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17/06/2010

Determining The Domestic Drainage Lo

Determining the Domestic Drainage Loads for High-Rise Buildings


Journal article by L.T. Wong, K.W. Mui; Architectural Science Review, Vol. 47, 2004

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Determining the Domestic Drainage Loads for High-Rise Buildings. by L.T. Wong , K.W. Mui The building drainage loads must be reasonably estimated to design an effective and healthy drainage system. Nowadays, data in various drainage design guides have not been examined for various architectural designs and user behavioral patterns in highrise residential buildings in Hong Kong. A recent survey on the usage patterns and discharge flow rates from domestic appliances of 597 selected apartments in 14 highrise residential buildings was performed in Hong Kong. The probable loads of the drainage systems in high-rise residential buildings are investigated and design figures are proposed for the 'fixture-unit' approach. The probable wastewater discharge flow rate in a group of domestic appliances, for a vertical drainage stack and the corresponding stack size for high-rise residential buildings are examined, and compared with the design guides used for local buildings. This study provides an updated database of drainage demands in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong which is very useful for evaluating the various drainage system designs of the buildings in developed cities having a high population density. Introduction Hong Kong is a developed city characterized by a high population of 6.7 million and limited area 1067 km2. Therefore, a lot of high-rise residential buildings have been constructed and a trend of increasing building height is found for new developments. In Hong Kong, the tallest residential buildings are Sorrento (Tower 1: 75 floors, 256 m high; tower 2: 66 floors, 236 m high, both are completed in 2003), The Harourside (75 floors, 255 m high, completed in 2003), The Harbourfront Landmark (70 floors, 233 m high, completed in 2001) and The Belcher's towers 1-6 (61-63 floors, 221-227 m high, completed in 2001). Many government funded residential buildings of 42 floors over 140 m are commonly found. In order to design an efficient building drainage system to cope with the wastewater discharge, a reasonably accurate estimation on the drainage load is necessary [1, 2]. Over the past 40 years, load estimation for drainage pipe sizing based on the probability of using outlet simultaneously and the design discharge of the outlet at a limiting failure rate (e.g., 0.5-1%) [1-7]. Various investigations were conducted to determine these design parameters and a 'discharge-unit' approach was established for drainage pipe sizing [7-9]. The design data from the investigations on low-rise building and experimental results related to plumbing requirements from 1921-1940 were used to determine the pipe sizes of plumbing and drainage systems [7]. The Building

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17/06/2010

Determining The Domestic Drainage Lo

Research Establishment conducted an investigation of the use of sanitary appliance and the water supply flow rate distribution in 5 floors in an 18-storey block in North London [8]. This study provided the statistical basis for working design data for sizing the main stacks of building drainage system, and later works in the USA and in the UK have attempted to improve the available database [8-11]. Load estimation method based on the probabilistic theory and the 'fixture unit' is well established and has been adopted in various codes [4-6]. However, these data might not be directly relevant to the high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong due to the various architectural designs and user behavioral differences. Pertinent modifications on the design values for local buildings would be possible with systematic research studies on the drainage system demands. Following the massive outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in early 2003, the efficient drainage system design in high-rise buildings has become a major concern in public. The suspected contaminated single stack system was accused of transporting the virus into living units through the same stack, and an additional wastewater from washing, cleaning and sterilization has increased the system loads. Therefore, upgrading the system design to cater for the actual building demands is urgently required. The development of a database for estimating the probable loading of the sanitation system has been proposed for the high-rise residential buildings. This study reports the probable loads of the drainage systems in 14 high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong from a recen: survey on the usage patterns and discharge flow rates of the installed domestic sanitary appliances of 597 house-holds [12]. The time of probable discharge, mean time between usages, probability of simultaneous discharge and the probable discharge flow rate of some appliances were determined. With the survey results, the probable flow rate in a typical drainage stack and the corresponding size of the stack are determined by the 'fixture unit' approach and compared with those design values with some design guides ...

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17/06/2010

Determining The Domestic Drainage Lo

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