4.1 Introduction

Riveted Joints

4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Riveting Types of Riveted Joints Nomenclature Summary Answers to SAQs

Joining of sheets of metals is very common yet an important process of manufacturing. Whenever such joints are required to be permanent and capable of carrying high loads, the engineers find choice between riveted and welded joints. Such joining of sheets and plates is required in bridges, boilers, storage tanks, pressure vessels and ships. Though the riveted joints are no more favorite of engineers who have begun to prefer welded structures for their strength, versalility and convenience of application, yet study of riveted joints present classic advantage in drawing and mechanics.

After studying this unit, you should be able to know • • • • • what is a rivet, its shape and material, how is a riveted joint created between metal sheets, different types of joints, different proportions of joints, and how to draw these joints.

A rivet is a small metallic part, often produced in mild steel, wrought iron, copper, aluminium (or alloy thereof) by process of forging. The rivets and sheets to be joined are normally of the same material for economy and strength. The rivet is a single piece with three identifiable regions as shown in Figure 4.1. It ends in a tapering cylindrical end with a spherical head joined by a cylindrical region. The length of the cylindrical region is equal to plate thicknesses through which the rivet passes. The plates to be jointed carry coaxial holes of diameter slightly greater than that of rivet. The plates are placed such that holes are coaxial, the rivet is inserted so that the tail part protrudes out of the plate. The rivet may be inserted cold or heated red before insertion. If cold, the tail is beaten through a die to shape into another head and if hot it is pressed under the die to the head. The head made out of tail is exactly similar to the head at the other end.


Machine Drawings

Figure 4.1 : Shape of a Rivet

The proportionate diameters of the straight shank and tapered end are shown in Figure 4.2 along with the head formation by the die. The diameter of hole in the plate/sheet is 3% greater than that of the shank.

Figure 4.2

The head so made is caulked for effective sealing, so is the edge of jointed sheet (see Figure 4.3).

Figure 4.3


Rivets of several shaped heads are used mainly dictated by available space. Most common is the snap, button or cup head. Figure 4.4 gives the shapes of various heads of the rivets.

Riveted Joints

Figure 4.4 : Different Head Forms of Rivets

The two types of riveted joints are apparent from application point of view. They are : (a) (b) Structural joints Boiler joints

The former type is required to produce enough strength for carrying load and is often made to make built up sections for beams and columns. The standard plates, I-sections, angle sections or channel sections or T-sections may be used in built up section. Figure 4.5 shows a large I-section built up from three plates (1), (2) and (3) and four angles (4), (5), (6) and (7), such beams are called girders.

Figure 4.5

The boiler joints, used in boilers and pressure vessel serve double purpose of providing strength and stay leak proof. The other classification of the riveted joints depend upon the placement of plates with respect to each other and the placement of rivets in the plates. We have already seen a riveted joint in Figure 4.3. In this joint two plates to be joined are placed over each other so that they partly overlap. Such a joint is easily named as Lap Joint. In yet another type of plates are placed in the same planes so that their edges butt each other. A cover plate is placed on top of the two and holes made coaxially in cover plate and joining plates to receive rivets. Instead of one cover there may be two-one top 77

Machine Drawings

and other below the butting edges. The former is called single cover butt joint while latter is known as double cover butt joint. Figure 4.6 shows two types of lap joint. Figure 4.7 shows the types of butt joints.

(a) Single Riveted Lap Joint

(b) Double Riveted Lap Joint

Figure 4.6

According to arrangement of rivets, the joints are called single riveted, Figure 4.6(a) and Figure 4.7(a). Note that classifying a single riveted lap joint only one row of rivets passes through two overlapping plate but for a single riveted butt joint one row of rivets passes through each of the butting plate. In double riveted lap joint two rows of rivets are used as shown in Figure 4.7(b). In double riveted butt joint two rows of rivets pass through each of two butting plate.

(a) Single Riveted Butt Joint

(b) Double Riveted Butt Joint

(c) Chain Riveting Figure 4.7

(d) Zig-Zag Riveting


In a riveted joint the two joining plates are pulled apart by tensile forces. In a lap joint these forces do not act in a line but their lines of action are separated by a distance equal to thickness of plate. This causes additional load on plates and rivets. In a butt joint the tensile forces act in the same line if two covers are used. In a single cover butt joint the effect like that in lap joint occurs for cover plate and rivet.

If in a double riveted joint in any one row there is a rivet corresponding to each in the other row, the riveting is called chain. If the rivets in two adjacent rows are staggered by half the distance then riveting is zig zag. The joints in Figures 4.6(a) and (b) are chain riveted as in Figures 4.7(a) and (b) but the joint in Figures 4.7(c) and (d) are chain riveted and zig zag riveted.

Riveted Joints

Figures 4.6 and 4.7 are referred to for defining several terms associated with the riveted joints. Pitch Pitch, denoted by ‘p’, is the centre distance between adjacent holes in a row p = 3d (minimum). Back Pitch It is the distance between the centre lines of rivet holes in two adjacent rows. It is denoted by pb , pb = 2d in chain or pb = 0.8 p in chain riveting and pb = 0.6 p in zig zag riveting. Diagonal Pitch Denoted by pd, it is the minimum distance between the rivet hole centres in two adjacent rows of zig zag riveting. Margin It is denoted by ‘m’ and represents the distance between a rivet hole centre and nearest edge of the plate. The plate thickness is denoted by ‘t’ and it is generally same for two joining plates. The cover plate thickness is denoted by tc and tc = t/2 for double cover and tc = t for single cover. The rivet hole diameter, denoted by ‘d’, is marginally greater than the diameter of rivet shank. Both d and D have been used to denote diameters of rivet and rivet hole. The diameter of rivet hole is calculated form Unwin’s formula which states that

d = 6 t where both d and t are in mm.

(a) Figure 4.8 shows isometric view of a single riveted lap joint. The plate thickness is 12 mm, the rivet hole diameter is 21 mm and rivet diameter is 20 mm. Draw the front view and plan with three rivets in the row.

Figure 4.8


Machine Drawings


Two 16 mm thick plates are joined in double riveted lap joint. Find rivet hole diameter, margin, pitch and back pitch. For chain riveting. Draw the front sectional view and plan. Identify the joint shown in Figure 4.9. The thickness of two plates jointed is 12 mm, calculate pitch, back pitch and diagonal pitch. Draw the front and plan for three rivet length.


Figure 4.9


Figure 4.10 represents isometric view of a single riveted butt joint having two cover plates. Take the thickness of two cover plates as 0.625 t where t = thickness of two main plates. Draw two views of the joint if t = 16 mm.

Figure 4.10


Two steel plates 12.5 mm thick are jointed in a double cover butt joint. The steel plates are 320.5 mm wide and lozenge shape cover is shown in Figure 4.11 with proposed holes. Draw the front and top views of the joint.


Figure 4.11


Three plates and four angle sections of Figure 4.12 are riveted as shown in Figure 4.13 and similar to Figure 4.5. Draw front view, top view and side view for three rivet length in a row.

Riveted Joints

Figure 4.12

Figure 4.13


Two plates 22 mm thick are joined by double riveted butt joint with rivets of 27 mm diameter. The rivets are so arranged that the inner rows (adjacent of butting edges) have pitch of 69 mm whereas the outer rows have the pitch of 139.2 mm. The two covers have thickness of 18.5 mm each. Draw sectional elevation and plan of the joint.

In permanent joining of plates the process of riveting was important. Overwhelming application of such joining in fabrication of bridge, ships and pressure vessel was due to convenience and economy. However, technologically superior process of welding has almost replaced riveting. The study of riveted joints by way of drawing helps understand drawing of complicated objects. Several types of joints by way of strength and leak proofing and by way of rivet arrangements were used and have been described and drawn in text. Drawing of these joints will be greatly useful.

SAQ 1 (a) The sectional front view and full plan are shown in Figure 4.14. Take p = 3 D = 3 × 20 = 60 mm, m = 1.5 D = 1.5 × 20 = 30 mm. 81

Machine Drawings

Figure 4.14 : Two Views of a Single Riveted Lap Joint


Rivet hole diameter, d = 6 t = 6 16 = 24 mm . The rivet diameter D2 = 23 mm, m = 1.5 d = 1.5 × 24, m = 36 mm p = 3d = 3 × 24 = 72 mm (minimum) pb = 0.8 p for chain riveting pb = 0.8 × 72 = 576 say 58 mm.

Figure 4.15

The joint will appear as shown in Figure 4.15 in isometric view. The two views of double riveted (chain) joint are shown in Figure 4.16.

Figure 4.16 : Two Views of Chain Double Riveted Lap Joint


The Figure 4.9 represents a double riveted (zig-zag) lap joint. Diameter of rivet hole, D = 6 t = 6 12 = 20.78 say 21 mm. The diameter of rivet may be taken as d = 20 mm. The pitch p = 3d = 3 × 20 = 60 mm The back pitch = 0.6p for zig-zag riveting pb = 0.6 × 60 = 36 mm The margin, m = 1.5d = 1.5 × 20 = 30 mm
2 The diagonal pitch, pd = ( p / 2) 2 + pb = (30)2 + (36)2 = 46.86 mm

Riveted Joints

The two views of the joint are drawn in Figure 4.17.

Figure 4.17 : Two Views of Zig-Zag Double Riveted Lap Joint


Thickness of cover plate, Diameter of rivet hole, Diameter of rivet,

t1 = 0.625 × 16 = 10 mm d= 6

t = 6 16 = 24 mm

d1 = 23 mm

P = 3d = 3 × 24 = 72, m = 1.5d = 1.5 × 24 = 36 mm The front view in section and full top view (plan) are shown in Figure 4.18.

Figure 4.18 : Two Views of a Single Riveted Double Cover Butt Joint


Machine Drawings


Following Figure 4.19 is the indicative drawing of the butt joint known as lozzenge joint due to its appearance. Complete it using large scale.

Figure 4.19


Figure 4.13 shows the indicative drawing and based upon this draw the third view from Figure 4.20.

Figure 4.20


See Figure 4.21. It shows the plan. Develop the elevation and section along AA.

Figure 4.21


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