) is referred to as a "generating set" or a "genset" for short. Set sizes range from 8 to 30 kW (also 8 to 30 kVA single phase) for homes, small shops & offices with the larger industrial generators from 8 kW (11 kVA) up to 2,000 kW (2500 kVA three phase) used for large office complexes, factories. A 2,000 kW set can be housed in a 40 ft ISO container with fuel tank, controls, power distribution equipment and all other equipment

needed to operate as a standalone power station or as a standby backup to grid power. These units, referred to as power modules are gensets on large triple axle trailers weighing 85,000 pounds (38,555 kg) or more. A combination of these modules are used for small power stations and these may use from one to 20 units per power section and these sections can be combined to involve hundreds of power modules. In these larger sizes the power module (engine and generator) are brought to site on trailers separately and are connected together with large cables and a control cable to form a complete synchronized power plant. Diesel generators, sometimes as small as 200 kW (250 kVA) are widely used not only for emergency power, but also many have a secondary function of feeding power to utility grids either during peak periods, or periods when there is a shortage of large power generators.

Synchronization of diesel generator:Power plant should be made up of by two or three diesel generators,tow DG should be running parallel,then combines with the main power. The controlling panel is fixed in the steel base .the protection include: Voltage; Frequency; Over- current; Emergency Stop; Low oil pressure; High engine temperature; And so on.

The module display as follows: Generator Volts; Generator Frequency; Generator Kw; Synchroscope Display with check-sync and so on.

Earthing and Safety:

1 IEC terminology o 1.1 TN networks

1.2 TT network 1.3 IT network 2 Other terminologies 3 Properties o 3.1 Cost o 3.2 Fault path impedance o 3.3 Safety o 3.4 Electromagnetic compatibility 4 Regulations 5 Application examples 6 Comparison of Earthing systems 7 See also 8 References

o o

IEC terminology
International standard IEC 60364 distinguishes three families of earthing arrangements, using the two-letter codes TN, TT, and IT. The first letter indicates the connection between earth and the power-supply equipment (generator or transformer):
T Direct connection of a point with earth (Latin: terra); I No point is connected with earth (isolation), except perhaps via a high impedance.

The second letter indicates the connection between earth and the electrical device being supplied:
T Direct connection of a point with earth N Direct connection to neutral at the origin of installation, which is connected to the earth TN networks

In a TN earthing system, one of the points in the generator or transformer is connected with earth, usually the star point in a three-phase system. The body of the electrical device is connected with earth via this earth connection at the transformer.

The conductor that connects the exposed metallic parts of the consumer's electrical installation is called protective earth (PE; see also: Ground ). The conductor that connects to the star point in a three-phase system, or that carries the return current in a single-phase system, is called neutral (N). Three variants of TN systems are distinguished:
TNS PE and N are separate conductors that are connected together only near the power source. This arrangement is the current standard for most residential and industrial electric systems in North America and Europe. TNC A combined PEN conductor fulfills the functions of both a PE and an N conductor. Rarely used. TNCS Part of the system uses a combined PEN conductor, which is at some point split up into separate PE and N lines. The combined PEN conductor typically occurs between the substation and the entry point into the building, and separated in the service head. In the UK, this system is also known as protective multiple earthing (PME), because of the practice of connecting the combined neutral-and-earth conductor to real earth at many locations, to reduce the risk of broken neutrals - with a similar system in Australia being designated as multiple earthed neutral (MEN).

TN-S: separate protective earth (PE) and neutral (N) conductors from transformer to consuming device, which are not connected together at any point after the building distribution point.

TN-C: combined PE and N conductor all the way from the transformer to the consuming device.

TN-C-S earthing system: combined PEN conductor from transformer to building distribution point, but separate PE and N conductors in fixed indoor wiring and flexible power cords.

It is possible to have both TN-S and TN-C-S supplies from the same transformer. For example, the sheaths on some underground cables corrode and stop providing good earth connections, and so homes where "bad earths" are found get converted to TN-C-S.
TT network

In a TT earthing system, the protective earth connection of the consumer is provided by a local connection to earth, independent of any earth connection at the generator. The big advantage of the TT earthing system is that it is clear of high and low frequency noises that come through the neutral wire from connected equipment. TT has always been preferable for special applications like telecommunication sites that benefit from the interference-free earthing. Also, TT does not have the risk of a broken neutral. In locations where power is distributed overhead and TT is used, installation earth conductors are not at risk should any overhead distribution conductor be fractured by, say, a fallen tree or branch. In pre-RCD era, the TT earthing system was unattractive for general use because of its worse capability of accepting high currents in case of a live-to-PE short circuit (in comparison with TN systems). But as residual current devices mitigate this disadvantage, the TT earthing system becomes attractive for premises where all AC power circuits are RCD-protected.

The TT earthing system is used throughout Japan, with RCD units in most industrial settings. This can impose added requirements on variable frequency drives and switched-mode power supplies which often have substantial filters passing high frequency noise to the ground conductor.

IT network

In an IT network, the distribution system has no connection to earth at all, or it has only a high impedance connection. In such systems, an insulation monitoring device is used to monitor the impedance.

Other terminologies
While the national wiring regulations for buildings of many countries follow the IEC 60364 terminology, in North America (United States and Canada), the term "equipment grounding conductor" refers to equipment grounds and ground wires on branch circuits, and "grounding electrode conductor" is used for conductors bonding an earth ground rod (or similar) to a service panel. "Grounded conductor" is the system "neutral". Australian standards use a modified PME earthing system called Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN). The neutral is grounded(earthed) at each consumer service point thereby effectively bringing the netral pd to zero along the whole length of LV lines.

] Cost

TN networks save the cost of a low-impedance earth connection at the site of each consumer. Such a connection (a buried metal structure) is required to provide protective earth in IT and TT systems. TN-C networks save the cost of an additional conductor needed for separate N and PE connections. However, to mitigate the risk of broken neutrals, special cable types and lots of connections to earth are needed. TT networks require proper RCD protection.

Fault path impedance

If the fault path between accidentally energized objects and the supply connection has low impedance, the fault current will be so large that the circuit overcurrent protection device (fuse or circuit breaker) will open to clear the ground fault. Where the earthing system does not provide a low-impedance metallic conductor between equipment enclosures and supply return (such as in a TT separately earthed system), fault currents are smaller, and will not necessarily operate the overcurrent protection device. In such case a residual current detector is installed to detect the current leaking to ground and interrupt the circuit.

In TN, an insulation fault is very likely to lead to a high short-circuit current that will trigger an overcurrent circuit-breaker or fuse and disconnect the L conductors. With TT systems, the earth fault loop impedance can be too high to do this, or too high to do it quickly, so an RCD (or formerly ELCB) is usually employed. The provision of a Residual-current device (RCD) or ELCB to ensure safe disconnection makes these installations EEBAD (Earthed Equipotential Bonding and Automatic Disconnection). Earlier TT installations may lack this important safety feature, allowing the CPC (Circuit Protective Conductor) to become energized for extended periods under fault conditions, which is a real danger. In TN-S and TT systems (and in TN-C-S beyond the point of the split), a residual-current device can be used as an additional protection. In the absence of any insulation fault in the consumer device, the equation IL1+IL2+IL3+IN = 0 holds, and an RCD can disconnect the supply as soon as this

sum reaches a threshold (typically 10-500 mA). An insulation fault between either L or N and PE will trigger an RCD with high probability. In IT and TN-C networks, residual current devices are far less likely to detect an insulation fault. In a TN-C system, they would also be very vulnerable to unwanted triggering from contact between earth conductors of circuits on different RCDs or with real ground, thus making their use impracticable. Also, RCDs usually isolate the neutral core. Since it is unsafe to do this in a TN-C system, RCDs on TN-C should be wired to only interrupt the live conductor. In single-ended single-phase systems where the Earth and neutral are combined (TN-C, and the part of TN-C-S systems which uses a combined neutral and earth core), if there is a contact problem in the PEN conductor, then all parts of the earthing system beyond the break will rise to the potential of the L conductor. In an unbalanced multi-phase system, the potential of the earthing system will move towards that of the most loaded live conductor. Such a rise in the potential of the neutral beyond the break is known as a neutral inversion[1]. Therefore, TN-C connections must not go across plug/socket connections or flexible cables, where there is a higher probability of contact problems than with fixed wiring. There is also a risk if a cable is damaged, which can be mitigated by the use of concentric cable construction and multiple earth electrodes. Due to the (small) risks of the lost neutral raising 'earthed' metal work to a dangerous potential, coupled with the increased shock risk from proximity to good contact with true earth, the use of TN-C-S supplies is banned in the UK for caravan sites and shore supply to boats, and strongly discouraged for use on farms and outdoor building sites, and in such cases it is recommended to make all outdoor wiring TT with RCD and a separate earth electrode. In IT systems, a single insulation fault is unlikely to cause dangerous currents to flow through a human body in contact with earth, because no low-impedance circuit exists for such a current to flow. However, a first insulation fault can effectively turn an IT system into a TN system, and then a second insulation fault can lead to dangerous body currents. Worse, in a multi-phase system, if one of the live conductors made contact with earth, it would cause the other phase cores to rise to the phase-phase voltage relative to earth rather than the phase-neutral voltage. IT systems also experience larger transient overvoltages than other systems. In TN-C and TN-C-S systems, any connection between the combined neutral-and-earth core and the body of the earth could end up carrying significant current under normal conditions, and could carry even more under a broken neutral situation. Therefore, main equipotential bonding conductors must be sized with this in mind; use of TN-C-S is inadvisable in situations such as petrol stations, where there is a combination of lots of buried metalwork and explosive gases.

Electromagnetic compatibility

In TN-S and TT systems, the consumer has a low-noise connection to earth, which does not suffer from the voltage that appears on the N conductor as a result of the return currents and the impedance of that conductor. This is of particular importance with some types of telecommunication and measurement equipment. In TT systems, each consumer has its own connection to earth, and will not notice any currents that may be caused by other consumers on a shared PE line.


In the United States National Electrical Code and Canadian Electrical Code the feed from the distribution transformer uses a combined neutral and grounding conductor, but within the

structure separate neutral and protective earth conductors are used (TN-C-S). The neutral must be connected to earth only on the supply side of the customer's disconnecting switch. In Argentina, France (TT) and Australia (TN-C-S), the customers must provide their own ground connections. Japan is governed by PSE law, and uses TT earthing in most installations. In Australia, the Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN) earthing system is used and is described in Section 5 of AS 3000. For an LV customer, it is a TN-C system from the transformer in the street to the premises, (the neutral is earthed multiple times along this segment), and a TN-S system inside the installation, from the Main Switchboard downwards. Looked at as a whole, it is a TNC-S system.

Application examples

Most modern homes in Europe have a TN-C-S earthing system. The combined neutral and earth occurs between the nearest transformer substation and the service cut out (the fuse before the meter). After this, separate earth and neutral cores are used in all the internal wiring. Older urban and suburban homes in the UK tend to have TN-S supplies, with the earth connection delivered through the lead sheath of the underground lead-and-paper cable. Older homes in Norway uses the IT system while newer homes use TN-C-S. Some older homes, especially those built before the invention of residual-current circuit breakers and wired home area networks, use an in-house TN-C arrangement. This is no longer recommended practice. Laboratory rooms, medical facilities, construction sites, repair workshops, mobile electrical installations, and other environments that are supplied via engine-generators where there is an increased risk of insulation faults, often use an IT earthing arrangement supplied from isolation transformers. To mitigate the two-fault issues with IT systems, the isolation transformers should supply only a small number of loads each and should be protected with an insulation monitoring device (generally used only by medical, railway or military IT systems, because of cost). In remote areas, where the cost of an additional PE conductor outweighs the cost of a local earth connection, TT networks are commonly used in some countries, especially in older properties or in rural areas, where safety might otherwise be threatened by the fracture of an overhead PE conductor by, say, a fallen tree branch. TT supplies to individual properties are also seen in mostly TN-C-S systems where an individual property is considered unsuitable for TN-C-S supply. In Australia, and Israel the TN-C-S system is in use; however, the wiring rules currently state that, in addition, each customer must provide a separate connection to earth via both a water pipe bond (if metallic water pipes enter the consumer's premises) and a dedicated earth electrode. In Australia, new installations must also bond the foundation concrete re-enforcing under wet areas to the earth conductor (AS3000), typically increasing the size of the earthing, and provides an equipotential plane in areas such as bathrooms. In older installations, it is not uncommon to find only the water pipe bond, and it is allowed to remain as such, but the additional earth electrode must be installed if any upgrade work is done. The protective earth and neutral conductors are combined until the consumer's neutral link (located on the customer's side of the electricity meter's neutral connection) - beyond this point, the protective earth and neutral conductors are separate.

A cable is most often two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly, but can also refer to a heavy strong rope. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers. Electric cables discussed here are mainly meant for installation in buildings and industrial sites. For power transmission at distances greater than a few kilometres see high-voltage cable, power cables and HVDC.

Electrical cables
Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA as in telephone handset cords). Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using trunking, cable trays, cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties. At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor. This is known as the skin effect.
Cables and electromagnetic fields

Coaxial cable.

Twisted pair cabling

Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction. The first solution to these problems is to keep cable lengths in buildings short, since pick up and transmission are essentially proportional to the length of the cable. The second solution is to route cables away from trouble. Beyond this, there are particular cable designs that minimize electromagnetic pickup and transmission. Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry. Shielding makes use of the electrical principle of the Faraday cage. The cable is encased for its entire length in foil or wire mesh. All wires running inside this shielding layer will be to a large extent decoupled from external electric fields, particularly if the shield is connected to a point of constant voltage, such as earth. Simple shielding of this type is not greatly effective against lowfrequency magnetic fields, however - such as magnetic "hum" from a nearby power transformer. A grounded shield on cables operating at 2.5 kV or more gathers leakage current and capacitive current, protecting people from electric shock and equalizing stress on the cable insulation. Coaxial design helps to further reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield has a circular cross section and the inner conductor is exactly at its center. This causes the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to consist of two nearly equal magnitudes which cancel each other. A twisted pair has two wires of a cable twisted around each other. This can be demonstrated by putting one end of a pair of wires in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line. Where the interfering signal has a wave length that is long compared to the pitch of the twisted pair, alternate lengths of wires develop opposing voltages, tending to cancel the effect of the interference.

Belted cables-

Fire protection

In building construction, electrical cable jacket material is a potential source of fuel for fires. To limit the spread of fire along cable jacketing, one may use cable coating materials or one may use cables with jacketing that is inherently fire retardant. The plastic covering on some metal clad cables may be stripped off at installation to reduce the fuel source for fires. Inorganic coatings and boxes around cables safeguard the adjacent areas from the fire threat associated with unprotected cable jacketing. However, this fire protection also traps heat generated from conductor losses, so the protection must be thin. There are two methods of providing fire protection to a cable:
1. Insulation material is deliberately added with fire retardant materials 2. The copper conductor itself is covered with mineral insulation (MICC cables) Electrical cable types

Basic cable types are as follows:


Ribbon cable


Based on construction and cable properties, they can be sorted into the following:

Coaxial cable Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable Twinax cable Flexible cables Non-metallic sheathed cable (or nonmetallic building wire, NM, NM-B)

Metallic sheathed cable (or armored cable, AC, or BX) Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by cable jacket) Shielded cable Single cable (from time to time this name is used for wire) Twisted pair Twisting cable


Arresting cable Bowden cable Heliax cable Direct-buried cable Heavy-lift cable Elevator cable

Air Conditioning Plant:-

Central Air Conditioning Plants

Central air conditioning plants are used for applications like big hotels, large buildings having multiple floors, hospitals, etc, where very high cooling loads are required. The article describes various possible arrangements of central air conditioning plants.

The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports, shopping malls etc are to be air conditioned completely. The window and split air conditioners are used for single rooms or small office spaces. If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and every room. Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc. In the central air conditioning systems there is a plant room where large compressor, condenser, thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator are kept in the large plant room. They perform all the functions as usual similar to a typical refrigeration system. However, all these parts are larger in size and have higher capacities. The compressor is of open reciprocating type with multiple cylinders and is cooled by the water just like the automobile engine. The compressor and the condenser are of shell and tube type. While in the small air conditioning system capillary is used as the expansion valve, in the central air conditioning systems thermostatic expansion valve is used. The chilled is passed via the ducts to all the rooms, halls and other spaces that are to be air conditioned. Thus in all the rooms there is only the duct passing the chilled air and there are no individual cooling coils, and other parts of the refrigeration system in the rooms. What is we get in each room is the completely silent and highly effective air conditions system in the room. Further, the amount of chilled air that is needed in the room can be controlled by the openings depending on the total heat load inside the room. The central air conditioning systems are highly sophisticated applications of the air conditioning systems and many a times they tend to be complicated. It is due to this reason that there are very few companies in the world that specialize in these systems. In the modern era of computerization a number of additional electronic utilities have been added to the central conditioning systems.

There are two types of central air conditioning plants or systems: 1) Direct expansion or DX central air conditioning plant: In this system the huge compressor, and the condenser are housed in the plant room, while the expansion valve and the evaporator or the cooling coil and the air handling unit are housed in separate room. The cooling coil is fixed in the air handling unit, which also has large blower housed in it. The blower sucks the hot return air from the room via ducts and blows it over the cooling coil. The cooled air is then supplied through various ducts and into the spaces which are to be cooled. This type of system is useful for small buildings. 2) Chilled water central air conditioning plant: This type of system is more useful for large buildings comprising of a number of floors. It has the plant room where all the important units like the compressor, condenser, throttling valve and the evaporator are housed. The evaporator is a shell and tube. On the tube side the Freon fluid passes at extremely low temperature, while on the shell side the brine solution is passed. After passing through the evaporator, the brine solution gets chilled and is pumped to the various air handling units installed at different floors

of the building. The air handling units comprise the cooling coil through which the chilled brine flows, and the blower. The blower sucks hot return air from the room via ducts and blows it over the cooling coil. The cool air is then supplied to the space to be cooled through the ducts. The brine solution which has absorbed the room heat comes back to the evaporator, gets chilled and is again pumped back to the air handling unit. To operate and maintain central air conditioning systems you need to have good operators, technicians and engineers. Proper preventative and breakdown maintenance of these plants is vital.