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Seminar Report On

Work study
By JAIN BADAL MANOJ (Roll no.-301034) (T.E.Civil) Guided By:-Prof.S.D. Vernekar

Department Of Civil Engineering Sinhgad College Of Engineering, Pune-41 Year- 2011-2012


This is to certify that



Has successfully completed his seminar on the topic

Work study.

At Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune in the partial fulfillment of the Under Graduate Degree course in T.E. Civil Engineering at the department of Civil Engineering, in the Academic Year 2011-2012 Semester II prescribed by the University of Pune.

Prof. Mrs. S.D.Vernekar Guide Department of Civil Engineering

Prof. K.C.Khare H.O.D


We find great pleasure in expressing our deep sense of gratitude towards all, who have made it possible for us to complete this seminar with success. We would also like to express our deepest & sincerest gratitude to Prof.S.D. Vernekar and Prof.S.S.Tikhe our internal guide, for her dynamic and valuable guidance and keen interest in our seminar work. We are grateful to her for her constant encouragement in the fulfillment of the seminar work. This seminar cannot be considered complete without mention of our H.O.D. Prof.Dr.Mrs.K.C. Khare. They have always been supportive and helpful throughout the course of our Bachelor of Engineering. Last but not the least; we would also like to thank all Staff Members and all our colleagues for their valuable suggestions and support.

JAIN BADAL MANOJ Roll no. - 301034 TE Civil Engineering SCOE, Pune.

Sr. No.
1. 2.


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Introduction Breakdown structure I. Method study 1.1 Select and record 1.1.1 Charts 1.1.2. Diagrams and models. 1.2. Examine 1.3. Develop 1.4. Install 1.5. Maintain II. Time study

3. 4. 5. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

2.1. Work measurement 2.2. Rating 2.3. Allowances 2.4. Choosing a measurement technique III. Case study

16 17 18 19

16 17 18 19

3.1multiple activity chart 3.2. Comments IV. References

Work Study is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying out activities such as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up Standards of performance for the activities carried out. Productivity in its broadest sense is the quantitative relationship between what we produce and the resources we use. Work study emphasizes on increasing the productivity and improving the working conditions. The most agreed definition of work study issued by the British standards institute is that it is a generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of all factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement. The object of work study is to assist management to obtain the optimum use of the human and material resources available to an organization for the accomplishment of the work upon which it is engaged.



















Method study involves the breakdown of an operation or procedure into its component elements and their subsequent systematic analysis.

It is important that anyone responsible for method study should posses

1. The desire and determination to produce results 2. The ability to produce results. 3. An understanding of human factors involved. The following factors should be kept in mind. 1. Economic considerations 2. Technical considerations. 3. Human reactions

Objectives of method study.

1. Improved layout 2. Improved working procedures 3. improved use of material, plant, equipment, and manpower 4. Improved working environment 5. improved design.

Method study can be further divided into following categories.

Select and record Examine Develop and submit Install and maintain.


Method study may bring fruitful results if an organization has following defects.
1. Poor use of materials, labors, machine capacity, resulting in high scrap and re-processing costs. 2. Bad layout of operation, resulting in unnecessary movement of materials. 3. Existence of bottlenecks. 4. Inconsistencies in quality. 5. Highly fatiguing work. 6. Excessive overtime. 7. Employees complaints about their work without logical reasons.

Recording techniques.
1. 1.1 Charts. a) Outline process chart. b) Flow process chart. c) Two handed motion chart. d) Multiple activity charts. e) Simultaneous motion chart. 1.1.2 Diagrams and models. a) Flow and string diagrams. b) Two and three dimensional models

1.1.1 CHARTS
The construction and interpretation of process charts is simplifies with the use of following symbols.

Outline process chart-the outline process chart gives an overall view of a process, from which it can be decided whether a further and more details record is needed. It is a graphic representation of the points at which materials are introduced into a process and of sequence of all operations and inspections associated with the process. The chart does not show where work takes place or who performs it and since it is concerned only with operations and inspections only two symbols are used. Flow process chart-the flow process chart is an amplification of the outline process chart. It shows transports, delays, storage as well as operations and inspections. It can express the process in terms of the events as they affect the material being processed or it can express the process in terms of the activities of the man. Two-handed process chart-work confined to a single work place often consists of the use of hands and arms only, and the two handed process chart has been devised to give a synchronized and graphical reorientation of the sequence of manual activities of the worker. Two-handed process chart is made up of two columns in which the symbols are recorded representing the activities of left hand and right hand. Multiple activity chart and simultaneous motion chart-the multiple activity chart is used whenever it is necessary to consider on the same document the activities of a subject in relation to one or more others. By allotting separate bars, placed against a common timescale, to represent the activities of each worker or machine during a process, the multiple activity chart shows up clearly periods of ineffective time within the process. This makes the avoidance of such time by rearrangement of work a very much easier task. It is often useful to construct the chart so that the most important subject from aspect of costs receives the major emphasis


a) Flow and string diagrams.
The flow diagram is a drawing, substantially to scale, of working area, showing the location of various activities identified by numbered symbols .the route followed in transport are shown by joining in sequence by a line which represents as nearly as possible the paths of movement of the subject concerned. The string diagram is a scale layout drawing on which a length of string is used to record the extent as well as the pattern of movement of a worker or piece of equipment working within a limited area during a certain period of time. Although it can be used in places where the movement is a simple backward and forward one between two or three fixed points, it is of most value where journeys are so irregular in distance and frequency that it would otherwise be difficult to see exactly what is happening. Use of string diagram-it produces a record of existing set of conditions so that the job of seeing what is actually taking place is made as simple as possible. It enables to study the actual distance traveled in any activity. It enables to find critical points where congestion takes place. It helps to arrange different materials and machines in such a way that maximum output can be obtained. Study of a new layout can be made and studies before-hand.

b) Two and three dimensional modelsTwo dimensional models-loose templates can be used to represent machinery, furniture and fittings in developing new methods and layouts. Templates made from thin card board will suffice most cases. If frequent re-layout is necessary heavy cardboard or plywood will prove more satisfactory. Three-dimensional models-a scale model of working area has similar uses to a three dimensional flow diagram. It also enables questions of environment, heating, ventilation, maintenance and safety to be visualized. It is easily understood by workers and is useful in obtaining their practical advice on changes being made.

1.2. Examine
The recorded data are subjected to examination and analysis; formalized versions of this process are critical examination and systems analysis. The aim is to identify, often through a structured, questioning process, those points of the overall system of work that require improvements or offer opportunity for beneficial change.

1.3. Develop
The Examine stage merges into the Develop stage of the investigation as more thorough analysis leads automatically to identify areas of change. The aim here is to identify possible actions for improvement and to subject these to evaluation in order to develop a preferred solution. Sometimes it is necessary to identify short-term and long-term solutions so that improvements can be made (relatively) immediately, while longer-term changes are implemented and come to fruition.

1.4. Install
The success of any method study project is realized when actual change is made 'on the ground' - change that meets the originally specified terms of reference for the project. Thus, the Install phase is very important. Making theoretical change is easy; making real change demands careful planning - and handling of the people involved in the situation under review. They may need reassuring, retraining and supporting through the acquisition of new skills. Install, in some cases, will require a parallel running of old and new systems, in others; it may need the build-up of buffer stocks, and other planning to manage the change. What matters is that the introduction of new working methods is successful. There is often only one chance to make change!

1.5. Maintain
Sometime after the introduction of new working methods, it is necessary to check that the new method is working, that it is being properly followed, and that it has brought about the desired results. This is the Maintain phase. Method drift is common - when people either revert to old ways of working, or introduce new changes. Some of these may be helpful and should formally be incorporated; others may be inefficient or unsafe. A methods audit can be used to formally compare practice with the defined method and identify such irregularities.




Time study is a structured process of directly observing and measuring human work using a timing device to establish the time required for completion of the work by a qualified worker when working at a defined level of performance. It follows the basic procedure of systematic work measurement of: 1. Analysis of the work into small, easily-measurable components or elements 2. Measurement of those components and 3. Synthesis from those measured components to arrive at a time for the complete job. The observer first undertakes preliminary observation of the work (a pilot study) to identify suitable elements which can be clearly recognized on subsequent occasions and are of convenient length for measurement. Subsequent studies are taken during which the observer times each occurrence of each element using a stopwatch or other timing device while at the same time making an assessment of the worker's rate of working on an agreed rating scale. One of the prime reasons for measuring elements of work, rather than the work as a whole is to facilitate the process of rating. The rate at which a worker works will vary over time; if elements are carefully selected, the rate of working should be consistent for the relatively short duration of the element. More information on rating is given within the entry on work measurement. This assessment of rating is later used to convert the observed time for the element into a basic time; a process referred to as "extension". It is essential that a time study observer has been properly trained in the technique and especially in rating. Time study, when properly undertaken, involves the use of specific control mechanisms to ensure that timing errors are within acceptable limits. Increasingly, timing is by electronic devices rather than by mechanical stopwatch; some of these devices also assist in subsequent stages of the study by carrying out the process of "extending" or converting observed times into basic times. The basic time is the time the element would take if performed at a specified standard rating. The number of cycles that should be observed depends on the variability in the work and the level of accuracy required. Since time study is essentially a sampling technique in which the value of the time required for the job is based on the observed times for a sample of observations, it is possible using statistical techniques to estimate the number of observations required under specific conditions. This total number of observations should be taken over a range of conditions where these are variable and, where possible, on a range of workers. Once a basic time for each element has been determined, allowances are added (for example, to allow the worker to recovered from the physical and mental effects of carrying out the work) to derive a standard time.

Time study is a very flexible technique, suitable for a wide range of work performed under a wide range of conditions, although it is difficult to time jobs with very short cycle times (of a few seconds). Because it is a direct observation technique, it takes account of specific and special conditions but it does rely on the use of the subjective process of rating. However, if properly carried out it produces consistent results and it is widely used. Additionally, the use of electronic data capturing devices and personal computers for analysis makes it much more cost effective than previously.

2.1. Work Measurement

Work measurement is the process of establishing the time that a given task would take when performed by a qualified worker working at a defined level of performance. There are various ways in which work may be measured and a variety of techniques have been established. The basic procedure, irrespective of the particular measurement technique being used, consists of three stages; An analysis phase in which the job is divided into convenient, discrete components, commonly known as elements; A measurement phase in which the specific measurement technique is used to establish the time required (by a qualified worker working at a defined level of performance) to complete each element of work; A synthesis phase in which the various elemental times are added, together with appropriate allowances (see below), to construct the standard time for the complete job. The techniques used to measure work can be classified into those that rely on direct observation of the work, and those that do not. For example, some techniques, such as predetermined motion-time systems and the use of synthetic or standard data can provide times from simulation or even visualization of the work. However, the data on which such techniques are based were almost certainly based on earlier observation of actual work.

2.2. Rating
Direct observation techniques such as time study and analytical estimating include a process for converting observed times to times for the "qualified worker working at a defined level of performance." The commonest of these processes is known as rating. This involves a trained observer making an assessment of the worker's rate of working

relative to the observer's concept of the rate corresponding to standard rating. This assessment is based on the factors involved in the work such as effort, dexterity, speed of movement, and consistency. The assessment is made on a rating scale, of which there are three or four in common usage. Thus on the 0-100 scale, the observer makes a judgment of the worker's rate of working as a percentage of the standard rate of working (100). The rating is then used, in a process known as "extension" in time study, to convert the observed time to the basic time using the simple formula: Basic time = observed time x observed rating/standard rating Rating is regarded by many as a controversial area of measurement since it is a subjective assessment. Where different observers rate differently, the resulting basic times are not comparable. However, practiced rating practitioners are remarkably consistent. It is important that those undertaking the rating are properly trained, and that this training is regularly updated to maintain a common perception of standard rating through rating 'clinics'.

2.3. Allowances
When carrying out work over a complete shift or working day, workers obviously suffer from the fatigue imposed both by the work undertaken and the conditions under which they are working. The normal practice is to make an addition to the basic time (commonly referred to as an "allowance") to allow the worker to recover from this fatigue and to attend to personal needs. The amount of the allowance depends on the nature of the work and the working environment, and is often assessed using an agreed set of guidelines and scales.

It is usual to allow some of the recovery period inherent in these allowances to be spent away from the workplace and this is essential in adverse working conditions. Thus, work design should include the design of an effective work-rest regime. The addition of allowances should never be used to compensate for an unsafe or unhealthy working environment. In many jobs there are small amounts of work that may occur irregularly and inconsistently. It is often not economic to measure such infrequent work and an additional allowance is added to cover such work and similar irregular delays. This allowance is known as a contingency allowance and is assessed either by observation, by analysis of historical records of such items as tool sharpening or replacement, or by experience. The end result is a Standard Time which includes the time the work "should" take (when carried out by a qualified worker) plus additional allocations in the form of allowances, where appropriate, to cover relaxation time, contingency time and, perhaps, unoccupied time which increases the overall work cycle such as waiting for a machine to finish a processing cycle.

2.4. Choosing a measurement technique

The choice of a suitable measurement technique depends on a number of factors including: The purpose of the measurement; The level of detail required; The time available for the measurement; The existence of available predetermined data; And cost of measurement.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

There is a tradeoff between some of these factors. For example, techniques which derive times quickly may provide less detail and be less suitable for some purposes, such as the establishment of individual performance levels on short-cycle work. The advantage of structured and systematic work measurement is that it gives a common currency for the evaluation and comparison of all types of work. The results obtained from work measurement are commonly used as the basis of the planning and scheduling of work, manpower planning, work balancing in team working, costing, labor performance measurement, and financial incentives. They are less commonly used as the basis of product design, methods comparison, work sequencing and workplace design.


Location- Aditya city.


Activity- hoisting of aggregate and sand to 11th floor No of persons-5 List of equipments-hoisting lift, 2 buckets. The following was the layout of the site-



The numbers indicate the sequence of the activity. The total distance to be travelled 22m. Number 1 is the central aggregate storage. Number 2 is the temporary dump for aggregate waiting to be hoisted. Number 3 is the hoisting lift. Number 4 is the storage on 11th floor.

Revised layout:-



As per the revised layout, Total distance to be travelled=9m No of labor -4


3.1 INITIAL MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTTime 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 2 labors , Act 1-2 Bucket 1 Hook change Hoist up Bucket 2 Lift 1 Labor, Act 3-4

Hook change Hoist down Hook change Hoist up

Hook change Hoist down Hook change

3.2 REVISED MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTTime 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 1 labors , Act 1-2 Bucket 1 Hook change Hoist up Bucket 2 Lift 1 Labor, Act 3-4

Hook change Hoist down Hook change Hoist up

Hook change Hoist down Hook change


By observing closely, conclusion can be clearly made from the multiple activity charts that the most non-productive work was changing the hook. Being repetitive in nature a lot of time is wasted. If an easy to change hook arrangement is made instead of tying the rope to the bucket, this work can be done in quarter of the time which is required now. Currently changing of hook requires 1min, means at least 5minutes in each cycle of bucket 1 and 2. Minimizing this time will mean 1minute 30second will be required for hook change and time saved will be 3.5 minutes in each cycle. So if 45 cycles take place in a day total time saved will be 157.5minutes, which is approximately equal to 2.5 hours a day.

Places numbered 5 and 6 are empty ducts for lifts which will be installed in the final stage of the project. If the lift ducts are used for hoisting the aggregates, less distance (~9 m) will be required to be covered on ground. Ducts being of sufficient size, it is possible. Cost benefits incurred will be reduction of one labor and fatigue.

A labor works on site for around 250 days a year, 8 hours a day. Consider Rs.150 as his daily wages, we would save Rs.37, 500.




1) Work study by R.M.CURRIE with foreword by SIR.EWART.SMITH, BIM publication, second edition, SIR ISSAC PITMAN AND SONS LTD, LONDON. 2) 3)