Electron Devices

A broader perspective

Prof. N.Shanmugasundaram
Professor, ECE Department Vidyaa Vikas College of Engg & Tech. Tiruchengode, Namakkal Dt.

Overview of Presentation

Semiconductor Theory


• •

PN Junction Diode
BJT FET (JFET & MOSFET)

Special Function Devices

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Semiconductor Basics

• Stable atom has 8 electrons in outermost orbit • Insulator has 8 electrons • Semiconductor has exactly 4 electrons (eg. Si) • Metal has less than 4 electrons
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Energy Levels in Semiconductor
The more distant the electron from the nucleus, the higher the energy state. Energy level of electrons at Outermost orbit is VALENCE BAND. Energy needed in Electrons for conduction is CONDUCTION BAND.

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Intrinsic Semiconductor

• No Impurities (pure semiconductor) • No Charge carriers at 0º K (−273.15° Celsius) • Only few carriers at room temperature

• N=P
• Not suitable for Electron Devices

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Semiconductor Theory
Extrinsic Semiconductor
P Type: • Trivalent Impurity (eg. Boron) • Holes – Charge carriers

N Type: • Pentavalent Impurity (eg. P) • Electrons – Charge carriers

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Semiconductor Theory

1. Comparison of Metals, Semiconductors & Insulators
2. Forbidden Energy gap, VB, CB 3. Comparison of Intrinsic & Extrinsic semiconductor 4. Comparison of P-type and N-type Semiconductors

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Semiconductor Theory

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PN Junction Diode

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PN Junction Diode

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PN Junction Diode

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PN Junction Diode
1. Forward & Reverse Biasing 2. Depletion region 3. Reverse saturation current (Is) 4. Equation for Forward current (If) 5. Barrier potential / Knee voltage (Si & Ge) 6. Breakdown voltage (PIV) 7. Static and Dynamic resistance 8. Parameters (If, PIV, Pd, Ot) 9. Applications

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BJT – Bipolar Junction Transistor
Model of First Transistor

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• • • •

BJT is a 3-Terminal device. BJT is a CURRENT CONTROLLED device. Terminals are EMITTER, BASE, COLLECTOR. Main application of BJT: SWITCH and AMPLIFIER.


• •

Can be operated in 3 regions: CUT-OFF, ACTIVE and SATURATION.
3 BJT configurations are CB, CE and CC. Commonly used configuration: CE

Biasing methods: Base resistor, Collector Feedback, Potential divider.

Two Types of BJT: NPN & PNP

IE = I C + I B

Common Base Configuration

Common Emitter Configuration

Common Collector Configuration

BIASING Biasing is a process through which collector current IC is kept constant withstanding the variations in β, Temperature.

Three types of Biasing are: 1. Fixed Bias (Simple, but not stable) 2. Collector Feedback Bias 3. Voltage Divider Bias (Stable and Best)

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Fixed Biasing (Simple)

Collector Resistor (Voltage Feedback) Biasing

Voltage Divider Biasing (Stable)

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IC = Collector current IB = Base current IE = Emitter current

Simulation of transistor as an amplifier

Transistor Configuration Comparison
AMPLIFIER TYPE COMMON BASE COMMON EMITTER COMMON COLLECTOR

INPUT/OUTPUT PHASE RELATIONSHIP

180°

VOLTAGE GAIN

HIGH LOW

MEDIUM MEDIUM

LOW HIGH γ = IE / IB MEDIUM HIGH

CURRENT GAIN POWER GAIN

a = IC / IE
LOW LOW

b = IC / I B
HIGH

INPUT RESISTANCE
OUTPUT RESISTANCE APPLICATION

MEDIUM

HIGH

MEDIUM

LOW IMPEDANCE MATCHING

NOT USED

AMPLIFICATION

Transistor Terminal Identification

Transistor Testing
1. Curve Tracer - Provides a graph of the characteristic curves. 2. DMM - Some DMM’s will measure bDC or HFE. 3. Ohmmeter

BJT
1. Application 2. Biasing 3. Regions of Operation 4. Classes of Operation 5. Frequency Response 6. h-Parameters 7. Important relationships of a transistor

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FET
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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)
• • • • • • • FET is a UNI-POLAR transistor. FET is a VOLTAGE CONTROLLED device. 3-terminals of FET: SOURCE, GATE, DRAIN. Main application of FET: SWITCH and AMPLIFIER. Can be operated in 3 regions: CUT-OFF, ACTIVE and SATURATION. Biasing methods: Base resistor, Collector Feedback, Potential divider. Advantage of FET over BJT:

FET requires virtually no input (bias signal) current and gives an extremely high input resistance.
High noise immunity and thermal stability
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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)
Field Effect Transistor (FET) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

LOW VOLTAGE GAIN HIGH CURRENT GAIN VERY INPUT IMPEDANCE HIGH OUTPUT IMPEDANCE LOW NOISE GENERATION FAST SWITCHING TIME EASILY DAMAGED BY STATIC

HIGH VOLTAGE GAIN LOW CURRENT GAIN LOW INPUT IMPEDANCE LOW OUTPUT IMPEDANCE MEDIUM NOISE GENERATION MEDIUM SWITCHING TIME ROBUST

SOME REQUIRE AN INPUT TO TURN IT REQUIRES ZERO INPUT TO TURN IT "OFF" "OFF" VOLTAGE CONTROLLED DEVICE MORE EXPENSIVE THAN BIPOLAR CURRENT CONTROLLED DEVICE CHEAP

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DIFFICULT TO BIAS

EASY TO BIAS

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

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MOSFET

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FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

1. Features

2. Characteristics (Transfer, Drain)
3. Biasing 4. Regions of Operation 5. Frequency Response 6. Important Parameter - gm 7. Important relationships of a transistor

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Other Special Purpose Devices

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1. ZENER DIODE

Zener Diode:- is a silicon pn junction device that differ from rectifier diodes because it is designed for operation in the reverse- breakdown region. - if Zener diode is forward-biased, it operates the same as a rectifier diode. Function:to provide a stable reference voltage for use in power supplies, voltmeter & other instruments, voltage regulators.

FIGURE - Zener

diode

symbol.

FIGURE -

General diode V-I characteristic.

Zener breakdown:- occurs in a Zener diode at low reverse voltages. - Zener diode is heavily doped to reduce the breakdown voltage. - This causes a very thin depletion region.

2. TUNNEL DIODE

A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode which is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region, by using quantum mechanical effects.

FIGURE - Tunnel

diode symbols.

Forward bias operation Under normal forward bias operation, as voltage begins to increase, electrons at first tunnel through the very narrow p–n junction barrier because filled electron states in the conduction band on the n-side become aligned with empty valence band hole states on the p-side of the pn junction. As voltage increases further these states become more misaligned and the current drops – this is called negative resistance because current decreases with increasing voltage. As voltage increases yet further, the diode begins to operate as a normal diode, where electrons travel by conduction across the p–n junction, and no longer by tunneling through the p–n junction barrier. Thus, the most important operating region for a tunnel diode is the negative resistance region.

FIGURE -

Tunnel diode characteristic curve.

FIGURE - Parallel

resonant circuit.

FIGURE -

Basic tunnel diode oscillator.

3. VARACTOR DIODE

The reverse-biased varactor diode acts as a variable capacitor.

FIGURE -

The reverse-biased varactor diode acts as a variable capacitor.

FIGURE -

Varactor diode capacitance varies with reverse voltage.

FIGURE 6 - A

Resonant band-pass filter using a varactor diode for adjusting the resonant frequency over a specified range.

4. LED

FIGURE - Symbol

for an LED. When forward-biased, it emits

light.

FIGURE -

Electroluminescence in a forward-biased LED.

FIGURE -

Basic operation of an LED.

FIGURE -

Examples of typical spectral output curves for LEDs.

FIGURE -

Typical LEDs.

FIGURE - The

7-segment LED display.

5. LASER DIODE
A Laser diode, also known as an injection laser or diode laser, is a semiconductor device that produces coherent radiation (in which the waves are all at the same frequency and phase) in the visible or infrared (IR) spectrum when current passes through it. Laser diodes are used in optical fiber systems, compact disc (CD) players,

• •

• • •

laser printers, remote-control devices, and intrusion detection systems.

Figure: Structure of DH LASER Diode

FIGURE - Basic laser diode construction and operation.

6. PHOTODIODE

FIGURE - Photodiode.

FIGURE -

Typical photodiode characteristics.

FIGURE -

Operation of a photodiode.

7. PIN DIODE

FIGURE - PIN diode.

A PiN diode is a diode with a wide, lightly doped 'near' intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor regions. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts. The wide intrinsic region is in contrast to an ordinary PN diode. The wide intrinsic region makes the PIN diode an inferior rectifier (the normal function of a diode), but it makes the PIN diode suitable for • • • • attenuators, fast switches, photo detectors, and high voltage power electronics applications.

FIGURE -

PIN diode characteristics.

FIGURE - Diode symbols.

8. SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER

Two Transistor model of SCR

The switching action of gate takes place only when (i) (ii) SCR is forward biased i.e. anode is positive with respect to cathode. Suitable positive voltage is applied between the gate and the cathode.

Once the SCR has been switched on, it has no control on the amount of current flowing through it. The current through the SCR is entirely controlled by the external impedance connected in the circuit and the applied voltage. The forward current through the SCR can be reduced by reducing the applied voltage or by increasing the circuit impedance.

A minimum forward current must be maintained to keep the SCR in conducting state. This is called the holding current rating of SCR. If the current through the SCR is reduced below the level of holding current, the device returns to off-state or blocking state.
Note : The gate can only trigger or switch-on the SCR, it cannot switch off.

Terminology
Firing Angle The angle (in the input AC) at which the gate is triggered is known as 'firing angle'. Holding Current It is the minimum anode current (with gate being open) required to keep the SCR in ON condition.

Break Over voltage It is the minimum forward voltage with gate being open, at which an SCR starts conducting heavily (i.e., the SCR is turned ON) .

9. UNIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR

A unijunction transistor (UJT) is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one junction. The UJT has three terminals: an emitter (E) and two bases (B1 and B2). The base is formed by lightly doped ntype bar of silicon. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p-type and it is heavily doped.

Intrinsic Standoff Ratio

Unijunction transistor: (a) emitter characteristic curve,

(b) model for VP .

Application of UJT – RELAXATION OSCILLATOR

REVIEW:
• • • A unijunction transistor consists of two bases (B1, B2) attached to a resistive bar of silicon, and an emitter in the center. The E-B1 junction has negative resistance properties; it can switch between high and low resistance. The intrinsic standoff ratio is η= RB1 /(RB1 + RB2), for a unijunction transistor. The trigger voltage is determined by η.

Unijunction transistors and programmable unijunction transistors are applied to oscillators, timing circuits, and Thyristor triggering.

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