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I, Mr. Vinay Pandit Professor Name hereby certify that MS UMA RAPOOL student of LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE has completed University project on DOMESTIC VOILENCE AGAINST WOMEN

This information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.


Project Guide


I, Ms. Uma rapool student of LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS S.Y.BMS B, 4th semester hereby declare that I have completed University project on Domestic Voilence Against Women during the academic year 2011-2012. This information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge

With great pleaser I thank Mr. VINAY PANDIT Professor of LALA LAJPAT RAI COLLEGE for being and an inspiration in the completion of this project I thank for his invaluable help provided during the completion of this project I also thank him for providing us guidance and numerous suggestion throughout entire duration of the project I am thankful for his invaluable help without which this project would not have materialized.

I express our deep gratitude to my entire college friend and my family members whose effort and creativity helped me in giving the final structure to the project work.

I AM also thankful to all those seen and unseen hands and heads, which have been of help in the completion of this project work.

1.1 General introduction of the project 1.2 Objectives of study 1.3 Scope of study 1.4 Research methodology A) formation of research problem B) Hypothesis C) Research instrument D) Data collection E) Sampling plan F) Research limitation

CHAPTER 2-Review of literature CHAPTER 3- theories andDomestic Violence Bill 2005 CHAPTER 4- Signs of an abusive relationship

CHAPTER 5- Kinds of Violence against Women CHAPTER 6- Causative factors of Domestic Violence, history and impact on society CHAPTER 7 - Data analysis and interpretation CHAPTER 8 - CONCLUSION ENCLOSURE 1 - BIB LOGRAPHY ENCLOSURE 2 ANEXTURE


Violence against women is partly a result of gender relations that assumes men to be superior to women. Given the subordinate status of women, much of gender violence is considered normal and enjoys social sanction. Manifestations of violence include physical aggression, such as blows of varying intensity, burns, attempted hanging, sexual abuse and rape, psychological violence through insults, humiliation, coercion, blackmail, economic or emotional threats, and control over speech and actions. In extreme, but not unknown cases, death is the result. (Adriana, 1996) These expressions of violence take place in a man-woman relationship within the family, state and society.Usually, domestic aggression towards women and girls, due to various reasons remain hidden. Cultural and social factors are interlinked with the development and propagation of violent behavior. With different processes of socialization that men and women undergo, men take up stereotyped gender roles of domination and control, whereas women take up that of submission, dependence and respect for authority. A female child grows up with a constant sense of being weak and in need of protection, whether physical, social or economic. This helplessness has led to her exploitation at almost every stage of life. The family socializes its members to accept hierarchical relations expressed in unequal division of labor between the sexes and power over the allocation of resources. The family and its operational unit is where the child is exposed to gender differences since birth, and in recent times even before birth, in the form of sex-determination tests leading to foeticide and female infanticide. The home, which is supposed to be the most secure place, is where women are most exposed to violence.

Violence against women has been clearly defined as a form of discrimination in numerous documents. The World Human Rights Conference in Vienna, first recognized gender- based violence as a human rights violation in 1993. In the same year, United Nations declaration, 1993, defined violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to a woman, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. (Cited by Gomez, 1996) Radhika Coomaraswamy identifies different kinds of violence against women, in the United Nations special report, 1995, on Violence Against Women; a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non spousal violence and violence related to exploitation. b) Physical sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution. c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the state, wherever it occurs. This definition added violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, to the definition by United Nations in 1993. Coomaraswamy (1992) points out those women are vulnerable to various forms of violent Treatment for several reassssons, all based on gender. 1) Because of being female, a woman is subject to rape, female circumcision/genital mutilation, female infanticide and sex related crimes. This reason relates to societys construction of female sexuality and its role in social hierarchy. 2) Because of her relationship to a man, a woman is vulnerable to domestic violence, dowry murder, and sati. This reason relates to societys concept of a woman as a property and dependent of the male protector, father, husband, son, etc. 3) Because of the social group to which she belongs, in times of war, riots. Or ethnic, caste, or class violence, a woman may be raped and brutalized as a means of humiliating the community to which she belongs. This also relates to male perception of female sexuality and women as the property of men. Besides the harmful and extensive impact of violence against women on their physical and mental health and its recognition as a public health priority (Who, 2002) such ongoing violence also poses a serious impediment to womens development in general. When women are faced with violence, they are unable to fully participate in activities related to environment, economic, social and political development. In India, it was the womens movement, which was responsible for bringing the issue of violence against women into the public discourse. The recognition of gender as an issue forms the basis for Indias womens movement .It was within this milieu that in the late 1970s and early 1980s, autonomous womens groups developed around issues of rape and bride burning (Patel, 1985).The groups also addressed sues like sexist depiction of women In media, sati, female infanticide, harmful contraception, sexual harassment of young girls and women in public places and trafficking (patel, 2002). Violence against women, one of the most common forms is that perpetuated by a husband or intimate partner. Domestic violence or intimate partner violence or spouse abuse accounts for 5% of disability adjusted life years (Dalys) lost to women of reproductive age in demographically developing countries (world bank 1993).It is a complex and a multi faceted problem, grounded in social, political, cultural and economic reality.

Every 54 minutes, one woman is raped; Every 26 minutes, one woman is molested; Every 51 minutes, one act of eve-teasing; Every 102 minutes, one dowry death; Every 7 minutes, one criminal act against women

Majority of Women and Men Say That a Husband Is Justified in Beating His Wife More than half of women (54 percent) and men (51 percent) agree that it is to beat his wife under some circumstances.

justifiable for a husband

Women and men most often agree that wife beating is justified when the wife disrespects her in-laws. Neglect of the house or children is the second most commonly agreed to justification for wife beating for both women and men.

To study the physical and sexual violence against women. To find out different types of domestic violence prevalent To analyze the existing types of violence in terms of: Characteristics of the affected parties viz. Husband and in-laws Nature and Frequency of Domestic violence Causative factors for violence To identify some reasons of intimate partner violence To explain the relationship between womens subordinate role in society and domestic

To examine the help seeking behavior and other coping mechanisms adopted by women to counter domestic


Scope of study
The scope of research is based on the domestic violence against women Research is conducted in Mumbai city Research is being carried among 100 women from age group 18 and above Research specifically targets women who have been victim of domestic violence in the Mumbai city

Research Methodology

A structured questionnaire is designed to elicit information from married and un-married women age18 and above about the nature of domestic violence, its forms, prevalence, frequency and causes. It will also help comprehend who was or were the perpetrator/s of violence, coping mechanisms adopted by women and their help seeking behavior. Given the sensitive nature of the subject under the study and to account for under-reporting, along with the questionnaire is being used The questionnaire is to address issues of domestic violence through a systematic, quantitative survey of prevalence, forms and problems related to domestic violence. Information gained from women will help to design the survey questionnaire and in interpreting the quantitative research findings to some extent.

Research Problem
Due to the sensitivity and confidentiality of the issue. More hours than anticipated can be allotted for each interview. Some women refuse to participate because they are afraid and others who are not interested.

Research Instrument
This study is sensitive in nature. I have used questionnaire and interview as a major tool for collection of data.

Research Limitation
Since the study is based on self-reporting the sensitivity and stigma associated with violence may have lead to underreporting and non-violence Another limitation of the study can be that it may included only the perception or response of the woman ignoring the response of the husband, which could contribute to the exaggeration of the incidents by the woman.

Data Collection 1 Primary Sources.

The primary data will be collected from survey questionnaire.

2 Secondary Sources.
Documents, books, reports of surveys and studies, literature pertaining to domestic violence and other relevant publications formed the secondary data source.

Sampling Plan
As a preliminary step, an enlistment survey of the registered/recorded cases will be conducted to identify the various cases of domestic violence. Women Cells, Counseling centers, NGOs working for women, Social workers, Women activists and members of the general public will be contacted for this purpose.

CHAPTER -2 Review of literature

Ankur is a small NGO(New Delhi involved in informal education of young people, particularly girls, in slums in 5 districts of Delhi). They do not deal directly with violence against women but come across it commonly because of the pervasiveness of wife beating among their target group. The Ankur contributed the suggestion that children are reliable and accurate vectors of information about family violence and could be a valuable source of information in any research effort.

The National Family Health Survey, 2000 (NFHS-2) reports about the inequality and violence pervading in our country. Sixty-eight percent of the women under the survey reported that they needed permission from husbands or in-laws to go to the market and 76 percent had to seek consent of their husbands before they could visit friends or relatives. Only 60 percent could use money the way they wished. In addition, one in every five women experienced domestic violence from the age of 15 onwards. Very often, women used to suffer violence against them in silence for fear of adverse repercussions. Accord works on gender sensitivity training and develop training materials. Working project by project, they use their research to develop materials and train facilitators and community level groups. They have worked with CEDPA before and are a nodal agency for CAPARTs training on gender sensitivity. They have collaborating NGOs in Rajasthan , Gujarat and UP. They feel they have a knowledge about creating a climate to encourage women to speak out about difficult issues.They felt that though there are many micro-studies these have not been collated nor is there enough solid data to indicate the real prevalence, incidence or attitudes to violence; nor how a community responds to violence. Their experience with crime records indicated that the available data was not sufficiently disaggregated to accurately describe the perpetrator(s) in the family. Nor do the data indicate the existence of practices such as groit du sianeur which continue in large tracts of the country and are akin to violence. However, they like ISST, believe that there is enough data to indicate that there is a great deal of violence and that without alternatives and support for the women who face violence there can be no change of attitude in the surrounding community. This pervasive attitude perpetuates domestic violence.

The National Crime Report of 1991 reveals that in every 33 minutes a woman is abused by her husband. CSR (Centre for Social Research) has one and a half decades of experience in providing direct services to women victims of violence and has established a National Network on Violence against Women. CSR annually receives nearly 800 cases of domestic violence in its six Crisis Intervention Centers (CICs) located in different parts of Delhi. CSR HQ is the nodal agency for the Crisis Intervention Centre for Rape Victims of South West District of Delhi. The strength of this centre is the prompt, speedy and sensitive action taken for fast redressal of rape cases.

UNICF(United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.) reports that 40-50 million women are missing from the Indian population due to foeticide (1991).The steady decline in the sex ratio noted for over a century in India from 1972 females for 1000 males in the population in 1901 to 927 females in 1991 and the prevalence of female foeticide in at least 10 States of India are critical indicators of violence against women. Female foeticide and female infanticide are basically sociocultural problems and not just a law and order problem. Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services Literature Review on Concurrent Disorders in Victims of Domestic Violence March 31, 2011 While those experiencing co-occurring disorders may need and use more health services than those experiencing one disorder, this is not necessarily true of all subgroups within this population. According to Rodriguez et al. (2009), minority women affected by IPV may have a tendency to underuse formal mental health services. Perhaps counterintuitively, this may also result in an increased burden on certain aspects of the health care system, as mental health symptoms left untreated may lead to increased need for emergency services. Australian Domestic & Family Violence The review identified one Australian benefit-cost analysis of in-prison cognitive behavioural programs for child sexual assault offenders (Shanahan & Donato, 2001). This study is valuable because it tackles several difficult issues which would need to be addressed if a similar


methodology were employed, for example, to ascertain the costs and benefits of domestic violence perpetrator treatment programs Ahuja (1998) and Sharma (1997) Highlight a common approach in some of the theories that focus on individual aggressors. There are two kinds of explanations focusing on individuals. One includes psycho-pathological explanations that focus on personality characteristics of victims and offenders. These theories provide pathological explanation for violent behaviour focusing on brain structures chemical imbalances, dietary deficiencies, hormonal factors as well as evolutionary theories and genetic characteristics to explain violent behaviours. This model thus links mental illnesses and other intra individual phenomena such as alcoholism and drug use to violent behaviour. The socio- psychological model on the other hand argues that violent behaviour can be understood by careful examination of the external environmental factors that have an impact on the behaviour of individual leading to stressful situation or family inter-actional patterns. Feminist analysis of violence has been based on power relations between men and women that deny women equal access to power and resources thus making them more vulnerable to violence from men. The cause of this violence can be traced to patriarchy -the ideology that bestows on men power and authority over all aspects of womens lives including her bodies. Heise (1998) proposes a clearer and interrelated ecological framework for understanding violent behaviour among individuals. This framework includes a range of physical, social, emotional and psychological factors at the personal community and societal levels. In this model, the causative factors are represented in the form of four concentric circles. The innermost circle includes the personal history of the man and the woman who are in the relationship. For example, this includes factors influencing their personalities such as being male, child hood experience of marital violence in their families, childhood experience of abuse. The second circle represents the micro system factors that influence familial relationship and include the immediate context within which violence takes place such as male dominance in the family, control over money and decision making at the household level by men, low status of women such as daughter in law within the family, use of alcohol, marital conflict situations. In India the study by INCLEN was undertaken between 1997 and 1999 at seven diverse and regional sites: Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi, Lucknow, Nagpur, Thiruvanathapuram and Vellore. According to this study the overall figure of domestic violence for India is 36.9% physical violence and 35.5% psychological violence, while for Kerala it is 62.3% and 61.61% respectively. In the rural areas the overall figure is 51.7% of physical violence and 49.7% of psychological violence, while the Kerala figure 68.8% physical violence and 68.9% psychological violence. The study tried to determine what women consider to be the precipitating factors for the violence. Women identified lapses in fulfilling their responsibilities (Cooking, attending to household, looking after children and in laws) as key factors influencing the occurrence of violence. These findings reiterate that violence is mechanism for enforcing the gender roles and expectations within the family. The study conducted in Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram) by Dr. Raj Mohan of R-CERTC and Dr M.K.C Nair of Child Development Centre Dr., Trivandrum states that overall 45% of women reported at least one incident of physical violence in their lifetime. Psychological and physical violence were reported in higher numbers by women who have less social support. Despite the violence more than 95% of women remained in their marriage. The study also analyzed that if the gap between husband and wifes education and employment status (especially if the women is more educated and better employed than her husband) is greater, the possibility of Psychological and physical violence is greater. A violent episode results in an average Rs.2000 of lost wages and health care for their injuries. Violence against women spans all geographical region, economic strata, education levels, and age and employment status. It could be seen that despite the total literacy and global model of development, Kerala tops the list in Domestic Violence, according to the survey conducted by ICRW.(international center for research for women)

In Islamabad, an NGO called Rozan is conducting gender violence sensitization workshops with the police to help transform the way that institution thinks about and responds to gender-based violence. These workshops focus on gender implications in both the personal and professional aspects of police men and womens lives and help the individuals see the connections between the two (Rashid UNDAW 2003). In another example, a leader in Pakistans National Medical Association works at raising awareness on the issue of violence against women and girls through campaigning, sending postcards to policymakers (depicting victims of acid attacks) and this work is amplified by his position within the national organization (Syed UNDAW 2003). Finally, the White Ribbon Campaign is a widely known public awareness effort engaging men around violence prevention. White Ribbon mobilizes men to speak out against violence against women and, in doing so, helps men examine their own attitudes and behaviors. Today there are forms of white ribbon activities in many countries including India. In Canada thousands of schools and workplaces participate in the annual White Ribbon Days, Finally more research, understanding and public awareness around men, masculinity and violence are needed throughout the region. Some public awareness initiatives include the White Ribbon Campaign in Madurai, Tamil Nadu and Men against Violence and Abuse (MAVA) based in Mumbai which conducts awareness raising programmes geared towards gender justice. MAVA releases a yearly publication, Purush Spandan, in collabouration with Purush Uvach a similar group in Pune. There is also a growing interest in and academic study of the diverse examples of masculinities in South Asia. In 2002 in India, for example, there has been a traveling seminar on masculinities moving through six universities in the country (organized by Rahul Roy with the support of UNIFEM). There is also a post Masters level course Theorizing Masculinities in the sociology department of the University of Delhi (by Dr. R. Chopra).

International Centre for Research on Women, New Delhi. (2002). Innovative, women-initiated community level responses to domestic violence : a study of Nari Adalat. New Delhi : ICRW. 114 p. . In India, politicization of domestic violence as a public issue gained strength largely through the Indian womens movement. There was a difference in the nature of mobilization by womens groups in rural and urban areas. Gujarat ranked sixth among the low poverty states in India, with only 18% of the population below the poverty line in 1987-88. The age at marriage was high (20 years), and a fairly high percentage of girls (68%) aged 6-14 years were attending school. The sex ratio in Gujarat declined over the last decade from 934 to 921. The child sex ratio 0-6 years has fallen sharply from 928 to 878 in the last decade. Female literacy rate was 58.6%. Female work participation rates in urban Gujarat are far lower compared to rural areas. In 2000, studies show that anywhere from 40% to 75% of married women have reported partner violence, and 24% to 64% women seek help from womens groups. Registered crimes against women (CAW) have shown an increase of 8.4% between 1997 and 1998 and 3.3% between 1998 and 1999. The Crime in India report 1999 showed that presently 2 out of every 10 crimes committed were crimes against women. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Mahila Samakhya (MS) program in Gujarat decided to initiate the documentation and impact assessment of innovative community level responses to domestic violence. Women did try to raise issues of domestic violence and sexual harassment in sangha (group) meetings, but there was fear and hesitation about discussing these issues openly. Women said that our men will not even allow us to come to this forum if we call ourselves the Nari Adalat (Womens Court). Reported cases of dowry have risen from 63 in 1993 to 94 in 1999. Nari Adalat and Mahila Panch are community level responses to violence against women. The police formed a more significant constituency, as threat of police action is a major strategy used to pressurize perpetrators. International Centre for Research on Women, Washington, DC. (2002). Men, masculinity and domestic violence in India : summary report of 4

studies. Washington, DC : ICRW. 84 p. Domestic violence is a pervasive problem in India that cuts across age, education, social class and religion. The study explored variations in masculinities and domestic violence across regions and demographic variables, including caste, age, socio-economic status, education, employment and even sexual orientation. The study covered 3 states, namely Punjab (n=250 males), Tamil Nadu (n=235 married men), Rajasthan (n=486 married men), and Delhi (n=40 married men) was also added to provide a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM, n=114). Findings indicated that men from all regions surveyed agreed that certain characteristics including physical appearance, conduct, responsibilities and sexuality were markers of masculinity. Around 98% men agreed with their 3 major responsibilities. Key roles that were identified were having children (procreator role), earning money (provider role) and protecting the family (protector role). Men strongly correlated masculinity with being married, being sexually faithful and having the ability to satisfy the wife/ partner. There was no demographic variation in this. Around 85% men reported engaging in at least one violent behaviour (control behaviour, emotional, sexual and physical violence) in the past 12 months. The most common violent behaviours were slapping and hitting, forced sex, shouting, etc., and overall 24.7% men reported all forms of violence. Violence was more prevalent among lower classes, those who had less education, those with irregular employment, and so on. Attitudes of men towards domestic violence showed that 79% men agreed that use of force during physical relationships was okay if the wife was unfaithful. Violence within marriage or intimate relationships seems to be closely associated with endorsement of independence, power, control, privilege of being able to do and to express, and satisfied sexual needs as important characteristics of masculinity. Regarding MSM, community findings showed that there was no single, unified, overreaching conception of masculinity, and some people thought that MSM was an alternate masculinity, and thus notions of masculinity were so divergent that it was almost impossible to use the term in singular case.The study suggested that men are not naturally violent, but there are complex linkages between masculinity and violence, and in such a context, violence is both, a conflict resolution strategy as well as a resource for augmenting power or status.Intervention and prevention strategies need to employ a dual focus of exploring alternate means of resolving conflicts, achieving a sense of equal power and control and needs satisfaction, as well as under scoring the negative impact of use of violence. Clearly it is important to have negative sanctions for violent behaviour. Lakdawala, Hanif and Surendradas, Sandhya. (2001). Angst theirs and ours : domestic violence : an epidemic on the upsurge. Ahmedabad : Sanchetana Community Health and Research Centre. 36 p. Domestic violence is defined as all actions against the wife (victim) by her present husband (perpetrator) that threaten the life, body, psychological integrity and restrict her liberty. The present study aimed to identify the health consequences of domestic violence (DV) on the victims, and identify appropriate strategies to reduce occurrence of DV. All married women in the reproductive age group of 15-45 years staying with their husbands in one of the slum areas of Ahmedabad formed the universe of the study. The total number of respondents was 400 and the number of survivors were 268 or 67%. Nearly 34.70% survivors suffered from verbal and physical abuse. Nearly 70.59% survivors were from joint families and 65.77% survivors were from nuclear families, suggesting that DV cuts across all family types. There was no major difference in the abuse pattern amongst Hindus (68.78% victimization) and Muslims (66.03% victimization). The percentage of survivors were found to be high in lower age groups (71.90% among 18 to 27 years) than the older age groups (58.33% in 38 to 45 years). The reasons given were that men mellow down with age, and children grow up so men find it embarrassing to beat their wives. 72.51% wife abusers were in the age group of 30 to 39 years, and most non-victim husbands were in the later age group of 50+. 70.94% survivors were illiterate, whereas non-victims were better educated. Illiteracy was a major hindrance which crippled survivors, as they believed that whatever happened to them was fate. Even husbands who did not abuse their wives were comparatively better educated. 71.26% husbands of survivors were illiterate. Daily wagers showed highest victimization rate of 78.05%. 66.13% survivors were home makers. Husbands of home makers believed that they enjoyed themselves at home by taking rest. Self-employed women had least victimization (53.57%). They were mostly engaged in home-based activities like kite-making, quilt-making, etc. Unemployed men showed lesser abuse rate (58.82%) as women earned and managed the family. Women living in nuclear families enjoyed more decision making power than in joint families. Neither could women say no to physical relations with husband, nor could they decide on adoption of family planning methods. DV resulted in

traumatic physical and mental consequences. Severely battered women had typical injury patterns which included cut on the scalp, on the palm and on the hands. Few even complained of partial loss of hearing and vision after being hit on sensory organs. Minor lacerations and bruises, blood clotting, swelling, blue body, dark circles around eyes were spotted among those who were battered. Women who were sexually harassed suffered from vaginal infections and menstrual problems. Abuse led to a host of psychological problems. Women complained of restlessness and uneasiness which persisted even if their husbands were not around. Violence resulted in mood disorders (80.22% suffered from depression), eating and sleeping disorders.Promoting NGOs impart proper education and build their capacity. Also, a special fund for helping women in distress is necessary, and shelter facilities are warranted at the community level. Campaigns to end domestic violence need to keep SHGs at the forefront of action and the SHG leaders can be trained as Community Counsellors and Barefoot Lawyers. Gangopadhyay, Maushumi. (2001). A Study on the psychosocial circumstances in the family life and environment of married women victims in the reported cases of family violence in Delhi and Kolkata Metropolis. New Delhi : National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science. 158 p. The term domestic violence refers to a self contradictory incident in civilized, modern social life. The venue of domestic violence is the victims family environment, where a powerful family member expresses atrocity on a helpless, dependent and powerless family member. The aim of the present study was to understand why family violence takes place and affects mainly married women, and whether the causes are universal. Purposive sampling method was used to identify the respondents. A homogenous group of victims belonging to two sub-groups of two different sub-cultures were selected. Out of them in Delhi only 20 and in Kolkata 30 reputed, highly prejudiced, boastful, ill-tempered and having women oppressors. 80 victims experienced ill-treatment by their in-laws before marriage, while 108 victims experienced ill-treatment after their marriage. In both modes boastfulness was found common with ill-temper or bad manners, while notoriety for womens oppression was found present in one of the modes. In 50 cases in Delhi and 40 cases in Kolkata, socio-cultural influences were different in their pre- and post-marital family environment. All victims, who were respondents, were not allowed to spend money for personal requirements from the family fund. Negotiations during marriage and conventional dowry payment was still present in 105 families, and of them 40 families failed to meet their commitments, while the rest 65 fulfilled the requirements. Significant differences were observed between the informants who were brought up and spent their married life in Delhi and Kolkata. Lack of economic self-sufficiency, devaluation of the self-esteem of daughters-in-law, no guarantee to get an oppression-free social life, fear of sexual exploitation, and other social insecurities were mentioned in Delhi. Education of women, with competence-based vocational training for them, must be made compulsory. Each and every adolescent girl student must be made aware of the essential ethics of conjugal life and cohabitation. For the criminal part of domestic violence, legal support for the victim and help for punishing the abuser are essentially required. cases were excluded on technical grounds applicable to undisposed cases. Around 180 victimised daughters-in-law from Delhi and Kolkata were divided into two subgroups city-wise comprising 90 victimised daughters-in-laws from each metropolis. The victims belonged to higher middle economic class and lower middle economic class. In the Indian context, the family sub-culture had a parochial attitude and the daughter-in-law was expected to fulfill certain obligations and duties. Altogether, there were 79 cases where married women were maltreated and victimised for nonpayment of promised dowry and other gifts, and subjected to physical and mental torture. Data was gathered using Family Violence Data Recording Inventory Scoring Schedule (FVDR) which had two modes. Around 130 victims perceived and described their in-law families as middle economic class, greedy, boastful and highly prejudiced, while another 50 victims perceived and described the status of their inlaw families as hazy and unstable income class, greedy, pressurizing for gifts, Mitra, Nishi. (2000). Domestic violence as a public issue: a review of responses. Mumbai : Tata Institute of Social Science, Unit for Women's Studies. 105 p.

The study was undertaken in 2000 to assess patterns and trends of domestic violence in India and examine Government and Non-Governmental responses to domestic violence, so that appropriate measures can be identified. It covered 13 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 18 districts of Maharashtra. A crosssectional survey was conducted, and unstructured interviews were used to gather information from government officials, representatives of NGOs, members of legal profession, etc. Results showed that from 1983, the Criminal Law Amendment Act and the enactment of Section 498A had special significance in dealing with violence against women in their homes. Police intervention was crucially important in determining the outcome of a case of domestic violence because flawed investigation weakens a womens case. Another problem was that battered women were unaware of their legal rights. Womens Police Stations and Police Counselling Cells had inadequate infrastructure and its staff lacked proper training and exposure. Womens Vigilance Committees were more active to protect the interests of women victims in some districts of Maharashtra, but judicial bodies were not successful in providing justice to battered women. Family courts ensured quick delivery of justice, and high recovery rates of maintenance for women. It was found that safe alternative shelter was an important requirement of women seeking escape from violence in homes. Vocational training of women in rehabilitation centres was restricted to traditional crafts like sewing, tailoring and knitting, but no systematic efforts were made to rehabilitate women economically. It was suggested that there is a need to modify and make some changes in economic and social rights granted to women by our Constitution. Strategies to create awareness about domestic violence should be more focussed, and society at large should be sensitised through information dissemination and training programmes. There is an urgent need to broaden the definition of domestic violence to include all forms of abuse namely, physical, mental, emotional, etc. It was recommended that different programmes for economic rehabilitation of women should be started. Measures like secondary schooling, autonomy in terms of access and control of resources, and delayed marriages can play an important role in decreasing womens sense of powerlessness and in protecting them from marital violence. These measures need to be strengthened.

Society for Promotion of Art, Culture, Education and Environmental Excellence (SPACE), Gangtok, Sikkim. (2002). Violence against women and domestic violence in Sikkim : a research study : final report. 71 p. Domestic violence is widely prevalent in Sikkim. The study was conducted by SPACE with the objective of gathering inputs from government and nongovernmental representatives, media person and social workers, etc. Namchi, Geyzing, Gangtok and Mangan towns were selected for data collection. The main objective was to explore the causes of domestic violence (DV)/ violence against women (VAW) in the state of Sikkim. In Sikkim there were 42% men and 58% women. The tradition of dowry is in vogue in Sikkim, but its implications are not as severe as among the communities elsewhere in India, wherein daughters-in-law have to pay with their lives for their inability to satiate their in-laws desire for dowry. Only two cases of trafficking have been recorded so far. Victims of VAW and DV prefer to remain silent about their individual suffering since they believe that disclosing their woeful fate to others will only invite censure and ridicule instead of help from any quarter. Almost 98% of the respondents admitted, in varying degrees, that they were aware of one or the other kind of VAW and DV perpetrated in society. 50% respondents reported about wife battering by husbands under the effect of alchohol, or polygamous desire to bring home another wife, or jealousy and distrust, and so on. Almost 4.8% of the violence and battering was committed by inlaws mostly with the tacit approval of the victims husband. Cases of adultery, murder, rape, incest, etc. are not unheard of in Sikkim. All the respondents were themselves victims of verbal abuse by their in-laws, husbands, offspring, and people in general, to varying degrees. Compared to the other districts, the extreme northern district revealed lesser degree of VAW and DV, which could be due to the traditionally built-in gender equation in the family and social system of the Northern Bhutias. Very few Christians were encountered during this research in the context of domestic violence. UNIFEM, New Delhi. (2002).

Support services to counter violence against women in Kerala : a resource directory. New Delhi : UNIFEM. 151 p. Although Kerala is advanced on many indicators of human development, the incidence of violence against women is also high. The study was a response to the long felt need of access to information on resources and support services available for women who were victims of violence. Kerala has a total population of 31,838,619 which includes 15,468,664 males and 16,369,995 females (Census of India 2001). Kerala has surged forward in achieving formal literacy (90.92%), reducing fertility rate, infant and maternal mortality rate, achieving higher life expectancy, etc. The Human Development Report of UNDP, in the section which discusses the Gender Development Index (GDI) for 16 Indian states, places Kerala at the top of the list in terms of basic female capabilities. Kerala is the only Indian state to have a favourable female sex ratio (1058 females for 1000 males), though the sex ratio is not uniform in all districts. The highest sex ratio of 1054 is found in Pathanmthitta district and the lowest in Idukki district which has 993 females per 1000 males. This indicates the high status of women in Kerala. But, in the younger age group the female sex ratio is decreasing, and male children constitute 12.48% while female children constitute 10.95% of the population of Kerala. A recent survey report revealed that there were 10,000 foeticides occurring in Kerala per year. The survey found that a majority of parents think that girl children are a cause of tension and a burden for them. According to Census 2001, female literacy in Kerala was 87.86% compared to 94.20% for males. Kerala has one of the highest suicide rates in the country, and according to National Crime Records Bureau, 1547 housewives committed suicide in the year 2000. Child marriage is still practiced in some parts of Kerala, despite having high literacy. It was found that it has increased in Northern Kerala where 36% girls are getting married before 18 years. Women in Kerala have poor participation and representation in politics, and out of 144 seats in the state assembly, the number of women has never been more than 13(10%). The State Womens Commission has received about 15,000 complaints within 2 years of its inception, 80% of which are related to sexual and family violence. According to State Womens Commission, in 1996, 191 cases of dowry deaths and 300 cases of dowry related violence were reported. Rape and other atrocities numbered almost 500, while there were 228 cases of sexual harassment. The sex ratio is satisfactory but it is decreasing specially in the 0-6 years age group. Violence against women is increasing steadily in Kerala and society is yet to recognize this reality and act to change the situation. Andhra Pradesh Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organization, Hyderabad. (2004). Pilot study on impact evaluation of STEP in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Women, in Indian society, are traditionally expected to confine themselves to domestic environs and play a passive role as daughters, daughters-inlaw, wives and mothers. The present study was commissioned by Department of Women and Child Welfare (DWCD) through APITCO to evaluate the impact of STEP projects in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Orissa. STEP aims at empowering poor women and promoting sustainable livelihoods for them in 10 traditional sectors (agriculture, small animal husbandry, dairying, fisheries, handlooms, handicrafts, khadi and village industries, sericulture, social forestry, and wasteland development) through mobilizing them into cohesive and active groups and upgrading their skills. The study focuses on understanding the incremental incomes of the beneficiaries, sustainability of activities during postprogramme phase, entrepreneurial competencies of the beneficiaries, enabling role played by implementing agencies, and major constraints in the process of implementation. Information was gathered from beneficiaries, control units, implementing agencies, trainers, support providers and end users. In all, 4789 beneficiaries and 753 control units, spread over 380 villages across 81 districts in the five states were contacted. The results revealed that 27 projects were approved under STEP with an aggregate outlay of Rs. 890.1 million, and project inputs aimed at developing vocational skills of the beneficiaries. It was observed that 66.8% beneficiaries were either landless or owned not more than two acres of agricultural land. All implementing agencies, except Karnataka State Handloom Development Cooperation (KSHDC), mobilized the beneficiaries either into womens development cooperation or self help groups. Dairying was the single largest income generating activity pursued by beneficiaries. Selection of the income generating activities was based predominantly on the implementing agencys experience and convenience. Infrastructure available for training was rated very good in respect of all

the four apex dairy development cooperatives implementing STEP projects in Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. The trainer base for vocational skill development of all the implementing agencies was regarded as good. Training inputs in terms of coverage and quality varied widely between implementing agencies. Coverage and quality were better of agencies involved in dairy development projects. Handloom and mushroom cultivation were also regarded to be better. STEP projects were well conceived and clearly delineated only with respect to Karnataka Milk Federation (KMF) and Orissa Milk Federation (OMFED) the two major partners of DWCD in STEP implementation. Maharashtra Rajya Sahakari Dudh Mahasangh Maryadit and Andhra Pradesh Dairy Development Cooperative Federation (APDDCF) organizational structures for STEP implementation were considered to be inadequate and weak given the magnitude of the job involved. Among others, Rashtriya Sewa Samiti (RASS) and Kagal Education Society (KES) had fairly well defined organization structures. Concurrent evaluation of STEP projects periodically was not in vogue at the time. Such evaluations were carried out only when DWCD required them. STEP made a definite impact on the socio-economic empowerment of poor women in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Orissa. The vocational base skills of the beneficiaries across the activities improved considerably. Womens Development Cooperatives contribute close to 30% of the milk procurement by implementing agencies in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Orissa. The programme sustained the livelihoods of 0.169 million poor women in rural areas. 76.9% of the beneficiaries assisted earned incremental incomes up to Rs. 1,000 per month. Lifestyles of the beneficiaries improved as a sequel to STEP. 38.4% beneficiaries felt that the programme has had a positive impact on their childrens education. 42.6% of the beneficiaries felt that the programme had made them health conscious. The study recommended that implementing agencies should be exposed to the techniques of systematic selection of income generation activities. The training infrastructure should provide access to better and contemporary equipment. Periodic training and re-training of trainers is necessary to enhance their capabilities. DWCD should release funds only when the required MIS is in place with the implementing agencies. STEP project proposals should be sanctioned only after a thorough project appraisal is done by a competent agency. DWCD should indicate the period of operation of STEP at any given point of time Institute of Social Studies Trust, Bangalore. (2000). Redesigning from the roots : critical review of training initiatives : towards empowerment of women and redesigning policy. Bangalore : ISST. 18 p. The Department of Women and Child Development organized a consultation workshop on 19th June 2000 for the preparation of a Policy Document for Womens Empowerment. In this workshop, the views and experiences of NGOs were solicited. They shared their field and research experiences. ISST had undertaken a research project and the objectives of the study were to conduct a review of training initiatives for women in Karnataka with particular focus on capacity building initiatives for political and economic empowerment; to assess gaps from the vantage point of womens empowerment; and to provide relevant input for designing a policy for womens empowerment in Karnataka. Very basic and fundamental aspects/ components of training/ capacity building emerged as areas of prime concern in the study. Women at the grassroots are already familiar with the term training and for them what goes into it, their experience of it and what comes out of it is of prime concern. Data was insufficient. There were hardly any inservice on-going trainings/ capacity building for Government officials either to prepare them as trainers or to serve as gender sensitive officers. No provision has been made in the Panchayati Raj Act to make training an obligatory function of the State and Panchayats, or to appropriately remunerate elected representatives. There exist no terms of reference to facilitate constructive and consistent collaborations between NGOs and the Government. It was felt that most often collaboration with Government was not worked out on equal terms. State capacity building initiatives do not address and arrange for practical gender needs like crches, etc. State initiatives to prioritize Training/Capacity Building for women must get reflected in budget allocation to the concerned department. It is important to develop Monitoring Evaluation indicators based on gender perspective for attitude and behaviour impact; knowledge and skill impact; ripple effect in society, and move on from the present priority of pedagogy impact. The study highlights the need for such ongoing exercises, not only with an objective of redesigning policy, but also with a view to review policy performance. There is need to pay special attention to basic components of training like the objectives,perspective and philosophy of Training/ Capacity Building for empowerment of women

Agnes(1984),who studied 25 middle class and 25 working class battered women found that half of the women in their sample were beaten within the six months of their marriage and having children did not decrease the violence. The study mainly recorded physical and sexual violence against women. Rebello(1982)surveyed 50(30 rural&20 urban) battered women in south Kanara district of Karnataka.Her findings are similar to that of Agnes, that the existence of wife beating cuts across the classes,educational levels,age,groups,religion,duration of marriage,number of children , type of marriage(love or arranged), dowry paid in marriage,type of family (joint or nuclear), alcohol intake by husband and the occurrence of extra marital affairs by any spouse.But these two studies could not be generalized due to their narrow focus. In another study conducted in Chandigarh by Madhurima (1995),200 men and women across different classes were studied to find that about 44 percent husbands resort to withdrawals, 69 percent resort to psychological violence, 71 percent to verbal violence and 34 percent to physical violence against their wives.

Theories of causation inform our understanding of prevention, prediction and treatment. Where prevention is concerned, evidence strongly points to the need to intervene early with infants and children who experience or are exposed to violence in their homes. Framed in terms of CSCs mandate, this body of knowledge underlines the imperative of intervening with parents and future parents to break the cycle of intergenerational transmission of violence. In terms of prediction, the literature can aid in identifying factors associated with varying degrees of risk: who needs treatment, how much do they need, was risk attenuated by the intervention, will they offend in the community? This review focuses primarily on the third role of theory: definition of treatment targets and approaches. We organized the many explanations for family violence into five groups: biological/organic, psychopathological, family systems, social learning, and feminist. Biological theories of criminal behavior have existed for over a century, cycling in and out of fashion. Where family violence is concerned, two dominant explanations are observed in the recent literature. The first is that head injury in men can or could cause them to be violent to family members. The second approach, a gene-based explanation, focuses on sexual jealousy and male efforts to ensure sexual propriety over their partners. Woman abuse is seen as a mate retention tactic which will be used only under the right set of circumstances, such as when a man senses his wife could attract and keep a better partner. Empirical evidence for these controversial ideas is not strong but most researchers would acknowledge that biological factors can play a role in some cases. Frontal-lobe epilepsy might be an example. However, their applicability to the field of family violence is probably far more limited than their proponents would argue. Attempts to predict violence using biological variables will only be valid when a host of other non-biological factors are added, indicating that the perspective is too reductionistic. Treatment implications, mostly centering on pharmacology and other medical interventions, are limited and unlikely to be effective in isolation from other efforts. However, some researchers are attempting to

devise a typology of batterers based upon physiological arousal so neurological assessments may one day be used on a more routine basis. Psychopathology, the second category of explanation for family violence, focuses on individual factors but with greater emphasis given to psychodynamic than organic variables. Many researchers and practitioners who adopt this perspective focus on childhood and other experiential events that have shaped men to become batterers. In this view, family violence may co-exist in a constellation of other interpersonal problems and functional deficits could be evident in non-family settings such as the workplace. Empirical evidence in support of this view takes the form of surveys of populations of batterers that find high levels of certain psychiatric diagnoses, specifically borderline and anti-social personality disorders. In this view, violent reactions and patterns are long standing and firmly entrenched and treatment must be intensive and individualized. The assumption is that psychoeductional approaches will be insufficient. At least some time must be spent exploring the historical origins of current behavior by responding to past shame, guilt and traumas. Through experimentation and follow-up, the specific treatment techniques are now being refined. Some critics believe this approach erodes years of advancements in seeing male violence as a power and control technique reinforced by society. Others argue that these disorders among batterers are over diagnosed. Another problem is that treatment of personality disorders is not always associated with high levels of success so risk management may be the best approach for some men. In the systems approach, the family is a dynamic organization made up of interdependent components. The behavior of one member and the probability of a reoccurrence of that behavior are affected by the responses and feedback of other members. Family violence researchers using this perspective look at the communication, relationship and problem solving skills of couples where violence occurs. Because both partners play some (not necessarily equal) role, any intervention must involve both of them. Research examines relationship variables in violent compared with non-violent couples. Treatment takes the form of marital or family counseling sometimes preceded by a period of gender specific groups. Strength of this approach is that it can readily accommodate female-to-male violence and child abuse. Control is an important but non-gendered variable. Criticisms are many. Women are blamed for their own victimization, minimizing the degree of responsibility of the man and potentially placing them at risk for further abuse. While systems theorists often look at the multiple and nested systems in which individuals live -- beyond the family to culture, religion, neighborhood, community standards, etc. -- the work reviewed here did not. Moreover, the significant power imbalances that typically exist in violent relationships may not be attended to by all therapists. From the social learning perspective, children observe the consequences of the behavior of significant others and learn which behaviors, even socially inappropriate ones, achieve desired results without drawing a negative sanction. When inappropriate behaviors are modeled for young children especially if reinforced elsewhere such as in the media these patterns of interaction can become entrenched and will be replicated in other social interactions. Interventions based upon the social learning perspective are, therefore, rooted in efforts to prevent the exposure of children to negative role models and the promotion of skill development in those who have been so exposed. Empirical support for this view takes two forms: evaluation of cognitive-behavioural batterers programs; and research, first retrospective and now prospective, that finds high rates of family violence perpetrated by men exposed to violence in their childhood. Further support can be found in the literature on criminal behavior in general where cognitive-behavioral interventions have received widespread endorsement. However, social learning in isolation from other theories does not explain why the intergenerational transmission of violence is not universal and, conversely, why some batterers do not report histories of exposure to violence in their families of origin. While there is no one feminist approach to family violence, most theoreticians in this field look to the power imbalances that create and perpetuate violence against women. These imbalances exist at a societal level in patriarchal societies where structural factors prevent equal participation of women in the social, economic and

political systems. Societal level imbalances are reproduced within the family when men exercise power and control over women, one form of which is violence. Interventions are targeted at a broad range of factors including day care, pay equity, suffrage, social resources, and law reforms. Interventions with women focus on empowerment and the recognition of power and control dynamics. Empirical support of this view takes three forms. First, qualitative documentation of womens experiences is used to develop models such as the cycle of violence and the power and control wheel. In turn, these models have utility when applied to advocacy and clinical work with women. Second, cross-cultural research examines the prevalence of family violence across cultures with different levels of patriarchy. The third technique is to evaluate batterers programs designed using feminist principles. Feminist-inspired programs may be the most common type of batterer treatment, typically using a group format with education in the dynamics of power and control and on egalitarian relationships. Critics believe the confrontation of abused men with the inappropriateness of their actions will not necessarily translate into changes in behaviour. In the group approach, the idiosyncratic characteristics of the men such as their own abuse histories are not necessarily dealt with. Each theory provides, by definition, a logical explanation of its proposed determinants of family violence and each one has some empirical support. However, no one theory emerged as having Unequivocal support. Instead, calls were found for integrative approaches that incorporated aspects of each. We are reminded that human behavior is a complex phenomenon and there are no quick and easy ways to explain it. The richness of different perspectives also underscores the need to avoid simplistic responses and to work against family violence on many fronts, with individuals at risk -- including child welfare interventions, treatment programs for children, advocacy with abused women and treatment of abusive men -- as well as on a broader plain with public education, zero-tolerance policies in public institutions, preventative work with school children, efforts to control violence in the media, and measures overcome the structural obstacles that prevent the participation of women as equal players in society. In summary, several key trends and observations were noted in the theoretical literature:
Explanations of family violence typically focus on societal factors, or family variables or the

Characteristics of individuals
Long vilified as too reductionistic and apolitical, interpersonal and intrapersonal explanations of family

violence lay behind several new treatment approaches

No one theoretical approach has sufficient empirical support to distinguish it as having the greatest

explanatory power but each contributes a valuable perspective, underlining the complexity of the issue and the absence of easy solutions
Perceived differences between the different theoretical approaches may be exaggerated and to focus on the

commonalities Each theoretical orientation has implications for intervention with men who are violent to family members, including the site of intervention and the target variables for intervention (see Table In general, this is a field where the link between theory and practice is usually quite explicit. As can be inferred from this table, some explanations of family violence are more amenable to correctional practice than others. Probably because the empirical testing of batterer treatments is still at an early stage, it is not possible to isolate one program type that distinguished itself from all others. Rather, the trend we observed in the literature is toward eclectic approaches that address the issue of male violence from a broad understanding of the multiple determinants of the behaviour. This trend makes it difficult to find experimental studies of programs drawn purely from one theory. The issue of does treatment work for batterers is still on the agenda, because statistically significant differences between treated men and are not necessarily reflected in meaningfully high rates of improvement among treated men.)

THEORY GROUP Biological Psychopathology Systems Social Learning Feminist

SITE(S) OF INTERVENTION Individual men Individual men Couple and/or family Groups, media, social norms, individuals Social norms and attitudes, laws and policies, structural obstacles to womens equality, men, etc.

TARGETS organic factors psychiatric symptomatology interpersonal skills thinking styles, behaviours, interpersonal skills attitudes to women, power and control dynamics of relationships, gender inequalities (economic, political, etc.)

Domestic Violence Bill 2005 The cabinet approval of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Bill 2005 is the latest effort in this regard. The current bill has been hanging fire since 2001 and has lapsed with the fall of the 13th Lok sabha. The Bill was further modified in December 2004. The present Bill envisages further improvement on the earlier one. The definition of domestic violence has been extended to include not only actual abuse but also the threat of abuse i.e., physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, economic and what is more, it covers single women in a live-in relationship and women living in joint families- sisters, mothers, widows- often physically and emotionally abused. Harassment by way of dowry demands to the women or her relatives would also be covered by this definition. The most empowering clause, however, relates to womens right to residence in shared households. The Bill seeks to protect the rights of a woman to live in her matrimonial home or shared accommodation, whether or not she holds any title or rights. This right will be secured by an order passed by a magistrate. The draft Bill also provides for appointment of protection officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the victims with regard to medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc. The relief also includes power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace, or any other place frequented by the abused, or attempting to communicate with the abused, etc. In a patriarchal society where womens rights are often denied, the Bill is a progressive piece of legislation, providing much relief to the victims of domestic violence.

CHAPTER -4 Signs of an abusive relationship

There are many signs of an abusive relationship. The most telling sign is fear of your partner. If you feel like you have to walk on eggshells around your partnerconstantly watching what you say and do in order to avoid a blow-upchances are your relationship is unhealthy and abusive. Other signs that you may be in an abusive relationship include a partner who belittles you or tries to control you, and feelings of self-loathing, helplessness, and desperation.

Physical abuse and domestic violence When people talk about domestic violence, they are often referring to the physical abuse of a spouse or intimate partner. Physical abuse is the use of physical force against someone in a way that injures or endangers that person. Physical assault or battering is a crime, whether it occurs inside or outside of the family. The police have the power and authority to protect you from physical attack.

Sexual abuse is a form of physical abuse Any situation in which you are forced to participate in unwanted, unsafe, or degrading sexual activity is sexual abuse. Forced sex, even by a spouse or intimate partner with whom you also have consensual sex, is an act of aggression and violence. Furthermore, people whose partners abuse them physically and sexually are at a higher risk of being seriously injured or killed.

Emotional abuse: Its a bigger problem than you think When people think of domestic abuse, they often picture battered women who have been physically assaulted. But not all abusive relationships involve violence. Just because youre not battered and bruised doesnt mean youre not being abused. Many men and women suffer from emotional abuse, which is no less destructive. Unfortunately, emotional abuse is often minimized or overlookedeven by the person being abused.

The cycle of violence in domestic abuse

Domestic abuse falls into a common pattern, or cycle of violence: Abuse Your abusive partner lashes out with aggressive, belittling, or violent behavior. The abuse is a power play designed to show you "who is boss." Guilt After abusing you, your partner feels guilt, but not over what he's done. Hes more worried about the possibility of being caught and facing consequences for his abusive behavior. Excuses Your abuser rationalizes what he or she has done. The person may come up with a string of excuses or blame you for the abusive behavioranything to avoid taking responsibility. "Normal" behavior The abuser does everything he can to regain control and keep the victim in the relationship. He may act as if nothing has happened, or he may turn on the charm. This peaceful honeymoon phase may give the victim hope that the abuser has really changed this time. Fantasy and planning Your abuser begins to fantasize about abusing you again. He spends a lot of time thinking about what youve done wrong and how he'll make you pay. Then he makes a plan for turning the fantasy of abuse into reality.

Set-up Your abuser sets you up and puts his plan in motion, creating a situation where he can justify abusing you.

Your abusers apologies and loving gestures in between the episodes of abuse can make it difficult to leave. He may make you believe that you are the only person who can help him, that things will be different this time, and that he truly loves you. However, the dangers of staying are very real.

CHAPTER-5 Kinds of Violence against Women

Domestic violence Violence against women in the family occurs in developed and developing countries alike. It has long been considered a private matter by bystanders -- including neighbors, the community and government. But such private matters have a tendency to become public tragedies. In the United States, a woman is beaten every 18 minutes. Indeed, domestic violence is the leading cause of injury among women of reproductive age in the United States. Between 22 and 35 per cent of women who visit emergency rooms are there for that reason. The highly publicized trial of O. J. Simpson, the retired United States football player acquitted of the murder of his former wife and a male friend of hers, helped focus international media attention on the issue of domestic violence and spousal abuse. In Peru, 70 per cent of all crimes reported to the police involve women beaten by their husbands. In Pakistan, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto strongly defended a 35-year-old mother of two who was severely burned by her husband in a domestic dispute.

"There is no excuse for such a behaviors", the Prime Minister declared after visiting the hospitalized victim. "My presence here is to send a message to all those who violate Islamic teachings and defy laws of the land with their inhuman treatment of women. This will not be tolerated." According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, in the 400 cases of domestic violence reported in 1993 in the province of Punjab, nearly half ended with the death of the wife. According to the Special Reporters report, many Governments now recognize the importance of protecting victims of domestic abuse and taking action to punish perpetrators. The establishment of structures allowing officials to deal with cases of domestic violence and its consequences is a significant step towards the elimination of violence against women in the family. The Special Reporters report highlights the importance of adopting legislation that provides for prosecution of the offender. It also stresses the importance of specialized training for law enforcement authorities as well as medical and legal professionals, and of the establishment of community support services for victims, including access to information and shelters.

Traditional practices In many countries, women fall victim to traditional practices that violate their human rights. The persistence of the problem has much to do with the fact that most of these physically and psychologically harmful customs are deeply rooted in the tradition and culture of society.

Female genital mutilation According to the World Health Organization, 85 million to 115 million girls and women in the population have undergone some form of female genital mutilation and suffer from its adverse health effects. Every year an estimated 2 million young girls undergo this procedure. Most live in Africa and Asia -- but an increasing number can be found among immigrant and refugee families in Western Europe and North America. Indeed, the practice has been outlawed in some European countries. In France, a Malian was convicted in a criminal court after his baby girl died of a female circumcision-related infection. The procedure had been performed on the infant at home. In Canada, fear of being forced to undergo circumcision can be grounds for asylum. A Nigerian woman was granted refugee status since she felt that she might be persecuted in her home country because of her refusal to inflict genital mutilation on her baby daughter. There is a growing consensus that the best way to eliminate these practices is through educational campaigns that emphasize their dangerous health consequences. Several Governments have been actively promoting such campaigns in their countries.

Son preference Son preference affects women in many countries, particularly in Asia. Its consequences can be anything from foetal or female infanticide to neglect of the girl child over her brother in terms of such essential needs as nutrition, basic health care and education. In China and India, some women choose to terminate their pregnancies when expecting daughters but carry their pregnancies to term when expecting sons. According to reports from India, genetic testing for sex selection has become a booming business, especially in the country's northern regions. Indian gender-detection clinics drew protests from women's groups after the appearance of advertisements suggesting that it was better to spend $38 now to terminate a female fetus than $3,800 later on her dowry. A study of amniocentesis procedures conducted in a large Bombay hospital found that 95.5 per cent of fetuses identified as female were aborted compared with a far smaller percentage of male fetuses. The problem of son preference is present in many other countries as well. Asked how many children he had fathered, the former United States boxing champion Muhammad Ali told an interviewer: "One boy and seven mistakes."

Dowry-related violence and early marriage In some countries, weddings are preceded by the payment of an agreed-upon dowry by the bride's family. Failure to pay the dowry can lead to violence. In Bangladesh, a bride whose dowry was deemed too small was disfigured after her husband threw acid on her face. In India, averages of five women a day are burned in dowry-related disputes -- and many more cases are never reported. Early marriage, especially without the consent of the girl, is another form of human rights violation. Early marriage followed by multiple pregnancies can affect the health of women for life. The report of the Special Reporters has documented the destructive effects of marriage of female children under 18 and has urged Governments to adopt relevant legislation.

Violence in the community

Rape Rape can occur anywhere, even in the family, where it can take the form of marital rape or incest. It occurs in the community, where a woman can fall prey to any abuser. It also occurs in situations of armed conflict and in refugee camps. In the United States, national statistics indicate that a woman is raped every six minutes. In 1995, the case of a Brazilian jogger raped and murdered in New York City's Central Park drew international attention once again to the problem. The incident occurred only a few years after an earlier sensational jogger-assault case in which the

victim -- an American assaulted in the same general area of the park -- barely survived after her assailants left her for dead. Relations between residents of the Japanese island of Okinawa and American GIs were thrown into turmoil in 1995 after two marines and a sailor allegedly kidnapped and raped a 12-year-old girl. The Special Reporters report underlines the importance of education to sensitize the public about the special horrors of rape, and of sensitivity training for the police and hospital staff who work with victims.

Sexual assault within marriage In many countries sexual assault by a husband on his wife is not considered to be a crime: a wife is expected to submit. It is thus very difficult in practice for a woman to prove that sexual assault has occurred unless she can demonstrate serious injury. The report of the Special Reporter noted that light sentences in sexual assault cases send the wrong message to perpetrators and to the public at large: that female sexual victimization is unimportant. Sexual harassment Sexual harassment in the workplace is a growing concern for women. Employers abuse their authority to seek sexual favors from their female co-workers or subordinates, sometimes promising promotions or other forms of career advancement or simply creating an untenable and hostile work environment. Women who refuse to give in to such unwanted sexual advances often run the risk of anything from demotion to dismissal. But in recent years more women have been coming forward to report such practices -- some taking their cases to court. In her report, the Special Reporter stressed that sexual harassment constitutes a form of sex discrimination. "It not only degrades the woman", the report noted, "but reinforces and reflects the idea of non-professionalism on the part of women workers, who are consequently regarded as less able to perform their duties than their male colleagues." Prostitution and trafficking Many women are forced into prostitution either by their parents, husbands or boyfriends -- or as a result of the difficult economic and social conditions in which they find themselves. They are also lured into prostitution, sometimes by "mail-order bride" agencies that promise to find them a husband or a job in a foreign country. As a result, they very often find themselves illegally confined in brothels in slavery-like conditions where they are physically abused and their passports withheld. Most women initially victimized by sexual traffickers have little inkling of what awaits them. They generally get a very small percentage of what the customer pays to the pimp or the brothel owner. Once they are caught up in the system there is practically no way out, and they find themselves in a very vulnerable situation.

Since prostitution is illegal in many countries, it is difficult for prostitutes to come forward and ask for protection if they become victims of rape or want to escape from brothels. Customers, on the other hand, are rarely the object of penal laws. In Thailand, prostitutes who complain to the police are often arrested and sent back to the brothels upon payment of a fine. The extent of trafficking in women and girl children has reached alarming proportions, especially in Asian countries. Many women and girl children are trafficked across borders, often with the complicity of border guards. In one incident, five young prostitutes burned to death in a brothel fire because they had been chained to their beds. At the same time, sex tours of developing countries are a well-organized industry in several European and other industrialized countries. The Special Reporter has called on Governments to take action to protect young girls from being recruited as prostitutes and to closely monitor recruiting agencies.

CHAPTER-6 Causative factors of Domestic Violence

Alcoholism, Intrusion of in-laws, Rape, Property Dispute, and Marital Maladjustment, Extra-marital affairs, Personality Disorder, Drug addiction, Dowry, Economic Crisis and Divorce-related issues are the main causes of Domestic Violence in India. The traditional methods of meeting stress seem to have become inadequate or unsuitable; as a consequence many resort to alcoholism for relief, a trend which in turn leads to family disorganization of, and violent behavior in the family. The existence of dowry and the role it plays in the abuse of women provide an additional dimension to domestic violence in India. Economic crises arise from several reasons: such as unemployment, indebtedness, loss of sources of livelihood, destitution arising from natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, and cyclones. They may also be a result of factors like unwillingness to work, profligacy, fatalism and disablement. Psychological problems such as inferiority complex may also result in abuse and violence at home.

Other forms of Violence

1. Sex Pre Selection Recent statistics have revealed that there has been a great decrease ion the female sex ratio. Studies have revealed that there are only 927 girls for every 1000 boys. "For every 1000 boys, therefore, at least 73 girls are missing in India today", the study points out. In fact, over the past decade the number of girls per 1000 boys has been declining in most states of India. The states that have much to explain over the significant drop in the number of

girls are Punjab (793), Haryana (820), Delhi (865), Gujarat (879) and Himachal Pradesh (897). Sex ratio varies by State and in addition by age, so the 2001 census figures show a sex ratio for states varying between 821(Delhi) and 1058(Kerala). The sex ratio figures for the 0-6 age group show an all India figure of 927 also with wide state variations, 798(Punjab) and 979 (Dadra & Nagar Haveli). The Census document itself notes that the sex ratio of 927 in this lower age group does not auger well for the future of the country. This issue has to be taken as a form of discrimination and violence against woman. Thus appropriate data has to be collected on the following 1. Sex ratio Sex ratio (0-6) As per the provisional results of the 2001 Census the sex ratio in the age group 0-6 years in India is 927 compared to the 1991 Census when it was recorded as 945. This is in contrast to the overall sex ratio of population in India which shows an increase from 927 in 1991 to 933 in 2001. 2. Female mortality rate (Between the ages of 1-6 years) 3. Extent of Son preference There is reported to be a traditional preference for male children. Termination of pregnancy is legal but the use of pre-natal sex-determination tests is illegal, however the law on this issue has not been effectively enforced, and as a result the termination of a disproportionate number of pregnancies with female fetuses occurs. Other contributory factors to the sex ratio are female infanticide, and in areas where food has to be rationed girls may receive unequal rations and consequently die from malnutrition or neglect. 4. Women who have internalized son preference. 5. Practice of medical profession in Selection of female fetus. Only when appropriate data is collected in a methodological manner can such issues be brought up and policies for check on it be formulate. A progressive step of the judiciary was seen when the court ordered the data collection in the Sehat case on the following 1. The direct registration of the technical equipments in use for selection of abortion of female fetus 2. The various clinics which are engaged in such work More such measures need to be taken immediately to keep a check on the declining sex ratio. Sexual violence in marriage Rape is an offence, which hinges on the absence of consent of the woman. It is important to realize that the absence of consent does not have to be only in the form of the word .no.. It should be assumed from the context of the situation. Within a marriage, if a woman gives consent to sexual intercourse because of threat of injury to children or herself, depriving the woman of the right to stay in the house or receive maintenance, it is not valid consent. It is still rape. The offence of marital rape has not been sufficiently accounted for in the law. The law does not punish rape within marriage if the woman is above fifteen years of age. Forced sexual intercourse is an offence only when the woman is living separately from her husband under judicial separation/custom. It must also be remembered that situations of marital rape occur within the confines of the home, and therefore there are often no witnesses to the crime. Till now the concept of Marital rape has not been recognised. We have been lobbying for a law in order to make it an offence but for this we firstly need to collect statistics of rape within marriage. Measure of Cultural Specific forms of Violence

Use of abusive language is cultural specific. We need to map such specific instances which causes psychological and emotional damage and leads to depression, anxiety and suicide. However for this we need to determine scales that are to be used. Some countries have evolved specific scales to determine such forms of abuse. Find notification of the government attached as annexure 1. In our opinion the scale may not be appropriate for measure of mental health consequences and impact History of violence against women Some historians believe that the history of violence against women is tied to the history of women being viewed as property and a gender role assigned to be subservient to men and also other women. The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) states that "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men. In the 1870s courts in the United States stopped recognizing the common-law principle that a husband had the right to "physically chastise an errant wife. In the UK the traditional right of a husband to inflict Moderate corporal punishment on his wife in order to keep her "within the bounds of duty" was removed in 1891. Impact on society The World Health Organization reports that violence against women puts an undue burden on health care services with women who have suffered violence being more likely to need health services and at higher cost, compared to women who have not suffered violence. Several studies have shown a link between poor treatment of women and international violence. These studies show that one of the best predictors of inter- and international violence is the maltreatment of women in the society.


Never Married Women Also Experience Physical and Sexual Violence Sixteen percent of never married women have experienced physical violence since they were 15 years of age, generally by a parent, a sibling, or a teacher. One percent of never married women report having ever been sexually abused by anyone. Among never married women who have experienced sexual violence, 27 percent say that the perpetrator of the violence was a relative. Most Women Do Not Seek Help When They Are Abused Only one in four abused women have ever sought help to try to end theviolence they have experienced. Two out of three women have not only never sought help, but have also never told anyone about the violence. Abused women most often seek help from their families.
Few abused women seek help from any institutional source such as police,medical institutions, or social

service organizations. Only 2 percent of abused women have ever sought help from the police.



C olum n1
50 40 30 20 10 0 18-25 25-35 35-45 45-50


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the age of the respondent. Wherein, Between 18-25 there are 8 respondents 25-35 there are 30 respondents Between 35-45 there are 43 respondent And between 45-50 there are 19 respondents


C olum n1
80 60 40 20 0


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the occupation of the respondents Wherein Students class includes 0 respondents Business class includes-3 Working class includes37 And housewife includes 60 respondents


C olum n1
60 40 20 0
20 00 -8 00 0 80 00 -1 50 00 15 00 0 ... NI L


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the income of the respondents. It has been reported that there are more housewifes with no income And the total number of respondents having no income are-57 Womens earning income between 2000-8000 are-22 Womens earning income from 8000-15000 are 12 And womens earning income more than 15000 are-9


C olum n1
100 80 60 40 20 0


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the marital status of the respondents. It is important to know the marital status of women to find out which class of women is facing more violence. In this survey, Married womens are 78 Separated womens are 5 Deserted womens are 0 Divorced womens are12


C olum n1
80 60 40 20 0 18-25 25-35 35-45 45-50 Column1

DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the age at which the respondents got married Wherein, Respondents got married at the age ranging between 18 25 were 68 Between 25-35 age were 31 And 35-45 were1 It has been reported that there were no respondents that got married at the age ranging between 45-50


C olum n1
80 60 40 20 0 SC ST OBC OPENOTHER Column1

DATA INTERPRTATIONThe above graph represents the caste of the respondents. From the above graph it can been seen that there are more womens with open category and respondents belonging to sc category are-5 Womens belonging to other category are also 5 And womens belonging to OBC category are 16.


C olum n1
50 40 30 20 10 0


DATA INTERPREATIONThis graph represents the type of family in which the respondents live, From the above graph it can been seen that there are almost equal no of respondents living in nuclear and joint type of family People living in extended type of join family are only 5 Single person are 2 Nuclear-43 Joint-41.



C olum n1
80 60 40 20 0


DATA INTERPRATATIONThe above graph represents the type of marriage of the respondents It is of great significance to know the type of marriage of the respondents to know which type of marriage is more successful and violence free In the above graph the womens with arrange marriage includes the highest no of respondents that is 68 Womens with love marriage includes-18 And womens with both arranged and love type of a marriage include 14 respondents


In her married life did the respondent and her spouse live separately for any period of time

C olum n1
80 60 40 20 0 YES NO NO RESPONSE Column1

DATA INTERPRTATIONThe above graph represents the report of womens who have been stayed separately from her spouse for any period of time. There were 29 womens who have been stayed separately from here spouse and 69 womens who have not been stayed separately from her spouse. 2 of the respondents did not respond to this question

Where was the respondent staying before her marriage

C olum n1
60 50 40 30 20 10 0


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the information of the respondents about their staying before the marriage It is important to find out where the respondents use to stay before marriage to note which level of area womens are facing more violence. A village Column 30


Town Slum in Mumbai Slum in other city No response

55 13 2 0

When faced with violence what did the respondent do

C olum n1
50 40 30 20 10 0
ot he r co ns ul t.. . in d. .. fo llo w in ...


de cid e


ha ve

DATA INTERPRETATIONIn the above graph the question asked to the respondents were when faced violence what did the respondents do? 41 respondents said they can decide independently 38 respondents said they need to consult someone 16 respondents need to follow instructions and 5 respondents adopted other means to face the violence

ha ve

ca n


Buying things for oneself

C olum n1
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1% 2% 3% 4%


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the respondents response in percentage regarding buying things for oneself. Column1 1% 20 2% 35 3% 33 4% 12 It can been seen that 20 womens were not satisfied with respect to buying things for oneself

Visiting your natal family

C olum n1
40 30 20 10 0 1%
DATA INTERPRTATIONThe above graph represents the respondents response in percentage regarding visiting their natal family Column1 1% 21 2% 33 3% 34 4% 12 It can been seen that 21 womens were not at all satisfied with respect to their visiting their natal family and 12 womens were satisfied with their visiting to their natal family





Seeking health care when pregnant

C olum n1
40 30 20 10 0 1% 2% 3% 4% Column1

The above graph represents the respondents response in percentage regarding seeking health care when pregnant Column1 1% 18 2% 29 3% 34 4% 19 It is been noted that only 19 womens were given full care during pregnancy

Going out with friends/other women from community

C olum n1
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1% 2% 3% 4%


DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the respondents response in percentage regarding going out with friends/other womens from community Column1 1% 50 2% 26 3% 15 4% 9 It is been noted that only 9 respondents were fully satisfied with respect to going out freely with frnds and other women

Did you ever have an argument over any matter with your husband/family members
YS E NO NOR S NS E PO E C olum n1 8 1 5 1 4

T resize c rt da ra e, dra lower rig c o ha ta ng g ht orner of ra e. ng

DATA INTERPRETATIONFrom the above graph it has been reported that most of the womens had argue with their husband/Family members 81 womens had argue with their husbands and family members only 5 women have never had a agrue with their husband/family members There were 14 womens who did not respond to this due to any personal reason.

Have you faced harassment or violence

C olum n1
80 60 40 20 0 YES NO NO RESPONSE


DATA INTERPRETATIONFrom the above graph it has been reported that 68% of womens have faced harassment and violence, 18 womens did not face any such thing and 14 womens opted for the option no response which states that they dont want to response for this. Has violence ever physically impaired you such that

C olum n1
40 30 20 10 0
ot he r to se ek ha ... d to be ho ... No re sp on no se ta pp lic ab le co ul d n. .


yo u

DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the volume of the violence or we can say affect of the violence on women. Due to violence 19 womens said they could not do their daily task due to physical impaired, 10 womens had to seek medical treatment, 2 womens had been hospitalized due to such violence 4 womens opted for other 29 womens did not respond And for 36 womens this was not applicable this means they have never faced very harsh type of violence that can lead to physical impairment

If sought help from whom did u seek help

ha d

C olum n1
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
ne igh bo u na fri r co tal end m ho m m un me ah it ila y.. m . ... po li la ce w y do er an ct y o or th er


DATA INTERPRTATIONThe above graph represents the response of womens with respect to seeking help at the time of difficlities or violence or any other mater. Around 51 womens said they seek help from their natal home, 2 Womens said they seek help from mahila mandal, 9 womens said they seek help from police, 3 womens said from lawyer, And 1 women said she seek help from doctor if sought help.

As a result of intervention, the intensity of violence

H srem inedthe sa e a a m H sdec sed a rea c nnot c m a om ent ha inc sed s rea no response other

C olum n1 1 7 5 2 1 7 8 5 1 T resize cha da ra e, dra lower rig c o rt ta ng g ht orner of ra e. ng

DATA INTERPRETATIONThe above graph represents the intensity of violence The question asked to respondents were as a result of intervention is the intensity of volume decreased or increased or remain same, 17 womens said that the intensity of violence has been remained same which sates that measures should be taken to improve the intensity of domestic violence 52 omens said that the intensity of violence has decreased 5 employees did not response 17 womens said they cannot comment and 8 womens said that the intensity of volume have been increased.. Steps should be taken to avoid such violence and to improve the position of Indian women in our country. \. .

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE NOTE: I Ms. Uma Rapool studying in Lala Lajpatrai College doing a research work on DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN. The information collected will be confidential and will be used for academic purpose only.


Q.1) NAME :




35-45 GENDER:




Student Business Worker Housewife NIL 2000-8000 900015000 16000 onwards



Q.2) Marital status of the respondent Married Separated Deserted Divorced Widowed Other (specify) No response

Q.3) Details about the respondent 18-25 25-35 35-45 45-50 Age at marriage ;


Q.4) Type of family Single person Nuclear Joint Extended Joint Other (specify) No response


Q.1) Was your marriage Arranged Love Both Other (specify) No response

Q.2) In her married life, did the respondent and her spouse live separately for any period of time? Yes No No response

Q.3) Where were you staying before your marriage? A village Town Slum in Mumbai Slum in another city No response


Q.1) When faced with violence, what do you do? Can decide independently Have to consult someone Other(specify)

Have to follow instructions (issued by husband or other older family members such as mother-in-law)

Q.2) Buying things for oneself Q.3) Deciding on household daily purchase Q.4) Visiting your natal house Q.5) Seeking health care when pregnant Q.6) Deciding the extent of schooling for your children

1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3%

4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4%

Q.7) Going out with friends/other women from community 1%


Q.1) You have been married for___ years. During this time, did you ever have an argument over any matter with your Husband/family members ? Yes No No response

Q.2)Have you faced harassment or violence (been hit, slapped, kicked, repeatedly insulted, given bad words, always need to ask for money even for daily purchases, taking away your money, constantly needing to know where you are, threatening to hurt or those you love, etc) Yes No No response

Q.3) Has the violence ever physically impaired you such that

You could not go about doing your daily tasks other (specify) Had to seek medical treatment Had to be hospitalized No response Not applicable

Q.4) Who is primarily responsible for you facing such physical impairment? Husband Sister in law Mother in law Father in law Brother in law No response Not applicable Other (specify) If more than 1 (specify)


Q.1) If sought help, from whom did you seek help? Neighbour Friend Natal home Community leader Mahila Mandal Police Lawyer Doctor Any other

Q.2) As a result of intervention, the intensity of violence? Has remained the same Has decreased Cannot comment Has increased No response Other (specify)

Q.3) As a result of intervention, the intensity of violence? Has remained the same Has decreased Cannot comment Has increased No response Other (specify)

Q.4) Any other comments?

Thank you for your co-operation