NEWS

NATIONAL MANNED HOUSTON AERONAUTICS SPACECRAFT 1, TEXAS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CENTER

FOR RELEASE:
Address of Dr. Robert R. Gilruth_ Manned Spacecraft Center Houston_ Texas the American Hotel, Institute French Director

Before

of Architects Houston, Texas

Sheraton-Lincoln 'MSC Viewpoints

Salon,

on Reliability

and Quality

Control"

The quality for manned ventional grams.

control

requirements

and procedures of important

that are being respects from

developed the conpro-

spacecraft practices

differ have

in a number evolved

that

in previous

aircraft

and missile

These

differences programs

spring

from the distinctive I will effect attempt

features to point

of manned

space flight

and vehicles. and their

out a few of con-

these distinctive trol requirements. The most The flight

features

on reliability

and quality

outstanding being

feature

of our programs in the manned flights.

is the research exploration

character.

missions

undertaken research

of space are for knowand

in every sense of the word, ledge_ not only of space in space;

They are a search

itself,

but also

on how to survive,

travel_

n_neuver

to take off and land

spacecraft

on the earth,

the moon,

and eventually

the planets.

-2The spacecraft specifically designed we use are single-purpose mission. they devices, few in number_ for which tailored they are phase In

to each particular

Once the mission to enter

has been accomplished,

are unlikely use as might are much

a production or airplane.

or enjoy a long period this than sense_ our quality

of operational control

a missile closer

problems

to those

of the X-15

to those of the B-58. For those few pioneering spacecraft we must obtain parts, components_ finest sub-

systems,

and engineering

as near to perfection

as the nation'_

craftsmen

can achieve. The single-purpose choosing. Nature character of our spacecraft is not exactly stones of our own in such each

has perversely a substantial

laid out the stepping advance in propulsion of progress

to space

a way as to require step. attempt An urgent each

capability in space

between impells

need for tangible

evidence

us to

step as soon as the minimum successive missions

capability

can be achieved. always

Because at the we

we are undertaking extreme outer

as rapidly

as possible,

limit of our advancing weight limited. They

propulsion can never

capability_ be provided

the spacecraft with the growth steps. flight

use are rightly potential experienced program vehicle. grams_

that would allow engineering

them to be adapted completing

to succeeding final

Nor can the of one

team

the crucial

stages

be safely Thus_

diverted

from

its task to undertake by a series of more

the design or less

of the next pro-

we must

progress

independent

each

of increasing independent

size and complexity, teams of government

overlapping and contractor

in time,

and _nned each space

by different having little

engineers, recent manned

if any first hand familiarity

with the most

-3flight experiaence available at the time the program emphasis or rapid starts. This situation experiindus-

obviously ence with trial_

calls for strong spacecraft

dissemination

of operational engineering_

systems

throughout

the entire how hard

management, we work

and educational we cannot hope

complex.

No matter

on this approach_ decisions will still wrong before

however_ be made

to achieve

perfection. that exists, These errors

Some design and others will have

in ignorance

of information

will be shown to be corrected single

by information flight. ment

yet to be acquired. at what

Thus we arrive

is perhaps

the most and

important schedules

requirethe

in our programs: to absorb

that

desisns_ stream

_rocedures_ of chan_es

must have

flexibility increasing facturing_

a steady

$enerated

by a continually quality control_ manuof

understandin_ and procurement

of space problems. plans must

Reliability_

all be set up with full change. current space programs

recognition

this requirement

for continual

hardware from

The flow of new information source system greater equipment and, of requirements development importance. malfunctions

is not the only during or

for change.

Equipment

malfunctions

that occur

testing

or preflight flight

preparations

are often

of equal

In manned

we cannot

afford

to regard every

any of these malfunction as an

as a random

failure.

We must

regard

in fact_

every observed of potential

peculiarity disaster.

in the behavior Only when

of a system

important understood_ the flight

warning

the cause

is thoroughly with

and a change program. here

to eliminate

it has been made_

can we proceed

The problem action

is one of shortening disastrous

the failure

detection--corrective schedules. We are

cycle to eliminate

effects

on operating

finding

it necessary

to require production

very drastic programs_

streamlining action

of procedures seldom starts

that until

have grown up in mass a failure has been

where

repeated and where

at least

enough times

to accumulate

a noticeable conlittle

pile of IBM cards_ tractor_

the subsequent vendor_

paper-lined and back_

path from prime too often produces

to subcontractor_

to parts

but delay, Rapid

cost and disclaimers corrective response

of responsibility. to malfunctions throughout s_stem development of our programs To the maximum action must of

and preflight

preparations schedules failure

is a critically with hardware

important

requirement

if we are to meet extent possible_

that is fit to fly. as to corrective where

analysis

and decisions

take place the part, opportunity purchase services

immediately the test

at the scene

of the failure, involved

the availability offers

setup, and the people determination component

in the test_ facts.

the best and

for accurate with

of the pertinent suppliers

Contracts

agreements

and parts

should provide

that the required situation

of their engineering Constructive

staffs will

be available reaction

on call whenever to the emergency component

for this purpose. created welcome program. Another of one-shot teristic actual

and effective redesign

when a failure contribution

required

of a spacecraft can make

is the most space

an individual

or company

to the nation's

di6tinctive

characteristic items used of proof

of our spacecraft in the various

is the large

number charac-

and limited-life the amount

subsystems.

This on the

limits

testing

that can be performed such as the heat disconnects,

flight

articles.

In the case of items devices_

shield, igniters,

escape etc.,

rockets,

explosive

separation

explosive

-5the actual cells, only then specimen to be flown cannot be tested at all. vehicle Items engines such as fuel can be given and

ablative

nozzles, under

parachutes, conditions

and launch that

limited

tests,

are not truly and their

representative, aftermath

only at considerable flight failures

risk that the tests than they prevent. missile

may introis, of

duce more course,

This particular

problem

shared by the ballistic philosophy

but not by the airplane. to meet the situation is based in

The operating

that has evolved samples

on the idea that randomly a so-called bility, qualification

selected

of components

can be subjected, environmental,

test program,

to appropriate confidence installed

reliaof these

and overstress

tests with

complete articles unless

that the results

tests will apply to the remaining 'I_is confidence which tures. is not justified are assembled

in the flight vehicles. identical parts from fea-

all supposedly identical and their

the components Although

are truly

in all essential primary

the parts identity

can be inspected in the sense

characteristics test

a'an bo measured, philosophy cannot

required

by the qua!ifi,_a_ion

be fully established turn out to be

by inspection important

and m_,asurement alone. sensitivity to

!m'(a_]ur_s that eventually e:_iroament

in governin_

of susceptibility

to failure

often are unrecognized of manufacture. unknown

or inadequately

_kzl'_nedby inspection To achieve influences components _mde the

or measurement of control

at the time over whatever must be given through

a degree

or indeterminate that all be

may exist, requiring

consideration certification whose an

to the neces_ity

a qualification

test program

up from same

sets of _arts line

members intervening

have been produced change in

constitutively on _r_cess, or

assembly

without

des_9_

-6materials. Handling to hold subsequent to manufacture stresses must also well within tests. be identical the limits It is also and must

be controlled experienced

environmental during

to be necessary

by the part

the qualification

that the parts be identified records show the location

individually

or as members

of the set and that

of all parts

in a set. of parts is of critical a defect importance

This requirement whenever failure

for identification under

of a component to the design essential

test reveals

in a part which process.

can be attributed It then becomes components

or to the manufacturing

or handling

to locate and remoYe Since these that

Lmmediately

from all flight used in more

all similar

parts.

parts

may have been

than the one type of component merely parts to remove all of that

revealed

the deficiency, The very

it is not sufficient control over

type of component.

strict

identification parts,

and use that we are seeking whenever used,

is necessary located

to insure that and

all suspected replacement.

can be readily

for removal

In the area number 100 per

of inspection, involved

flight

safety

considerations it reasonable procedures part_

and the limited to require must be designed how many in this In state good

of articles

in our programs

_ke

cent inspection and reject

of all items.

Inspection or marginal

to locate

every defective rejected

no matter

parts are unnecessarily matter of extreme

in the process.

We are not alone of parts

selectivity successful

in the acceptance Telestar satellite,

for spacecraft. solid

the outstandingly devices were

58_800 acceptable

examined

to select the 2,528 of what

that were flown. by selectivity combined

Another

indication

can be accomplished

-7with persistent attention to detail has been provided Mercury by the flights. potential selection and

preparation that major design

of the Atlas boosters design changes to

for manned

Recognizing of the basic program_ the

increase

the reliability

could

not be accomplished

within

the life of the Mercury set out to make would certain

Air Force

and the Aerospace

Corporation

that the _a×ibe achieved in

mum reliability Mercury ponent Safety

of which the design The program

was capable resulted

actually three

operations. Selection Review

that

involved

parts,

a Com-

Program_

a Factory

Rollout site.

Inspection

?rogram_

and a Flight

Program

at the launch selection

In the component screened. Those

program

all available

Atlas under

components test were

were closest

whose prior

history

and performance for manned program subsystem

to ideal were

selected

and reserved

Mercury

flights. teams of Air Force the

In the factory and Aerospace z_nufacturing and certify

rollout

inspection

technical were

experts history

on each booster and factory

set up to review

tests

of each Mercury flight. similar

hocst_ _ to verify

its suitability safety

for manned review

In the flight at the launch throughout reported reviewing

program

technical

teams were

organized

site to monitor

and record

the performance

of each subsystem These teams for

all preflight

preparations board

and checkout

activities°

to a senior

review

charged

with the final

responsibility

all the problems the limits

and actions

pertinent

to the booster

and certifying orbital

that, within flight.

of human

knowledge_

it _as ready

for ?_nned

As a result

of this

program_

the Mercury

boosters

have

r_,ir_d

twice

the

-8normal manhours normal insures checkout success_ to fabricate_ and have received While more than three times the

time and attention. it certainly

rio man can say that this formu]_ failure. a generally similar app-

does not invite

In the ease of the spacecraft_ roach as regards Special technical of every A basic committed rected. We believe and spacecraft best qualified these operating have been very emphasis technical

we have followed and review

surveillauce

of subsystem

performance. high level of

has been placed

on maintaining

a particularly thorough

capability symptom ground

at the launch during

site_ and on very the rather has been

investigations preparation. cannot be or uncor-

of trouble

extensive that the

preflight spacecraft

rule of the operation

to flight

while any observed

difficulty

remains

unexplained

procedures effective available

developed

for the Mercury the attention engineering

booster of the problems programs. and

in concentrating on the detailed

technical Similar

talent

of each vehicle. In the design flight safety

procedures areas

will be followed our approach lessons

in our future

and testing

to the reliability in previous we attempt

problem and

also reflects space flight

learned While

research to augment that

airplane_

missilej

program_. escape

safety wherever the most

practical

by emergency to safety attention numerical

provisions_ vehicle

we recognize reliability.

effective

approach

is through

To insure

that adequate an overall

is directed reliability

to reliability goal

in the design

stage we specify This overall goal

for the spacecraft. subsystems by the useful

is subsequently These

budgeted

to the various

spacecraft

designer.

numerical

reliability

requirements

are very

-9in the design for deciding bility stage because on the degree measures they give the subsystem of redundancy_ that derating designer of parts_ a rational and other basis relia-

improvement

should be incorporated of a proposed

in his subsystem. design, parts use must that r_ke

In estimating be n_de up the called of failure subsystem. random

the reliability rate These

subsystem

data or estimates failure

for the individual normally

rate estimates

include

only the so-

or statistical Hence_

type of failure

that predominates reliability

in fully values derived be

developed in this obtained be much

parts. way tend with higher

subsystem

and spacecraft failure subsystem

to reflect

the minimum The actual

rate that may ultimately failure rates

the design. because

may initially between parts

of design

errors,

interaction effects,

effects

and components, environments. this subsystem

unanticipated Virtually development

environmental

or errors

in estimating been in

all of our flight catagory.

difficulties

to date have detected

Most would

have been

and elimiulti-

nated before mately

flight

if the ground available much

test techniques at that time.

and programs As a result effort these

that were

devised

had been

of this

experience sub-

we are tending system

to concentrate that will

of our reliability and eliminate

on devising

test programs before

detect

avoidable

sources

of failure

flight. is an attempt to layout without system serious designs that will and

Basically_ absorb

our approach number program

the expected a testing

of parts

failures assure

consequences,

to layout other

that will before

detection_

and correction

of all

sources

of system failure

flight. for success in ou ,_rc_nned space

The last and most

fundamental

requirement

-lOeffort is for the kind of people there are very who will not permit it to fail. of flight that In the final could more not skill-

analysis

few failures

in the history

have been avoided ful, more careful,

if someone, or more

somewhere,

had been more

experienced, build,

highly

motivated.

To design,

and operate the services

the vehicles of the most Industry;

that will capable

pioneer

the exploration people

of space required and companies

and most experience in their

of the Aerospace no compromise or ignore

people

whose pride

craftsmanship people who will

will permit never

of the quality the slightest extra

essential

to suecess_ people

overlook

sign of trouble; so often

who will

freely

give the

last bit of and failure. discussing from on the the we

effort that

spells

the difference and quality in the

between that

success

The requirements this evening

for reliability best every

I have been

are perhaps that

summarized manned

simple basic that leaves history

philosophy this earth

which they

derive: and

spacecraft in human

most ambitious best that dare

challenging

adventure men

shall represent ask for more;

dedicated

and inspired

can create.

We cannot

not settle

for less.

NEWS
NATIONAL MANNED HOUSTON FOR AERONAUTICS SPACECRAFT 1, TEXAS BACKGROUND AND ANSWERS by PAUL E. PURSER ASSISTANT TO THE DIRECTOR MATERIAL (1961) AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CENTER RELEASE: QUESTIONS

SPECIAL

Q: A:

How much

noise will

the Houston

Manned

Spacecraft

Center

make?

The loudest noise will be similar to that of a jet plane when its afterburner comes on during a takeoff. Much of the time it would not be that loud. Is there any danger of explosion?

Q: A:

No. All we are doing is the design of the vehicle and the training of the crew. Fuel research and testing is conducted in other parts of the country. Will rockets be launced from the lab?

Q: A:

No. No launchings, but there will be small-scale tests of rocket motors. The small steering motors will be tested here and the large primary motors will probably be tested on Matagorda Island. The actual launchings will be from Cape Canaveral. Are you already working on the project?

Q: A:

Yes. MSC personnel are now housed in interim facilities and architectural and engineering contracts have been let. Contracts for site preparation have been let and construction is expected to begin in the very near future. What is the schedule on the Center. and the entire

Q: A:

Within 18 months, we should be in part of the Center construction shall be completed within 30 months. Will any people be hired from the local area?

Q: A:

Yes. The Center will require approximately 2,000 more employees than those already on the staff. Many of these will be recruited locally and in this area.
--mo Fe--

-2-

Q: A:

What

kind of salaries

will you pay?

The average salary will be in the $7,000 to $8,000 range although highly skilled technical and engineering people will get more. These are not high compared to private industrial wages, but the glamour of the space project will help, we believe. Will you hire only technical people? be technical you might and scientific. call "services with The

Q: Ax

No. About rest will

half the staff will be clerical,

and what

of supply."

Q;

Will the Center be a self-sufficient stores, and churches?

community

your own housing,

A:

No. We are building only our offices, workshops and labs. We still depend upon the local community for housing, shopping, schools, and everything else. In fact, much of our related technical work right down to film developing will be done by local firms. What kind of people will your space engineers be?

Q: A:

Just people llke anyone else. Most of them are fairly young -- the Director of the entire project is only 47 -- with college training and they average about two children per family. Most of the children will be at elementary and high school ages. We will encourage them to participate in community activities since we will be here for many yea rs. Where w;ll they live?

Q: A:

Wherever they want to. Most of them will buy homes, probably in the $15,000 to $17,000 range, in areas where they are in easy commuting range from the Center. You said you would ject take? be here for years. Just how long will the pro-

Q:

A;

I am fair!y young myself, arid I expect to retire in Houston. The target date for the actual manned moon shot is 1970, but the Center will be a permanent operation even after that. Why will Project it take so long? Mercury is the nation's
--mo

Q: Ax

first effort
re I-

to get a man

into orbit.

w3There are a series of launchings of unmanned spacecraft some with uninhabited spacecraft instrumented and some inhabited with primates, chimpanzees. Project Apollo is the nation's effort to put a larger spacecraft into orbit; first earth orbit; then in a lunar orbit; and finally landing it on the moon. The moon landing is only the beginning of our space exploration. Q: A: And the MSC mission is ....... ?

Design the ship, build a prototype, and train the men who will fly it. We will build several domed environmental labs here in which actual space vacuum conditions can be reproduced. be from Canaveral instead of here? ihstalled into space,

Q: A:

Why will

the launching

Launching facilities which are highly expensive are already there. After the vessel penetrates the atmosphere we will take over control from Canaveral. How will this be done?

Q: A:

Cape Canaveral, Goddard Space Flight Center in Washington, D. C., and a system of 17 tracking and control stations around the world are already connected on a hot line circuit so that observers and controllers in any of these spots can see what is going on just as it happens, with a time delay measurable only in thousandths of a second. The Space Center here will be tied into the same system. Southwestern Bell Telephone Company crews are already studying the circuits needed for Houston. Will Houston area firms do all this building you are talking about?

Q: A:

Very likely. The main project will be put out for bids to a prime contractor. He will probably have thousands of subcontractors. Project Mercury, a far less complex project, has about 200 subcontractors. It is of great advantage to have many of these contractors located close to the project. In fact, some firms outside Houston are already making plans to open branches here or set up liaison offices just for this project. What will the Center look like?

Q: A:

The Center will be composed of a number of functional-type buildings similar to conventional office-type buildings. They will be located in a campus-type environment on landscaped area which will be complete with streets, utilities and other related functions. The buildings will be permanent and consistent in design.
I _ mo Fe I I

-4-

Q: A:

How do you get to the lab area? You go out the Gulf Freeway to FM 528 and turn to the left. This is the Seabrook Road. The lab area is generally the land area between the road and Clear Lake, where the :r_ad comes closest to the lake. The state has already been asked to improve this road. It is the first time, I understand, the State Highway Department has been asked to make a freeway out of a Farm-to-Market Road. Why the location near the water? send to Canaveral are so

Q: A:

Some of the parts of the craft we will large they will have to go by barge. How much money does ploration? the United States

Q:

expect

to spend on space

ex-

A_

Present estimates for the next ten years run in the neighborhood of $30 to $50 billlon for all purposes, civilian and military. This is an annual spending rate of $3 to $5 billion a year. But remember, the greatest part of this m_ney is spent on contracts given to numerous colleges and companies and their subcontractors located throughtout the nation. Only about 25 per cent of NASA appropriations will be spend "in-house." Thus, the U.S. space program will stimulate the country's economy throughout the nation pro_i'_ing new jobs and new job categories. Why are we spending all this money on space exploration?

Q: A:

In addition to providing a strong national economy, as just mentioned, there are many other direct benefits of the space program. Just to list a few of them we have: advanced national security, added influence and prestige within the world community, better living with new consumer goods_ improved health and education and advances in metallurgy, weather forecasting and communications. Note that _his list is headed by the most urgent and precious of all commodities -- national security -- a com.modity that we can never really put a price tag on. However, we hope that space exploration, eventually, may prove so immense and important a challenge to both the communist and the free world that the space race will supplant the arms race. Thus, the race can be cOnstruCtive in nature rather than destructive. How will this money spent on space affect the small business man?

Q: A:

The national space program will affect small business men in two ways -either directly or indirectly. Directly, many small businesses are suppliers of speciaity equipment: for the larger concerns that have responsi--more--

-5-

bility for major components and systems. For example, in our Mercury program where McDonnell has the prime contract many of the 200 subcontractors are small businesses. In only the first 2½ years of its existence, America_s space exploration program involved over 5,000 companies or Jesearch organizations, both large and small businesses, and this number is still snowballing. Indirectly, it is expected that the space program will have an even larger impact on small business° The many new products of the space age will open up new markets and provide a source of new profits for producers with imagination enough to capitalize quickly on the results of research and development. The small business man who reJ lizes a down-to-earth application of space technology and who is quick to place his product on the market will find a pot of gold at the foot of this space r_*nbow, if this seems overly optlmistic, look at the transistor business -- a product for the space miniaturization program. Sales jumped from $5 million in 1954 to $100 million in 1958 and to more than $300 million in 1961 with more than 5,000 firms in the field -- the majority of whom are small businesses. Q: A: Is the moon the ultimate goal of our space exploration program?

No, the moon is not the ulLimate goal of our space exploration program. It is actually a stepping-off point to outer space -- sort of a steppoing stone to the planets. Probably the n e_xt generation will look on our efforts over the next decade as only the baby steps in the space program. But each step is important. Projects Mercury, Gemini and Apollo are major building blocks in our program of space exploration° In lr,_h, we are just scratching the surface and the wonders of the universe lie before us.