EXAMINE THE EFFICACY OF CHINA’S SOFT POWER IN EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

Shahril Budiman Raja Haji College of Social and Political Science Tanjungpinang-Indonesia Introduction Since ancient times, China has been known as a country that upholds the values of history and culture of their country. Even in some period of time ever large-scale destruction of works of literature and philosophers, but this does not eliminate the awarding from Chinese people of their cultural heritage and high. Increasing China's economy has reached a stage incredible moment, not only gives hope and progress toward the better, but it also brings in no small hurdle. To achieve the stability of the country, China continuously strives to perpetuate the position in the international world. Moreover, the foreign policy set by the state is placed on the principle of peace and world harmony. Since the initiation of reforms in the late 1970s, the functions, imperatives and interests of the Chinese state have changed as the country has experienced profound transformation. Another reason from the article about china progress report said is the economic reforms in 1978 have made China as one of the largest destination of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment).(Wayne:2009) China has transitioned from a revolutionary state to a developmental state, from a planned economy to a trading state and from an extremely opaque Leninist party-state to an authoritarian state. Each of these domestic transitions has impacted China’s external relations (LiMingjiang:56). At this time, China softpower has been movement into east and southeast asia. This essay will emphasizes on what is soft power, the influence of china softpower in East Asia and Southeast Asia. Softpower Firstly, definitions of power vary considerably among the scholars, power is generally used to explain a capability of one actor to change or influence the behavior of another actor. Robert Dahl defines power as a capability of getting others to do something they would not otherwise do.(Dahl:61) This kind of definition of power requires not only capabilities but also knowledge of others‟ interests. Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia |1

According to Joseph S. Nye, hard power resources include coercive capabilities such as military and economic means whereas the soft power resources are based on culture, values and institutions. Soft power is typically associated with the co-optive end of the spectrum,whereas hard power is usually associated with the command end.( Nye, Jr:7) Nye does state the relationship is imperfect. Sometimes resources typically viewed as hard power may become a form of attractiveness and vice versa. Figure I : Power

Regarding the discussion about china softpower Sook-Jong Lee describe inside China, discussions of soft power took off in the first decade of the twenty-first century, stimulated by the debate over how to formulate the domestic and foreign policy necessary for “comprehensive national power (zonghe guoli).” (Sook-Jong Lee:2009).

Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia

|2

Figure II: China’s Soft Power by Area

Source: Chicago Council on Global Affairs (2009). China and the relation with East Asian The relationship among china and the county of East Asian could not distinguished they are the tigers of Asia. The movement of East Asian country and the paradigm has been make the western country being worried. Nevertheless, China nowadays is the economic giant with Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Hongkong they are together step by step starting covering the economic global, building the industry market such as: automotive, Information Communication Technology (ICT) even the education institution is interest placed to be foreigner student learn about East Asian model development. A Part of that, China soft Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia |3

power did not blame also has one of the most characteristic beside the Japanese culture, Korean work ethic or Taiwan education system, which is powerful in the world in these day. If we looking to movement of china economic impressive rise is essentially China’s economic rise. With a real Gross Domestic Product growth rate of 9.8 percent from 1979 to 2007. (Sook-Jong Lee:2009). The collaboration between China with East Asian country nowadays shows the results of economic development, mutual understanding. Moreover, China’s increased influence in East Asia in the past decade is primarily attributable to its soft use of power in foreign policy (Li Minjiang:64). China started being actively join with East Asian community and make multilateralism mutual understanding with their enemy like Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. For example: The precarious relations Beijing had with Japan and Taiwan just a few years ago have now changed for the better, with a SinoJapanese strategic partnership in the making and a warming of relations across the Taiwan Strait (Li Minjiang:64). In few problem with North Korean and South Korea, China was a mediator between them and also request to North Korea being soft to face the problem and try to making peace among them. In my assessment, china soft power in field of keeping safe area for East Asian Country is one of the successful concept and idea to integrate with the community. More than that, China also safe their relationship for economic engagement in the future. These draw by the expansion of Chinese influence in East Asia has also been fueled by economic ties, a reflection of the nature of the Chinese trading state (Li Miangjing:2009). Southeast Asia and the Influenced of China The participation or the influenced of china softpower in Southeast Asia could be looking in the active participation in multilateral endeavors. That helped reassure neighboring states of China’s willingness to engage in regional affairs. This is most notable in China’s involvement in various ASEAN-related forums and mechanisms since the mid-1990s. These include the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), ASEAN plus three (ASEAN and China, South Korea and Japan), ASEAN plus One (ASEAN and China), the free trade agreement with ASEAN, the Joint Declaration on Cooperation in the Field of Nontraditional Security Issues, the Joint Declaration on Strategic Partnership for Peace and Prosperity and China’s accession to the ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in 2003.

Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia

|4

In Addtion, In 1997 Asian financial crisis challenged theenlargement of ASEAN, the association china and ASEAN continued to help Southeast Asia country to get out the monetary crisis. is very important to note that China helpedASEAN to recuperate from the harsh impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis by not devaluing its currency. A year before the crisis, China became a full-blown ASEAN dialogue partner in 1996. (Banlaoi:57). Regarding the efficacy of China soft power use of its soft power in Southeast Asia is manifested through “nonmilitary inducements” including culture, diplomacy, foreign aid, trade and investment (Kuik Cheng-Chwee:4). In the economic relation, Though China’sforeign aid to Southeast Asia is hard to estimate “due to a lack of data and to the unique characteristics of Chinese assistance”, it is observed that China has become one of the largest bilateral aid donors in Southeast Asia, particularly in mainland Southeast Asian states of Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. But China is one of the ten major sources of ASEAN foreign direct investment, which totaled around US$2.3 billion in 2007 (Banlaoi:61). In my assessment, the powerful of china softpower to making relationship among country of southeast asia coulbe say successful. This thing draw in above, whereas China policy investement with the number of foreign number of investment (FDI) are increasingly. Afterward, mutual agreement of cultural exchange, event of industrial expo include both of them had been shows China position in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, the American softpower, Japan and Korean have dominate some of area in Southeast Asian country such as: Indonesia and Vietnam likely the survey result in below:
Tables I : Soft Power Indices of China, Japan, South Korea, and the United Stated

Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia

|5

Conclusion As the results, development and the efficacy of China softpower now a days keep move on in East and South East country. On figure III will describe clear where Chinese softpower and the power of china try to dominate into the social global life and government. Figure III: China’s Military Threat and Soft Power

Source: Chicago Council on Global Affairs (2009). However, this not easy for China to sovereignty and make agreement regarding the economic, culture because they are have also self determined for example: the value and principals of Japan has been establish and follower as way of life. The difference of ideology between China and several country in ASEAN also the problem how china will be engage in long time with them. Communism by china is contrary with several Moslem ideology in Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. Finally, China soft power actually in my point of view the strategy of China to make collaboration and to cooperate and abolish the western value.

Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia

|6

REFERENCES: Banlaoi C. Romel , 2010. Southeast asian regionalism and China’s soft power strategy in a global age , Jebat. Malaysian Journal of History, Politics, & Strategic Studies, Vol. 37): 55 - 67 Chicago Council on Global Affairs. 2009. Soft Power inAsia: Results of a 2008 Multinational Survey of Public Opinion. Chicago: Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Dahl, Robert A. 1961, Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. Yale University Press Dowding, Keith Kuik Cheng-Chwee, 2008. Rising Dragon, Crouching Tigers? Comparing the Foreign Policy Responses of Malaysia and Singapore Toward a Re-emerging China, 19902005, BiblioAsia, vol. 3, no. 4 (January 2008), Nye, Joseph. 2004. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs Ramo. J. C. 2004, The Beijing Consensus, The Foreign Policy Centre. UK Wayne M. Morison, China Economic Condition, CRS Report for Congress, 9 March 2009 2009 World Security Institute Li Mingjiang, Domestic Sources of China’s Soft Power Approach China Security Vol. 5 No. 2 page 56-70. 2009 EAI Issue Briefing No. MASI 2009-07, Sook-Jong Lee, China’s Soft Power: Its Limits and Potential, October 20, 2008, China’s Soft Power. Discussions, Resources and Prospects. Asian Survey. Nye, Joseph S. Jr.

Efficacy China soft power in East and Southeast Asia

|7

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful