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You are on page 1of 3

You should be able to:

add, subtract, multiply and divide polynomials

understand the words ‘quotient’ and ‘remainder’ used in dividing polynomials

use the method of equating coefficients

use the remainder theorem and the factor theorem.

Polynomials = sum of all the terms of axn, where n = 0, 1, 2,…..

a = coefficients

n = degree of the polynomial

0 = constant polynomial

1 = linear

2 = quadratic

3 = cubic

4 = quartic

f(x) = x3 – 2x2 + 5x – 3 and g(x) = x2 – x + 4. Simplify 3f(x) – 2g(x).

Evaluate (x2 + 1)(x – 3)(2x2 – x + 1).

Example 3: (P. 6, Q7h)

Find the values of A and B for the following polynomial.

(Ax + B)(3x2 – 2x – 1) ≡ 6x3 – 7x2 + 1

Example 4:

Given that for all real values of x,

2x3 + 3x2 – 14x – 5 ≡ (Ax + B)(x + 3)(x + 1) + C

Find A, B, and C.

Example 5:

Factorise x3 + 3x + 14 given that one factor is (x + 2).

Example 6:

Find the quotient and the remainder of x4 – x3 + 5x2 + 4x – 36 ÷ (x2 – x + 9).

Example 7

Ex 2: Dividing a polynomial using a quadratic expression, remainder and factor

theorem

(a) x4 – 5x – 6 with factor (x2 – x – 2)

(b) x4 + x3 – 12x2 + 4x + 16 with factor (x2 + 2x – 8)

(c) 6x3 + 5x2 – 17x – 6 with factor (3x2 + 7x + 2)

(d) 2x3 – x2 – 15x + 18 with factor (x2 + x – 6)

(a) Determine if any of the following expression is a factor of 6x4 – x3 – 21x2 – 6x + 8:

(i) x – 1

(ii) x + 2

(iii) x – 2

(b) Find a factor for each of the following functions:-

(i) 4x4 - 4x3 – 9x2 + x + 2

(ii) x4 – x3 + 5x2 + 4x – 36

(iii) x3 – 2x2 – 7x + 12

is – 6 when f(x) is divided by (x + 1), find the values of constants a and b.

values of c and d.

by f(x). Given that (x + 2) is a factor of f(x), find the value of a.

Find the values of C, P and Q.

the values of A, B and C.

8. Given that 2x2 + 11x + C ≡ A(x + 1)2 + B(x + 1) + 4 for all real values of x,

find the values of A, B and C.

9. Given that 6x2 – x – 3 ≡ A(2x + 1)(x – 1) + B(1 – x) + C for all real values of

x, find A, B and C.

10. Given that 4x2 – 6x + 9 ≡ A(x – 1)(2x + 1) + B(x – 1) + C for all real values

of x, find A, B and C.

1.3 Remainder theorem, Factor theorem, Solving polynomial

equations

1.3.1 REMAINDER THEOREM

When a polynomial f(x) is divided by x – a, the remainder R is f(a).

Example 8:

Find the remainder for 3x 4 + x2 – 7x + 6 ÷ (x + 3).

If x – a is a factor of f(x), then f(a) = 0

If f(a) = 0, then x – a is a factor of f(x).

Example 9

Find one of the factors of the following polynomial by factor theorem:

(a) 2x3 – 9x2 + 7x + 6

(b) 2x3 + 3x2 – 8x + 3

Example 10

Given that both (x – 1) and (x – 2) are factors of 2x3 – x2 + ax + b, find the values of

a and b.

Example 12 Solve the equation 2x3 = 9x2 – 11x + 2, giving your answer

correct to 2 decimal places where necessary.

1. Solve the following equations:

(a) 2x3 = x2 + 5x + 2 (f) x3 + 4 = x (x + 4)

(b) x3 + 16 = 12x 4

(g) x 32

(c) 2x3 + 5x2 = 2 – x x

(d) 4x3 + 3x2 – 16x = 12 (h) x(x + 3)(x – 1) = x + 8

(e) 2x3 – 11x = 6 – 3x2

places where necessary.

(a) x3 + x2 – 8x + 4 = 0 (d) 2x2 + 7x = x3 + 12

(b) 3x3 = 5x + 2 (e) 3x3 + 5x2 = 3x + 2

3 2

(c) 8x + 6 = x + x (f) 2x3 + 6x – 6 = (13x – 6)(x – 1)

the equation P(x) = 0.

4. Given f(x) = 2x3 + ax2 – 7a2x – 6a3, determine whether or not x – a and x + a

are factors of f(x). Hence find, in terms of a, the roots of f(x) = 0.

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