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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Scope This section covers refractory lining requirements

for fired heaters, air preheaters, ducting, stacks, and flue gas systems, for general refinery service, including materials selection, design, installation, installation quality control, curing and dryout. It also covers preparation for shipment and erection of modular sections lined at a location separate from final erection. It does not apply to the design of steam reformers or pyrolysis furnaces. Table of Content 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 1.0 References 1.1 1.2 2.0 API 936: Refractory Installation Quality ControlInspection and Testing of Monolithic Refractory Linings and Materials
ASTM C892: Standard Specification for High-Temperature Fiber Blanket Thermal Insulation

References Definitions Definition of operating parameters by heater components Critical performance factors affecting refractory lining selection Refractory lining system selection Brick layer or gravity wall construction Fiber construction Castables/Plastics construction Anchors and Anchor components Quality control Responsibilities Preparation for Shipment Dryout and Heatup/Cooldown Rates

Definitions: The following definitions are added in this section as a supplement to those provided in Section 3, Terms and Definitions in this edition of API 560/ISO 13705. A comprehensive glossary of refractory terms is provided in Annex A of API 936. 2.1 AES (Alkaline Earth Silicate) fibers: Man Made Vitreous Fiber composed of at least 18%
alkali earth oxides developed to meet the fiber exemption requirements spelled out in 97/69/EC of the Dangerous substances initiative in the EU. These fibers are exonerated

2.2 2.3

from the EU carcinogen classification on the basis of their low biopersistence. Also may be known as Biofiber, Biosoluble or Low Biopersistence fiber. Alkaline hydrolysis: A potentially destructive reaction between green hydraulic setting refractory concrete, carbon dioxide, alkaline compounds and water. Anchor brick supported system: Lining supported by ceramic anchors held in place by a metallic support system. Anchor bricks have convoluted surfaces designed to be filled in with surrounding monolithic refractory to hold the lining in place.

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 2.4 Ash: The non combustible residue that remains after burning a fuel or other combustible material. This residue may be corrosive to steel or refractory linings and foul tubes. Anchors: Metallic or refractory devices attached to the shell casing that hold the lining in place. Block insulation: Light weight, preformed rigid block used as a backup layer because of its high insulating properties. Burner block/brick/tile/quarl: High temperature refractory burner components that direct the burner flame. Organic coating: Coating used between refractory lining and casing to resist corrosion from condensing acids (e.g. mastic, epoxy. etc.) Owner/Fabricator: The proprietor of the fire heater who has engaged one or more parties to install or repair refractory. Castable: A combination of refractory grain and suitable bonding agent that, after the addition of a proper liquid, is installed into place to form a refractory shape or structure that becomes rigid because of a chemical action. Cold face: The surface of a refractory lining against the metal casing surface. Cold joint: A joint formed in an otherwise monolithic lining that results from work stoppage during refractory installation. Compliance datasheet: A list of mechanical and chemical properties for a specified refractory material that are warranted by the manufacturer to be met if and when the product is tested by the listed procedure Construction joint: A joint formed in a lining to mechanically decouple refractory components without expansion allowance. Contractor: The party or parties responsible for installing refractory in the Owner/Fabricator's equipment Deflection/Target wall: A refractory wall used to redirect or shield portions of a furnace from gas or radiant heat. Expansion joint: A nonbonded joint in a lining system with a gap designed to accommodate thermal expansion of adjoining materials, commonly packed with a temperature resistant compressible material such as fiber. Fiber: Fibrous refractory with RCF/AES composition and flexible handling characteristics, including bulk, blanket, modules, paper, board, mat, wet blanket and pumpable/ sprayable fibers. Ceramic Fiber: RCF fiber and its products. Fabricator: Company responsible for the overall fabrication of the fired equipment in which refractory is installed. Hot face: The surface of a refractory section exposed to the source of heat. Installer: Company or individual responsible for installing the refractory lining.

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

2.11 2.12 2.13

2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17


2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Low biopersistence: Materials having solubility in body fluids and designed to be cleared from the lungs very quickly if they are inhaled. Clearance occurs through the body's natural defense mechanisms. 2.24 Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF): Amorphous silicate fibers including AES and RCF manufactured from liquid melts at 1000C 1700C by drawing (continuous filaments), spinning or blowing. 2.25 Module: Construction of fibrous refractory insulation in stacked/folded blankets or monolithic form, commonly with an integrated attachment system. 2.26 Needled: A knitted structure for fiber to enhance handling and mechanical strength. 2.27 Owner/Fabricator: The proprietor of equipment who has engaged one or more parties to install or repair refractory. 2.28 Qualification Test: Preinstallation evaluation of materials and/or applicators to verify that materials purchased and equipment/personnel that will be installing the material are capable of meeting specified quality standards. 2.29 Permanent linear change (PLC): A measure of a refractory's physical property that defines permanent linear dimensional change as a result of initial heating to a specific temperature 2.30 RCF (Refractory Ceramic Fibers): Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) whose chemical constituents are predominantly Alumina and Silica. 2.31 Refractory Inspector: The party or individual whom the Owner/Fabricator has contracted or otherwise designated to monitor refractory testing and installation work performed by the contractor and refractory material manufacturer(s). 2.32 Rigidizers: Liquids applied to MMVF which produce a rigid hot face surface when dried. 2.33 Pumpable/Sprayable Fibers: Mixture of bulk fiber and wet binder suitable for pumping or spraying. 2.34 Shelf supported systems: In brick lining systems, a structural plate or angle mechanically attached to the casing that has the function of supporting a lining section or component. 2.35 Tiebacks: Mechanical fastening devices used to hold a vertically standing brick lining structure in the upright position while permitting the lining to thermally expand and contract. 2.36 Vacuum formed: A manufacturing process combining fibers and binder components and using vacuum to form rigid, densified shape when dried. 2.37 Wet Blanket: Flexible, formable RCF blanket saturated with wet binder that sets on heat exposure forming a rigid more durable structure comparable in hardness and chemistry to board. Definition of operating parameters by heater components 3.1 Radiant Section: The refractory lining system provides thermal resistance to retain process heat. The refractory lining system shall resist any high temperature ash corrosion and must protect the metal shell against condensate corrosion related to fuel gas sulfur content. 3 2.23


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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Convection Section: The refractory lining system must provide thermal resistance and corbels to ensure maximized heat transfer between the process tubes filling the convection section and the hot gases. Fuel ash related hot face corrosion issues are reduced in all but the lower portions of the convection section as the gases are cooled while passing over the convection section tubes. Metal shell casing corrosion related to the sulfur content in the fuel will continue to be an issue in this location. If some type of sootblowing or small particle blasting is used to remove ash or soot buildup on convection section tubes, the hot face refractory lining must be strong enough to resist any indirect impingement related to particle blasting. 3.3 Breeching and Ducting (between convection section and stack): Refractory linings must provide thermal resistance, mechanical integrity, and protect against metal shell corrosion. Although the breech and ducting linings are exposed to relatively low temperature during normal operation, they also provide fire protection if a tube ruptures in the radiant or convection section. 3.4 Stacks: Refractory linings in the stack must provide thermal resistance, mechanical integrity, and protect against metal shell corrosion. 3.5 Burner Block: Burner block must insulate the burner housing while not being adversely affected by high temperature or thermal cycling related to startup and shutdown. Block must resist flame impingement and corrosive impurities. 3.6 Gravity Walls: Free standing walls inside fired heaters to provide physical separation of process areas within the furnace, typically between radiant sections operating at different temperatures or between radiant and convection sections. In radiant sections the walls also provide surfaces of radiation to improve heat transfer to the tubes. Critical performance factors affecting refractory lining selection: 4.1 Design Temperature is a temperature used to make refractory selections. It is the calculated hotface or interface temperature plus the required design margin of 165C minimum (300F). Some minimum refractory design temperatures based on typical hot face temperatures in furnace locations are the following: 4.1.1 Burner area: 1650C (3000F) 4.1.2 Target walls with flame impingement on one or both sides: 1540C (2800F) 4.1.3 Floor: 1370C (2500F) 4.1.4 Radiant and shielded section: 980C (1800F) 4.1.5 Convection section: 980C (1800F) 4.1.6 Breeching and Ducting: 510C (950F) 4.1.7 Air preheating system: 510C (950F) 4.1.8 Access doors shall be protected from radiation by a refractory system of at least the same temperature rating and thermal resistance as the adjacent wall lining. 4.2 Maximum Use Temperature: Maximum continuous temperature to which a refractory may be exposed without excessive shrinkage or mechanical breakdown. It is also sometimes referred to as the recommended use limit. or continuoususe temperature. 4 3.2


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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 4.3 HotFace Temperature is the flue gas or the heated combustion air temperature at the hot face of the lining. This is the temperature used for thermal calculations for operating cold face temperature and heat loss.. Interface Temperature is the calculated temperature at the intersection of each different layer of refractory material if multilayer or multicomponent refractory construction is used. Cold Face Temperature is the temperature at the casing calculated using the thermal resistance of the lining and hot face temperature. The lining is designed to meet specified thermal efficiency of the equipment and/or personnel protection requirements. Thermal Resistance is the ability of a refractory material to resist heat flow from the hot face to the metal shell. A wide range of thermal resistances are possible by the selection of refractories with different thermal conductivities and/or lining thicknesses. Form: Refractories are available in a variety of forms, including: 4.7.1 ShapedSold as finished units, installed as building blocks Brick/Tile Fired Shapes Fused Cast Shapes 4.7.2 Monolithic (Unshaped)Final shape formed upon application Castables Plastics Mortars 4.7.3 Fiber Bulk Blanket Modular Thermal Expansion allowance is required for shaped and monolithic lining materials. This is achieved by expansion joints in the form of shrinkage cracks formed on the initial firing of monolithic lining materials and/or regularly spaced open joints formed during construction and filled with compliant refractory materials designed to accommodate the full thermal expansion of the lining materials at design temperature. Mechanical Strength: Most fired heater lining systems are supported by the casing via a network of regularly spaced metallic or ceramic anchors for which they must be able to support their own weight in relation to the anchors. Additionally there are rigid bridge walls, target walls, arches and burner blocks which are mechanically self supporting and/or must be resistant to wear such as soot blasting abrasion. Fuels Fired: The type of fuel fired and corrosive ash/impurities (e.g sulfur, alkali and heavy metals) will guide selection of the type or form of refractory and the method of construction for refractory linings.








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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 5.0 Refractory lining system selection guidelines 5.1 A large number of refractory lining systems are used in fired heaters. Table 1 presents 8 lining systems and rates them relative to each other as a general guideline for conventional systems/materials. These guidelines should be used for lining selection in combination with the understanding of the performance requirements for each portion of the fired heater listed in 3.0 above. Table 1: Lining System Decision Matrix Guidelines

Reduced Weight of Structure

Maintenance/Ease of Repair

Erosion/Velocity Resistance

Condensate Corrosion Resistance Temperature Resistance

Energy Conservation

Ash Resistance

Operating Conditions/Needs

Refractory Lining Systems

AES/RCF fiber (Includes modules and blanket) L L L L H L H H AES/RCF Fiber w/ Vapor Barrier L M L L H L H H AES/RCF Fiber w/ Castable Backup L H L L H L M H Dual Layer Monolithic M H M H M M M M Single Layer Monolithic M H H H M H L M Brick with Fiber or Block Backup H L H H L H M L Brick with Castable Backup H H H H L H M L IFB (Insulating Firebrick) M L M M L M H M Performance Rating for Listed Conditions: LLow; MMedium; HHigh 6.0

Brick layer or gravity wall construction 6.1 All brick linings on vertical flat casing shall be tied back to, and supported by, the structural steel framing members. All tie members shall be austenitic alloy material, except that pipe supports located in the backup layer may be carbon steel. At least 15% of the bricks shall be tied back. It is not necessary for the brick lining on the cylindrical casing to be tied back if the radius of curvature of the casing keys the bricks. 6.2 Brick linings shall be supported by metal support shelves (lentils) attached to the casing on vertical centers typically 1.8 m (6 ft) high but not to exceed 2.3 m (12ft) based on calculated loads and thermal expansions. Support shelves shall be slotted to provide for differential thermal expansion. Shelf material is defined by the calculated service temperature at the tip of the shelf; carbon steel is satisfactory up to 370C (700F). 6.3 Expansion joints shall be provided in both vertical and horizontal directions of the walls, at wall edges and around burner tiles, doors and sleeved penetrations. 6

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Speed of Installation H M M L M L L M

Design Life

Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 6.4 Radiant chamber walls of gravity construction (Figure 1) shall not exceed 7.3m (24 ft) in height and shall be at least highduty firebrick. The base width shall be a minimum of 8% of total wall height. The heighttowidth ratio of each wall section shall not exceed 5 to 1. The walls shall be self supporting and the base shall rest on the steel floor, not on another refractory. Figure 1: Illustration of Gravity Wall dimensional requirements

6.5 6.6



6.9 6.10

Gravity walls shall be of bonded, mortared construction. The mortar shall be air setting and compatible with firebrick. Vertical expansion joints shall be provided at gravitywall ends and required intermediate locations. All expansion joints shall be kept open and free to move. If the joint is formed with lapped brick, no mortar shall be used, that is, it shall be a dry joint. Target walls with flame impingement on both sides (freestanding) shall be constructed of superduty fireclay brick with at least a 1540C (2800F) rating. Bricks shall be laid with mortared joints. Expansion joints shall be packed with ceramic fiber strips having a maximum use temperature not less than 1430C (2600F). Floor brick shall not be mortared. A 13 mm (0.5 in) gap for expansion shall typically be provided at 1.8 m (6 ft) intervals. This gap may be packed with fibrous refractory material having similarly maximum use temperature, in strip, not loose bulk, form. Floor brick shall be a minimum 63 mm (2.5 in) thick of highduty firebrick. Mortar joints shall cover all contact surfaces and be 2mm (1/16 inch) thick maximum. Maintenance/Repair: The mechanical function of supports, tiebacks and expansion joints must be taken into consideration when repairing brick linings. Repairs are 7

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 generally made by replacing or refurbishing entire structural units such as the entire lift of brick on a support from expansion joint to expansion joint and/or several courses of brick at the top of a lift. Brick and mortar types shall be specified by the owner, OEM or furnace fabricator. For brick materials, suppliers shall provide Manufacturers Product Compliance Sheet
(sample attached), to guarantee the following physical properties:

6.11 6.12

6.12.1 6.12.2 6.12.3 6.12.4 6.12.5 6.12.6 6.13

Density Strength (cold crush strength or Modulus of Rupture) Porosity Thermal Conductivity Chemical Composition Manufactured Defects (edge, corner, crater, cracks)

6.12.7 Dimensional tolerance and warping (*) For brick materials, suppliers shall provide Manufacturers Product Compliance Sheet (sample attached), to guarantee the following physical properties: 6.13.1 Strength (bond) 6.13.2 Chemical Composition

6.13.3 Maximum grain size 7.0 AES/RCF Fiber Construction 7.1 Layered or modular construction may be used in all radiant and convection section sidewalls and roofs subject to restrictions defined herein. Other sections may be lined with fiber subject to Owner/Fabricator approval. 7.2 Fiber hot face shall not be used in the radiant section when fuels sodium and vanadium exceed 100 parts per million total above 700C (1300F). 7.3 In layered construction, blanket shall be a minimum of 25 mm (1 in) thick, 128 kg/m3 (8 lb/ft3) density, needled material. Fiberboard, if applied as a hot face layer, shall not be less than 38 mm (1.5 in) thick nor have a density less than 240 kg/m3 (15 lb/ft3). Backup layer(s) of fiber blanket shall be needled material with a minimum density of 96 kg/m3 (6 lb/ft3). 7.4 Dimensions for fiberboard used on the hot face shall be:: 7.4.1 600 x 600 mm (24 in x 24 in) maximum if temperatures of flue gases are below 1100C (2000F) on sidewalls. 7.4.2 450 mm x 450 mm (18 in x 18 in) maximum if temperatures exceed 1100C (2000F) or if used on the roof at any temperature. 7.4.3 Blanket shall be 24 wide maximum applied using an approved anchor layout 7.5 Metallic anchor parts that are not shielded by tubes shall be completely wrapped with fiber patches or be protected by ceramic retainer cups filled with moldable fiber. 7.6 Fiber blanket shall not be used as the hot face layer if flue gas velocities are in excess of 12 m/s (40 ft/s). Wet blanket, fiberboard, or modules shall not be used as hot face layers with velocities greater than 30 m/s (100 ft/s).

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 7.7 Fiber blanket shall be installed with its longest dimension in the direction of gas flow. The hotface layer of blanket shall be constructed with all joints overlapped. Overlaps shall be in the direction of gas flow. Hot face layers of fiberboard shall be constructed with tight butt joints. Fiber blanket used in backup layers shall be installed with butt joints with at least 13 mm (1/2 in) compression on the joints. All joints in successive layers of blanket shall be staggered. Fiber blanket modules shall be installed in soldiercourse with batten strips (Figure 2). Parquet pattern or soldiercourse may be used on arches. Module systems shall be installed so that joints at each edge are compressed to avoid gaps due to shrinkage. Modules applied in arches shall be designed so that support hardware spans over at least 80% of the module width (Figure 3). Figure 2: Soldier course for blanket modules


7.9 7.10 7.11

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Figure 3: Anchor span required for arch section modules

7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16


7.18 7.19

7.20 7.21

Anchors shall be attached to the casing before modules are installed. Support hardware shall be located in the module at a maximum distance of 50 mm (2 in) from the module cold face. Module internal hardware shall be austenitic stainless steel or nickel alloy (see Table 3). Fiber linings should not be used for the lining of floors where maintenance traffic and scaffolding construction are anticipated. If fiber construction is used with fuels having a sulfur content exceeding 200 mg/kg (200 ppm by mass), the casing shall have an internal protective coating, specified or agreed by the purchase, to prevent corrosion. The protective coating shall be rated for a 175C (350F) service temperature. A 2mm vapor barrier of austenitic stainless steel foil shall be provided if the fuel sulfur content exceeds 500 mg/kg (500 ppm by mass). The vapor barrier shall be installed in soldiercourse and located so that the exposed temperature is at least 55C (100F) above the calculated acid dew point for all operating cases. Vapor barrier edges shall be overlapped by at least 175 mm (7 in); edges and punctures shall be overlapped and sealed with sodium silicate or colloidal silica. Fiber shall not be used in convection sections where soot blowers, steam lances or water wash facilities are used. Anchors shall be installed before applying protective coatings to the casing. The coating shall cover the attachment studs so that uncoated parts are above the acid dewpoint temperature. Maintenance/Repair: Typical patch repairs are shown in Figures 4 and 5 for blanket lining systems and Figure 6 for a modular system. Curing and Dryout: Refractory fiber linings require neither curing nor dryout before commissioning.

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Figure 4: Typical blanket lining repair of hot face layer

Figure 5: Typical blanket lining repair of multiple layers

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Figure 6: Typical repair of modular fiber lining


Castables/Plastics Design and Construction 8.1 Design 8.1.1 Sidewall: Single or dual component with total thickness between 150 and 200 mm (68 inches). 8.1.2 Floor: Dual component with hot face layer sufficiently strong to support scaffolding load of 21 Kg/cc (300 psi). 8.1.3 Roof: Single or dual component with total thickness between 150 and 200 mm (68 inches). 8.1.4 Burner block; Brick or prefired castable with temperature resistance 8.1.5 Bull nose: Single or dual component with total thickness between 150 and 200 mm (68 inches). 8.1.6 Corbelling: Constructed integral with the hot face layer and containing anchors consistent with the taller height of the corbelling. 8.2 Alkaline hydrolysis 8.2.1 Dryout and alkaline hydrolysis in castable refractory materials. 8.2.2 Alkaline hydrolysis occurs intermittently. It is a naturallyoccurring phenomenon. Alkaline hydrolysis becomes a significant concern for castables mixes having dried densities less than 1040 kg/m3 (65 lb/ft3 ). 8.2.3 For materials with dried densities greater than 1040 kg/m3 (65 lb/ft3), the tendency for occurrence of alkaline hydrolysis is reduced.

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 To minimize the possibility of alkaline hydrolysis, castables and gunning mix linings should be moisturecured for 24 hours, then air dried for 48 hrs. When a complete dryout is not possible after curing and air drying as a minimum the following schedule can be followed. Within two weeks after curing and air drying, the installed materials should be dried to 260C [500F (Hot face temperature)]. The drying schedule should include a 55C/hour (100F/hour) rampup to 260C (500F) hot face temperature with an eight hour hold period upon reaching 260 C (500F). The dryout schedule should terminate with a 55C/hour rampdown to ambient temperature. 8.2.5 When refractorylined modules are stored for long periods, the linings should be sealed for moisture and air and periodically inspected for alkaline hydrolysis. 8.3 Maintenance/Repair 8.3.1 A significant advantage of monolithic refractories is their ability to be maintained by patch repairs. Patching should be made for the full lining or layer thickness. Overlay repairs are not acceptable. 8.3.2 Defective areas found in the facing after curing shall be removed to the insulating backup material, and the facing castable shall be reapplied as long as retained anchors and backup are damage/defect free. Anchors and Anchor Components 9.1 Anchors are required to hold refractory linings in place during unit operation. The anchor material is to be selected based on the maximum temperature an anchor tip will be exposed to as listed in Table 3. Table 3: Anchor Metallurgy Required at the Listed Maximum Anchor Temperature Maximum anchor temperature C (F) 455 850 650 760 760 815 927 1,038 1,093 >1,093 1,200 1,400 1,400 1,500 1,700 1,900 2,000 >2,000 8.2.4


Anchor Material Carbon steel TP 410S stainless steel P 304 stainless steel TP 316 stainless steel TP 309 stainless steel TP 310 stainless steel TP 330 stainless steel Alloy 601 (UNS N06601) Ceramic studs and washers

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 9.2 Anchor Spacing and Selection 9.2.1 When brick linings are selected for use in radiant furnace walls, they must be held against the wall and supported using shelf supports and/or tiebacks. These anchoring types shall be detailed in the furnace design information. Horizontal shelf supports, as a rule, are required on furnace walls, and d less than 1.5 meters (58) apart. They are generally designed to support 10 times the load weight, and have a shelf width which supports50% of the hot face lining thickness. For flat walls, 15% of the bricks shall be tied back. This frequency may be reduced for cylindrical walls when the radius of curvature of the casing keys the bricks linings. 9.2.2 When refractory monolithic linings are used for furnace linings, anchor spacing should be as follows: For roofs, anchor spacing should be 1.5 times the lining thickness. For walls, anchor spacing should be 2 times the lining thickness. For radiant furnace floors, anchors are not required unless the unit is to be shipped prelined. For dual layer linings, Y anchors shall be installed to hold the hot face in place. Careful attention shall be given to the design and metallurgy of this anchor type since a large portion of this anchor will be exposed to the maximum temperature, which could potentially lead to anchor failure. Spacing for the Y anchor on the hot face shall be the same as that above for single layer linings based on the hot face lining thickness. For corbels that extend out beyond the convection section lining thickness intended to keep flue gases channeled in through the convection section tubes, Y anchors should be used to hold the corbels in place. These are used in combination with V anchors for the single layer convection section wall linings. Ceramic fiber blanket shall be 24 wide maximum applied using an approved anchor layout with the following maximum spacing: 9.3.1 Distance from edge: 75 mm (3 in) maximum/ 50mm (2 in) minimum. 9.3.2 Overlapping Joints (4 overlap): 10 x 10 horizontal and 1012 vertical on walls with 910 overhead (Figure 7). Tighter centers to be used in extreme conditions (vibration or other) 9.3.3 Blanket see Figure 8 9.3.4 Modules see Figure 9 Spacing 3X thickness Diameter or equivalent section


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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Figure 7 Butt (left) and Overlapping (right) Joints for Blanket Linings

Figure 8 Typical blanket lining anchoring systems

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Figure 9 Examples of modular fiber systems

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 9.4 Stud Welding Qualification 9.4.1 All weld procedures and welders shall be qualified per ASME Section IX. 9.4.2 At the start of each shift sample test welds shall be performed by each welder. A sample test shall entail stud welding five anchors on a clean scrap metal plate. A hammer and bend test will be run each sample to ensure a sound full weld. The bend test shall consist bending 15 degrees from vertical and back without cracking. 9.4.3 All equipment settings shall be noted and checked after each work break. Anchor/Hardware Inspection 9.5.1 All individual anchors shall be subject to inspection by hammer test and bend test to ensure they are fully welded with proper spacing and configuration. A minimum of 20% of the production anchors shall be randomly inspected and tested. For stud welded anchors, 100% of the anchors shall be lightly hit with a light hammer to produce a ringing sound without damaging the anchor or threads. 9.5.2 The heater casing is clean, dry and rustfree to ensure sound welds.



Quality Control 10.1 Physical properties relevant to the types of refractory materials to be used in furnaces are those listed in Table 2. These properties should be reviewed in light of the intended service. They shall be tested to confirm that material batches manufactured for the job meet Compliance Datasheet claims to the properties listed. Table 2: Property Claims Documentation Required as Related to the Type of Refractory Selected Properties Chemical Composition Maximum Use Temperature Cold Compressive Strength Density Permanent Linear Change Thermal Expansion Coefficient Thermal Conductivity at Intended Use Temperature Hot Load Strength Note:
1. Use temperature per ASTM C 27 (Brick), ASTM C 155 (IFB), ASTM C 401 (Castable), and ASTM C 892 (RCF).

Castable X X X X X X X

Brick X X X X X X X X

Fiber X X X X X

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 10.2 Packaging/Storage/Shelf Life 10.2.1 Monolithic refractory per API 936. 10.2.2 Brick and fiber shall be packaged to protect the refractory from being saturated with water and from exposure to foreign chemicals that might penetrate the structure and affect properties in service. They must also be protected from mechanical abuse during shipment and handling. 10.2.3 Packaging and Marking, API Standard 936, paragraph 7.3 addresses packaging and marking for monolithic refractory. Material Safety Data Sheets 10.3.1 Refractory materials shall comply with all applicable federal, state, and local codes and regulations on storage, handling, safety, and environmental requirements. 10.3.2 The latest issue of the refractory manufacturers compliance data sheets, application instructions, and MSDS shall be available at the installation site and complied with during the installation of monolithic refractory linings. Anchor Inspection and Testing 10.4.1 All anchor components shall be supplied with mill certifications for the heat with that heat identified on the package and/or anchor component. 10.4.2 The composition of all welding consumables shall be identified on the package and/or spool or welding rod. 10.4.3 Surface preparation Per ASME SEC VIII D1 B PT UW32. Spotground to a white metal surface. 10.4.4 Layout and spacing shall be verified as meeting specified requirements before refractory installation. 10.4.5 Job site verifications shall meet the following requirements:



Anchor Count <25 2550 50500 5003000

1.0 2.0

PMI1 25% 10% 5% 1%

Weld Hammer Test2 100% 50% 25% 5%

Count per manufactured batch Count per type/installation

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 10.5 Brick/Tile Inspection and Testing 10.5.1 Each production lot of mortar shall be sampled and tested against the approved
compliance data after manufacture and prior to shipment. A lot of mortar whose test results do not meet the approved Compliance Data is subject to re-test with a different sample. If the re-test samples fail to meet the specified values the entire lot shall be rejected. 10.5.2 Each production lot of mortar shall be sampled and tested to confirm that the

materials to be installed meet compliance datasheet requirements for physical properties within 10% of specified maximums and minimums. 10.5.3 After approval of physical properties samples selected for bricks in accordance with the following table shall be tested for dimensions and physical defects and accepted/rejected based on the following criterion: Lot Size (pcs.) Sample Size (pcs.) 8 13 20 32 50 80 125 200 Lot Retest or Rejected (on retest) if Defective number of brick from sample 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 22

<50 5190 91150 151280 281500 5011200 12013200 320110000

Note Lot is a group of bricks manufactured from same identified production batch pressed, fired and finished (as required) under same manufacturing process at same time.

10.5.4 Brick to be tested as purchased to confirm that the brick meet dimensional and defect tolerances. ASTM C134 using a digital caliper to an accuracy of 1 mm (0.04 inch) and reported to the nearest 0.5 mm (0.02 inch) Dimensional control shall be based on individual bricks (unless otherwise indicated as in the case of assemblies). Alternatively, measurements of layups may be used to control a linear dimension (e.g., the height of bricks by a layup of 10 bricks) as well as the radius of curvature of an assembly of tapered bricks.

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Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Tolerance requirements for brick shall be: Length <6 (155mm) Length 6 (155mm) Thickness Taper ( between largest and smallest measure) 1% 2% 1.6 mm (1/16) 1 mm (0.04) for tapered length < 155 mm (6) 1.6 mm (1/16) for tapered length 155 mm (6) 1.6 mm (1/16) for diagonal

Warpage (largest from a straight edge across the diagonal of a brick face)

Laminations: The bricks shall be free of internal laminations. The hammer test can be used to indicate the possible occurrence of such laminations. On a cut surface of a representative brick, laminations if present must be clearly visible. Fins at corners and edges shall be no more that 1.00 mm (0.04 inch) high maximum. Cracks visible on the surface of the brick shall be not larger than 19 mm (0.8 inches) in length, deeper than 2 mm (0.1 inch) and wider than 0.25 mm (0.01 inch). Edge and Corner Damage: A brick shall have no more than three corner and/or edge defects for which the total dimensions equal 28mm (11/8). Any bricks with more than five defects, corner or edge flaws, shall be rejected.

10.5.5 Inspection and Test Documentation Manufacturer Product Compliance Data sheets, to be provided by the
material Vendor with minimum / maximum specified product property values for each type of Refractory brick, or mortar. Product Qualification Material Test Result Sheets (MTR) to be provided by the manufacturer all products prior to any shipment. Document shall be fully traceable to individual product packaging and or labeling. The installation contractor shall keep a refractory installation record for each shift, the record shall properly identify name and individual lot of products applied, applicator(s) or foreman names with the location within the unit(s) for each material lot installed. The installation contractor shall prepare refractory test sample record and properly tag and store all samples or specimens for as installed testing as required. Record shall include location within the unit(s) where the material has been installed.

Revision Date: May 3, 2011


Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560

The installation contractor shall provide test result information as prepared by independent laboratory for all as required qualification verification testing or for, as installed testing as required. Where applicators are qualified based on experience record a recording document from the contractor to be provided listing the worker(s) their applicable experience record including attachments of resume submitted with bid documentation where applicable. The contractor shall supply documentation of daily quality audits for workmanship against quality standards listed below. The Quality Assurance Inspector shall log any discrepancies or deviations from this and other project specifications and immediately notify the OWNER and the contractor to determine corrective action.

10.5.6 Refractory Fire Brick and Fired Shape Applicator Qualification Criterion Prior to starting work the contractor to provide a list to the Owner or designate of all applicators that will be installing refractory brick and fired materials, listing previous project references available for contact and verification as to where they have had similar installations. No applicator without acceptable refractory brick installation experience and training shall be used to install bricks or fired shapes. Workers that will be installing brick and fired shapes shall have personal safe work history for all types of brick construction defined in the Work satisfactory to the OWNER or Inspector, and be trained in the safe handling of all brick, mortar and equipment required for the installation. 10.5.7 Inspection criterion for brick linings during installation are: Bricks shall be handled without causing physical damage. Bricks that have physical damage shall not be used without inspector
approval. Insulation bricks that have had water damage or are wet shall not be used without approval by OWNER or Inspector. Insulating bricks removed from pallets or packaging shall be suitably tagged to Identify material type (name, service temperature), and sorted prior to install to provide inspection baseline and correct installation. Visual inspections shall be made to insure bricks are laid plumb, and tapped tight to back-up or shell with no overlapping (lipping). Mortar joints shall be spread evenly and completely and be 1/8 (3 mm) thick.

Mortar for brick shall be properly labeled if not in manufacturer supplied container. Mortar supplied dry, shall be mixed in accordance to Manufacturers recommendation and in accordance to installation procedures.

Revision Date: May 3, 2011


Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Mortar supplied wet shall only be tempered with additional water in accordance to Manufacturers recommendation and in accordance to installation procedures. Metallic hammers shall not be used to tamp any type of brick into place. Brick shall not be hammer cut or chipped to any size. Excessive mortar on the face of any brick shall be removed by
methods approved by material Manufacturers and in accordance to installation procedures. Circle and arch closures shall be made in accordance to installation procedures and key bricks or bricks adjacent to change of plane shall not be cut smaller that 50% of any pre-pressed (cast) and fired dimension. Excessive force shall not be used to install bricks. All power tools for sawing and boring of brick shall be calibrated for trueness with documentation. All expansion allowance to be located in accordance to pre-approved construction detail drawings and shall be properly protected for size and cleanliness during construction and filled in accordance to installation procedures and project specifications. Proper mortar type and consistency shall be used for all bricks installed. Methods for bricking around internally projecting welds, nozzle parts or other shell irregularities shall be clearly documented and approved by OWNER or designate prior to installation. Joints shall be maintained within specification thickness and brick faces shall be parallel in all such conditions. Brick ties or supports shall be installed through holes bored in each supported brick without stress cracking 10.5.8 Installation samples for wet and dry mortar shall be taken once per shift per pallet
only or as otherwise requested by Inspector or OWNER.

10.5.9 Brick shall only be sampled and tested at OWNER or Inspector discretion: as required for physical property testing after visual inspection and or rough handling make them suspect 10.6 RCF/AES Inspection and Testing 10.6.1 RCF and AES materials may be tested to confirm that the material batches manufactured for the job meet the compliance datasheet. For material qualification purposes, specific provision for sampling shall be agreed upon between supplier and purchaser. Purchaser may substitute manufacturers production and release quality control data in lieu of independent laboratory testing. Unsatisfactory test results are cause for rejection. 10.6.2 Compliance datasheets shall be developed for any RCF or AES material commonly used or marketed to the refining and petrochemical industry. The 22

Revision Date: May 3, 2011

Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 manufacturer shall prepare standard compliance datasheets in advance and retain on file for immediate transmission to the purchaser. Each compliance datasheet shall include a statement of identification as a compliance datasheet. The compliance datasheet shall include a list of the test method and edition (date) used for each value listed. 10.6.3 Standard compliance datasheets shall include values of bulk density, linear shrinkage, chemical analysis, and thermal conductivity. For fibrous blanket, the values on the compliance data sheet shall be based on the test methods listed in the table below. Table 3: Test Methods to Determine RCF/AES Properties Properties
Bulk Density Linear Shrinkage

Test Method

AsReceived Condition (unfired) Values to include testing at these temperatures: Manufacturers Recommended Operating Temperature Limit or Continuous Use Temperature Limit; and Maximum Use Temperature as defined by ASTM C892 for classification of types

Provide an upper and lower limit Provide an upper limit for each temperature

Chemical Analysis Thermal Conductivity Tensile Strength ASTM E1172 ASTM C177 or C201 ASTM C892

Provide an upper and lower limit Provide an upper limit AsReceived Condition (unfired) Provide a lower limit


Installation Workmanship 10.7.1 Installation drawings and procedures shall be reviewed prior to starting work. Lining installation should follow the drawing. 10.7.2 Lining anchors, hardware, and materials shall be dimensionally checked for compliance to the work specification. 10.7.3 Anchor layout is plumb, level, and complies with specification tolerances. 10.7.4 In a layered blanket system, joints are tight and overlapped where specified. 10.7.5 Prior to coatings application, the shell surface preparation is in compliance with the coating manufacturers installation specification.

Revision Date: May 3, 2011


Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 10.7.6 Prior to coatings application, anchors and anchor threads are protected from overspray. 10.7.7 Blankets shall not be stretched. 10.7.8 Blankets butt joints shall have specified compression. 10.7.9 Hot face blanket layers shall be installed in lengths no less than 4 feet, and no greater than 12 feet. 10.7.10 In board/blanket systems, the hot face board shall fit loosely against the blanket and not place the board in a bind. 10.7.11 Anchor retaining washers are installed, locked, and protected per specification. 10.7.12 Hot face layers of board shall be constructed with tight butt joints. 10.7.13 Special geometries require additional attention to anchor layout. This includes corners, burner blocks, view ports, penetrations through the lining, and terminations with other refractory systems. 10.7.14 The anchor or stud pattern layout should account for the hot face layer anchor requirements. 10.7.15 Modules are tightly installed per specification before the banding is removed. 10.7.16 Modules are tamped per manufacturers specification. 10.7.17 Module batten strips are cut, folded, and compressed properly. 10.7.18 Module orientation is correct (parquet versus soldier course). 10.7.19 Cements and rigidizers used with RCF and AES are approved per the work specification. 10.7.20 There shall be no gaps in joints between modules in any directions. 10.7.21 Small and irregular openings are filled. Monolithic Refractory Inspection and Testing shall conform to API 936.

10.8 11.0

Responsibilities 11.1 Owner/Fabricator 11.1.1 The Owner/Fabricator shall prepare a detailed specification. The specification shall include the following design details. Lining products, thickness, method of application, and extent of coverage. Anchor materials, geometry, layout and weld details Curing and dryout procedures, including constraints on dryout heating (e.g. design temperature limits and/or maximum differential temperatures that shall be maintained to avoid damaging the unit and/or components). 11.1.2 The Owner/Fabricator shall provide quality requirements covering the following. Physical property requirements to be used for qualification and installation quality control by specific product, installation method and location where the product will be utilized. Sampling frequency Required lining thickness tolerances. Criteria for hammer testing and the extent of cracking and surface voids permitted. 24

Revision Date: May 3, 2011

Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 11.1.3 The Owner/Fabricator shall approve the engineering drawings, execution plan and dryout procedure prior to any installation activity. 11.1.4 The Owner/Fabricator shall resolve the following: exceptions, substitutions, and deviations to the requirements of the execution plan, this standard, and other referenced documents; conflicts between the execution plan, this standard, and other referenced documents; actual or potential work deficiencies discovered and submitted by the inspector. Contractor 11.2.1 The contractor shall prepare a detailed execution plan in accordance with this standard and the requirements of the Owner/Fabricator's specification and quality standards. The execution plan shall be prepared, submitted for the Owner/Fabricators approval, and agreed to in full before work starts. Execution details shall include: designation of responsible parties; designation of inspection hold points and the required advance notification to be given to the inspector; surface preparation and welding procedures; procedures for material qualification, material storage, applicator qualification, installation and quality control; curing (including the curing compound, if any, to be used) and dryout procedures for the completed lining system. 11.2.2 Submission to the Owner/Fabricator of all exceptions, substitutions, and deviations to the requirements of the execution plan, this standard and other referenced documents. Owner/Fabricator's approval shall be secured before implementation of the changes. 11.2.3 Scheduling of material qualification tests and delivery of those materials and test results to the site. 11.2.4 Scheduling and execution of work to qualify all equipment and personnel required to complete installation work, including documentation and verification by the inspector. 11.2.5 Preparation and identification of all testing samples (preshipment, applicator qualification, and production/installation) and timely delivery to the testing laboratory. 11.2.6 Advance notification to the Owner/Fabricator of the time and location where work will take place so that this information can be passed on to the inspector. 11.2.7 Execution of installation work, including preparation of asinstalled samples as required. 11.2.8 Provide inspector verified documentation of installation records, including: product(s) being applied; 25


Revision Date: May 3, 2011

Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 pallet code numbers and location where applied; installation crew members; mixing and/or gunning equipment utilized; location and identity of samples taken for installation quality control; shell temperatures; weather conditions and any other unusual conditions or occurrences; dryout records. 11.2.9 Accountability for installed refractories meeting specified standards. 11.3 Inspector shall be responsible for the following: 11.3.1 Ensure that material and applicator qualification test results are fully documented. 11.3.2 Monitor qualification, production work and dryout (when applicable) conducted by the manufacturer(s) and contractor to ensure compliance with job specifications and agreedto quality practices. 11.3.3 Notify the Owner/Fabricator and the contractor of any work deficiencies or potential deficiencies. Notification shall be made according to the job specific requirements outlined in the procedures. Notification shall take place as soon as possible, and shall occur within one working day after discovery of the deficiency. 11.3.4 The inspector shall make no engineering decisions unless approved by the Owner/Fabricator. Conflicts between the specified execution plan and the actual installation procedures or installed refractory quality results shall be submitted to the Owner/Fabricator for resolution. 11.3.5 Inspect and hammer test installed linings before dryout and after dryout (when possible), and report any anomalies to the Owner/Fabricator. 11.3.6 Check and verify that accurate installation and dryout records are being documented by the contractor. 11.3.7 Record all nonconformances and/or potential problems to which the inspector has alerted the contractor and Owner/Fabricator. 11.4 Manufacturer shall: 11.4.1 provide a compliance datasheet in accordance with for each product; 11.4.2 provide material/s that meets the approved compliance datasheet; 11.4.3 provide recommended dryout/startup procedures Preparation for Shipment 12.1 For shop and fieldapplied ceramic fiber linings, packaging shall prevent damage to fiber due to physical abuse, rain, and wind effects during transportation and storage. 12.2 The contractor shall be responsible for all repair of damaged refractories that are within his control of stiffening and protecting installed linings during handling and transport of prelined components


Revision Date: May 3, 2011


Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 The contractor is shall be responsible for all repairs to refractory affected by alkaline hydrolysis prior to initial dryout of the refractory lining being supplied. Dryout and Heatup/Cooldown Rate 13.1 Linings systems with a monolithic hot face and/or layer shall be dried out per API STD 936 on initial heating. 13.2 Brick and monolithic linings already dried out may be heated or cooled at 100C/hr maximum. 13.3 Fiber linings in blanket or modular forms shall be heated at 200C/hr maximum. 13.4 Neither brick nor fiber linings require dryout on initial heating. 12.3


Revision Date: May 3, 2011


Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Manufacturers Product Compliance Data Sheet Mortar Materials DATE SUBMITTED

EQUIP. No. __________________________________

EQUIP. NAME ________________________________


_______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

WATER ADDITIONS Total (L/100 kg) (gal/100 lb) max. ____________________min.


Min. Usable Workability (%)

COLD BONDING STRENGTH (MPa) (psi)* Manufacturers Data Manufacturers Guarantee

105 C (220 F) _________ _________ min. min.

SCREEN SIZE (% RETAINED)* Manufacturers Data Manufacturers Guarantee max. min.

max. _______ min

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (min/max) Alumina Oxide Silica Oxide Iron Oxide Calcium Oxide Phosphorous Pentoxide

Revision Date: May 3, 2011


Refractory Lining and Burner Brick Requirements API 560 Manufacturers Product Compliance Data Sheet Brick Materials DATE SUBMITTED

EQUIP. NO. __________________________________

EQUIP. NAME ________________________________




DENSITY (kg/m3) (lb/cu ft) Manufacturers Data Manufacturers Guarantee min. min. max. max.

COLD CRUSHING STRENGTH (MPa) (psi) Manufacturers Data Manufacturers Guarantee min. min.

POROSITY (%) Manufacturers Data _______________________ min. min.

Manufacturers Guarantee

CONDUCTIVITY FACTOR "K" AT 538 C (1000 F) MEAN Manufacturers Guarantee max.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (min/max) Alumina Oxide Silica Oxide Iron Oxide Others

Revision Date: May 3, 2011