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THE LIBRARY OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA

DIALECTIC

ENDOWED BY THE AND PHILANTHROPIC
SOCIETIES

10003143368

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This book is due at the WALTER R. DAVIS LIBRARY on the last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold, it be renewed by bringing it to the library

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Form No 513.
Rev. 1/84

ESSENTIALS

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK

•Th^?>y^Q

7
ESSENTIALS
-

A7

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK
BY

JOHN HOMER HUDDH.STON,
Ph.D. (Munich)

A.B.

(Harv.),

Professor of Greek in the University of Maine

Author of " Greek Tragedy

in the

Light of Vase-Paintings," " Lessons
etc.

from Greek Pottery"

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN &
1905
All
rii'hts reser-ned

CO., Ltd.

Copyright, 1895,

By

MACMILLAN AND

CO.

Set up and electrotyped August, 1895.

Reprinted August,
;

1896; October, 1897 (with corrections); August, 1900 1902 ; January, December, 1905.

October,

PREFACE.
The

of the Revised Version of our Testament, in 1881, marked the beginning of a new interest in Bible study. Since that time not only the English, but the Greek and Hebrew have been studied with a zeal quite new. The sources are being more carefully examined to-day than ever before.
publication

English

New

Students are becoming more and more awake to the
great importance of being able to judge of a certain

passage for themselves rather than accepting without

doubt or question whatever the authorities say
regard to
it.

in

Can anything be done

to bring the language of the

Testament within the reach of a larger number of Bible students? Through the great maze of grammatical difficulties that surround the language, can a way be mapped out along which the student may work, and, without sacrificing essentials, gain the same end that usually requires many months of hard study?

New

Can

the absolutely essential parts of the language, as

Testament writers, be set forth in little book is an attempt to answer these questions, and I believe that it lies within the
used by the small space?
This

New

VI

PREFACE.

power of the earnest Sunday-school worker or other Bible student to acquire a reading knowledge of New Testament Greek, provided only a substantial part of
one's time
is

thus devoted for a few months.

In

my

teaching of elementary classes in

Garrett

have been accustomed to begin my work with the firs*" list of verbs in Bradley and Horswell's New Testament Word Lists, Part I. All of these words occur several hundred times, and furnish the
Biblical Institute, I

student thus at the very
or any other language,

first

with a substantial hold
difficulties in

on what proves one of the main
was
in part inductive.

— the vocabulary.
Those words

Greek

The work
same time

that presented

fewest difficulties of form, and which at the

were of the most frequent occurrence, were presented The second declension was introduced before first. the first, as being altogether simpler and more easily

comprehended by those who had not made the acquaintance of an inflected language. I aimed to
keep rare adjectives and tenses of the verb till a later time. The optative mood, which does not occur in the Johannean writings, was omitted entirely from the elementary work. Each lesson was accompanied with illustrative exercises taken as far as possible from the

New
work.
ence.

Testament.
present volume has grown out of this plan of
It

The

represents the results of class-room experitried in

The work has been

manuscript form,
important in
this
test.

both with
has,

my

classes

and with private students, and
been given a practical

therefore,

the

advantage, so

class of books, of having

PREFACE.
Part
the
I.

Vll

includes the thirty- two lessons, which will afford
letter of

sufficient
first

preparation for the reading of the Greek, John, the Beatitudes and the Lord's

Prayer from Matthew, the chapter on the Prodigal Son from Luke, and the thirteenth of First Corinthians. These selections are given in Wescott and Hort's reading and are followed by notes and vocabulary. Of the
epistle there
is

given a translation of three chapters,

two literal and one quoted from the Revised Version. This translation may serve for retranslation in case the reading is taken up inductively apart from the
In Part IL are found the essentials of the grammar, embracing, in the first part, the alphabet, table of consonants, vowel and euphonic changes, in the second part, the declension of nouns, pronouns,
lessons.

adjectives, participles, the conjugation of verbs, the

optatives of the
irregular verbs,

New Testament, a table

of about eighty

and the special study in the classes of verbs and the most common irregular verbs. In all verbal forms the aim has been to confine the
forms given, to
part of the
are illustrated

New

Testamertt usage.
the

In the third

grammar

main features of the syntax with quotations from the New Testa-

The prepositions also are discussed ment Greek. somewhat and accompanied with sentences illustrating New Testament peculiarities.
have made the explanations
that
in the lessons so full

may be made by private study, without a teacher. The lessons as arranged represent but one way of applying the Word Lists. The Greek
much
progress
text, the

convenient form of declensions and conjuga-

Vlll

PREFACE.
opportunity for the teacher to exercise
in putting the student in control of

tions, afford

his

own judgment

the elementary work.
I

wish here to acknowledge
Lists,

my

great indebtedness
for the use of their

to Professors Bradley

and Horswell

which they so very kindly put at my disposal. Without the great labour which they had already performed, my work would have been either impossible or the labour of producing it would have been very

Word

greatly increased.
I

wish especially to express

my

great indebtedness

to Rev. Charles Horswell, Ph.D., Professor of
in Garrett Biblical

Hebrew

Institute, for invaluable assistance.

Without his suggestion the work would not have been begun, nor completed without his encouragement and

Whatever of merit this little book may owes much to his rare scholarship and his wide experience as a teacher of the New Testament language. For no errors, however, which the work may For valuable assistcontain is he at all responsible. ance in correction of the prpof I have to express my thanks to Mr. E. A. Bechtel, A.M., and Mr. W. W. Bishop, A.M., Instructors in Classics in Northwestern The proof has been read, in part, also, University.
co-operation.
it

have,

by Professor Milton S. Terry, D.D., Garrett Biblical Institute, and by Professor Henry A. Buttz, D.D., I owe much to the Drew Theological Seminary. valuable suggestions of these well-known scholars.
J.

H.

HUDDILSTON.

Northwestern University,
EvANSTON,
III.,

May

29, 1895.

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

Aside from the corrections of typographical

errors,

few changes have been introduced in this new edition.

My

time since the publication of the book has
in other lines of study that
it

been so occupied

has

been impossible
the

for

me

to

enlarge

certain parts of

grammar which

the favourable reception of the

work would have warranted.
I

am

under special obligation
Barbour,

to

Professor

John
has

Humphrey

Middletown,

Conn.,

who

very kindly gone over the whole work and favoured

me

with his valuable criticism.
J.

H. H.

Berlin, Germany, August, 1896.

1

CONTENTS.


PAGES

Introduction Bibliography Suggestions to the Student

xi-xxiv

xxiv-xxvi
'

xxvii

PART

I.

— LESSONS;

TEXT.
1-90

Lessons I.-XXXII Selections for Translation Table of Abbreviations Notes on Selections

91-110
11

112-120
, , . ,

Translations of First Epistle of John Vocabulary of Selections

121-126 127-133

PART
1.

IL
:

— GRAMMAR.
137-142

Writing and Sound
Accent, Etc

Alphabet, Vowel Changes,

2.

Accidence:
Optatives

Declension

of

Nouns,

Adjectives,

Pronouns, Participles;
of
the

Conjugation

of

Verbs;

New

Testament;

Irregular

Verbs
3.

142-203

Syntax

203-222
223-233

INDEXES

INTRODUCTION.
My
purpose
to offer here a
i.

is

few considerations

on two questions. written in Greek? difference between
period ?

Why
What

was the
are the

New

2.

Testament main points of

this

Greek and

that of the classical

Palestine, but that in

Every one knows that Greek was not a native of some way this exotic plant found
the organ of the
this

root there, and, to the exclusion of the native language,

became
then did

everlasting Gospel.

How

occur

?

It will first be necessary to understand something about the languages which were used in the countries to the east from the Mediterranean, prior to and con-

temporary with the advent of the Greek. All of this part of Asia, including the countries from Assyria on the north to Arabia on the south, had one separate and the Semitic. distinct family or branch of languages,

Of

this

primitive Semitic nothing
rises,

is

left

us.

Long

before the curtain of history

the early language

had assumed marked grammatical and lexigraphical
peculiarities

among the various peoples. Accordingly we know nothing of the parent speech except through

Xll

INTRODUCTION.

the tongues of these early nations.

The

Assyrians

(whose language is known from cuneiform inscriptions) and the Aramaeans, who comprised a large part of the population of Assyria and Babylon and to whose language, the Aramaic, we shall refer later, represented the most northern group of the Semitic. South of these we find the Hebrews of Canaan, in

whose language the most considerable portion of the Old Testament was written, and akin to them the Phoenicians, whose language is known to us imperfectly and
through inscriptions only.
Further south the Arabic

and Ethiopic make up what

is sometimes termed the South Semitic. Of these three groups, the North, the Middle, and the South Semitic, we shall confine our considerations to the first two ; for here it is that we have to look for the language of the Jews. Their

Hebrew was early exposed to the dialects of the surrounding tribes and especially open to Aramaic influIndeed as early as 700 B.C. ences on the north. we read that the messengers of the king Hezekiah
requested the ambassador of the king of Assyria to speak to them in Aramaic, "for we understand //" The Jews would not long retain (ii. Kings 18 :26).
their language in
its

early purity beside that of another

people who, as a conquering nation, were continually insinuating themselves into their hfe and politics. The result was that long before the breaking up of the Jewish kingdom in 586 B.C., the Hebrew had departed During the considerably from its original integrity.
long years of captivity in Babylon and throughout the Babylonian empire, the Aramaic, which was the official

INTRODUCTION.

Xlil

quite as

language of the Babylonian court, must have become much a part of the Hebrews as their native

tongue.

The books

of the Old Testament written after

the exile, Ezra and Daniel, are

known

as the

Aramaic

books, owing to the fact that considerable portions of them are in the Aramaic. We must not understand,

however, that

this large

admixture of Aramaic
It

is

due

wholly to the years of exile in Babylon.
this

has been

the accepted view since the time of Jerome that in

period the Israelites ceased to speak and write

Hebrew and turned to the use of the Aramaic only. Hence the term Chaldee, so often used to signify the
speech of the Jews, as though the language of the Chaldees the Aramaic was introduced into Pales-

tine

by the returned

exiles,

and

that subsequent to this

the
its

Hebrew died
place.

out and the Chaldee or Aramaic took
years scholars

In recent

have generally

parted with this view, and have attempted to show that the change was more gradual. This seems by all

means the most probable. A people retains its language long after its institutions and customs have ceased to exist. A conquering nation rarely succeeds in supplanting the language of the conquered. Slowly
and gradually do the forces work that bring in the elements of a new speech. The English, for example,
has

not after

five

centuries

entirely

displaced

the

Welsh ceased to be a very important factor in the literature and life of the United Kingdom, notwithstanding the fact that more than 500 years have passed since Edward built his castles on the Welsh frontier.
Celtic of Ireland, nor has

XIV

INTRODUCTION.

We must conclude therefore that for centuries the Aramaic gradually gained in popularity over the Hebrew, until the latter became at last the language of scholars and the learned few, while to the great mass of Jews the Aramaic was the only language known. This change must have occurred before the time of Christ for we find then that the common people no
;

longer understood the

Hebrew

of the Scriptures, but

used instead versions known as Targums, written in Aramaic. This then is the language of Palestine at ihe time of Christ, and the same which in the New

Testament

is

called

Hebrew.

A
this

great distinction, however, must be

made between

Jewish-Aramaic and the Hebrew. The literature of each is sacred, but of the Hebrew we have left us the scant remains of the Old Testament only, while the former has extant a vast literature of the Talmud, Targums, and interpretative works, and has lived on in a more or less changed condition till the present time, and forms the basis of the language much used by the

Jews to-day throughout the world. At the close of the fourth century

B.C.,

Alexander of

Macedon
the

crossed the historic Hellespont, overturned

Persian empire at Arbela, destroyed the famou§

city of ancient Tyre, overran all western Asia,

even

crossing into Egypt, where he founded the world's

new
It
is

metropolis bearing his

own name (332
this

B.C.).

conquering of the world. By no means the least important of the many that might be described was the spread of Greek This noble language letters and Greek civilization.

hard to measure the results of

INTRODUCTION.

XV

of ancient Hellas, so rich and beautiful, so full of power and sweetness, was destined to work far greater results in the minds and hearts of men than the brief rule of Alexander and his successors. They soon passed away, and the Greek kingdom in Asia ceased but the Greek language which came with to exist them still remained and spread with great rapidity
;

throughout
Semitic
of

this

whole

territory,

revealing

to

these

races

a

new world of beauty and power.
art

fell under the conquering hand and Greek letters took captive her captor. Rome was then the world, while through all iier borders the language of Greece became the speech of trade and intercourse. Greek was even the language of the Roman court, and Roman boys were

Although Greece soon

Rome, Greek

taught their

Homer

along with their native Vergil.
to-day.

The wide
with
little

use of Greek at that period can be best
It

compared with the English of
was known

may be

said

hesitancy that, at the time of Christ, Greek
in all parts of the

Roman

world.
to

What

more

fitting

language than
?

this in

which

send forth

the Gospel of peace

In Palestine there was of course a Greek population

which existed alongside of the Jewish, and which became more numerous and distinct with the spread of Roman civilization. Of these two languages, Greek and Aramaic, we must suppose that a considerable part of the population knew enough for conversation
at least.
It is

necessary to turn only to Alsace-Lorraine
to

with

its

French and German, or
to find in

Wales with

its

Welsh

and English,

modern times such a

fusion of

XVI

INTRODUCTION.

two tongues as must have existed in Palestine at the beginning of our era. The question as to whether Christ and his disciples knew and spoke Greek has been one that has long been debated. Some of the most illustrious of modern It is not for critics have been found on either side.

me

to enter

It is

upon it here, but simply to state my more than probable, from what has been

belief.

stated

in regard to the

two languages of Palestine at this period, that Greek, as well as Aramaic, must have fallen upon the ears of our Lord and his first followers from

boyhood, and that all of them grew up two languages. A few examples of this native speech are left us ; Mark 5:41 and Mark 7 34 may be referred to. Instances when we may conclude that Greek was used by Christ are, Mark 7:26, 27, and John 12:23. Matthew, from his duty as a tax-collector, would have required both languages, while Luke, the most cultured of the evangeThere lists, exhibits marked power in his use of Greek. was but one way of reaching " all nations " and sending to them the new message. There never could have, been any doubt in the mind of Luke, Mark, or John regarding the language they should employ in writing Matthew their histories of our Lord's life and works. appears to have written first in the Aramaic, but no
their earliest
in continual association with
:

doubt followed

this

immediately with a Greek version.

A

parallel

to

this

may be observed

in

the case of
his

the historian Josephus (a.d. 38-103),
history of the

who wrote

afterwards in

Jews first in Hebrew (Aramaic), and Greek. It is not necessary to note

INTRODUCTION.

XVU

concerning Paul that " all who are at Rome " and the " church at Corinth " and " the churches throughout Asia " could have been addressed in no language but
the Greek,

A

considerable portion of the population at Alex-

andria was Jews, for

whom
and

the

Greek had displaced
B.C.

their native Aramaic,

as early as 275

they

had so
ment.

far forgotten the

tongue of their fathers that
Alexandria by Jewish-Greeks,

they required a Greek translation of the Old Testa-

This was

made

at

and
the

is

the Jews scattered throughout the Cappadocia, Cyprus, Phrygia, Rhodes, Greece, and Rome the Septuagint became the Bible. So general was its use even in Palestine that the evangelists quote quite as frequently from the Greek version Paul, himself a Hebrew and as from the Hebrew. reared according to the strictest sect of the Pharisees,

known as LXX. For
in

the Septuagint or the translation of

world

often agrees

more nearly with
fall

the Septuagint

when he

quotes from the Old Testament.
After the

of Jerusalem the Jewish population of

Rome,

Alexandria, Antioch, and other seaport towns,

rapidly increased.

Then, as now, the Jews were a commercial people Greek was the one language of commercial intercourse. Thus we see this wonderful
;

language served as a

Jew and

common bond to hold together Greek and Roman. Then it was that men were for the first time united by one speech and made, so to speak, into one family. With the overturning of old, worn-out kingdoms, and the breaking down of ancient myth and fable of the pagan world,
Gentile,

XVUl
a

INTRODUCTION.
soil

new

was prepared ready

for

new

seed,

— the

Gospel of
the

love.

we come to consider the characteristics of Greek of the New Testament. Does it differ very widely from classical Greek? To this the answer is "yes," and we may well rejoice that it does. Had the language as used by Plato and Demosthenes become
Secondly,
the organ of the
ferent

Imagine the result if the simple grace of our English Bible were to be replaced by the swelling periods of Milton or Bacon. A far simpler language was and is needed by the lowly,
effect
!

new message would have been the

to the world,

how

dif-

and
the

this we shall see the later Greek to be. The language of the Macedonian Greeks,

same

as that carried into Asia

\vhich was by Alexander, was

same as that which Plato, Sophocles, and Demosthenes had used. From this wide diffusion, however, many changes were effected in the grammatical structure of the language, and especially in the Much of the rigidness which had characvocabulary. terized it in the hands of the great Athenian writers was cast aside. The language was popularized, so to speak. This new form of the Greek was called Hellenistic Greek, and the people who learned and used We have had occasion it were known as Hellenists. already to refer to the Hellenistic Jews in Alexandria and other cities.
essentially the

In Palestine, however, as well as in the other Semitic countries, this Hellenistic Greek was greatly Hebrew, Aramaic, corrupted by the native tongue.

and Syriac words were being continually introduced

INTRODUCTION.
into the Greek.

XIX

To

a large
it

number of people who
to nothing other

would use the Greek,
the native idiom.

would amount

than a translation of their native tongue, together wi*h

Their thinking was

all

in

Aramaic,

while their words were in Greek.

The

hterature of the

Hebrew and Aramaic was entirely of a religious nature. The religious fervour of the Jews gave a strong bent to
was the language of the kingdom of God and the coming of the Messiah. The words in common, every-day use were the same as those in which had been cast the revelation of God to his chosen people. Even at an early day this must have given a deep hitherto a pagan rehgious colouring to the Greek language. The translation, however, of the Old Testament did most to fix the idiom and form of the Greek for the expression of religious ideas. Then it was that Greek meant something to the Jews beyond a convenient means of intercourse for commercial life. For two centuries and a half this Greek Bible worked into the hearts and minds of the dispersed Jews, and the words that before in pagan Greece and Rome had meant little beyond the mortal and perishable of this fired with the flame world, took on a new meaning of the sacred Hebrew.
the tone of their language.
It

human

heart longing for the

When we come

to the language of the

New

Testa-

ment, we have crossed a wondrous gulf. To quote from the words of the celebrated Dr. Schaff: "The language of the apostles and evangelists is baptized
with the
spirit

and

fire

of Christianity, and receives a

character altogether peculiar and distinct from secular

XX
Greek.
.
.

INTRODUCTION.

enough

to

The Greek was flexible and admit of a transformation under the
.

elastic

inspir-

ing influences of revealed truth.

It

furnished the flesh

and blood
in

for the incarnation of divine ideas.

Words
popular
spiritual

common
;

use

among

the classics, or in

intercourse,
significance

were

clothed

with

a

deeper

they were transplanted from a lower to

a higher sphere, from mythology to revelation, from the order of nature to the order of grace, from the

realm of sense to the realm of
while to note the

faith."

It is

worth

word " transformation

" in the above.

Here

is

the key to the whole question.

How
may be

rich this

seen by comparing the New Testament and the classical sense of such words as love, faith, prophet, sin, glory, peace,
joy, niercy.

baptism of the pagan words has been

very considerably in

Testament Greek diff'ers and indeed in one and the same writer we can observe two extremes. Luke, for example, in the first four verses of his gospel furnishes a specimen of as pure and elegant Greek as may be found on the page of any classical author.
purity of the
diff"erent authors,

The

New

Immediately, however, he drops off into the vernacular, as

though aware that he

is

addressing the

many

and not the few. In considerable portions of his gospel and the Acts are to be found the harshest
Hebraisms.
the

This

is

especially noticeable

when he

quotes from the Old Testament.

In

all

the writers of

New Testament,

the

Hebrew

of the Old Testament

quotation appears distinctly through the thin veiling
of the Greek.

INTRODUCTION.

XXI

Of the four evangelists Luke was the best educated, and therefore used the purest Greek. Matthew may Concerning John, be placed next, with Mark last.
there
is

great difference of opinion.

declare his gospel the most thoroughly
four.
It is said to

Some scholars Hebrew of the

dress.

On

the other hand, there are those

have a Hebrew body with a Greek who main-

tain for

him the purest Greek.
fall

The

fact

is,

his short

sentences would

naturally into the idiom of almost

any language.

Paul's

Greek

exhibits

nearly every
it

variety of classic

elegance.

However,

does not

come

within the scope of this article to give the pecu-

liarities

of the individual authors.

It is

necessary to speak more definitely as regards

Greek of the Testament and, that of the period of classical Greek, which we may consider to have closed with i. The vocabulary of the Aristotle (b.c. 384-322). New Testament furnishes nearly 900 words that are not found in the classical writers. Many of these occur in subsequent authors, as Polybius and Plutarch and in the Septuagint. 2. Compound words are especially common. Rare combinations are used. The etymology always reveals the force of the expresthe linguistic differences between the

New

sion. 3. What is called the doctrinal sense of certain words, as love, hope, faith, introduces a new element quite distinct from anything earlier.

Grammatically, very wide changes from the classical

Greek may be noted,
appeared
sion in

i.

The

dual

number has

dis-

- {;})

entirely.

2.

Adjectives of the third declen-

and

-vs {^-us) are especially rare.

Of

XXll

INTRODUCTION.

adjectives in

-

{-es) there are
3.

but two or three comadjectives has

mon

examples.

The comparison of

been simpHfied, and is usually done by the use of an adverb, and the positive degree, except in the case
of a few adjectives of irregular comparison.

In the verb a great breaking away from classical

usage
rare.

is

seen.

i.

The

optative

mood

is

comparatively

and

is

does not occur at all in the writings of John, found in the epistles and the Acts more than in
It

the gospels.

Except

in

the optative of wis/t or desire,

the subjunctive regularly takes the place of this mood.
2.

In the uses of the voice and tense the changes are In the subjunctive rarely any tense
aorist.
It

not so marked.

occurs aside from the present and the

may be

observed that in the verbs those tend to break down into the ending in

in

verbs in
in other

-

-

- {-mi)

3.

{-idso)
4.

are

much more common
in

Greek.

The forms

-

(-), while than (-mi) in the

present system are comparatively rare.

Hardly ever

does the present subjunctive of these verbs occur,
while the second aorist system has few forms in this

mood.

The

syntax

is

too difficult a question to discuss here,
shall

and so but few points
characteristic of

be presented,

i.

Especially

New Testament Greek

are the various
is

uses of Lva {hi)ia), which in classical Greek
for the

confined

most part
uses
in

to the introduction of 7?;/ iz/ clauses.

Of

this

conjunction there are no less than six wellthe

defined
classical

New

Testament.

Greek the conjunction

{hoste)

with either the indicative or infinitive to

While in is used denote result,
2.

INTRODUCTION.

XXUl

and with nearly equal frequency
3.

in

both constructions,

the indicative occurs but twice in the

New

Testament.

The

participle

still

continues a fundamental form

of construction, but shows signs of weakening in such
instances as John
11
:

i

and Luke
most

15

:

i,

where the
Luke.

simple imperfect of the verb would have been expected.

This form of expression

is

common

in

The

prepositions present a great variety of uses not

inherent in the Greek word, thus betraying
influence.

Hebrew

These are only a few of the most marked peculiarities

of the language of the

New
it

Testament, but

perhaps enough to show that

is

much weakened

and simplified as compared with classical Greek. If one adds to the grammatical peculiarities here mentioned the strong colouring in idiom and vocabulary that arises from the Hebrew, a general notion may be formed as to the structure of this language. To know thoroughly the real force and value of this language, a wide familiarity with Semitic especially Hebrew and Aramaic is indispensable. Not only this, but the investigator must know Latin, of the influence of which I have taken no notice, as well as Greek from its earliest beginning in Homer. Such

preparation as this few are able to acquire.

A student
facility

may, however,
handling the

gain

a

very

satisfactory

in

Testament language, who knows nothing of any language except his own. Careful, assiduous labour for a few months will put the average student in control of the essentials, and this slight acquaintance will be found to repay one a thousand-

New

XXIV
fold.

INTRODUCTION,

No

one can ever

attain to the ability of reading

and understanding the grand simplicity and power of John's brief sentences, ringing as they do with the
imperishable grandeur of the Greek, without seeing

an entirely new power in the Word. Any translation must ever fall far short of rendering the grace and As a rose when plucked loses force of the Greek. soon blown, so its sweetness and the fragrance is
perishes
in

translation

that

fleeting,

indescribable
lan-

something that makes
guages.

Greek the noblest of

The

following

list

of books

is

recommended

as rep-

resenting perhaps the most helpful works for students Those marked * are of the New Testament Greek.
particularly valuable for the beginner.

For assistance
ley,

in

making up

this hst the

author has
has very

to express his indebtedness to Professor C. F. Brad-

D.D., Garrett Biblical Institute.

He

kindly given

me

the benefit of his wide knowledge

of

New

Testament bibliography.

Text.

*The New Testament

in

the

Original

Greek

(School Edition). Westcott and Hort. Macmillau & Co., New York, 1893. $1.25. This edition is also published with a lexicon, by the

same publishers.

$1.90.

Lexicon. *Thayer's Grimm's Wilke, Greek -English Lexicon of the New Testament, "Corrected EdiHarper & Brothers, New York, 1889. tion."

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

XXV

Grammar.

*Winer's Grammar of New Testament Greek (Ninth English Edition). Trans, by Moulton. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1882. $3.60.
*Bruder's Concordance of All the

Concordance.
in

Words

the

Greek

New Testament
25

(Fourth

Edition).
will

Leipzig, 1888.

M.

A

new

edition of this

monumental work, which
is

include the readings of Westcott and Hort,

to be

published.
Bagster's Englishman's Greek Concordance of the

New

£\, is. *Bradley and Horswell's New Testament Word Lists. Greek-English. Series L and Garrett Biblical

Testament.

London, 1883.

.

Institute,

Evanston,

111.

35 cents each.
in

*Burton's Syntax of the

Moods and Tenses

New

Testa-

Greek. Chicago Edition). $1.50.

ment

University Press

(Second

*Buttman's Grammar of the New Testament. Trans, by Thayer. W. F. Draper, Andover, Mass. $2.75.
Hatch's

New

Essays on Biblical Greek. York. $2.75.

Macmillan

&

Co.,

Robinson's Greek
Riddle.
$2.00.

Harmony

of the Gospels.

Houghton,

Mifflin

&

Co.,

Ed. by M. B. Boston, 1885.

*Schaff's

Companion

to the

Version (Fourth Edition). York, 1892. $2.75.

Greek Testament and English Harper & Brothers, New

Simcox's (W.H.) The Language of the New Testament. Thomas Whitaker, New York, 75 cents. By the same author, The Writers of the New Testament.

Same
York.

publishers and price.

Terry's Biblical Herrneneutics.
$4.00.

Hunt and Eaton, New

XXVI

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

*Thayer's Books and their Use, A Lecture, to which is added a Hst of books for students of the New Testament Greek. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.
75 cents.

An
Trench's

exceedingly helpful

little

volume.

Synonyms

of the

Edition).

Macmillan

New Testament (Eleventh & Co., New York, 1890. $3.50.

*Warfield's
the

An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of New Testament. Whitaker, New York. 75 cents.
Macmillan

Westcott's Introduction to the Study of the Four Gospels
Co.,

(Seventh Edition, American Edition). New York. $2.25.

&

*Westcott and Hort's The New Testament in the Original Greek. 2 vols. Harper & Brothers, New York. Vol. I. includes the text. Vol. II. has an Introduction to Textual Criticism and an Appendix. Price per vol. $2.00. Complete $3.50.

SUGGESTIONS TO THE STUDENT.

1.

All vocabularies

must be thoroughly mastered. Writfix

ing the words several times will greatly help to
the mind.
2.

them

in

Pronouncing the Greek aloud
acquisition of forms
{i.e.

is

helpful.

The

declensions and conju-

gations) must keep pace with the matter of a vocabulary.
3.

It is

recommended

that at least thirty lessons be masis

tered before the reading of the Greek text
4.

attempted.

Care should be taken in learning points of syntax

that occur in the lessons.
5.

When

the text

is

finally

begun, the table of irregular

verbs (§ 88) should be committed to memory. Also the verb forms in §§ 90-110 should be carefully studied.
6.

When

the Greek Testament

is

taken up, the syntax

in Part III.

may be

studied to best advantage.
fail

At no time
II.

should the student
7.

to

keep up the review of Part

Finally,

learn words, words, words.
will

Only steady

application
results.

and continual review

bring satisfactory

PART

— LESSONS;

TEXT

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT
LESSON

GREEK.

I.

, (,
1.
a.

I hear. / know.

4', I have.
Each
the

, , ,

VOCABULARY.

/ wish, will. I speak.
I take.

',

•iroi€«,

,

say.

I believe. I do, make.
in

New

occurs more than 200 times of these Testament, and some of them 1500 times.

2.

Notes on the Vocabulary.

= in a-kou-5, / hear; cf. ACOUSTIC, a. = hard c, as in can; ov is a diphthong comfather; (EngHsh and a) and pronounced like and posed of = <? in note. The mark (') over the initial ou in group; vowel of this word is called the breathing. Note the turn from right to left. This is called the smooth breathing, and it does not affect the sound of the vowel. The mark is the acute accent. (') over the equals The ending

--,

-

/in English.
b.
'yL

get;

gi-no-sko, / know, machine; = a=y. accent and on the same syllable as in
i

--,
in

=i

;

'.

y — hard g, as in Observe the same

2
c.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW

TEST.\MENT GREEK.

e-ch5, / have. € = e in lei ; c/i, of which no equivalent sound in English. It is found in the German oiic/t. Cf. chasm pronounced in a harsh guttural tone. The accent and breathing, when they occur on the same syllable, are written together, as here. All words beginning with a vowel have a breathing mark.

€-,
is

=

there

--, what \--,
e.

d.

€-, the-15, / wi'/l or /
la-le-5,

ivt'sh.

= th =

in thin

;

= /.

/

speak.

The
/a

accent

occurs on

syllable of the verb so far?
\'am-ha.-no,

/.
g.

/ iake.
believe.

;;;

;

= >.
r

ke-yw, le-go, /say.

h.

76-€-,
Cf.

-steu-o,
in
is

/

n—p\

= t\

= the
here.
/.

diphthong eu

on a diphthong,

TTOL-i-w, poi-e -,

.

feud.
placed

When
wake

the accent comes

it

over the second vowel, as
;

/

do, or

cf. oil.

POET, POETRY,

oi is

a diphthong pronounced like oi in

3. a.

Topics for study.
The vowels
v, . The The consonants e — ih,K = k,k = l,^ = w, v = ;i, =p,

in this lesson are a,
:

e, i, o,

following diphthongs occur
are
:

ov, ev, oi.

= Sf
b.

= , y =£-, = I, x = ch.

In the matter of the accent of verbs the following
i.

must be noted,
goes back as
last syllable

The

accent

far as possible

is always recessive, i.e. it from the last syllable. 2. The

the last syllable

determines the position of the accent. 3. If is long, the accent always occurs on the next to the last syllable the penull ; otherwise on the third syllable the antepenult. 4. A syllable is long if it has a long vowel or a diphthong in it.

4.

In English

we

have' the personal pronouns

written generally before the verb and always

PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE.

3

separate from the verb.
trary,

In Greek, on the -con~
often

the

pronouns are

integral part of the verb, forming

found as an what is called

Cf. in the verbs given In the case of most verbs the ending of the I per. sing. pres. ind. act. is dropped, and the preceding vowel is lengthened in com-

the />ersoua/ endings.
above.

-

-

pensation.
Xey-0 -, of

.-.

the primary form of
is
:

variable vowel,

= personal
LESSON

--

is

=

Stem,

=

ending.

II.

5.

Present Indicative Active.
Swg.
Phir.
I.

1.

6-,

/j-izy.

€--.€, W^
\i-\i-i-Ti.,

Jizy.

2.

\i-i-i\.%,^

you

say.

2.
it

3.

'-, he, she,

or

says.

3.

'--, they say.

ye say.

the indicative

Observe from the translation appended that mood has in Greek the same
«as
in Aeyct? is a

declarative force as in English.
a.

diphthong and equals

ei in height.

6. Note theme
2.

A
1 s

-

in the

conjugation of appears unchanged
this
in the

:

1.

The
The

throughout.
3.

vowel occurs after
at the close of a word, but

theme.

middle of a word.

4

ESSENTIALS OF
is

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
%), called variable vowel is

vowel

or

e

(often written
4.

the
fol-

variable vowel.

The

lowed by an ending, as -re, which is called the personal ending.

-,

in

the plur.,

How many
7.

distinct parts has

&--^
I.

See

4.
?

The
^
I.

personal endings of the active voice,
tenses, are seen in the following
:

primary
Sing.

-,

/.

Flur.
she,
it.

-€,
-T€,

we.
they.

2. 3•

-s, i/iou.

- (),

2.
/it',

ye.

3-

--,

8.

ing

The variable vowel and the may be seen in the following

personal end:

€€-<ri


€-€

before
9.

Note that occurs before and , e occurring in

, , and ,
all
:

0-<

i.e.

other places.

Certain changes take place in these primi-

tive forms,

which give the following
-£,
it.

-«, /.
-£is, tho7i.
-€i,

-£, we.
ye.
-ovo-i, they.

he, she,

These fonns must be absolutely mastered.
1

See

§
is

52

for the

reference

made to

the grammar, a section

meaning of the word primary. (Where mark [§] precedes the

figure, otherwise the reference is to the first part,

— the lessons.)

:

PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE.
10.

5

, ,^, ,, ^,, ^ . .^ ,
I.

EXERCISES.

Translate into English

:

I.

\€,
4•

yere.
6.

^.,
I

.

,.
3•

OeXere.

2.

/^, €<;,

^eXei?,

11.
I.

Translate into Greek
take,

you wish, they know.
say.
3.

2.

I

have,

ye say, they have, we
hears,

You

take, he

we
6.

have.
5.

4.

You

believe,

they hear.
do.^

We

know, they know, wish, we speak,^ ye do.

We

ye believe, I say, they

Let the student analyze each verb form carefully, pointing out the theme, variable vowel, and the personal ending. Apply also the principles of accent given in 3, >.
1 It is

recommended

that the teacher allow the matter of
till

contract verbs to pass unnoticed,

the principles of contrac-

tion appear gradually in the lessons.

No harm
The

need

arise

from

the student's writing uncontracted forms.

rence of these verbs in

-

frequent occur-

explains their appearance here.

. .

6

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW

TESTAAIENT GREEK.

LESSON

III.

The Second or 0-Declension.
11.
apTos, bread.

vocabulary.

05,

•9, . ,

THRONE.

stone.,

8,

world, COSMIC. -LYXWOgraphy word., LOGIC.
eco'^iO'SW.

, ?,
?,
Kvpios,

XP<5vos, time.,

€9, ANGEL.
'?, desert.

CHRONO/(?gy.

wa;/, ANTHROPO/i»^•

apostle.

9,

law,

death, THANATO^j/j.

crowd.

Lord.

Toiros, place,

Tocography

The student should learn thoroughly the meanings of the words in each vocabulary, pronouncing each v^rord aloud, so as to be sure to get the
proper accent.
lutely

The case

cjitiings are to be abso^

mastered.

Some

of

the words

in

this

vocabulary occur looo times in the tament.
a.
b.
is

New

Tes-

5.
In
V in

always true of when followed by , >/. or y^. = e, and is pronounced like the c. In
d.

? ',
§ 1.

ar-tos.

p

= ^;

o
is

= ovc\.on.
pronounced
like ng.

the

first

This
e in

they.

=

u.

There

is

no similar sound
e in key.

in

Eng-

lish.

See

The sound approaches
all

This includes

the vowels in Greek.

THE SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION.
It is

7

be observed i. All these nouns 12. end in -09. 2. All these nouns belong to the O-declension. They all have the aaite 3.
to
:

accent.
13.

All nouns in Greek

three declensions, §9 ^^ ^^<^ 1"^• is the second or O-declension
:

come under one of The following

Shtg.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

5,

Ace. Voc.

a word. \6-<{ov, of a word. to or for a word, \o-nov, a word (oh].). word.

,
£,

, , ,
\o^o)v,

Plnr.

words. of words. to or for words.

\6yov<i,

words

{oh].).

words.
is

a. The ending and lengthened to

t

in the dat. sing,

for -01.

is

,

{iota)

is

written underneath.

This
in the

is

called iota-subscript,

and can never be wanting

dat. sing, of this declension.

14.

Observe from the above that there are
:

five

cases in Greek

Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative. The nominative equals English nominative the genitive equals English possessive or the objective with of; the dative corresponds to the English indirect objective, to or for which anything is or is done ; the accusative is the English direct objective the vocative, which is rarely used, is the case of
; ;

address.

Cf. § 21.

8
15.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

In verbs

we noted

that the endings are

showing the person and number. So in nouns also the relation of nouns to each other, and to the other parts of the sentence, is denoted by the case endings. While in English we have to depend (for the most part)
especially important as

on prepositions such as to, for, by, in, at, on, of, etc., to express case relation, the Greek has this relation expressed by the endings of the
several cases.

(There are, of course, prepositions in Greek, but these case endings are always observed apart from the prepositions),
16. Observe that the accent on remains on the same syllable tJiroughont the declension. This is the fundamental principle of accent in nouns. The accent remains on the same syllable,

if possible.
17.
a.

Learn the declension of

When

the last syllable becomes long, as in the end-

ings

-, -ois, (3, d, 4), the accent cannot remain on the antepenult, but removes to the penult.
-,
-,
same
principle in verbs,
3, d.
is

-

,

§ 23.

Cf. the
b.

Final

01,

although a diphthong,

considered short

in determining the place of accent in the O-declension.
c.

The

accent of the nominative must be learned by

observation.

THE SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION.
18.
I.

9

yu.09

, . ^', . . ,^ .^ . ^.
I.

2.

., .,
Xoyot
y.

EXERCISES.

'.
8.

3•

4•

Xeyei.

5.

Xeyei \oyov.

6.

Xejei

Xoyov

ayyeXoL

TTiareoei.

g.

.

yLvoiaKeL.
II.
2. 3. 5.

II.

. Of a man, to a throne, words of men. Angels and men, to the world, of a desert. Death of apostles. He takes a stone. 4.

Words

of
7.

man

to a world.

6.

Ye

say to

a crowd.
10.

We

of (the) Lord.

have a place. 8. An angel 9. We hear law and believe.

He

has bread for apostles.

•lesson

IV.

The 0-Declension Concluded,
19.

vocabulary.
brother.

8€,09,

,
05.
'^

0€0s, God.

,
logy.

eye,

OPHTHALMO-

people.

vlos, son.

viKpos, deceased, ^Y.CKOlogy.

dSos,

heaven.

,

way.
servant.
is

The

acute accent ('), on a final syllable,

changed

to the

grave (^) when other words follow

in a sentence.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
little

«,

= </ a-dei-phos. ph phase. observe that the breathing occurs on the second vowel of the diphthong. c. The diphthong vt, as in is pronounced like wee. The breathing is always rough ('), i.e. the explosion of breath is so strong as to give an h sound, vi is, then,
20.
b.
(t•
;

, ,, (,
oIkos, house.

work.

,
v,

child.

boat.

Upov, temple.

irpoo-wirov, face.

garment.

SABBATH,

child.

>=

.

In

,

pronounced ^uJiee. d. Note the rough breathing on and tepov, hi-e-ron, ho-dos.

,

^,

hi-ma-ti-on,

e.

at as in Traihiov

ai in aisle.

the acute

There are two principal accents in Greek, (') and the circumflex ("). The acute can occur on any one of the last three syllables,
21.

while the circumflex can occur on one of the
last two.

22. Learn the declension of and note that in every gen. and (') is changed to a circumflex (").

',

son, § 23,

dat. the acute

Learn the declension of hovXo';, servant, and observe that the circumflex accent § occurs on a long syllable only, and when at the same time the last syllable is short. When the ultima becomes long, the (") changes to the (').
23.
23,

;

THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION.

II

24. Nouns of the 0-declension end in -o? masc. (rarely fern.) and -ov neut. The inflection of neuter nouns is the same as that of masculine nouns, except that the nom., ace, and voc. sing, end in -ov, and the same cases in the plur. end

in

-a.

Cf.

8,

£'^f^> b

^^•

All adjs. in Greek are declined, and agree gender, number, and case with the words they modify. The definite article ///i', 6, is an adj. and is declined e.£: 6 the servant TOO SovXov, of the servant ; the child
25.
in

, ^,
(0
I.

;

to the child;

of the words.

neut.

and

4-

'.
.
2.
^

. .9• . €\€€ . .^. \ . ^
26.
I.

)

Learn the masc. and

, 4, ,
2.
5•

the children;

of the article, § 24.

EXERCISES.

3-

''"

6.

e^et

7-

8.

.

9•

^^ (^) '''

<€€.
3.

. In

(eV)

the temple and in the boat.

To

the people and of the people.

The
as

Verbs of hearing may be followed by the genitive case,

the case of the direct object.

2

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

eyes of the servant. 4. For the work and for the garments. Ye hear the people.^ 6. The 5. apostle knows the law. 7. I speak to the servants, and they hear. 8. The Lord has a temple in Heaven. 9. We have the garments
for the

children.

10.

The son

of

God knows

the world.

LESSON
The Present
27.

V.

Passive Indicative.

, , , 8(,
iyairaia,

vocabulary.

I love. I throw.
see.

write, GRAPHzV.

a.

In

pronounced
28.

,
I.

/ teach, OlOACTic.
save, ^
is

, , , -, -,
pass,
I.

/ raise up. I judge. I send.
/send.

/ save.

a double consonant, ds, and

like

dz in adze.

The

passive voice, as in English, repre-

sents the subject as being acted upon.

The
it

personal endings of the passive distinguish

from the active. Following are the primary
Sing.
2.

endings
we.
they.

;

3.

-, (. -,
/.
-a-ai,

Piur.

-^,
-a-9(,

2. 3.
p.
1 1.

he.

-,

ye.

^

See footnote,

.

,

:

3

THE PRESENT PASSIVE
a.

INDICATIVE.

1

The

variable vowel
v,

%

is

found as in the active

Before and endings e is found.
voice.

occurs,

and before

all

other

29.

The

following

is

the conjugation of the

pres. pass. ind. of
Sing.
1.

\, I loose
i.

-0-,
\v-t\.,

am
he

loosed,

2. 3.

--,

you are

loosed.

2.

is loosed.

3.

--, we --,
Xv-t-v^i.,

Plur.

are loosed.
loosed.

ye are

they are loosed.
is

a.
is

Observe that the

2
t

per.

sing,

for
et.

dropped, and e and be found instead of «.
b.

form the diphthong

,
\

may

The same
at is

in

3, b.

principle of accent is to be noted as considered short in the personal endings,

hence the accent occurs on the antepenult.

.
3-

4•

iyeipouai,

.
8.

,,., , . , ,, . , '. . , , /. , .
30.
I.

,
I.

EXERCISES.

2.

.

7•

.

iv (in) iv

. ^

6.

(into)

9•

f

'

Xeyei

.
12.

11.

et9 et?

(on)
Temple.

. . -

^

14
II.

ESSENTIALS OF
I.

NEW TESTAMENT
is

GREEK.

He

sees and
3.

saved.

2.

You

believe

and are saved.
4.

We

judge and are judged.

They send and are sent. 5. He raises up the dead. 6. It is written in the laws. 7. We 8. The son of man is judged, see the brethren. 10. I speak 9. The Lord hears in the temple. and am heard, n. We are saved and are raised Ye take the bread. 12. up into Heaven. the Lord saves men. 13. They know that

{

have so far met in the vocabularies 52 words, which give more than 400 different forms by their inflection.

We

LESSON

VI.

Imperfect iNoiCATrvE Active.
31.

, , ,
,
',
.

VOCABULARY.
BAPTIZE.

leiid.

eat.

live.

',
of

,
',

;

caU.

dear witnesSj
about.

martyr.
a/ft

seek.

', r^MAIN.

For the tenses

the indicative

mood

see

§§ 50 and 52. The uses and meanings of the various tenses will be explained as we advance.
indicative represents an continued, accustime past, tomed, or repeated action eg. e^pa^ov, I was zuriting ; eXvov, I ivas loosing ; he was
32.

The

imperfect
in

act

-sjs,

going on

baptizing.

,

.

5

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE.

1

33. All active secondary tenses (§ 52) have the same personal endings, as follows
:

Sittg.

I.

-V
-S

Plur.

I.

-€
-T£

2.

2.

3.

none

3. -v

or -<rav

34.

The imperfect
Sing.
loosing.

indicative of
Plur.

:

1

€---, / was

«---, we were loosing.

2.

--6
35.

3.

-s, yo2i were loosing. £--£, he was loosing.

---, ye were loosing.
%

€---,

they were loosing.

Observe
This
is

:

i.

The
2.

variable vowel

as in

the present tense.
\v.
36.

The

e

before the stem

called augment.
dif-

The

secondary tenses, besides having

ferent endings from the primary, have also an
If i. augment. This augment is of two forms, the verb begins with a consonant, € is prefixed syllabic augment. 2. In the case of verbs beginning with a vowel, this vowel is lengthened to the corresponding long vowel (except gives temporal augment. In diphthongs made with the first vowel is lengthened, and Other diphthongs appears as iota subscript. do not ordinarily have the augment e.g. lead ; hear ; I was liearing ; I was leading : I tvas eating. eat ;

)—

,, , , ,
;

^,

6

1

ESSENTIALS OF
37.
I.

NEW TESTAMENT
EXERCISES.

.

,. .
I.

€\\,
vy^tp^'i•)

e/cpive^
3•

'^.

.
4•

. ^ .
ev
6.
8.

€€,
^

^?

, ^. .
GREEK.
2.
5•

'^^-

7•

'<^

g.

ev
2.

.

.

We

were hearing.
taking.

He was
4.
6.

be-

lieving.

3.
5.

They were

saying.

raising up.

Ye were beholding. 7. He was judging.
9.

You were They were

ing the bread.
of
II.

He

8. I was eatwas leading the sons

men.

10.

We

saw the face

of the

Lord.
of

The God of Heaven saves the children men. 12. Ye were remaining in the law.

LESSON VIL
Imperfect Indicative Passive.

, , ,
38.

vocabulary.
/or.
follow.

€, ask

beget.

, -, ,
,

see, observe,

theory.

preach, annoHfice.
PLKfily.

«, ^^ 6
^

glorify.

--, ,
//.

persuade.

(a question),

is

an exception

to the principle stated in 36, 2,

the syllabic augment,

eexov

is

contracted to

,

and takes

§ 6, y.

:

:

7

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE PASSIVE.
a.

1

In

^^,
,

glorify, occurs the
lilce

double consonant

f,

from

+

and pronounced

ks in ricks.

39.

The

personal endings in the secondary

tenses of the indicative passive are
Sing.
I.

2.

of

Plur.

i.

2.

Plur.

3-

3• '^"^^

40.

The conjugation
Sing.

is

I.

2.

---, / was being --, were
t

loosed.

I.

---€
€--€--€-<

yoii

.

.

.

2.

3-

€---,

etc.

3•

a.

In the 2 per. sing,

changes to

between the two vowels, and

eo contracts to

,

-,

« drops

§ 5, 7.

Review the present and imperfect
active and passive of

indicative

\,

§ 56.

41.

The

personal endings of the verb give us

the following
a.
b.
c.

The person of the verb. The number of the verb. The tense, whether primary
The voice of the verb. The mood to some extent,

or secondary,

and by

this

whether past or not.
as

d.
e.

we

shall see later on.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

42. The changes in the endings that are to be particularly noted are
:

-£(r
-€<ri

ACTIVE.

PASSIVE.
-c(rai
-€<ro

= = =

-CIS
-£l

=

=

-

-€i

or

-

-ov<ri

-owcri

The importance of mastering the personal endings of the verb, and, indeed, the whole matter of the verb, cannot well be overestimated. It is safe to say that the student who has thoroughly learned the detail of the verb given thus far has mastered the greater part of the difficulty in the regular verb, and has gone far towards gaining a reading knowledge of the New Testament.
The
student should
different forms.

43.

.
5•
1

I.

I.

rj'yero

3•

ihihaaKeTO iv

'

.^

,€. . . ^.. .
familiar with

now be

more than 800

EXERCISES.
2.

rj'ye.

iepS.

4.

8.

6

<;

6.

7•

^^
^'

.

9•

neuter plural nom. takes a verb in the singular in Greek.

.

9
A- DECLENSION.
2.
1

FIRST
II.
I.

OR

We

believed and were saved.
3.

Ye

were men.
5.

I

was preaching to the 4. The son of man was being glorified. was judging and I was being judged.
glorified.

He

6.

The world trusted in () the Lord. 7. The 8. We persuade angel of Heaven was heard. the sons of men. 9. The law was taught in the 10. The work of man is judged. temple.

LESSON

VIII.

First or A-Declension.

, ,
44.

vocabulary.

, , ,
, , , ,
a.
like

, , , ,
ps

, beginning, ARCHAIC, , sC7-ipttire, luritings.
life,

«,
«-,

commandment. ZOOLOGY. , PARABLE. , SYNAGOGUE.
PHO^ograph.
vsYcnology

,
, -,

, church clesiastical. \, power.
,
heart
;

;

cf.

EC-

cf.

CAR-

DIAC.
house.

6'•€, \, promise.
,
zuisdom,

voice,
soul,

soph-

,

sin.

istry.

Most of these nouns oc ur as times in the New Testament.
in
in lips.

many

as

100

soul, is a double consonant, pronounced This now gives us all the letters in Greek. Learn the classification of consonants in § 2. d. Observe the gender of the nouns in the vocabulary. In what letters do the nouns end ? Cf. §§ 18 and 19.

,

;

20
.45.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

The
will

following

paradigms of

and

serve as models for the remaining

nouns

of this

form

:

,Stem
Sing.

Aegi)iiiing.

((, wisdom.
Stem
Sing.

in

Plur.

N. V. G.
D.
apxii

apxaC

A.
46.

« « ( $ (
<(

-(
,

Plur.

Observe: . The stem ends
2.

hence

the term A-declension.
are
in

The

case endings

somewhat

similar to those already learned
:

{a) the dat. sing, must the O-declension have iota-subscript ; {b) the ace. sing, ends in -v;
(c)

the gen. plur. in

-

;

(d) -ol of the

second

=

the

and -oi? of the second -at? of That nouns having - in the nominative retain - throughout the sing., and nouns with La in the nominative retain the a in all
-at of

the

first,
3.

=

first.

cases of the snig.
47.
last
e.g.

Nouns

that have the acute accent on the
jiltima)

], .

syllable (the

are called oxytones
:

Rule

of accent

/

oxytones of

the first and second declension have the circumflex accent in all genitives and datives.

FIRST

OR A-DECLENSION.
(§ 24),

21

\eyei

Xoc

. ^ . . €\ ^ ..^. . . . 49. EXERCISES.
I.
I.

48. Learn the fern, of the art.^ compare this with the case endings

of

.

and

al

2.

';.

3•

V

4•

-] .

5•

6.

ev

6 \oyo<;
8.

"J.

9•

Oi

eTTayjeXiav

€V

€^
6

.
I

II.

€€.

12.

»;

ev

.
men.
5.

. In the synagogue.
3.

2.

In the heart of
is

The

hear a voice. 4. The soul parable was spoken in the
life

saved.

temple.
7.

6.

He

sent the bread of

to

men.
is

The

church

has

a parable in

power. 8. They were the synagogue. 9. It
10.

speaking
written

in the scriptures.

the Lord.
world.
12.

have a promise of 11. Men preached wisdom to the In the beginning we heard the

We

word.
1

The forms

(^irpo-

pronounced as part of the following word. 2 epr/Aios is a fern, noun in -05.

,

of the article

, ,

,

ai,

are called proclitics

lean forward'), since they have no accent, and are

22

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

LESSON

IX.

A-Declension Continued.

, ,
50.

VOCABULARY.
love.

€,, ,

,

truth.

£, ,, ,',

peace.

,, <0•,

,

kingdom.

•(, ,

earth, G'E/)logy.

, 8,, , ,,
Most
of

tongue, GLOSSAr/.
righteousness.

, ?,
Sing.

day, i'/HEMERAL.
sea.

€, ,,

head.
disciple.

,

PROPHET.

glory.

,,
New

*^, , joy.
lOO

ho2ir.

these nouns occur more than

times in the
51.

Testament.

The

following paradigms furnish models
of this declension
:

for other

,

nouns

,

glory.

Stem
Sing.

|Plur.

. V.

? . ? -, .$ . .
G. D.

,,
Stem

prophet.

Plur.

V. G.

.
G.
D.

D

52.

Learn

and


V.

] § 22.

. V.

.

G. D.

FIRST
53.

OR A-DECLENSION.

23

Observe: i. When e, i, or precedes a nom. sing., a is retained throughout the and when other letters precede a, as in sing. the a is changed in the gen. and dat. sing, 2. -ai of the ncm. piur., as in the endings to 77. of the verb, is considered short in determining the accent.
of the
;

^,

end

of the first declension masculine nouns, in -r?;? or The gen. of masc. nouns is as in the -a<i. O-declension. Masc. nouns in have a in the
54.
in a, «, or
;

Feminine nouns

,

-^

voc. sing.
a.

,,
is

earth,

is

contracted from yea, §

6, 6.

The

circumflex

found throughout.

55.

The

following table shows the case end:

ings of the A-declension
Fein. Sing.

Masc. Sing.

N.V. d

or

d

.

G. d-s or -S D. d-i or -(, A. d-v or d-v

.

-

-5

G. D. A. V. d
Pliir.

-= - oi-s

-S

-

or

Masc. and Fern
N. v. G. D.

-

-is

for

(

.

d-s for a-vs

:

24
56.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
all

Observe that

nouns have the same
If

plural in the first declension.

be substituted

for a in this table of endings, the first declension
will

be seen to

differ but little

from the second.

57.

The following are the principles of noininal
There are three kinds of accent the acute (" ), and the grave ('). The acute can occur on any one of the
:

accent
1.

('),
2.

the circumflex

last three syllables

;

the circumflex on either of
last.

the last two

;

the grave on the

:
3.

acute can stand on a syllable either or short ; the circumflex can occur on a
;

The

long syllable only i.e. a syllable in which there is a long vowel or a diphthong. The accent in the nominative must be 4. learned by observation. The accent tends to remain on the same 5. syllable on which it occurs in the nominative. 6. When the ultima is sJiort,
a.
b.

The The
;

antepenult
penult
if

if accented has the acute. accented has the acute, unless

it

be

long
c.

in this case the circumflex

The

ultima

if

must occur. accented must have the acute.
is

7.

When
The The The

the ultima

long,

a.
b.
c.

penult

antepenult cannot be accented. if accented must have the acute. ultima may have either the acute or the

cir-

cumflex.

FIRST

OR A-DECLENSION.
first

25

Nouns
in the
fore,

of

the

and second declensions

include about seventy-five per cent of the nouns

Testament. The importance, theremastering the vocabularies and forms thus far given can be easily appreciated.
of
58.

New

EXERCISES.
I.

^ }
I.

. ^ 7\<. . ^.
}?
4•
ap^fj'i.
3•

'^
5•

ajaTryv.
0^'

2.

\.

. We remain in the truth. 2. The hour announced. 3. Ye have joy in your^ hearts. We see the beginning of righteousness. 4. 6. Joy and 5. The way, the truth, and the life. peace, love and glory. 7. They were remaining in the synagogue. 8. They speak in parables. 10. The king9. It is taught in the Scriptures. dom of God and his ^ righteousness.
is
1

. ?
ev
8.
Tol<i

ayyiXou

y.

}

.
12.

. -^ .
iv

eyov-

6.

eXeye
ivTO^'^

eypae

ev

II. ev

'

y

ev

,
9•

.

Movable

v,

for

which see

2

The

dative often follows

the objective case with in.
*

See lexicon,

,
§ 11.

where our believe requires ^ Use the article,

/) om.

20

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

LESSON

X.

, ,
59.

Adjectives of the

Vowel Declensions.

vocabulary.
beloved.

§,
«

08, eternal;
last.

other.

05, good.
cf.

,
$,

enil.

AEON.

^tVos, middle.
only, alone,

rig/iteous.

MONO-

iKeivos, that one.

theism.
ovtos, this one.
ttio-tos, faitJtful.

erepos, another.

(?, 5,
60.

onc''s own.,

good, Learn the declension of small, little, § 25. and Observe that the masc. and neut. are in the second declension, while the fem. is in the first

one s

,

,, ,
IDIOM.
first.
l

8,

declension.
61.

Note that when

or

precedes the

vowel of the stem, as in in the nom. sing. fem. has

'?

that one, are tJiis one, and 62. demonstrative pronouns, but are declined for the most part as adjectives in -o<?.
a.

,

,

and

Cf. 53,

,
i.

final

the

refers to

— at a distance.

or present, while

?

somebody or something near at hand refers to that which is more remote

ADJECTIVES OF THE VOWEL DECLENSIONS.
63.

27

Learn the paradigm of ovro<i, § 26. Observe i. The rough breathing of the nom. masc. and fem. sing, and plur. appears in all other forms as r. 2. The vowel of the penult varies as the vowel in the ultima. The accent 3. remains on the penult.
:

€€

64.

All

substantives

must have the

or 6
that the pronoun

must come
This
is

, ?
used with
;

article

e.^•.

6

tJiis

man.

Observe

and
6.

before the article

or after the
position.

nom.

called the predicate

Any

other position of an adj. would

be the attributive position.

. . . '. . €€ . , ^ ^ €^ ' .. . . 65.
I.

EXERCISES.

I.

]

2.

6

3-

iv

5•

(is),

y.

8.

^

9•

.

1 1,

iv

.

2.
^

. The first, last; and the last, first. That disciple knows the Scriptures. In 3.
An
adj. that

has the masc. and fem. alike.
-

Such are

called

adjs. of

two endings.

Great,

28

ESSENTIALS OF
4.

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

the last day.

know
6.

the truth.
is

This
I

His own (use art. for Jiis) These children are saved. the work of God. 7. This command5.

ment

write to the brethren.

8.

Beloved,
first

we

have another promise. 9. preached in the synagogue. the law and the prophets.

On
10.

the

day he

This one knows

LESSON XL
Personal Pronouns and
66.

.,

I am.

vocabulary.
€ls,

,

$,

!^%^ good.
holy.

prep., i7ito (with ace).

oXos, whole.

conj., but.

on,

conj., because, that.
"i

avTOs, he, hifnself.

^,'^ con], for.
€,^ conj., moreover, but.

«, /.
€(, I am.

, ,
ov,^
<ri,

'r

not.

1

08,

wicked.

thou, you.

Each of the words in this vocabulary, except the adjectives, occurs more than 1000 times in the New Testament.
1

Words

that cannot

come
;

first

in a sentence are called post-

positives,
2

yap and

5i are such.

before consonants

before vowels

j

before the

rough breathing.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
67.

29

The
//

€,
she, 68.

,

personal
tJiou ;

pronouns and

^,

,,
in

Greek are

:

/le,

it.

and Learn the declension of § 40. in Observe: i. That the short forms of These are enclitics?• the sing, have no accent. The meaning of the dissyllabic forms does not The former are differ from the monosyllabic.

,

more emphatic.

= , and -, The endings -, 2. common with the endings of the two
sions.
initial

-

with

are

declenits

Associate the meaning of
vowel.

,
70.
I.

69.

Learn the declension of § 26, a. Observe that, except in the forms sing., and plur., we have the
with the prefix

declension of the article

Observe the following for the uses of
:

man
1

, , ,, ,
-.
or
is

the

himself,

in the

predicate posi-

tion, 64.

An

enclitic gives

up

its

accent for the preceding word.
(
'

If

the preceding word has the

on the antepenult or the (" ) on the penult, it receives an additional accent on the ultima; e.g. my garment, oi/cos my house. What is the difference between an enclitic and a proclitic ?
)

,

,

^O
71.

ESSENTIALS OF
I.

avTos

When
is

the article precedes

,

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

<,

the

same

man.

the meaning

always the same. When used alone, as 2. they judge him, it is the simple personal pronoun of the third person.

,

is

The use of conjunctions and prepositions an important thing in inflected languages.
72.
1.

is

the ordinary copulative conjunction,

joining words, phrases, and clauses.
2. is

an adversative,
little
is

but,

in

a mild way.
indeed.

It

often has
3.

meaning beyond and,

the strongest adversative, a very

emphatic
4.

but.

expresses a reason, as kcu

means and
5.
et«?,

tive,

say this) for they are listening. always occurs with the accusaand denotes motion, either expressed or
(I
i}ito,

implied.
73.

We

noticed that the primary active end-

was dropped, and the There are preceding was lengthened to and that some verbs that do not drop this do not have the variable vowel %. Verbs that -conjugation, and drop the belong to the belong to the verbs that do not drop the
ing
as in

-,

--,

.

,

/ii-conjugation.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

3I

These make up what are

called the

-conjulatter is
:

gation and the /it-con jugation.

Of the

€,

I am.

The
I am.

following

is

the pres. ind.

Sin^.

,
€<£,
is

Plur.
or
// is.

«', we are.
ka-ri,

il, iJioti

art.

ye are.
they are.

he., she.,

a.

root
b.

- may

fov

be compared with is. All the forms in the pres. ind. of this verb, except
i,

-

;

ei is

for

-

«-,
;

for

'.

The
ei,

are encHtic, 68,

note.

74.
I. I.

EXERCISES.

.?
3•
5•

Be

9.

';
5.

ee. €. €' . .
/€(9
8.

€€. kan
el
1

hk

elyuL.

2.

<yap el ev

4.

e<;
deod.
6.
/•

. 6

epyov

^^

II.

/^eia

ev
3•

yap

..
II.

el.
14.

et

.

J^.c^/ei

12.

7leee

.
8e
Oeoi).

he

ev eKeivr)

. But you know me.

2.

I glorify
4.

Him.
are in

3.

Moreover,

we speak we

the
^

trutl•.

Ye

the world.

Darkness

is

not in Him.
7.

6.

And

these things

Jesus himself was not baptizing, but his disciples. 8. Beloved,

write to you.

32

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
9.

we

are the children of God.

words and does not do them.
the witness of him.
12.

10.

He hears my And this is

On

(ev)

11. He himself is the life. the same day he was speaking to 13.

the people.

Thou

art the son of

God.

LESSON

XII.

75.

, , , ,
be,

Deponent Verbs.
vocabulary.

go away.
answer.
become.

%\.\\.,, go through.

€-\,

a/n able, can.
enter.

,
azvay,

,, I know.

€\, , was.
os,

«',

go

out.

come, go.

€,
who.
to.

go.

come

76.

Deponent verbs have the form

of

the

middle, § 47, or the passive, but the sense of the active.
in the vocabulary above that there verbs that are composed of + something. These are compound verbs and
77.

Note

are

many

the forms
out
of

,

,

'
;

through,
will

,

into,

e/c,

of, 7/309,

to,

are prepositions.
it

In this verb

motion the preposition,

be seen, gives

.

.

:

DEPONENT VERBS.

33

So in most verbs the direction to the motion. compounded with prepositions, the idea of the
verb
is

,,
is

When

only modified by the preposition. the preposition ends in a vowel, as the final vowel is dropped before a

verb that begins with a vowel
for Bta
78.

+

-.^
ivas.

;

e.g.

The
:

imperfect indicative of

et'/ii,

am,

is

as

follows
1.

Sing.

(), I
[%

I.

2.

3.

,
;

{r\<!T^'x),

thou wert. he was.

2.

3.

(), we ye €, -,
]•,
i6 times
;

Plur.

were. were.

they were.

a.

The forms

present, as they occur but seldom.
3 times
twice.

79.

, 8,
Sing.

in parentheses

need not be learned at

€,
but

I know,

is

an

irregular verb,

conjugated
1

in

one tense regularly, as follows
Plur.
etc.
i

,

/ know,

2.

2.

3.

3-

, € sending.

we know,

etc.

Learn the paradigm of 09, ^, o, § 27. This pronoun it will be noticed is declined like the article, except initial and the nominative forms 09, o, a.
80.

when these compound verbs receive the augment the final vowel of the preposition is dropped; e.g.
^

, ,
r]-,

On

the same principle,

I send,

1 7vas

The

prepositions

and

retain their final vowel.

Cf. note, p. 58.

D

34
81.
I.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
EXERCISES.

''?€
I.

Xeyet

6

6
6.

<. ^.^ €8
"J.

.. ^ .
8€
2.

.
5•

€'^€
"^
V

6

'AvSpea.

3•

^'^

4•

V

^^

'^^'^^'"

aXtidecav

]<;

8.

iv

€.
.
God.

II.

0€
12.
^
;

.€.
"^

CTrayyeXla

9-

'^^^

iv

yap

ol8e

. ^
2.

.

We

know

that

becoming the children of God. 4. In the beginning was the Word. ace.) 5. The Word was with
enter the synagogue.
3.

we are They

saved.

Ye

are

(,

6.
7.

Him.

The truth, moreover, is glorified in I know that His commandment is life
8.

everlasting.

the beginning.
eternal.
II.

What I 9. The

say ^o you was from
life

which we

live

is

On that day was the Whom He knows the world
10.
1

know.

^777
See
§

2 3

,
14

Sabbath. does not

I atinouiice.
punctuation in Greek.

for the

Time.

:

;

PRESENT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND INFINITIVE.

35

LESSON

XIII.

Present Active Subjunctive and Infinitive.

,
, ,
yi,
€l,

82.

vocabulary.

take away.
verily.
die.

8, , ,

send.

', ,
tK,

indeed, at least,
receive.
;

prep, with gen., through
of.

with ace, OH account
conj., if.

, ,
,
not. vvv, adv.,
,

now, already. order that. prep, with gen., with with ace, after.
adv.,
conj., in

now.
beseech.

ovirw, adv., not yet.

prep,

with with

gen.,

prep, with gen., out of, of. €Ti, adv., still, yet.
ir«s,

co7icerning ;

ace,

adv

around. how.

83.

The terms primary and

secojidary apply

to the tenses of the indicative only.

The

subjunctive mood, as in English, denotes

a doubt or a contingency.

Unlike the English,

however,

in Greek is very There are but two tenses that are usually found, the present and the aorist. The

the

subjunctive

common.
perfect
84.

is

very rare.
pres. subjv. act. of
I
.

The
Sing.

-|

is
I
.

Plur.

2.

3•

3.

---

--€

:

:

36
85.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT
is
:

GREEK.

The
Sing.

pres. subjv. of
I.
<o

Plur.

I.
•->

2.

-

«-.€

3•

i

3•

86.

Note
;

that the pres. subjv. of el^i
of

is

the

same

as the personal endings

the regular

verb and while the indicative has the variable vowel %, the subjunctive has the corresponding long vowel %.
a.

The

personal endings are

those

of the

primary

active indicative.

87.

The

subjunctive follows

Examine the following

€€
88.

Lva

,

lva.

we may

tiot sin.

,
see §

Xva, in

order that.

he comes that he

may hear, we believe in order

that

Rule

of syntax:

the subjunctive with Xva.
89.

Clauses of purpose take The negative is

.

The

following forms illustrate the present

active infinitive

-€,
to loose.

-£,
to hear.
-\-

*-*'•,
to have.

-,
to abide.

-etv

=

e

ending
-ety,

-ev of

pres.

inf.

For

-eeu

contracting to

6, 7.

PRESENT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND INFINITIVE.
90.

37

The

participle

is

very

common

in

Greek,

and

necessary to master its uses as soon as is the ending of the pres. act. nom. possible,
it is

masc. sing.

6 oLpwv, the one
aKovuiv, the

,
2.

;

e.g.

:

the one saying, he

who says. takmg away, he who takes away. one hearing, he who hears.
participle in this use are equiva-

The

article

and

lent, as is seen, to

a dependent clause in English.
EXERCISES.

iaTLV;
rye

6.

€<?

ev

<. , ^^ .^.. 4 ', . .
.

91.
I.

I.

€-)(
;

\eyr)

irepl
r)

3•

en

.^

4•

g.

TTj

ayairr]

4€.

^
5•

^^'^'

\eyei.

a'ipei.
8.

/•

^'^

"^^^

ev

e^ei

. They

baptize in order that they

may

glorify God.

2.

Already we become the
3.

chil-

Ye are able to know the truth. How can He take away our sins 4. 5. Through Him they are saved and have eterdren of Him.
nal
life.

.-'

6.

After these things they go away
1

For

',

§ 5, 2.

38

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK,

into the

desert.

7.

He comes

that

He may
Ye

save sinners (ayLiapTwXof). 8. I am willing to hear the Gospel. 9. Verily, verily the one loving his brother
is

not a servant.

10.

are

not able to hear

my

word.

11.
is

from the beginningf and tiuth

That one was in Him.

LESSON XIV.
Present Passive SaBjuNcrrv-E and
Infinitive.

, , , -,
,

92.

VOCABULARY.

adv., at the

same

time.

,

prep, with gen., instead

?.

conj., or.
2La\'.,Just as.

,
of.

Kaivos,
Xoiiros,

prep, with gen., from.
salute.

new. remaining.
tOf

ovv, adv., therefore.

DEMON.
if.

conj.,

tvayytXiov, gospel.

ivpLvKut.fnd.

-, €,
toward.

irpos,

prep, with acc,

worship.

keep.

93.

The
Sing.

pres. pass, subjv. of
I.

2. 3-

-)

-The
is

Plicr.

I.

-for

2.

3•

; --( -is
:

94.

Observe:
2.

. The long vowel

"/^,

as in

the active.
pass,

personal endings

are the
3.
-97

primary endings of the indicative.

of 2 per. sing,

-.

:

PRESENT PASSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND INFINITIVE.
95.

39

The

subjunctive

Examine the
.]
96.
ets

, ,
follov^^ing
let

is

used

in exliortation.

us fijidthe truth. let us not be led in sin.

Rule

of

syntax

:

TJie first

person plural

{of the subjunctive) exhortation.
97.
tav iav

may

be used to express
is

The negative

.
:

an

Examine the following

, '/

if

,
/,

moreover. Judge.
if ive say not the truth.

Rule [=if)\
98.

of syntax

:

The subjunctive follows lav

the negative is

.

Cf. § 124.

The

pres. pass. inf.
:

may be

seen in the

following verbs

-€-,
to be destroyed.

-€-,
to be heard.

--,
to be

judged.

What
99.

is

the pres. pass.

inf.

ending
:

.''

Examine the following
6

--, --<;,

This ending is the passive participle ending in nom. masc. sing, as is in the active. The ending -o? is declined like § 25.

-

the one being jjidged.
the one bei::g heard.

-

«?,

40

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

What was

said in 90 about the sense of the

active participle applies equally to the passive.

100.

EXERCISES.
tol"?

€€
4-

I.

I.

7-

€1

^/ . . . ' , . . ,' .
2.

iariv

?. ,
5•

€<;.

%
3•

^^

ev

^7^^ ^^^^

^^V•*•

6.

6

8.

{nothing)

.

9•

^^^

^^

(myself),

.
5.

. Let US keep

this
3.

us receive the truth.
believe that through

If,

commandment. therefore, we

2.

Let

are the

children of God, let us do His works.

Him we

4. Let us have eternal life.

6.

They were willing to receive the He who believes is saved and has
7.

Gospel.
eternal

life.

Let us not speak concerning these 8. A new commandment write I unto things. If we say that we have not sin, the you. 9. 10. He preaches the Gospel truth is not in us. of the kingdom of God.

THIRD DECLENSION.

41

LESSON XV.
Third Declension: Neuter Nouns
in a.

,, ,,
TO,

,

101.
blood;
will.
cf.

VOCABULARY.

hemor-

RHAGE.

, ,
A

name ;
Spirit.
cf.

cf.

NATE.

-£', ,
102.

, word;
The

,

-,,
|,^ ,
irovs,

-, ,
,

,,
,
is

mouth.

body.

night.

/oot.

^re, vxKOtechnics.
flesh.
ligJit,

RHETORIC,

seed.

, ,

«, , ,

VHOTOgraphy.

hand, CHiKOgraphy.

third declension

ordinarily called

the consonant declension from the fact that the stem of the nouns usually ends in a consonant.

few nouns, as we
t

shall

see later, end in a
ev.

close vowel,
103.
It
is

or

v,

or in"the diphthong

this declension to

necessary in declining a noun of have the stem. This is determined by dropping the genitive ending -09•
104.

in various ways.

The nominative The

is

formed from the stem
is

nominative, therefore,

not easily determined

till

we know

the genitive.

1 These monosyllables have peculiaiities of form which will be explained later. The frequency of their occurrence is the

reason for introducing them thus early.

42
105.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
name,
Plur.
is

The
:

declension of

follows

,
:

as

N. A. V. G. D.
106.
1.

8
Sing. plur.

. . V.
G. D.

.
as
in

Observe the following
genitive ending

dative ends in -l, as in the first and 2. second declensions. Here, however, it does not appear as iota-siibscript, but is written in the
line.
3.

The The

is -09.

In

the

a

is

the

same

the

O-declension, so likewise

-.

The dat. plur. ends in -, with which 4. of compare -t? of the A- and 0-declensions. the stem drops before -. The nominative is The stem is 5being dropped.^ the mere stem, final

-.
:

107. 108.

Learn the declension

of

,

night, § 28.

Rule

of

accent

Monosyllables of the
the
tiltima
in

consojiant declension

accent

genitives

and datives,

-

all

of the genitive plural

is circiDnflexed.
1

The
in

word

Greek are

only single consonants that can stand at the close of a v., p, s. A", '^ther letters which would occur

here are dropped.

THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUED.
109.
I.
I.

43

EXERCISES.

'.
8.

^/}?
3•

^,.

2.

4-

.
6.

?
12.

<
el

{against)

iv

€^£.
eh

iyeveTO {became).

' .^5•

.

^^'^ ayeiv

.
/.

'.

;

{defiles)

II.

{offend)
iv
Trj

^

€6
{cutoff)

.
name
6.
10.

. 8\ .
ij.

.

g.

6

.
is

. They believe on
{ev)

(ei?)

His name.
spirit.
4.

2.

baptizes you, moreover, in the holy
able to save by
flesh.

3.

He He

night and day.
5.

Let us
seed.

believe on the

of the Lord.

The word

becomes
7.

These are the good
8.

This is the will of God. through the mouth of God.
life is

my

flesh.

speaks 9. The bread of Verily, verily I say to you,
life.

He

he who believes on His name has eternal

44

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

LESSON XVL
Third Declension
:

Stems in

-i

and

-ep.

, •<9,
-Ls,

110.

VOCABULARY.

, man.

, resurrection,
knowledge.

8, , .

,

,
-is,

power, DYNA-

, -, ,
ktCo-is,

, ,

creation.

mother.

,

exhortation,

,

father.

irio-Tis,

, tribulation. , judgment.

iroXis,

(-,
-t?,

, faith. , Qty. , conscience.

111.

Above

are given the most
in
:

in the

New Testament

stem

common nouns in They
-l.

are declined as follows

iroXis, city.

Stem
Sing.

-.
, V.
.

Plur.

N. G.
D. A. V.
112.

iroXis

-

iroXcws

G. D. A.

'•€
iroXeis

iroXiis

The

following

is

to

be noted regarding
:

the declension of this class of nouns
I.

e

takes the place of the final stem vowel

in all

cases except the nom., ace, and voc. sing.

:

THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUED.
2.
3.

45

The gen. sing, has -?, not -09. The accent in gen. sing, and plur.
and here the acute accent
is

is

irregu-

lar,

found on the

antepenult
4. e

when
ei.

the ultima

is

long.

unites with
ace. sing,

of the dat. sing.,

and forms

a diphthong
5.

The

adds simply
-et<?

-v

to the stem.*

6.
7.

In the vocative the mere stem occurs.

The nom.

plur.

is

for

ee<>,

113.

Learn the declension of

and

,
(3,

§ 6, 7.

§

33,

a.

Observe the following
1.

The nominative ends
in -ep.

in

-,

while the
e of

stem ends
2.

The

stem,
lable.
3.

gen. and dat. sing, drop this and take the accent on the

the
syl-

last

4.

Voc. sing, has recessive accent The dat. plur. has ap for ep.

,

i).

114.

Learn

avyip,

man,

§ 33.

Note

that

when-

ever ep of the stem would be followed by a vowel, takes the place of the e. The same peculiarities of accent obtain as in but of the

gen. plur.

is

circumflexed.

,

-

46
115.
I. I.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
EXERCISES.


5-

,.
eir

<. . € 8€

'^

{on)

^.. ^. 2.
3•

^^

"^

4•

he ear lv

ep^^eTai

et9

9eoi>

,
<yov

.
6

6.

avSpa

/•

^^^

8.

g.

ev
{zuhcrc)

II.

epya

€.

e^^ere.

.
12.

.

e\e-

ev

{shall have)

.
II.
2.
3.

. The
is is

Life

in

This

faith which we have saves men. him who has the spirit of faith. my father and my mother. 4. He

who does
5.

the will of

God

abides in the truth.

have power to become the children of God. 6. He is the resuriection and the life. 7. We are raised from the dead on {ev) the day of judgment. 8. He who hears my word comes not into judgment. 9. In that city he preached the Gospel. 10. For those days are tribulation

We

FUTURE INDICATIVE.

47

LESSON
Future
116.

XVII.

Iot)icative.

vocabulary.
do wrong.
iinrig/iteousness.
ov, iinrtgkteons.

, ', ,
$.€,

8, , ?, ,

,
-',
117.

look up.

deny.

begin.
at.,

, , €,
as
in
Plur.
I.

ircpiiraTiw,

, ,

conquer.
confess.

walk. gather together.
}nake niantfest.

go away.
fear.

wonder

marvel.

hate.

€, -,

guard.

The
is

fut.

ind.,

English, denotes

what

going to take place.
is

The
1.

following
Sing.

the

fut. ind. act. of

\
etc.

:

\-•-<, / shall

loose,

\-•--,

we

shall loose,

2.

-•-€5
-ei

3.

-

etc.

2.

3.

--is
:

-•-6-€,

118.

The

fut. ind.

mid.^ of
Plnr.

Sing.
1.

------]

I.

2. 3-

2.
3•

---£-

-<-------€-•€

sive are the

For the middle voice, see §§ 47, 48. The middle and passame in form, except in the future and the aorist, which we shall learn later.
^

48
119.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Observe that the future has primary

endings, and differs from the present in the use with which compare shall in the English of

,

future.

Note that

appears before the variable
is

Hence, while the present vowel %. by adding % to the stem, the future by adding %.

is

formed formed

Learn the

%

120.
;

The
of

make manifest, is these forms it can be seen that a short final voivel mnst be lengthened before = of the future, e = , a = ,^
hate, is
;

-.
121.

, , ,- , fut. ind. of
et//./',

§ 65.

future of
of

do wrong,
;

is

conquer,

is

of

From

, -,
stems
122.

The

begin,

,., ,
in

, ,, .
future of
lead, is
is
;

.
;

of

of

, ,

From which it form with %, %.

guard, stem is seen that

;

The

future of
is

see, is
;

turn,

of

stem

,-,

is

Stems

in

,,

%.

123.

The
of

\

which observe that
1

,
e, t,

future of

save,
is

persuade,

stems

in

, ,

,% .
+
stem
Cf. 53,

of

zvash,

=
is

-,
i.

From

would

But

after

or

is

not changed to

, but .

:

FUTURE INDICATIVE.

49

have simple

%

in the future.

The consonant

drops before the tense sign.
124. The various forms of future stems may be seen by examining the following summary

Vowel Stems.

Mute^

Steins.

+
,

<^/^

- W/^
-

Palatals,

K, y,

+
-\-

0/

0/

Linguals,

, ,

%=% %=%

Other vowel stems hardly
occur.

No

stems end in the double nor in consonants $, ,

,

The
in

future of liquid stems,

explained in a future lesson.
these four letters,
of

, , , , will be Aside from stems we may now be able to
in Greek.

form the future
125.

any regular verb
EXERCISES.

4-

'; ., /, . '
I.
I.

€.
iv 6\rj

7€
iv

3•

{thus)

6

<.
€v
^

., \]

))
See § 2

8 .
9•

6
7•

K.vpie.

'^

^. . . 2.

'ypa'^^oD

5•

6.

Trj

"^)

Siavoia (luind)
8.
^'^

]

}

-

for the classification of consonants.

5

ESSENTIALS OF

eaovrai

Tat<i

II. . There shall be tribulations. 2. We shall He who knoweth the truth do the truth. 3. ^ and doeth it shall live. 4. Ye shall be with

, .. ^ ' . .
\€y
1 1,

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

.
{a/so)

12.

iv

me
we

this day.

5.
(e/c)

They
all

shall hate us
6.

because
shall

are not of

the world.
8.

We
7.

shall love
I

the Lord

God with

our heart.

do

the will of
believe on

my

father.

(et?)

the

The son of man shall word. 9. They shall bear

witness concerning Him that He is the light. 11. There shall be joy 10. We shall seek Him.
in

Heaven because he

is

saved.

12.

He

shall

glorify God.

LESSON
Third Declension

XVIII.
:

Mute

Stems.

,

126.

vocabulary.

aWoTpios,
eX-iris,

,

,

age, .EON.
another's., strange.

, food. , £8, ready.

,

Jiope.

be a servant.
X<ipis,
^

$,,
, grace.
with Gen.

, ,
£, ,

Kaivos, neTV.

judgment.
build Up.

irpeo-pvTepos, elder.

darkness.

manifest.

:

THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUED.
127.
1.

5

I

Observe the following
Jiope,

- , -,
'?,
; ;

foot,

stem
2.

-.
all

stem eXirtSstem stem //^///,
;

, --,,
; ;

night,

flesJi,

stem stem

grace,

In

these nouns note that the stem ends

(§ 2), and that the nominative is For the formed by adding ? to the stem. and the euphonic changes that occur with

in

a mute

mutes, see 124.

leader, 128. In age, stem stem and hand, stem ^-, we have liquid stems which form the nominative from the mere stem. A short vowel, as in may be lengthened.

^€-

, , - ^^,
;
;

•-,
a.

not .add

,
t

prince, ruler, has the stem

-,

but does

s for

the nominative, which

is

the mere stem with

dropped and
129.

lengthened to

.

and

,

Learn the declension of § 28, and § 32.
in

,

, ?,
, ,
or
pre-

30. When nouns with stem
ceded by
e.g.

the ace. sing, has

has ace. iXiriSa.

, -,

or

are not accented on the ultima,
v,

the mute being dropped
;

ace.
5.

but

,

^-,

;

Cf. 112,

52
131.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

The

voc. sing,

same

as the nom.

,
is
3.

rare

and

is

usually the

however, has voc.

.
)

-

132.

When -- of

the stem would
is

of the dat. plur., both the letters are

and the preceding vowel e.g-. stem
133.
I.
I.

,
ev
4•

-,
<y€

lengthened

dat. plur.

.
(o

come before
dropped
to
;

EXERCISES.
eupiaK€L<;

ianv

'^.
708

. ^
i^ere {behold)
et/xi

€€ €€
8\
1 1,

. .
12.
4.

. . ^ ,8
8.

'

eV*

ev

.

)

()

.. ^ . .,
.
6
6.
J.

8e

€€ ', /,
2.

.

avrof;

<yap

6

g.

6

6

he

II.

faith

. Truth abides forever. 2. Now have we and hope. 3. I write these (things) with

.
g 157^

my
1

hand.
t

The

light appears in the darkness.

them.
often

; .
vvv,

may be added to adverbs and pronouns to emphasize is The accent in all such cases is upon the t; «r.^.
2

q^

THIRD DECLENSION CONCLUDED.
5.

53

We

are saved by faith.
7.

6.

He who
By

has love

in his heart has grace.

We
8.

are not under

the law, but under grace.

the grace of

God we
and
feet.

are what

we

are.

9.

Behold

my

hands

LESSON XIX.
Third Declension Neuter Nouns, Stems Masculine Nouns, Stems in €v-.
:

in-

€-

;

134.

vocabulary.

-, €5, ,
i'Gvos,

apxi€p€vs, o, chief priest.

,

king.

?, ,
H-^pos,

Upevs, priest, HiER«;r/y/.

€8, , ,
wo>nan.

race.
scribe.

ovs,

, 4'5, , custom, ethics.
nation.
iXeos, TO, pity.

, , -?, , , , water, KYOKotogy.
part.
ear.
inultitiede.

inevtber.

ctkotos, to, darkness.

,

TeXos,

end.

Neuter nouns with the nominative in -09 and the stem in -ea form an important class of nouns of the third declension. The most common examples are given above.
135.

Learn the declension

of yevo<;, race (§ 30),

Observe the following.
is
I. In the gen. and dat. sing, the of the stem dropped between the two vowels, and <yeveo<i

contracts into

^.

54
2.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.
of the

In

all
;

cases of the plur. the
jevea,
5,

is

dropped
;

are contracted to

•yevodv

see §§

8

and

^
stem
car,

6, 6.

136.

of

.
31),
I.

Learn the declension of king with which compare the vowel stem

€<;,

137.

,
Only
I.

For some

irregular

nouns

declension, as
foot,

ryvvi),

see § 34. such forms are given as occur in the New
Jiand,

8,

wovian,

,

of the third
Jiair^

,

waicr,

Testament.
138.

'
/.

ev
5-

TOL<i

'.

.

Be

, 8 •.
^

{persuaded)

. ^
4•

EXERCISES.

€\
3•
"^^

earlv.

2.

el

evayyeXiov

<{

.. ^.
ou/c

e^ei?

.
8

6.

8.

{^

g.

'.

.

{^striick^

. ,, .
(^for^
12.
1 Ji/a;i_}'.

.

FIRST
II.
I.

AND SECOND AORIST

INDICATIVE.
2.

55

Ye

are not in the darkness.
3.

This

one
in

is

the king of the Jews.
part.
will
4.

(e/f)

For we know The scribes and the chief
5.

priests
is

say

this.

They know
world.
6.

that he

not

the

king of

this

multitude will follow him (dat.). 7. I 8. a part in the kingdom of God. you brethren that the end is not yet.
shall

A great We have
say to
9.

We

make him

king.

LESSON XX.
First and Second Aorist Indicative,
139.

, €, ,

vocabulary.
sanctify.

, , ,
see.

, ,
the

seem, think.
behold.

,
', €€,

purify.

go down.
receive.

«, ,

blind.

/ died. I threw. I became. elSov, /saw. etirov, I said. I fomid. / went or came. I received.

,

140. The aorist is the most common tense in Greek to represent what has taken place. Thus, / loosed, I did loose, or / Jiave loosed would most likely be expressed in Greek by one word, e
aor. ind. act. of

.

--,

:

.

56
141.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
is
:

The

aorist indicative of

ACTIVE.
Sing.
I
.

'--€

2

.

--<-5

--- ---) €--(
--(

MIDDLE.
for

3-

4'--<€

Plur.

.
2.

€--<-€
€----6

€--(-€
€--•--

3-

€--(-

--drops between the two

.

In 2 pers. sing. ind. mid.

vowels
142.

, and

tiiese contract to

,

§ 5,

i

Observe the following on the formation

of the aorist
1.

2.

The augment as in the imperfect. which changes The tense suffi.x is

,

to

in 3 per. sing. act.
3.
I

The

personal endings are secondary,

of

per. sing. act. is

dropped.
suffix
;

143.

Compare the

with
e.g.
:

d

or ed in

the past tense in English

--loose-d-you

«---fill
-

ed-we

144.

The same

principles

of

augment are
ind., 36,

found in the aor. ind. as in the imperf. and the same euphonic changes with of the fut., 120-124. aor. as with

%

of the

FIRST

AND SECOND AORIST
all

INDICATIVE.

57

145.
is

Not

called the first aorist, but

which verbs have the aorist in form the tense on

,

variable vowel
aorist.

the simple stem of the verb by the use of the This is called the second %.

146.

The

or stem

-,
I.

2 aor. ind. of
is
:

,
(

tJirow,

theme

ACTIVE.
Sing.
2.

-

'---e-s

t

---€--££--£-•£

MIDDLE.
for

€--€-)

3•

€'--€

Phir.

I.

2.

3-

€---£ €--£-£ £---

---£
--0 -vro

Note that the only difference in form between the and the imperf. of the same verb is a difference in imperf., has the pres. stem stem; e.g. t 2 aor., has the simple stem or theme, while
2 aor.

.

--, --,

-,

There is 147. Few verbs have both aorists. no difference whatever in meaning between a first aorist and a second aorist.
148.

The
:

following 2 aor. are given in the

vocabulary

,
€up-,

;

<,

theme

2 aor. eupop

, , ,
theme
ei8ov

-,

2 aor.

theme
2
;

yev-,

2
;

aor.

'^
;

c8-,

aor.

theme
2 aor.

theme €-,

58
;

ESSENTIALS OF

has no present. Note tJiat the second aorist has the simple theme of the verb and the %.
;

,
:

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

theme /8-,

2 aor. irape-

149.

The

difference in form between a
aorist

first

aorist

and a second
love ....

may be

illustrated

by

the following
1.

--,

2.

',

3.

4.

, ,

I I

aor.

talk

aor.

«----,
€---€, '---,

----,

lovc-d-we
talk-ed-they

throw ...
/iZ/('(?

2 aor.

t/irew-we
took-they

... 2 aor.

In I and 2 the past tense in both the Greek and the English is formed by adding something, and d or ed. In 3 and 4 no suffix is found, but the change

—,

is in

the stem of the verb.
take,

threw ;
150.
I.
I.

,
irpo


iSiOi
1 irepi

,, .)

{where) vTrayei otl

.
and

.^ - -.. .
EXERCISES.

, -,
took.
4•
I'Sia

throw,

-,

€€ ;• <€

2.

eypayfra
3•

/.

.
.
et?

'^-

'^<^''

^/^

6.

rj'ya'jrrjaev

.

do not drop the

final

vowel before the augment.

FIRST
S.

Trepl

a

;

.)
12.

yap

€^
ev
13.

AND SECOND AORIST SUBJUNCTIVE.

8.

eyeveTO.

.^
ei•?

eypayfrev.

. .9.

59

eOeaaavro

II.

virep

'

elirev

ev

eyeveaOe.
II. . They asked him. 2. They went and saw where {irov) he was abiding. 3. The word became flesh. 4. He acknowledged that he is

the Christ.

5.

He

bore witness, saying that he

saw the spirit. 6. For he sent them to preach the kingdom of God. 7. And it came to pass in those days. 8. And I saw and heard.

LESSON XXI.

151.

, ,
pCos,
o',

First and Second Aorist Subjunctive.

vocabulary.
irrte.

, , ,
civepLos, o,

wind.
kill.

€€,

,
need.

r|,

iiiiiid.

atii'.,

there.

open.
7'elease.

«vTeiGev, adv., thence.
eirei,

€-€, ask (a question),
€-7, , aesire.

conj.,

when,

since.

2Lav.,jHst now.

•€€, am sick.

88; ,

life.

devil.

-?, , $,

strong.

adv., where,
.,

fear.

XpeCa,

,

6
152.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

The
I.

aor. subjv. of

\

:

ACTIVE.
Sing.

-(-•-)-5

-'--

MIDDLE.
(for

2.

3•

•-•-

---:

-<-<)

Plur.

.
2. 3•

---,€
-0--€

-<--(--<€

-"--"

--aor. subjv.

153.
1.

Observe on the

There
is

2.
3.

is no augment. the tense suffix.

The The
ind.

personal endings are the same as in
aor.

the pres. subjv.
4.

stem,

\-,

is

the same as the

aor.

stem, 141, and the euphonic changes will be the same as in the aor. ind.

, ,
154.

suade ;

, ,, -Write the
aor. subjv. of

make

tnanifest ;

^,

write;

lead;

begin ;

,,€/,
do ;
per-

send;

receive.

155.

The
I.

2 aor. subjv. of

theme

-,

^^

ACTIVE.
-s

Sing.

2.

3.

Pliir.

I.

--€
--€

MIDDLE.
(for

2. 3.

--

-- --•) --€
<*-)

---<(

.

1

FIRST

AND SECOND AORIST SUBJUNCTIVE.

6

156. Note that the same principles are observed in the formation of the 2 aor. subjv. as in the 2 aor. ind. (146-147).
157.

The

2 aor. subjv. of the follovi^ing

be conjugated:
eJSov,

I

saw, subjv.

,8
eis

may
;

I came,
;

subjv.

€<€,
that

subjv.

7eW/4ai.

Observe

the

I became, augment

does not appear in the subjv.
158.
1

Examine the following

2.

€/€

eh

, .,

:

let 7/s let

believe Pit

ns believe on

Him. Him.

Observe that there is no difference in transbetween a present subjunctive and an aorist. The distinction ordinarily made between the present and the aorist is that the present denotes what is contmued or extended, while the aorist expresses a simple act without any referlation

ence to a continuance of the same. In i the idea is Let tis continue, or keep on haviiig faith in him. In 2 the thought is Let ns believe in him now, or get belief in Jiijn.
159.
that,

In dependent clauses with
eav,
if,

,

in order

and

either the pres. or aor. subjv.

may

be used, with the distinction in 158. The aorist snbjimctive does not denote past time, but is present or fjitnre zuith reference to the principal verb.

;

62
160.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
has the same endings 90 and 99, with the

as the present,

accent on
Jic

, , , ', ,
2 aor. part,

The

-, -<;,

-. 6 h_e having co^ne ; 18, having seen; he having said ; he having died ; he having received ; he having become.

-

161.

The

89 and 98, with (") on the ultima of the active and the (') on the penult of the middle. eXOelv, to come ; Ihetv, to see ; elirelv, to say; to die; to receive
the present,
-eti/,

f^evmOai, to become.
162.
I.

,
'
hi
9•

2 aor. inf. also has the endings of

-,

,
2.
3•

lav

otl iv

evToXr)

.,
{all)

^ . ^
€ ^
€€.
1

^ ..
EXERCISES.

.

^,
4•

evpev

' .. .
irepl

hC

a'yev

$.

6.

7-

8.

^

{rejoice)

^7^

'^'^

eVt
^

Learn the

capital letters, § 1,

3ee ^g^

yPjv.

epya

{vain display)

.,
10.

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.

II.

'

Tat {pass aiuay)

, , .
e'/c

}

63

Trapaye-

te

LESSON
Irregular

XXII.

Adjectives of the Declension.

Consonant

, ?, ?,
163.
diiras, all.

vocabulary.

iuy.
impossible.

.

.

ovSe, neither
. .

.

.

.

?,

ovVe

.

', neither

nor.
. .

.

, ,
,
and
I.

unclean.
<>,

sinner.

-,

nor.

prep. w. gen.,

from

the side of;
wish.
side of.
iras, all.

book, Bible.

w. dat., by the side of; w. ace, to the

IXevOepos, free.

great.

0T€, conj.,

when.

?, -,
iroXvs,
', liar.

much, many.
sow.

164.

^,

Learn the declension of
great, § 36.

•,
:

vuicJi,

To be observed

tinct

That both these adjectives have two disstems, a longer and a shorter form, of which the former is more frequent.

64
2.

ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

in the first

That they are declined, for the most and second declension.

part,

165. Learn the declension of and note the following peculiarities
1.

?,
:

all,

§

36,

The masc. and
first

neut. are declined in the
is

third declension, while the fern,

declined in

the

declension.

2. The stem is formed by adding fem. nom. sing,
3.

-, 9,

and the nom. masc.

is

as in

mute stems.
Cf. 127,
2.

In the

is

added.
of

VT-

drops before

9

nom.

sing,

and

-

of

the dat. plur.
4.

Cf. 132.
is

The

accent in the masc. and neut. sing,
it

that of monosyllables of the third declension,
108, while in the plur.
rule.
is

an exception to the

166.
I. I.

-rrauTa Bt
6

^ .^ .
3.

/;^
eVl^

8.

^€
6.

^ .
^

EXERCISES.
iyevero.^
ev
4•
'^^^

2.

7'9•
.

iyevero

iv

y.

yap

g.
1

. . eyk7].
See 167.

ey\v

Cf. 43, 10, note.

Jn the pred. position, 64.

^

;

.
167.

PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
10.

TO

Xeyeiv.

.

. .
*

65

II.

en

12.

1

3-

LESSON

.
, ',^
?,
adv., thus.
irov, adv.,

€\ €

Perfect Indicative Active and Passive.

, ,

vocabulary.

adv., truly.
sin.

adv., whence.

, ,
£,
tiri,

go up.

^a-v.,from above. , covenant.
gen., without.

-.
€,
is

[, feast.

,
feet.
:

where.

kill.

4', adv. w.

?, ,

prep. w. gen.,

upon

5,
168.

\v.

ace, to, on, over. , sun.

,

fulfil,

make per-

friend.
lie.

conj., as. about.

love.

The

perf. ind. of
Sing.
^.

active.
1.

PASSIVE or middle.
\i-\v-^o.\.,

\-\-,

2.

'--?

/ have

loosed,

3.

-1.

etc.

-Plnr.

€--0

I have been
myself.

loosed ox

have freed for

2. 3-

----€---<
^

'---

€--€

--

But oirws before a vowel.

F

66
169.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

i. That the tense suffix in the of the aor. with which compare 2. That the 5 per. plur. act. has -, which shows the endings to be primary. In the sing, the endings do not appear as primary, but are the same The etc., never occur as in the aor. act. That besides the augment there is the here. 3.

Observe

:

act. is

-,

-

,,

initial

consonant of the verb, which extra
is

sylla-

ble Xe-

called reduplication.

4.

That the

perf.

pass, has the reduplication

and the primary

pass,

endings, which are added directly to the theme

without the intervention of any tense
170.

suffix.

The

following forms will
:

indicate

the

perfect of a few verbs

, <£,

,
€€,

conquer .... Perf. Act.
believe
. . .

£-1•£-•7-6i

Perf. Act. Perf. Act.
Perf. Act.
Perf. Pass.

', ask for ....
fulfil

/ove

-

£,
It is

beget

Perf. Pass.

£-€'-

€-€-.

seen from these examples that a short as or is lengthened before before all tense suffixes, and that a verb beginning with a vowel or a diphthong cannot have
final

vowel

-,

For the reduplication, but the simple augment. the principles of augment and reduplication, see
§77,
I,

2, 3, 4.
1

See 36, 2 for

this

augment.

:

PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.

6•]

171. The perfect has many peculiarities, whicli need not concern the learner at this stage, and can well be left for larger hand-books or the lexicon.

Learn
verbs

, , ,
A
§ 54
;

the

following

perfects
2 Perf. Act.

of

irregular

//ear

know.

.

.

.

Perf. Act. Perf. Act.

-«-c

see

172.

few verbs .have a second perfect
e.g.

not

-,
;

yov-a

^,
iv
2.
3.

come, go, 2 perf.
EXERCISES.

^
otl
'''^

-in -a,

become, 2 perf.

\-\-.
otl

-

6.

8 ^^ . ^ 7€7€€ ^ . ' . ^^ ..
173.
I.

. .
T7JV
et?

eyvaev
air

a

4• '^^'^
5•

jeyevvyTaL.

iv

. , ^ ^ .
he
/•

8.

,
II.

?/

ev

,

'

12.

yap

^. ^, ^ ^€< ' ,
6

.

g.

.

6S

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
3•
et?

'
on
6

.
Trepl
ing.

"^ -

.

LESSON XXIV.
AoRiST Passive Indicative and Subjunctive.

-', , 8, , ,
x[,

-,
174.
av'piov, adv.,

VOCABULARY.
read.

--, ,
•-,

to-morrow.

BLASPHEME.

,
i5iro,

indecl., Passover.

adv., wJioice.
adv., early in the viorn^

generation.
teaching.

,

•€«, grieve.
175.

,

adv., near.
heal.

05, -,

ivise.

cnicify.

prep. w. gen.

and ace.

co/nmand.

',

under.
call.

The

aor. pass. of

is


SUBJUNCTIVE.

indicative.
Sing.
I.

€--€---5

2.

3.

Pllir.

I.

---€
€---€

€--

-? ---£ ,--

2. 3•

€---<
:

176.
I.

Observe the following

which is and contracts with -, -rj<;, etc., See § 5, 8 of the subjv. with the circumflex. and § 6, 5.
suffix for the aor. pass, is 9e,

The

in the ind.,

AORIST PASSIVE INDICATIVE
2.

AND SUBJUNCTIVE.
incl.

69
pass,

The

personal endings in the aor.

are the secondary active.

subjv. are found not pass., but act. endings.
177.

ened

;

manifest,
178.

before
suade^

. .
e.g.

So likewise

in

the

Before -de a short
do,

,

final
;

vowel

,
is

length-

make

A theme -; e.g.

in a

,
8,

mute stem
lead^

(§ 2) is

VX^V^>
X^e

^,

changed
per-

pass.

,^ , ^ ^ , , . . •.
+
179.
reply,

= €= ,, +€= € ,
«1 yy

X +

Some deponent verbs (76) have an Such are called passive deponents ; go, I wejit ; I replied.
In some verbs there
;

aor.

e.g.

180.

is

found a 2

aor.

pass, with the suifi.x e only

e.g.

write,
aor.

2 aor. pass.

it

was

written.

See 2

pass, of
181.
I.

§ 58.

EXERCISES.

iv

2.

3-

'^^^

'
he

et?

4•

oVt

^' '^ ^'.
6

5-

eav

<;.

70
6.

ESSENTIALS OF
oi'K

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
ouSe

'.
deov
eav
9-


"/.

)


ij

epyov

.€
,
la tub.

€ . }, ^ .
{/or)

'6\<^
8.

iyevvri-

epja

^<; .
8e

{like)

eiirev

<;

olha iroOev

08€

^
be-

LESSON XXV.
Participles.

182.
dpviov,

vocabulary.

8, €5, ,

possible, able.

cvcKa, prep. w. gen.,
of.

, .
.
183.

chosen, elect.

iravTOTc, adv., always.

on account

, , -,
irpo',

account.

little.

lead astray.

prep. w. gen.,

€-€,

adv.,

on the morrow.
bless.

fore.
TiKia, finish.
ToiovTos, such.

,

give thanks,

Village.

adv., as a prep. w. § ;n.,

apart from.
:

The
Masc.

pres. part, of
Sing.
Fern.

€, I am
Masc.
OVT€S

Neut.

N.V.
G. OVTOS D. OVTl A. ovTtt

'-?

-

OVTOS
OVTl

ovTas

?
Fem.

Plur.

Neut.

-ais

ovcri

1

PARTICIPLES. 184.
1.

7
:

Observe the following

This participle is declined in three genders, sing, and plur. the same as 165. 2. The stem becomes in nom. masc. sing., and is for in nom. fem. sing.

-

?,

-

The

neut. sing,

is

the mere stem.

Cf. 106, 5.

Learn the pres. act. part, of § 43. Note that the pres. part. act. of any verb in -ft) is the present stem of the verb with the pres.
185.

\,

part, of

€.
is

^,

What

say,

,

the pres.

act.

judgc^

Participles are accented like adjectives, not with the

,,
part,

of

Jiear,

know?

recessive accent of verbs.

186.

Second

aorist participles in

-

(160) are

declined the same as pres. part, in
187.

-.

The same
Flit.

tense signs are found in the

participles as occur in the tenses of the indicative.

Aor.

Perf.

ACTIVE,

-MIDDLE. -PASSrV^E.

---€-

-No sign but the accent on
"
the penult.

-U£V05

---

"

"

"
sufifixes,

"

For the changes before tense
124 and 178.

see

,

188.

§ 43,

Leafn the aor. act. and pass. part, and observe the same principles

of
in

:

72

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

the formation of the nom. sing, as in the pres.
act. part.

In the aor. pass, the form
irregular accent,
is

for

lengthened to

ei.

, ,
Aor.
fut.

which has
3.

165,

e

is

189. All middle and passive participles, except the aorist passive, have the ending -,^.
Pres.

MIDDLE.
PASSIVE.

\--€<;
Same

---'

Flit.

as the middle, except the

-- --Per/.
pass,
is

-/£5.
190.
1.

Examine the following

€.

a.
b.
c.

Having said tJiis

When

He

he said this said this and

2. TTOpevo/xevoi Ss

a.
b.
c.

Going moreover

As we

adva?tced

While we advanced)

3.

a. Seeing this (these)
b.
c.

.

.
1

\

he went away.

J

"1

\

we preached.

"1

saw this Because lie saw this
he

When

\
J

he marvelled.

191.
I.

Observe

in these sentences

:

The

participle agrees in

number and

case

with

the subject of the verb.

.

AORIST PASSIVE INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE.

73

2. While the participle may be rendered into English by a participle (Ex. i a, 2 a, and 3 a), it more naturally takes the form of a dependent clause denoting time or cause. 3. 'The tense of the participle is relative to the tense of the principal verb.

192.
1

Examine the following
to those

Tot?

2.

Trept

3. 4.

•<;,
may

, 5, /,
Toi

:

who

hear.

concerning him luho knows. him who has begotten. he who is begotten.
luith the particiis

193.

ple

Observe that the article occur in any case, and

equivalent to

a relative clause in English.

The
is

participle is a

most common form of verbal expresits

sion in Greek, and to understand a few of

many

uses

an essential to even a meagre knowledge of the language. Some of the most ordinary uses have been here explained and if these models are thoroughly mastered, little difficulty need confront the learner in the narrative passages of the New Testament.
;

.
194.
I.

EXERCISES.

)
5•

2.

iiyyiKev^
elrrov

.

. .
f^^^^

eyei

XeyovTe^
3•
'^<^'

4•

€\€<

^

^^^ near.

74
et9

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

aev

..
'^

..
9•

.

. ^

elhov
6.

8.

.
II.

eypayjra

/ . ^,^ ^
GREEK.
iv


/•

iv

irepl

6

6

''/,
*

'^'-^-

LESSON XXVI.
Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.

, ',
195.

vocabulary.
i7iarket-place.
oivos,

,

05.

6, field.

88, ,

minister.

minister,

€••€,

., ,
COX.
^

heal.

wild

beast.

adv., 7)iore, rather.

, ,
DEAiroTi,

',

,
,

,

witness.

,

wine.

adv., not yet.,

conj. w. subj.,

no longer. when.

adv.,

€5,

€, adv.,
escape.

,

once.,

ever.

sheep.

tJien.

adv., quickly.

yfi?,?,

For the contraction eou, see § 8. 2 For » instead of oo, see § 5, I. ^ A participle may be used in the genitive to agree with a noun, pronoun, or adjective. This construction has no graminaiical connection with the rest of the sentence, and is called genitive absolute. A conjunction, as w/iile, wheii, because, must be used in translating such phrases into English. 4 See §8, I.

.

:

INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

75

Learn the declension pronoun w/? and indefinite pronoun some
196.

tive

,

of the

interroga-

,

,

wJiatf and the

one,

and \, some-

thing, § 41.

Observe the following
1. Both the interrogative and indefinite pronouns are declined alike. 2. The interrogative pronoun has the acute on X}cvQ, first syllable, while the indefinite has the grave on the last syllable, or, in other words, has no accent of its own, and is therefore an

enclitic.

197.
1

Examine the following
;

:

Tt9 ei

2.

3
4.

TLva

'/<£

' ]
Tt<;

ivho art thou ?
;

;

,
iv

wJio

is tJie

mail ?

ivhom do you seek ? ye know wJiat I Jiave done.
is

Note that the interrogative /?
direct
198.
1

used

in

both

(i, 2, 3)

and indirect

(4)

questions.

Examine the following
Tt?

€011'

abo7<e.
2. 3.

TU'€5

ei

4.

iav Tt

7']€
s/iall

,

, ,
and a

:

unless one sJmll be born frojn

certain ones of certain lame

them said. man.

you
do

ask anytiling of

me

in

my name, I

,

If

sJiab.

it.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT
indefinite
rt?

GREEK.
is

Observe that the

enclitic'

when
the

it

is

possible.

These pronouns

New

are of the most frequent occurrence in Testament, each being found several hundred

times.

199.

The

following are the infinitives of
Fut.

ACTIVE.

-€
to

Pres.

MIDDLE.
PASSIVE.
It
is

-€-( -£-(

-<-£

- ---^-- --- €--< €--( --(€- -Aor.
Pe?-/.

\

:

everywhere

be observed that the ending ai is shoj^t in the infinitive, and that the infinitive in has irregular accent, as well as

the perf. pass, in
200.

- -.

The

infinitives of

€, am, are eivai,pres.,
I know, the
infinitive

and eaeadaijfut. Of is €l8evai, to know.

oXha,

,
201.
I.

3-

eav

.<; , ' . ^
. €\\
;

€86]
;

EXERCISES.
2.

iav
iv

{according

4-

^'^
.
6

)

.
;

iv

deXeTe

6.

elirev

7•

elvai

^

See page 29, notCt

aTrOKpi£e\<i
8.

, ,. ^
.
elirev

FUTURE AND AORIST OF LIQUID VERBS.
Xeyei
ei 6

€€.
g.

'/',
iav

yap

^. 8.
{sJiall see)

. }
77 ev

)

LESSON XXVII.

, , , ,
202.

Future and Aorist of Liquid Verbs.
VOCABULARY.
ki7/.

. , , 5,
203.
1.

TO, iiei.

stretch out.
lip.

raise

rebuke.

sit.

2La\.,from afar. , bridegroom.

The

future of
ACTIVE.

, •9, , ,
-, €,
,
remain,

,

oiight.

suffer.

tempt.

, cup.
d, soldier.

rich.

salvation.

wise.

is

Sing.

2.

Plur.

.
2. 3•

( £^

€ £€8

(- )
(€-€
€IS)

middle.

(-'--)

-)

(- -0-6)
(€-€'
e-T€)

6£€
3,

(€-€--)
See footnote


page
74•

(---)

(-'-),

§6, 5

(---)
(-'--)
(€-€--)

t

78

ESSENTIALS OF
:

NEW TESTAMENT
is
2.
3.

GREEK.

Observe ending in
future
is

i.

That

a liquid verb (theme

This short vowel contracts with the variable vowel. See § 5, 7 and 8 § 6, 7 4. When one of the § 7, 2. uncontracted syllables has an accent, the contracted form must have an accent the circum;
;

, , , or ). not %, but e%.

The

sufifix

for the

flex

when

possible.

204. This contraction may be seen more simply if represented thus €% = ""Ll i.e. occurs before /x and v, and ei in all other
:

;

forms.

The present and imperfect
ending
in
e

indicative of

have the same contraction as the future of liquid verbs. Learn § 59.
205.
is

,
Jip,

themes

;
;

The
of

fut.

ind. of

(-^),
raise
is

(ap-^), take aivay,
scitd, is
is

of eye

(-), (-),
:

(eyep-),

promise,

kill, is

.
is
4.

;

eyepo)

of

eirayyeXo)

;

of

206.

Rule

T/ie

future of all liquid verbs

is

formed by

the suffix e%.

-,

207.

The
part,

^ -, -.
aor. ind. of
inf.
1

e-p,eiv-a,

subjv.

See § 82, 3 and

;

Future and aorist of liquid verbs.

,-.
ind.
inf.

€76-,
208.

The

aor. ind. of

/-,-,-, -, -,
is

79

subjv.

part,

inf.

iirajyelX-aL

subjv.

part,

Rule

:

T/ie aorist active

and middle of

liquid verbs have no

tJie aorist by lengthening the last vowel in the theme to the corresponding long vowel, e, Jioivever, cJianges to
€1,

,

but forjn

and a
209.
I.

to

{except before

e,

i,

or

p).

Cf. 53,

i.

exercises.

. . 8€ ^^ ^^- ^^,
2.

iirajyeXia
7]

(promise)

3•

^

/'?
4•

i''yeLXao

eyepel.

etc

5•

^. ^ .^ .

{laid)

«^
']
.

.

. (also)

6.

.
See
§ 23,

8.

g.
^

8
tomb.

'^"?
3

^,
See
§ 13.

1

.

'


210.

So

ESSENTIALS OF

.
Xeyei
:

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

^

<;
otl
{eat)
;

<;

^

ayopa-

LESSON XXVIII.

, -,
,
|€<.,

, . ,
.
/'/

Pronouns

Reflexive, Reciprocal.
vocabulary.

recline, fall down,

?, ',

St'vSpov, TO, tree.

TO,g!ft.
Jiope.
is

lawful.

§,

, -,
-, ,
thy.

purified.
blessed.
hire,

grasp.

, MYSTERY.
and so.^

pav.

,

sacrifice.

si/fficient, able.

', -£,

think.

conj., so that,

211. Learn the declension of the reflexive pronouns myself, thyself,

,

.,
:

•,

the

himself, § 40.
i.

the personal pronoun and the intensive


=€
212.
^

Observe

These pronouns occur
2.

in

oblique cases only.

They

are formed from

=

€-\- €=:€-^ ',
;

,
eav-

(pron. not
is

found

in

N.

,,
This

.)+.

often written in a shorter form

etc.

latter sense at the be^inni>iz of a sentence.

1

PRONOUNS: REFLEXIVE, RECIPROCAL.

8

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

avToi

, € ^^ , , ? , ,
213.

Examine the following

:

eyw

I bear

luiiness concerning

tnyself.

i^avTov

/glorify myself. I speak not of myself.

what

sayest thoit concerning

thyself.

ourselves.

? ^/,
reciprocal

he will glorify Him in himself. we ourselves groan within

In

all

these examples the pronoun refers back

to the subject of the sentence,
reflexive.

hence the term

,, . , . . ^, ^ . .
Note that the
3 per. pron.

may

refer

(as in

Ex. 6) to other than the 3 per.

214.

The
is

pronoun

of one

another,

found

in dat.

and

ace.

?;-

they hate one another.

215.
I.

EXERCISES.
;

TLva aeavrov iroieh

2.

3•

''

ev

4-

eVre

5•

'^'^'

6.

yap

e^et

ev

1

slay.

. ?
8.

.
82

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

/

^^^

,

yap

,. ^^
LESSON XXIX.
Imperative Mood.

,, , '] ^^ ,
;

^,

g.

Xeym

216.

-, -,
',

vocabulary.
reveal.
bear.

?,

toiicJi,

,
«Is,

-TOs,

marry. known.

,
one.

two.
-Tos, least.

€, --,
badly.

,

, €,
'-,

adv., well.

weep.
repent.

conj.,

and as a prep. w.

gen., except.

adv., to-day.

four.
adv., afterward.

5,
217.

even as.
ill,

Tpets, three.

adv.,

The

pres. imp. of

is

:

active.
Sing.
2.

3•

-€-

middle and

-€-(

passive.

Plur.

2.

-£-

3•

---

or

--'-

--

or

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
218.

83
:

The endings
ACTIVE.
Sing.
Pliir.

of the imp. are

MIDDLE and PASSIVE.
Si/ig.
2.

Pliir.

2.

£
or

<

3•

3•

.
i>.

of the act.
is

for

219.

Examine the following
let Jiiin

, ,
:

--.

is

regularly dropped in verbs like

(.
or

:

hear.
not.

marvel

TJie imperative is used Rule command. The negative is
:

.

to

express a

, ,',
220.
of
a.
b.

Learn the aor. imp. act., mid., and pass. § 56, and the 2 aor. act, and mid. of
is an irregular ending. becomes tl to avoid a combination

§ 57.

ov in the aor. act.
in aor. pass,
1

of rough

mutes.

221.

/,
ovSevos

no one (ovBe, nor

+

eh,

one),

is

declined as follows

(.( €8

' €

oevC

Cf. eh, § 39.
1

See

§ 2.

.

84
222.
I.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
EXERCISES.

. ? . ' . ^ '. ^ . , . ,, .
Xeyet

^
ec ^ 8.

'ihe.

2.
3-

\.

ev

4•

Troieire

5•


6.
y.

ayaOov

;

ouBeU

eh

6

^ .

0( 8e
e

-

[again)

.

€^

Xeyeiv,

'

ev

9• ^Vt

8'

eyeveTO,

eyeveTO ovSe
12.

ev.

II.

].

6

3•

6

LESSON XXX.
Adjectives in -ov and
223.

-. — Comparison.

VOCABULARY.
u'ue.

?, -,

,

weak,

sick.

foolish
^

, -, ,

, marr/ag'e, polyGAUY. , chain, bond.
persecute, pursue.

The neuter
See
§ 142.

often has the sense of why.
^

^ If.

See irregular nouns, § 34,

*

b\Lyos, /eia,

,
-ets

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
only begotten.

£-09, 5, , <€\,
224.
(§ 35),

.?/.
prayer.

(,
9,

^5
cause to stum-

abiiiidiUlt.

',

ble,

SCANDALIZE.
run.
whole,
healthy,

full.

hy-

giene.
-TOS,

highest.

Learn the declension with which compare
that

serve

there
fern,

are

but

two endings

< ,—
of
(§ 30).

true

Obthe

masc. and
a.

being

alike.
is

of the ace. plur.

irregular.

See
225.

§

35 for the declension of

.
:

Examine the following
Comparative.
-Tepos,

adjectives

I.

2.

?, -,
?,
V€OS,

Positive.

(-),
('-),
strong-est.

Superlative.

strong.

€'-€8,
-Tepos,

strong-er.

iveak.

weak-er.
wisc-r.

3•

(-),
(vcU-TttTOs),

weak-est.

wise.
4•

wisest.
young-est.

€-£05,
young-er.
i.

young.

Observe:
thing
is

added ox cr and
vowel
is

-

That
to

in all these

examples some-repo<i

make

the degrees.
est.
2.

=

r

= si or

These are added
the penultimate
of the

directly to the stem.

short, as in 3

becomes

before

-

3.

When

and 4, the and

-.

stem

adjectives.
in § 38.

)
226. 227.

86

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

The
and

-,
See

suffixes

may be

-

GREEK.

(declined like

but mostly in the irregular

§ 37, 2,

and learn the adjectives

Examine the following adverbs
Positive.

:

€8, quickly.
:

,
$,

Comparative.

badly.
ivell.

«

Superlative.

(-) ()
(

)

It is to be observed i. The positive of the adverb ends in How different from the gen. plur. of the adj. 2. The comparative of the adverb is the neut. sing. ace. of the adjective. 3. The superlative of the adverb is the neut.
«?.
.''

plur. ace. of the superlative of the adjective.

.
I.

228.

Examine the following

:

<;
not.
:

/xev,

greater love than this

we know

Rule

The comparative degree

is

followed by

the genitive case.

229.

2.

8€
After.

\'
EXERCISES.
el.

3•

.
^

1

Adverbs of position are followed by the

genitive.

;

€€ ' . } '€^ . , . ,
REGULAR VERBS IN

.

87

4•

rfj

5-

iv

7ۥ .
el<;

. ,, ,
6.
"].

ov8e

el

e/xe

<;

el

\oyov

Sta

8.

'^
:

pat

7]<

}

{bed).

.
ecrrt,

\

?

LESSON XXXI.
Regular Verbs
230.
in

88,
in

give.

Of the two conjugations

Greek

(see

are by far the more common. 73) the verbs in Still, those that have the older endings -, -?,
etc.,

verbal forms
shozv
;

These words,

, , , , ,,, , ,
;

-

form a very substantial part of the ordinary
e.g:

forgive ;

give ;
is

am ;

set

sivear ;

put, place

;

say.

it

easily seen, are naturally of

very common use. Hence they are among the old verbs of the language, and may be called strong verbs, having, as they do, the strong
endiners.

88
231.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

The

conjugation of these verbs differs

from the conjugation of the verbs in -, in two the pres. and 2 aor. systems. systems only In these two systems the verbs in have no variable vowel %, but the endings are added directly to the theme, § 85.

Learn the principal parts of and the pres. and 2 aor. systems, act., (The mid. and pass, of these §§ 62 and 63. systems are very rare.)
232.
(§ 88)

8

233.

The most important compounds of

are with the following prepositions,

.

, ,88
of

234.

Observe the following on the forms
:

the verbs in
1.

The

old endings

,

etc.,

occur.

2.

3.

-,
The

-aat ends the 3 per. plur. primary, and not v, is found in the secondary

tenses 3 per. plur.
235.
1.

Note the following

present system has a reduplication,
§ 59.

2. 3.

eBiSovv like

.,
1

^

occurs for
in

,
;

in

:

St-,

in the aor. ind. act.
this pecuUarity in the aor. act.

Three verbs

Greek have

ind.,

aor.

, €,
aor.
;

aor.

REGULAR VERBS IN
4.

.
2 aor.
5.

89
subjv.,

',
5.

For the contraction in the ;?,- etc., see §§5, 12, and 8,
8odvat, 2 aor. act.
inf., is

for ho-evai.

( ,
236.
-\-

Learn the principal parts of Stem e), forgive, § 88, and the con-

jugation, § 66.
237.

The

pluperf. act.,
;

which

is

a rare tense,

has the suffix «et and being a secondary tense, secondary endings occur. See § 77, latter part.
238.
in

Translate the forms of
101.

and

§§96 and

,
is

LESSON XXXII.
Regular Verbs
239.
in
:

,.
:

Examine the following

(stem (stem

),

e),

-in
all

in

88

(stenr 8o),

(stem

),
l.

Observe that
reduplication, in
is

these verbs there
is

for
240.

-.
()

which the vowel

,
a

-8-

So likewise

some verbs

in

-()-

{)()

go

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW

TESTAAIENT GREEK.

This form of reduplication has to do with the
present system only.
241.

2 aor. systems of
242.

Learn the principal parts and pres. and and §§ 62 and 63.

The most common compounds
eiri,

are with

.
243.

,,
is

, ,
,

most common with

,,. ,
of
ctti,

and

Translate the forms in §§ 105 and 108.
Impersonal Verbs.
necessary

244.
Sei, it is

SoKCL, it

TL

. <;

Set TTOtetv

-,
seems {besf).

€€,
;

it

repents one.

,

$€,

it is

lawful.

it

concerns.

wliat

must /do? ye must be born from above.

Observe that hd takes the accusative and the
infinitive.

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.

,

€.€1 '^
rot?

'

First Epistle of John.

APXHS,

,8

(, —

,— , '

(
y ayyeXta

, rrepl

2

^ ^
X.pLcrTOV'
^

.

.
,

' 6

3

4

5

^ .
91
.

-

6

92

7

€€, )
..
^'^

^^^ e^o/xev

8

9

' ^ ,^ - / . .',
ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

[l., II.

.

ev

kav

kv

kv

/xer'

kv

,
6

),
2
3

4

",, , ., .
tt'a

kv

.

,. .
,
^

kv

xfJv

kv

kvav
^

6

-

6<).

1

II.]

,
'

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.
eV

?'
iv

iv

'Ef
6

<

,' ]'

vpiiv,

, .
et^'t
iv

, . ^ .
'

93

)•

otl iv

iKel- 6

ivToX'qv

^"
iv

ivo\

iaTLv 6

ivov

^

.
iv iv

iv

,
iv

8

g

^
iv

ilv

ivv 8 ,. , , ,
'^

. ,'^'6
1

iv

• ^•

',

,, , .
>

iva

13

94
14

, ,
/cat

ESSENTIALS OF

7€<,

eypaxjja

15

ayaTTo,

6

.- , € , ^ ', .. ,
NEW TESTAMENT
GREEK.
otl

[ll.

tou

eypaxpa

otl

-^•

otl

ecrre

\_Tov

)

• <

'^

otl

17

8

19

2
21

. '€
iVa

' ,, '

., , ,
[],
6

,
rj

- eVt^f/xta

, ,
-

. ^


1

'€

.
^

.]
OTL
avTTJu,

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.

<;
eaTiv.
;

otl

€,
Tts
otl

, /
6

'

' ^.
on
ei

95

22

6

6

ovSe

• ,.
9

'

, / .
.

,.' . , -'
[eV]

, evet.

6 23

24

25

26
27

8^ ^^ ,, ,
'

. .

1

,

, ,-

28

29

.

g6

ESSENTIALS OF

*€
2

3

. ,,\ ^ .
, \. ', ^
6
otl

^. ., ^
NEW TESTAMENT
GREEK.
otl^

[ill.

6

/

6

.

6

'

4
5

,
6

6

7

8

9

•, ., ^^ 8\ ., ^.
,
6

6

^

,.

6

6

6

1

.

1

^)
III.]

ev

\)
'

^ ., -, ^ .^ ; , ., ' , .' , ^ . , ^ 8

,8

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.

97
ort

^

TTOtet,

Swayeyevvy]TaL.

<

6

'

1

,
6

13

14

6

6

otSare

6

\

^eu-at.

)()

98

Tou

1

8

19

2
21

( ,
)
TeKuia,

)
/

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK,

,

^ ,

^ ^
iu

^ ',
;

[ill., IV.

\

otl

.
-

22

23

24

;, .

, ., , ^ ^
6

Kaphia

• , ,

. ^,

",
^

, .

.

- , €6 ' ' ^
IV.]

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.
i^e-

99

Oeov

ecrrtV, otl

6(,

^

'
)
*

iu

3

'^,
?,

'.

,,

^, ^.
6

4

6
5

,
.
6 6
1

, , ,.
ayaTroji'
'

.^ , ,
8
g
" Xvei.

, .-

6

6

lOO

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

[iV.

vlov

avTov rov

11

12

13

14

15

, , , ^ , '. , ' [] ,
otl

,^ . ,'
'
6

.,
^.

otl

6

'^

otl

iv

OTL

6

otl

\
6

6

6

17 'El•*

,

, -'
otl

6

.

.

6

',

77

[/xeVet].

IV.,

v.]

SELECTIONS FOR TR.4NSL.VnON.


(TLU

ecr/xev

iu
TTj

ayanrj,

e^et,

kv

rfi

,
^
6

). }(€ . ,

6 oe

, ' ,
6 6

/ . "^ ^ ,,
'
'

,, ^.
yap

,^
\
6 6

-

8•

19'

ao

2

^ .,

yap

, ,

^ ,
3

4

$

t

I02

ESSENTIALS OP

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.
el

[v.

6

7

8

,' '^ , ^
ecTTLu

[oe]

6

otl

6

0€ov

9 eicrti'.

,
OTL

, ,
;

6

'
iv
iv

ev

OTL

-

ot

^,

ot

^

et

OTL

^ \\)
11

6

12

13

^. ^ ^^ .', .
^

, , ,
'•

, -

. ^
e^et

6

^

. 3 '
|

otl

2

t

.

.

.

v.]

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.

I

03

, . ) ^. ^ , , ., iav
tl

.

,
, -

e^o-

14

^

ihy

6

,, . .
6

, ,

,8 , ,.
6

,

. ',

ly

'

8

ig

8e

6

2

Siavoiav

104

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK,
5

Mat.
3

:3-i2.

4

.
)

ol

/3€
TrpaciC, ort

ir€v6oiivT€C, ort

,.
on

5

6

.
7

8-,

8

^,, .
,

".

9

11

, . ^^ .
oifjovTai.

[]

^' \
^

12

(, •

^ ^

-'
6

-

66-^ ';

• * .-

selections for translation.

io5

? ^.
ovv
Ylarep
6 iv
Tj

Mat. 6:9-15.
u/xet?

9

ovpavols'

iv

Tou
/cat

?-

' * , '
ct>s

<

-

, ,'
inl

.' ",
6

)

? ,
€ '],
15.

2

6

.

[

lav oe

,
.

.-

13

14

15

Luke: Chapter

./

I06

€<
):

ESSENTIALS OF

3 eirreu

^
avrov

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

on
avueaOUL
tyju

4

€(
^',

. [XV.

tv

-

5

6

7

8

9

11

12

( ., ? ^^ . , ) , -%, , . .
",^
;

^

,

'^

XV.]

, • ."" ( -, . 8( , , '\ ,

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.

IO7

6 vecOT€po<?

^.
\eu
6

6

13

14

15

,
)

'

'.

1

6

,

ly

,•, .. 8
6

8

19

2

-

I08

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

^

[xv.

ineneaeu ini
21

rictrep,

,

, einev

[•

22

].

23

24

25

, , , ^
-, !^
OTL

^ , €€ ,
et9

/cat

eva

.
,
ay
1

.

-

-

'

26
27

6
28

29

^

., .. ,
6

6

'{.

XV.]
err)

,^ ', ? ^ € •
SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION.
trot

IO9

ovSeVore.

epL-

ore

6

30

^. , ,, ^ ^ . , , . , ^ , , .
6

31

,

32

^aprjvai

on

Cor.

:

Chapter

13.

rat?

. , ,, , ,
,,
^

, ,
,
2

2

3

.

, -

-

4

5

no

6
7

8

9

, , , €, , . ,, , ,
ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

[xill.

/xovet,

ov

-,
crreyet,

)

tyj

11

., ,

12

13

, ,, , , ,,. , •
• •

.
Si

. .

^^

atj'ty•

ABBREVIATIONS.

ace.
act.

accusative.

viasc.

masculine.

adj.

aor.
art.
cf.

dat.
e.g.

= = = = = = =

active.

mid.
neut.
710111.

adjective.
aorist.

article.

opt.

confer, compare
dative.

part.
pass.
for

= = = = = =

middle.
neuter.

nominative.
optative.
participle.

passive. perfect.

exempli gratia,
the

perf
pers.
pliir.

sake of ex-

ample.

= = flit. = gen. itnpers. = = hid. indecl. = indir. = = inf. = imp. imperf = = K.T.\.
fern.
lit.

feminine.
future.

poss.

pred
prep.
pres.
prill.

genitive.

impersonal.
indicative.

= = = = = = = =
= = =

person.
plural.

possessive.

predicate.

preposition.
present.
principal.

indeclinable.
indirect.
infinitive.

pron.
rel.
sc.
.

pronoun.
relative.

scilicet,

under

imperative.

imperf.

,

stood.
sing.

et ce-

stibj.

tera.

suhjv.
voc.

=

literally

= = = =

singular.
subject.

subjunctive.

vocative.

;

NOTES.

——
=

The

First Epistle of John.

1.

HN

' APXH2

CHAPTER

I.

^.

ing and accent are not written on capitals, o, the antece2 perf. dent of the rel. pron. is often omitted, prin. parts §88. A few verbs beginning act. ind. of with a, €, or have what is called Af/i'c reduplication I.e. a reduplication which is the first two letters prefixed to

,

,
The

breath-

vowels.

dropped between two This § 88. verb most commonly has both the temporal and syllabic The pers. lit. of us. augment, § 157.
the theme,
is

€€,= --,

.

pron.

is

often used for the poss. pron.

the art. may be used with absiract nouns in Greek, and ofttimes with concrete nouns, where it cannot be translated. For 2. Observe the change in tenses, aor., perf, pres. repeated after see 64. § 159. also to you, not as in Eng. to you also. 3• §119. /£^', §12. perf. pass, subjv. See 4. ^ § 56. The perfects made thus from a///, and the perf. part, are

, ,learn prin. parts of

-

',

-,

,,,

,
,

^,

?,

,

,

called pcriplirastic forms.

5.

the penult,
6. 8.

, ^,
iav, § 124.

NOTES.

113

note the accent. Always emphatic when on for the double negative, see § 142.

)?,

,'/, learn prin. parts of (,

§ 88.

for the 3 pers.

latter part.
9.

of the aor. here and in
10.

,

2 aor. act. subjv. of

],,
cf.

used for the
§ 66.

i

pers.

cf.

213,

For the sense

see § 114.

For the two

ace.

§ 161.

CHAPTER
1.

is

voc.

verb

is

2 aor. act. subjv. of
i

See

§ 83,
2.

3. 4.

keep, hence the neg.
5•

adverbs,
6.

/, , ] ,. ,
.

for class of verbs.
.
.

prin. parts of

, , -.
2.

for neg. see § 119.

The

learn prin. parts § 88.

not only

.

.

.

but also.
//"

is

equal to a condition,
§ 137. § 126.

one does not

,
the
art.

inf.

after

what tense? 37, 9, note. note on v. 6. 12. see under § 66. The perf. denotes the completion of the act, and equals here "stand forgiven."
9.
cf.

.

, . , ,
OS
cf.

'

for the formation of

227.

the

inf.

depends upon

in indirect discourse,

13.

and an

, , , .
=
adj. are

,'.

See

§ 131 for

intensive,

-

15.

,

§ 138.

,

note the gender. thus often used substantively.
i.e.

The

The

general use of the neut.
Ttav

16. 18.

, explained by
even noiu. changes to

the goods or affairs of the world. is to be noted. the following clauses.
2 perf. act. of
Cf. 2

vvv,

Theme
I

. .,

perf of

--,

§ 57.

.

114
19.
I

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT
prill,

=

-,
=

vowel often appears variable vowel %. el yap
aor.
.

in
.

.

tion, see § 122

and

",

parts

the place of the 2 aor.
for the condi-

§ 123, latter part,

and

176.

22. 23. 24.

, , {<
ei

unless, except, as

one word.
Iv

also.

6

...
come

This

is

a common construction in John.
clause

, €.
of

GREEK.

'.

The

175

Not only does the

relative

make
tive,

the expression

(not used except for emphasis)

whose antecedent is dropped, the fut. and aor. of liquid verbs, see 203-208.
25.
20.
27•

€,
masc.
28. 29.

? ' ), ^,
1.

,
£,
?

,, , ,
192, 193.

before the principal clause, but to
thrust before the rela. .

more emphatic a personal pronoun
is

/Aevetre, for

«-.

subj. of /xeVet.

Cf note on
is

v. 24,

above.

prin. parts of

neut.

,
not

2 aor. act. subjv. of
i.e.

shrink in shame

learn the subjv. of

,
3.

4', § from

88.
Iit/n.

, why

§ 68.

the aor.
of

. ,.
2.
5-

where

. , ., , (. , ,
CHAPTER
cf.

2 aor. of

how

different

from

prin. parts of

prin. parts

in other verbs
fut.

The long vowel « appears we find %.
of

in the 2 aor. ind.

€, § 65.

§ 153.

6\€, see

7. 8.

8, why
eZs

For the

class of verbs, see § 82, 4.

not ovSels ? § 138. TovTo,/or l/u's (purpose).

,
12.

sons, unless given a

masc. an improper prep. /or sake

prin. parts of has the sense of over, a change from one place to another. Note the strong antithesis between the gen. with €K and the ace. with €ts. goes with Review pres. act. part, 15.
14.


of
1

,
,
§43.
§ 63

NOTES.

115

Hebrew names

.,

of places and names of perGreek ending, are indeclinable,

€,
of.

(«-),

§ 82, 2.

, .

.
6.

] , . ,, ,,
= €-€,
tkei/ie
. .

,,
17.
1

^^.

and

235, 3, note.

Learn

prin. parts of
2 aor.

2 aor. act. inf.

The

always

has the simple
OS

of the verb.
.
.

'

.

.

],

§ 126.

8.

19.

/£^,

for the

mood, see

§ 113.

for the gen. see § 152.

§ 151.

20.
22.

23.

24•

,
,
cf.

see
OS

. above,
its

',

§ 155.

attracted to the case of

the gen. or dat. case.

1.
I

Jn. 2: 18.
2.

participle in indirect discourse,
tive are
3.
I
:

, ,
,

where we should expect

, ,',
§ 38.

§ 150.
§ 152.

see note
o.

on

above.

The relative is often antecedent, when the latter is in
4.
«^'•*'•'••

CHAPTER
2

perf.

of

more common, see

I.

,

2 perf. part.

§ 136.

§147.

,
Cf.

where

,

Cf.

-,
For the
indicai

§ 43.

and the

cf note on

Jn.

ev a substantive expression. 4. use of the article in Greek.

Note the wide

.

Il6
5.

9•
I

Jn. 3 12. how different in
:

, ,
§ 148.
etTT»;,

1 1

stibscript is
12. 15. 19.

reOearat, Ocdo^ai, § 77, 4.
eav, § 126, latter part.

20.

,
=

, ,
ESSENTIALS OF
cf.

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

a similar use of the
prin. parts of

mganing from

see § 59 for the inf. of contract verbs, regularly omitted here in classical Greek.

?.,
art.

and

adj. in

Cf. 157.

/-

not ind.

see under

£,

in table of irregular verbs.
?

21.

ayaira, ind. or subjv.

CHAPTER
1.

2.

nom. fem. plur. Adjs. in -vs are rare. = i/ie victory which has conquered. See aor. act. part, of § 43. 6. he who has come; lit. the (one) having
3-

4.

,

/£,

.

.

.

§ 127.

,
§ 59.
5.

192, 193.

come,
8.

€V, «Is, § 39.

10.
13.

tense.
14.

,

15.
I

Jn.

16.
1

8.

20. 21.

latter part.

, -, , ,
eav
t8ri,

, , ,
€.
8€, & 4:15. '.
cf.

-- , ,
§ 43.

-vpt'ov.

Cf.

,

goes back to

.
,
§ 119.
I.

Obser\^e the

the mid.

how

different

from the act.?
eav,
cf.

rare construction, § 124.

os

aor. pass. part, of

§ 43.

tva

note the mood.

(-),

§ 82,

Why

neut. gender?

,

213,

3.

,
to

4.

§ 56.
g.

,.
Mat.
5
:

NOTES.

117

3-12.

the beatitudes.

is

in the pred. position, 64.

See the

,
fut.

§ 147.

pass, of

viol is pred.

10.

8^8-,
.

perf. pass. part,

of

5.

,

change

before
11.

', against.

€8€
Mat.
6
:

may be

trans, as

an adv.

9-15.

9.

,. ,
(8-),

.
11. 12.

commands.

, ,
, €,

THE lord's prayer.

see 178

= os «• note the case, and the aor. pass. imp. of § note the use of the imperative

,
,
i

56.

mood
Jn. 2
:

in
19•

For the

,

in this form,

see under prep. § 164.

see 2 aor. act. system of see 2 aor. system of
;

indir. obj.

13.

€£],

sc.

prin. parts of

.
15.

cf.

note on

struction, see § 117.

14.

,

may be

either neut. or masc. as in

see under

.
is

(),

, .

88,

§ 63.

§ 66.

-

For the coni

aor. mid. imp.

Jn. 2:13.

Luke

the prodigal
I.

8e

use of the part, with

/^ « common
=
a

'
son.

Be

.

This

form of

participial

ri8

ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

,
of

New Testament writers. Perhaps more emphatic than the simple imperf. of the verb would be.
expression in the
§ 154.

,, , , . . . , ,,
2.

avveaOUL, note the force of
?

<rvv-.

What

case follows

this prep.
4.

§ 39, a.

prin. parts of

pres. pass, sense.
i.e.

€vpr), prin. parts of

§ 128, for
6.

mood,

y.

gives the idea of turning about from one stand to

,

2 aor. pass. imp. of

§ 58.

§ 65.

.

because

of.

,.
Cf.

same

another.
8.

'.
cf.

, , ,,.
133,

8,
I. 3,

was a Greek coin worth about 18 cents.
for the irregular contraction,
sc.

.
;

12.

part.

Ji.

,
§ 59.

note.

here,
13.

means

regularly found in the 2 aor. of this verb.
I

Jn.

14.

^tTO,

15.

. ^?,
I
:

,. ^? ,
.
see § 37,
SielXev,
life,

§ 153.

and note,

of

di-vided ; prin. parts of portion.

/, , '.
neut.

The

Attic

reduplication

is

I.

Prin. parts of

.

See note on
->''-

gen. abs. 194, 10, note.

179 and 190.

fastened ; found in the pass, only in the New Testament, and with the reflexive sense Join one''s self to. 16. see note on i Jn. 3:24. observe the nice use of the imperf. just as in English, 17. £ts § 149. the action is going on. § 157. 18. see 2 aor. system of a § 63. see under fut. with no pres.

,

lit.

be glued,

'. ', ^/,^, ,

,

, . ,, , ,.
. .

.

,

;

NOTES.
19.

, ^, «-.

€7€,
22.
lit.

-, -.
i^eviyKare,

aor. act. imp.

,
«

119
prin. parts of

,, ,
bound
23.

ivSvaare,

cf.

(8)

undenieath
parts of

prin.

-.

().

for the class of verbs, see § 82, 4.

,
ENDUE,

d-

€.

26.

SYMPHONY.

For the

case, see § 148.

TL

For is the opt. of what this is. av the forms of the opt. in the New Testament (and the uses The optative is used instead of this mood), see §§ 70, 71.
of the indicative in indirect question not exist in the speaker's mind.
27. 28.

.

29.

, , ,
§ 134.
cf.

when

certainty does

observe the force of the prep, as in trans-gress. devoured, squandered. 30. imperf. see 244 sc. <ri or is pred. 31.

,
',

bac-k. note the force of so always in the New Testament for 4'tos. 2 aor. mid. imp.

,

,

. ,
as
^e^t-

',

;

;

subj. of the infinitives.

I

Cor. 13.
LOVE.

things
\.

. , , , -,
1.

2.

', , =

§ 13.

£, see under

3-

=

'

,
;

§ 68.

;

i.e.

all that

I have,

y.

keep (7^ what threatens.
8.

to stop one's

,
self.

see 2 aor. act. of
§ 59. to cover

,

is,

all the

§ 63.

first

; then to cover and thus Hence, hold off against, etidure. in the mid in the act. to stop some one Hence, cease.

means

I20

11.

imperf. tense.
12.

or thorouglily.
13.

case of

A doubtful v. 3, is an aor. mid. subjv. reading where some editors give a passive form bum. from

,, , ,
,
ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

=

^v, mid. end.

-;
;

for act.

-v.

Note the

See

78.

tiri

adds the idea of WtV/
greatest.

greater; therefore,
see § 150.

t/ie

For the

(-^)

,

:

-

:

LITERAL TRANSLATION.
The
First Epistle of John,

chapter
1.

i.

That-vv'hich

was from beginning, tliat-which we-

eyes of-us, have-heard, that-which we-have-seen that-which we-belield and the hands of-us handled, con-

\-6

cerning the word of-the Hfe, — 2. And the Hfe was-manifested, and we-have-seen, and we-bear-witness, and we-proclaim to-you the life the eterwas with the Father, and was-manifested nal which
to-us,
3.

()

That-which we-have-seen and have-heard, we-pro-

claim also to-you, that also you fellowship may-have with us and the fellowship tmly the our with the Father and with the Son of-him Jesus Christ
:

4.

And

these-things write
full.

we

that the joy of-us

may-be

(having-been-fiUed)

5. And there-is this the announcement which ve-haveheard from him and re-announce to-you, that the God light is, and darkness not is in him at-all. 6. If we-say that fellowship we-have Avith him, and in the darkness we-walk, we-Iie and not we-do the truth 7. If however in the light we-walk, as he is in the light, fellowship we-have with one-another, and the blood ofJesus the Son of him cleanseth us from every sin.
:

:

122
8.

ESSENTIALS OF
If

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

we-say that sin not we-have, ourselves \ve-deceive,
is

and the truth not
g.

in us.

we-confess the sins of-us, faithful he-is and righteous tliat he-may-remit to-us the sins, and may-cleanse us from all unrighteousness. lo. If ve-say that not we -have-sinned, a liar we-make
If

him, and the word of-him not

is

in us.

CHAPTER
1.

2.

Little-children of-me, these-things write-I

to-you,

that not ye-may-sin.

And

if

any-one

sin,

an Advocate

we-have with the Father, Jesus Christ righteous 2. And he propitiation is for the sins of-us; not for the our and only, but also for whole the world. 3. And in this ve-know that we-have-known him,
if

the
4.

commandments of-him we-keep.
The-one saying that I-have-known him, and the not keeping, a liar is, and in this:

commandments of-him
one the truth not is 5. Who however

()
in

this-one the love of-the

God

keeps of-him the word, truly in has-been-perfected. In this
:

we-know
6.

that in-him Ave-are

The-one saying

him to-abide ought

just-as that-

one walked also himself to-walk.
but
the

Beloved, not commandment new I-write to-you, commandment old which you-had from beginning: commandment the old is the word which ye-heard. 8. Again, commandment new I-write to-you, which7.

thing

is true in him and in you, because the darkness ispassing-away, and the light the perfect already shines. 9. The-one saying in the light to-be, and the brother of-him hating, in the darkness is until now.

.

:

LITERAL TRANSLATION.
10.

I

23

The-one loving the brother of-him in the light abides, and oft'ence in him not is. 11. The-one but hating the brother of-him in the darkness is, and in the darkness he-walks, and not heknows where he-goes, because the darkness blinded the
eyes of-him.
12.

I-write to-you, little-children, because are-reniitted

to-you the sins on-account-of the
13.

name

of-him.

I-write

to-you, fathers,

because you-have-known

the-one from beginning. I-write to-you, young-men, because you-have-conquered the evil-one.
14.

known

the Father.

I-wrote to-you, little-children, because you-haveI-wrote to-you, fathers, because you-

have-known the-one from beginning. I-wrote to-you, young-men, because strong you-are, and the word of-the God in you abides, and you-have-conquered the evil-one. 15. Not love-ye the world, nor the-things in the world.
If

any-one love the world, not

is

the love of-the Father in

him.
16. Because every-thing the in the world, the lust ofthe flesh, and the lust of-the eyes, and the vain-glory ofthe life, not is out-of the Father but out-of the world is. 17. And the world is-passing-away, and the lust of-it the-one but doing the will of-the God abides into the age.

18.

Little children, last

hour

is;

and

just-as ye-heard

that antichrist is-coming, even

now

antichrists
is.

many

have-

become
19.

;

whence we-know

that last hour

us

;

if

()

Out-of us they-went-out, but not were-they out-of they-would-have-remained with us but that they-might-be-made-manifest that
for out-of us they-were,
:

not are-they
20.

all

out-of us.

And you
all.

anointing have from the Holy-One, youtruth,

know (you)
21

Not I-wrote to-you because not you-know the

124

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
and because every
lie

but because you-know
truth not
22.
is.

it,

out-of the

if not the-one denying that Jesus This-one is the antichrist, the-one denying the Father and the Son. 23. Every-one the denying the Son, not-even the Fathei has the-one confessing the Son also the Father has. 24. You that-which you-heard from beginning, in you let-it-abide. If in you abide that-which from beginning you-heard, also you in the Son and in the Father shall-

Who

is

the Har,

not

is

the Christ?

:

abide.
25.

And

this is the

promise which he promised to-us,

the

life

the eternal.

26. These-things I-wrote to-you concerning the-ones deceiving you. 27. And you the anointing which you-received from
in you, and not need have-you that any-one may-teach you but as the of-him anointing teaches you concerning all-thinJjF and true is, and not is false, and just-as it-taught you, abide-ye in him. 28. And now, little-children, abide in him that if hebe-manifested, we-may-have boldness, and not may-we-beashamed from him in the presence of-him.
; ;

him abides

29.

If

you-know that righteous

he-is,

you-know that

every-one tlie doing the righteousness, out-of him hasbeen-begotten.

TRANSLATION
I.

(Revised Version).
3.

CHAPTER

Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called children of God and (such) we are. For this cause the world knoweth
:

us not, because

it

knew him

not.

:

:

TRANSLATION (REVISED VERSION).

'

1

25

2. Beloved, now are we children of God, and it is not made manifest what we shall be. We know that, if he for we shall see shall be manifested, we shall be like him

yet

;

him even
3.

as he

is.

And

every one that hath this hope (set) on him

purifieth himself,
4.

even as he is pure. Every one that doeth sin doeth also lawlessness
is

:

and
sins

sin
5.
;

lawlessness.

And
and
in

ye

know

that he

was manifested

to take

away

in him sinneth not whosoever 6. sinneth hath not seen him, neither knoweth him. (My) little children, let no man lead you astray: 7.
:

him is no sin. Whosoever abideth

he that doeth righteousness
righteous
8.

is

righteous, even as he

is

He

that doeth sin

is

of the devil

;

for the devil

sinneth from the beginning.
the devil.
g.

end was the Son of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of
this

To

Whosoever

is

begotten of
:

God doeth no
sin,

sin,

be-

cause his seed abideth in him he is begotten of God.
10.

and he cannot

because

God are manifest, and the whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother. 11. For this is the message which ye heard from the beginning, that we should love one another 12. Not as Cain was of the evil one, and slew his And wherefore slew he him? Because his brother. works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 13. Marvel not, brethren, if the world hateth you. 14. We know that we have passed out of death into
In this the children of
:

children of the devil

because we love the brethren. abideth in death.
life,

He

that loveth not

;

;

126

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

15. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him. 16. Hereby know we love, because he laid down his and we ought to lay down our lives for the life for us

ye

:

brethren.
his brother in need,

But whoso hath the world's goods, and beholdeth and shuttetli up his compassion from him, how doth the love of God abide in him?
17. 18.

(My)

little
;

with the tongue
19.

children, let us not love in word, neither but in deed and truth.

Hereby
us

shall

we know

that

we

are of the truth,

and

shall assure our heart before him,

whereinsoever our heart

condemn
20.

Because
things.

God

is

greater than our heart, and

know-

eth

all

21. Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, we have boldness toward God 22. And whatsoever we ask, we deceive of him, because

we keep
23.

his

commandments, and do the things
this, is

that are

pleasing in his sight.

commandment, that we should Son Jesus Christ, and love one another, even as he gave us commandment. 24. And he that keepeth his commandments abideth And hereby we know that he in him, and he in him.
his

And

believe in the

name

of his

abideth in us, by the Spirit which he gave us.

, , , ,
,
, , ?, ,
gel.

VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH.

be glad.

to love.

,

.

beloved.

65,

, i/iessage. , niessenger^

an-

to hallow.

ayios. Jioly.

pin- if y.
c>,

pure.
field.

?,, ,
to

, , ?, , , ,
€,, ,

to hear.

,

vainglory.

to clang.

?, ?,

truth.

trne.

true, real.

adv., truly.

conj., but.
07ie

, ,, , , ', ,, , 5,
ENIGMA.

,

brother.

nnrighteoiisness.

,

blood.

dark saying,
away. to be ashamed.

to take

, , , ?,
, added
latable
;

,
d,

another.
sinner.

to sin.

,

,

sin.

to temporal

and

relative conj., not trans-

see

Greek index.

to declare.

live again] revive.

ask for.
request.

d, age,

EON.

eternal.

?, -, ,
?,
,
,

man. ', man.

, murderer.
ANTICHRIST

to raise up.

lawlessness.

127

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,, , , ,
. •€',
',

2

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

ivorthy.

?, ,
€,
conj.,

knowledge.
', clerk.

to

announce.

, •5€,

away. prep. w. g&u.,from. to go abroad. to answer.
to be
to

to write.

,

fingering.

to expend.

and, but.
it is

take back.

€,

--',

to loose, destroy.

,

impers.,

fiecessary.

prep. w. gen., through;
of.

to

send away.

ace, on account
to divide.
6, devil.

to touch.

to light.

€, ,
-TOs,

pleasing.
to deny.

to

murmur.

,

inind.
to scatter.

adv.,

now.

apTos, o, bread.

to teach.

,

beginning.
to begin.
to act

to give,

•€, -?,

just.

unseemly.

, justice.
prove. a servant.

adv., dissolutely.
he, she,

to thirst.

, ,
Papvs,

it.

to persecute, follow. to

of himself
to cast.

.

to forgive.

€,,
, €, «, €,
/.

-, , €, €.

-, , ),

-€, -, heavy.

,

kingdom.
sustenance.

, , ,
«, , €,

to be

serva7it.

to be able.

two.

', life,

conj., if.

to see. to feed.

to

of himself come near.
.

, , ,

conj., for.
',

neighbor.

, conj.,

to beget.

to be, become.
to k)i07U.

,

tongue.

,
TO,

if.

IDOL.

am.

2 aor.,

I said.

peacemaker.

VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS.

, -', €6,
cls, els,

prep. w. ace, into, in.

«, one.
to enter.

to

bring

in.

, ,
«,

129

,

desire.

to fall dcnini. to place

upon.

€£,
€K,

wJiether.

', 6, £, €€,
€,
iXirCs,
€v,

prep. w. gen., out of. \nA&(\.,one hundred.
adv., there.

«, , , €8,

TO, wor/c.

desert.

«, «,
«, «-,

kid.

to come, go.

shall say.
to ask.

that one.
to

carry ont.
fnercy.

?, my.

4,

,
£€,
,
to
i'veK€v,

to

show
hope.

'-.

to eat. TO, tnirror.

merciful.

£•8, last.

adv., before.

(, ',
iTos, TO,

prep. w. dat., in.

put
of.

on,

ENDUE.

«, to have.

,
am

year.
to find.

he said.
to gladden, rejoice.

€,
count

prep. w. gen., on acninety.

€vv€a, ni>te.

, ,
face

,
Iiri,

«, ,

comniandmeftt.
adv.,
before,

in

,

^,
cf. «K.

of.

, , ,, , , , ,

',

conj., 7intil.
to live. to envy.
to seek.
life.

conj., or.

to

go

out.

, <,
dat., 0/!
;

, promise.
to

'5,
',
',
;

,

adv.,

now.

coine.

promise.
w.
to, on.

prep. w. gen., lipon

w. ace,

,
ing

falling
to

to,

com-

to.

. , , ',

,

day.
OUT.

to soimd.

,
to

death.

marvel.
will.

,

to behold.

know

well.

to will.

to desire.

05, , God.

;

130

ESSENTIALS OP
to observe.

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

, 8, ,, -, ,

£€,

to sacrifice.

JesiiS.

-, ', ,
\(^,
to say.

, ?,
?,

propitiation.
/';/

conj.,

order that.

-05, strong.
to purify.

, , ,

, ',

pure. conj., even as. conj., and, also. , Cain.

new.
ei'il.,

, ,
der.

, ,
,
prep.

bad.

to call.

heart.
\v.

gen., against

, , , , , , , , , , , -,
,
6,
/(;

\, judgment.

CYMBAL,

to Speak.

to take.

hunger.
judge, think.

word. , lamp.
blessed,

loose, destroy.

happy.

to suffer long.

long, far.
to

bear witness.
witness.

,

w. ace, tJiroiigh.
to

condemn.

', ',,/ -,

€, ',

to

remove.

to leave behind.

.
6, €,
Carob
to

to

bring to nought.
kiss.

, €,
,

greater.

to devoiir,

squan-

to boast.

lie,

recline.

, €, ,
TO,

remain. part. prep. w. gen., with\ w. ace, after.
to to repent.

,

repentance.

to cross over.

TO, the fruit of the
tree,

£,

-, , -,
,

, ,
r\,

used for the swine, also by poor people. Lit., a little horn.
to shut.
to inherit.

, ,
-€',

Jiot.

neither, nor.

felhnvsJiip.

pjinishnient.

world, COSMOS.

, -. £, , , ,

no one.
hireling.

to hate.

d, hire.

pay.

o)dy begotten.

alone, only.
d, calf.

, MYSTERY.

VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS.
veavicTKos, o,

youiig

riian.

v€os,

, , ,
,

v€Kpos, dead.

young.

young

child.

to

conquer.

,

victory.

adv., now.

o0€v, adv.,

8, / know.
,
Iiottsei

, , , , ,
,
ov, not.

,

whence.

, , , ,
',

3

6£, ,

adv., thus.
debtor.
debt.

€,

,
,

to 07ve, be indebted. eye.
see.

shall

, ,
up.
fort.

oIkos, d, lionse.

oXos, whole.
like.

, , ,
,,
omit.
irapovcria,

TO, child.

child.

(>€(>,
TO,

to confess.

to revile.

name.

to see.

to anger., arouse.

mountain. OS. , , who. ',, whoever. -Tis, £, conj., when.
opos, TO,

, , ,
£,
-, .

to hiniger.
old.

adv., again.

,
to

PARABLE. pass away.
give

to deliver,

to

summon, comadvocate.
trespass.

8,

conj., because, that.

,
, 6.
all.
d,

,

d,

to

pass

by,

to be

provoked.

,

, presence. , boldness.

neither, nor.

ou8eis,

'-,

no one.
adv., never.

€'. adv., no longer.

, ,

to

father. persuade.

, ,
,
erty.

'€'•,

adv., not yet.
',

heaven. heavenly.
substance, prop-

^, -,

to send.

,

this one.

,

grieve,
d,

mourn.

temptation.

6, prep. w. gen., concerning; w. ace, around.
to

walk.
to

'•£--€,

abound.

132

ESSENTIALS OF
to

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
to

,
•7€,
iroo-os,

, , , , ,
boast.
ttCo-tis,

'-£'•€€,
to fall.

vaiint,

to believe.

?, , ••€,
quire.

,
irws, adv.,

.

learn,

en-

beggar.

adv., ever.

, faith.
caicse to

irio-Tos,

faithful.

,

wander, wandering.
II.

., <, (,

how.
sweep.

0€, to do, make.
6, citizen.

,

to

spirit.

iroXvs, nuich,

•,
,
•-,
iroTairos,
irovis, o,

many.

•08. wicked.
go, Come.
iropvos, o, fornicator.

how great.
what
sort of.

, -,
(, ,
<rds, ////.

, (,
to

to deliver.

, flesh
adv., to-day.

(TiTivTOs, fatted.

,

cause for

stumbling.

darkness.

cTKOTos, TO,

darkness.
to

have comcompassion,

passion.
bowels.

adv., where.

foot.
elder.

, -, ,
irpos,

irpaijs, gentle.

•€-5,
prep.

prep. w. gen., before.
TO, sheep.

w.

ace,

to,

towards.
to offer

••€'., to receive.

'•£,
ers
to.

pray-

,

to

summon.
face.

•-?,

, prophecy.
PROPHET.

d,

-, -, , ',

, -, -, -, •€, -, -,
thou.

, -,

,

,

seed.

,

robe, gar^nent,

,

miisic.

to collect.

to eat with.
to call together. to rejoice with.

to slay.

',
',

body.

,
Tf'\£ios,

saviour.
child.

adv., quickly.
to', little
to',

child.

irpwTos, first.

perfect, mature.

tCs, t£,
Tis,

,
€,
one.

,
€£,
Ti,

VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS.to

p 67-feet.
of taxes.,

-,
to',

133
puffed up,

to be

d, collector

inflated.

publican.
to keep. to p2ct, place.

who ? what ?
sotne
otie,

certain

, ,
€,
Xopo's,

?, , »,

?,

light.

brass, bronze.

, joy.
to rejoice.

, , ',
',
d,
viTi'p,

?, ',,
Tpiis,

Too-oiJTos, so

much.
neck.

,

three.

to run.
to tnake blind. to be well, strong.

,
8,
6,

', ', -, , €'$, 6, ',
',

, ,

TO, water.

son.
to go. to be.

prep. w. gen., for.

', sandal.
to

endure.

to lack,

to shcnu,

want. appear.

plain, tnanifest. fnake manifest.

bring, bear.

friend.
to fear.

, ,,

, , , , ,
,
,
,

-, '?, ,
',
prophet.

, •€,
?,,,
,
Xpcia,
lie,

used as prep. w. gen., for the sake of. , hand.
swine.

dancing.
to be filled.

need.
to be kind.

anointing.
Christ.

country.
to

ۥ75,
-?. ,
TO, lie.
soiil.

speak falsely.

,

false

liar.

to touch,

handle.

give in small parts.
shoulders.

as follows, thus.
hour.
to
to.

'.

', -,

fear.
to

to think.

guard.

,
tis,

,,
as.

owe,

be

in-

debtea

PART

II.

— GRAMMAR.

1.

WRITING AND SOUND.

1.

Greek

is

written with twenty-four letters.
Nam .
Latin.

Form.

A
7

"
(short)

alpha
beta

a bi

as in father
as in get

/

gaiiuna
delta

g d
e

epsilon

as in Viet as in they
as in thiiig

seta

(long) ,•}

eta

e

^^

theta
iota

th
i

8
t^

as in machine

kappa lambda
in
nil

c or
1

k

m
X

(short)

-

xi
oniicron

as in exainple as in obey

7

pi
rho
r s
t

2

5

sigma
tail

3
^ f

French
upsilon

Ji

or

^
[^

German

ii

phi
chi

ph
ps

as in phase ch as in chasm as in lips as in tone

psi
,

(long)
1

ouiega

Letters without equivalents are pronounced as in English.

2

(

in the

middle of a word;

s

at the close,

^

See 11,

d.

138

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

^
60
00.

'-S

(

"nJ 5»

(

(U

'
)-<

b ^

/^\
rfl

S
-^

^
03

->

)0
"*

§
Si

'%
0) „i-^
«i,
.4_»

"
<i3

>a3

S

Q

:—
S
J3

^^j. JJji

iuO
•.nj

5 ^
4->

C

Uj
(/I

OJ

'w

(
OJ

OJ

3

^
>^
CO the;
foil
•"

—- X
— —
Q3.CO
t= t-

4-)

c (

.
W

<L>

-Si

M-l
;5

as

>
-g -

— " W
c

-c

.i:

open;

>
fa

fa

(
Si

3
ipJitJiongs

2
2"
^

are

3^
yA pa

£ 5

55

U a

e C

8

>3

c 3

c

Linguals
Labials
Palatals

3 c
CU

f2

s

.
S)

! ^

>"
3
)M-l (U TO

c

Is.

-3

g.

?^
.

«
9 >
'S

V

3

3 >
C

i
Id

^

'^

b
.( ci
eor>

Si
>-

^

CO «ys

13

^

3

>

CONTRACTION.

1
<u

39

:;

-

Ti
«J

'±i "^

TS

c

1 ^. ,

i
'^

2

<

> ^
-5

C

>

'OJ

en

5>

iz)

3 -li

-^^-^^ - «--^ C
3

w,

ot^ >>2 cc
^

•£t^-2c ^
'rt

§

^
Ml -233
00
II

'^

U

aJc^ll

^ ^

° S ^ 0-o"ll''^Oc«"iL.
II

I

^

g

gl3

^

«

::

^

^"11

So
CO
s:

^^^n" S^-^S
C.cCi£«£

^ -

,

>3o
iS

'';^"li

§

.
.

«

^
WW •>-

^
./

— ^
^ -

^
(J

-^ ^

(D J-:

^ :

:

;

:

:

140

essentials of

new testament
Accent.

greek.

§ 9.

There are three kinds

of accent in

Greek

.

The acute ; as in /, tvho ? " The grave ri?, some one. The circumflex ; " to hint.

,

There are two fundamental laws of accent and nominal (includVERBAL, explained in 3, ing nouns, adjectives, and participles), given in
<?>
;

57.

Breathings.
§ 10.

Every

initial

vowel or diphthong has a
it

breathing mark over
(')
is

called the smooth breathing,

pronounced.
(')
is

fSio?,

called the rongJi breathing,

sound

of

//.

,

.
is
v.

and

is

not

Jidra ;

,

and gives the
hantou.

Note

that the breathing

placed over the

second vowel of the diphthong. Initial always has the rough breathing,

.

Movable
§ 11.

Movable

may

occur at the end of the

following

{).

I.

All dative plurals in

-{).

7rdac(v),

-

apostrophe;

crasis.

'

141

2.

All verbs with the ending

-.

\{).
3.

{),
singular of

After

-e

of

verbs.
4.

'\£{),
;

After kari
also
is

So

vowel, as

?§ 12.

<;
E.g. air

{). {).
as

the

third person

movable

Before a in thus. but before a consonant,

'^,

Apostrophe.

may be dropped
a vowel.
zuJiicJi ;

Note that the

^,

In the prepositions a short final vowel before a word beginning with

,

from him

;

",

at

zvith us.

elision is

marked by an aposvr,

trophe, and that a smooth mute, as
to the corresponding
i'ougJi

,

changes
before a

,
§ 13.

rough mute,
;

,,
as

breathing.
but, also suffers elision

'

e/xot.

Crasis.

When

thong,

come together

or TO evavTiov, they are usually joined together;
as Kayco or

(mixture), and

.
is

two vowels, or a vowel and a diphin two words, as /cat
This
is

called

crasis

indicated by the coro)iis over

the contracted form.
^

But

in the

New

Testament often

s

before a consonant.

142

essentials of

new testament greek.

Punctuation.
§ 14.

The Greek has
mark

four punctuation marks
;

:

the

comma and
;

the period, as in English
{ ; ),

the

interrogation

as the English semi-

colon

and the point

(•)

above the

line,

which

equals English colon or semicolon.

2.

ACCIDENCE.
of

§ 15.

Accidence treats

nominal

hiflexion,

the declension of nouns, adjectives, and participles,

and of the

cotijiigation of verbs.

Inflexion.

In Greek all nouns, adjectives, and parhave inflexion; i.e. an ending or suffix which is added to the stem or substantial part of the word. There are three sets of endings or suffixes, and according as a noun takes one set or the other it is said to belong to the nrst,
§ 16.

ticiples

second, or tJiird declension.
§ 17.

Nouns
in

of the first declension

have the

stem ending

-.

This

is

therefore called the

A-declension.

Nouns
in
-0.

of the

second declension have the stem

O-declension.

GENDER AND NUMBER.

"

1

43

Most nouns of the third declension have stems ending in a consonant, hence the term Consonant Declension is used.
Gender.
§ 18.
line,

All nouns in Greek are either mascu-

feminine, or neuter gender.

Nouns denoting male persons are masculine. Nouns denoting /i7«rt/fc' persons are feminine.

may be determined
1.

Outside of these sex rules the gender very largely by the declension to which the noun belongs
§ 19.
:

Nouns

of the A-declension ending in a,

r\,

are feminine.
culine.

Those ending

in

-?

are mas-

2. Nouns of the 0-declension in -09 are mostly masculine ; those in -ov are nenter. In the third declension the gender varies 3. according to the ending of the stem. See Lessons XV., XVI., XVIII., and XIX. for the

discussion of these forms.

Number.
§ 20.

In the Greek of the

New

Testament

there are two numbers, singular and plural, as
in English.

144

essentials of

new testament greek.
Case.

§ 21.
1.

There are

five cases in
in

Greek

:

Nominative, as
Genitive,

English.

2.

source or whence-case.
of.

Eng-

lish
3.

possessive or objective with
Dative, \vhere-case, to or
IS

for which any-

thing
4.

or IS done.

English remote or indirect

object.

Accusative, whither-case.
Vocative, case of address.

English direct

object.
5.

§ 22.
,

, begitining.

Stem

S.N.V.
G. D. A.

9
88

- ,Stem

First or A-Declension.^

, wisdom.

,, Stem
upas
•Sp»

hour.

($
(,$
5o|i-

P.N.V.
G. D.

A.

< ( $ $ ,
Stem

-

copwv

«pais

, glory.
P.N.V.
G. D. A.

S.N.V.
G.

D. A.
^

,
Cf.

$ $

55

for table of

endings in the A-declension.

S.N. G. D. A. V.

? - ? ?
145

SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION.

•-?, , PROPHET
^

Stem

...

G. D.

.

.
o''

a,

.
ple
;

Most nouns of this declension have the nom. and are feminine. Some end in -s, and are masc. E.g.
veavias,
yrj,

young man

;

c.

, earth, contracted

out as

o.pyr],

from yea, is declined throughbut with the circumflex accent.

,
',

judge.

,
Stem

in a,

,

disci-

§23.

Second or 0-Declension.
d,

5,
Stem
S.N. G. D. A. V.

word.

?,

\o-^o-

Stem

8

- ?, 88 ?
servant.

ma7i.

P.N.V. G. D. A.

? ?
1

?,
S.N. G. D. A. V.

? ?
son.

?
...
.
G. D.

£
£

Stem

-

? ?

See 51 and 54.

146

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
TO, gift.

8,
S.N.A.V. G. D.
a.

Stem

-

P.N.A.V.
G. D.
Jesus,
is

8
and voc.

,
S.N. G. D. A.
P.N. G. D. A.

>;

in the gen., dat.,

L §24.

The
Masc.
6

Definite Article.
Fern.

Neut.

8
"^

ol

Td
rats
TOiS

Tois

TOVS

TOS

25.

Adjectives of the A- and 0-Declension.

,

good.

S.N. G. D. A. V.

«

P.N.
G. D. A.

S.N. G. D. A. V.

, 85
tSLov

PRONOUNS
one's

IN -05.

own.

,

147
small.

? )


-.
Cf.

...
G. D.

.

,

§ 26.

Pronouns
;

ihis (one)

,

in

62-64.
;

i/tai

(one)

,

/le,

himself.

S.N. G. D. A. P.N. G. D. A.

.
and
>.

and

except the neut. sing, of each
ace.

?
it

are declined like
is

and

'

'?,

above,

in

nom.

she, it

;

is used as tlie pers. pron. of the 3 pers., /le, but in the oblique cases only. When used with a

noun
the

in

any

case,

means
the

himself.,

man

,

himself.
it

But when the

art.

etc e.g. b precedes the pron., as
;

,

means

same (man).

Cf. 69-70.

7.

Relative Pronoun.
OS,

who.

OS
ols
oil's

ov

f

als

as

\

28.

Consonant or Third Declension.

Lingual

Mute
xdpis,

Stems.

Cf.

127-132.
«XirCs,

, grace.

Stem
S.N. G. D. A. V.

xapis

5
X^pis
xapiT€s

-

,

Stem

-

hope.

iXiris

«XiriSos
iXiriSi

iXirC

P.N.V. G. D.

iXirCSes

••£
xapiras
,

.

vvt,

,

mghi.

Stem

-

,«XiriSas
6,
^

ruler prince.

Stem

S.N.V. G. D.

VVKTOS

. ...
G. D.

vvKTiS

.

€ -

apxovTOS

apxovTas

NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.
§ 29.

149

Neuter Nouns of the Third Declension.
Stems
in -ar.
Cf. 106.

S.N.A.V.
G. D.

S.N.A.V.
G.

D.
§ 30.

? '
Stems

- - ( -$ (, , (-, ,
Stem
body.

P.N.A.V.

G D

ftame.

Stem

P.N.A.V.
G.

D.

-,

Neuter Nouns of the Third Declension.
in -ea.

Cf. 135.
race.

8, ,
S.N.A.V.
G.

D.

' €
7€'vos
-t

Stem
^

yeve<T-

P.N.A.V.
G. D.

(yeVeos)

'€-

' €

(yeVea)

(yevewv)

§ 31.

Stems in

and

-ev.

Third Declension.
Cf. 112.

TTOXis,

,

ctVy.

Stem
S.N.
G. D•

jroXi-

€5 €
--

P.N.V.
G.

A• V.

D. A.

iroXeis

iroXewv

I50

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Pao-iXcvs, 6, king.

Stem
S.N. G. D. A. V.
32.
pa<riXivs

-

.€
(€
,
P.

(.«'

P.N.A.V. G. D.

Pao-iXcis

-€(

Liquid Stems of the Third Declension.

,Stem

age.

'(,
Stem
S.N.V. G. D.

S.N.V. G. D.

.
33.

, 1$
Stem

€8 . €€ . €$

/-

leader.

£ €
.

Syncopated Stems

, , father.
,
f/ian.

in -ep-.
Cf. 113.

S.N. G. D.

.
V.

€ ()
"dvSpos (avepos) dvSpi (ave'pt)

irarpos (Trarepo?)

P.N.V. G. D.

? ^ -

?
avSpcs

8.

.
G. D. A. V.

, Stem

Cf. 114.

()

P.N.V. G. D.

.

8( 8<()
/pes)

avSpas (avepas)

avep

ADJECTIVES OF THE CONSONANT DECLENSION.
a.

-,

are nouns declined the

§ 34. The following are nouns of the third declension that have irregularities of form or

accent.

Only forms
Plur.

, , €5, £, ,, .. ,65, , , . 8. , . , -, ?• '. , , ?, . ^- ', , , €,
TO, knee.

here given.

,

tuoinan,

,

hair,

, . -, , , -. ?, , , . ,,.
jiwtJier^

151
belly^

daughter^ and

same

as

of the

New

Testament are

Plur.

Plur.

dog.

Plur.

?,

ear.

Plur.

-.

irois,

,

foot, iroSos,

Plur. iroSes,

iroo-C,

waier,

Plur.

-,
§ 35.

,

hand.,

X«ip<5s,

X«i-pi,

Plur.

X€ip€s,

xeipas.

Adjectr^es of the Consonant Declension.
STEMS IN
Stem

S.N. G.

D. A. V.

P.N.V. G. D. A.

£' ' £8
€$

,-'
-true.

,STEMS IN
Stem

-V-

foolish.

?

-

$-

€$

152

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
the Consonant

§ 36. Irregular Adjectives of

Declension.
iras, all.

Cf.

164-165.

Stem

SN.

iras

G. iravTOs D. A. V.

.N.V. iravTes

G.

D. A. iravTas

S.N. G.

D.

- ? ?? ?? ?, ? " -, - "?
iraerais
7niich, tiiany.

- ? € ,-/? «- €5 € () - - ' « - €
-Stems

',

great.

ۥ-,

Stems

.

.
§ 37.
1.

?? ???
for the superl.

Comparison of Adjectives.

Add

-?,
strong.

-€

for the compar.,

•-?,
strong-er.

and -raros

(--?),
strong-est.

2.

Add

?,
much.

-

for the compar.,

-,

and

'<

for the superl.

-•?,
most.
in )%, 6$,

is

().

When the penultimate vowel is short, as lengthened before -repoi and -raros; e.g.
^

the

Cf. 225.

CARDINAL NUMERALS

;

PROxNOUNS.

153

§38.

Irregular Comparison.
bad good

, , ,
05,

05, good

.

,
,
evi

great small
miicJi

€ --


ihrec.

«
^

Comparatives in

are declined like

,
-

§ 35.

§39.
07ie.

Cardinal Numerals.

. €
G. D. A.

€, € € '
'
evi

€-•€, four.

'•-€

(
els,

4'

'

€<<

TeVtrapcri

.
b.
c.

The

cardinal numerals from 4 to 100 are indeclinable.
etc.) in -05

Ordinal numerals

{,
-05.

and

-ol

are

declined like adjectives in
see 221. § 40.

For the declension of oiSet's

(ov8e,

and not, +

one),

,
. .
G. D.

Pronouns.
/.

Cf.

68 and 213.

Personal.

,
S.N. G.

you.

S.N. G. D.

«,
<,
«, €
lue

D. A.
P.N. G. D. A.

« (
CTi

. . «5,

?

1

Occurs but once,

154

S.G.

D.
A.

P.G.

D.
A.

, , , , $ ,
ESSENTIALS OF
myself.

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

Reflexive.

<€,

-$
-fj

-

(, -€,

thyself.
-r\%

S.G.

D. A.

, €,

5, £,
-fjs
-fj

•8 5? $
avTas
itself.

•6, -

/innself herself

P.

€, -, Interrogative.
Tis,

€$ «?
tIs,

«8
some
otie.

S 41.

Indefinite.

who.
P. Tives

S.N. t£s G. Tivos

S.N. tIs
Tivl

tI

p. Tiv€s

Tivos
Tio-l

D.

.

Ttvas

Tivtt

tI

Tivas

a. TIS,

some one,

is

an

enclitic.

Cf. 196-198.

§ 42.

The
oo-Tis,

indefinite relative

6<;

(6,

ivJio,
:

and ?), whoever, has the following forms
S.N.

5, ,.

P.N.

oiVives,

aiTivis,

.

43.

Participles.

,

loose.

Present Active.

S.N. G. D. A.

XvoVTOS

? -) -

XvOVTOS

PARTICIPLES OF

P.N.V. G. D. A.
a.

€5

5
Xvlo-as

For the

S.N. G. D. A.

P-N.V. G. D. A.

(€5

- - - -) (" Aorist Active.
-avTOS

pres. pai 1. of

?^ ,
•(5

.
see 183

155

and

184.

(<

--•9

S.N. G. D. A.

P.N.V. G. D. A.

.

So

staiidi>ig,

£ ? € €$ ?, €8
£
KOTOS

Perfect Active.

€£5
from

likewise the 2 perf. act.
,

;

as

/(?

;//7/•?

stand.

? ? ?, ,
' ' '

S.N. G. D. A.

? €5

Aorist Passive.

' '

£< -? -)

'

156
P.N.V. G. D. A.
C.

ESSENTIALS OF
kvBtvTis

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

, ,
So
from
§ 44.

'?
:

-

£( €$
sow.

XvGiicrais

likewise the 2 aor. pass.

;

as

follows

'
^

Participles in

^

become

, - 9 - , 5
S.N.

-€ and

-

' € €" €, -,
contract as
speaking'

living

become

05
— Sovs, giving.
etc.

§ 45.

Second Aorist Participles of Irregular
Verbs.

S.N.

a.

S.N.

5 (5 8 ? •5 5 $. -. -, . €( ' €( -?
,5
G. G.
etc.

.So the

.-,
— —
etc.
all

going.

pres. part.

Geis,

placing.

falling.
ire<rov

G.

€5 €<8
etc.
1

S.N.

GiVTOS

G.

ir€<rovTOS

--?

iricrovTOS

b.

So

the pres. part.

tiOcCs.

c.

So

2 aor. ptcs. in

-.

See §§5, 8; 8,4.

2

See §§

5,

1,2; 8,3.

;

THE VERB.

<. — ?,
S.N. (TTds

<•
etc.

standing.

G. crravTOs

(-?

( 8-8
knowing.
S.N.
-us

-. — ?,
G.

157

()

§ 46.

like

,

All

participles in

-

etc.

are declined

§ 25.

The Verb.
Voice.

There are three voices in Greek the and passive. Of these the active and passive are the same as the active and
§ 47.
:

active, middle,

passive in English.

The middle
acting upon
itself.
1.

voice represents the subject as
or in

itself

some way

that concerns

The Direct Middle where
upon
itself; e.g:

directly

I wash myself. 2. The Indirect Middle where the subject is represented as acting in some way for itself e.g. I buy, I buy for myI zvash, / wash self ;

my

, ,

,

,

the subject acts
ivash ;

I

,

?,

hands.

§ 48.

ous,

The uses of the middle voice are numerand are best learned from the lexicon.

158

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Often the sense of the verb changes middle e.g. I persuade ; suade myself, I obey.
;

,

^,
Greek
:

in

the

I per-

Mood.
§ 49.

There are

five

moods

in

the In-

dicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative,
Infinitive.
finitive

and
In-

The

Indicative, Imperative,

and

correspond very closely to the same moods in English. The Subjunctive is most often translated by the English potential. The principal uses of the Subjunctive are explained in 87, 95-97, 158. See also under Syntax. The Optative mood is rare in the New Testament, and hence is not given with the paradigms. For the forms that occur and the uses of the same, see § 70 and § 71.
Tense.
§ 50.

seven.

The The

tenses of the Indicative

mood

are

present and imperfect denote con;

the aorist and future denote an indefinite action the perfeet, pluperfuture perfect aQX\ot& completed action. fect,

tinued or repeated action

;

§ 51.

The

tenses of the subjunctive are the
perfect ; the latter
is

present, aorist,
in the

very rare

New

Testament.

THE VERB.
§ 52.

159

The
:

tenses of the Indicative are distin-

guished as primary and secondary.

Primary Secondary
§ 53.

Present., fjcttcre, perfect, future perfect.
:

Imperfect., aorist, pluperfect.

the

first

(first

principal parts of a Greek verb are person singular of the present, fnture, or second) aorist, (first or second) perfect,
;

The

indicative active
first

the perfect middle, and the
;

or second aorist passive

, -, ', ', €',, , , ',
4'.,
There
is

,
e.g.

§ 54.

no difference
first

in translation betv^een a first aorist
aorist,

between a

meaning nor and a second perfect and a second
in

perfect.
§ 55. The tenses of the verb are divided into nine classes or tense systems, each having a

distinct tense stem.
\.

Present

2. 3.

Future

incluaing present and in/perfcct. " future active and middle.
" "

First aorist
First perfect

4.
5.

Second aorist "
Second perfect ^^ Perfect middle "
First passive
"

6.
7.

and middle. second aorist active and middle. first perfect and pluperfect active. second perfect pluperfect active. perfect and pluperfect middle and passive and future perfect.
first aorist active

,

8.

first aorist

and future passive.

9.

Seco7id passive "

second aorist and future passive.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

§56.

I.

Active Voice of
Present.

«.
Ftiture.

Imperfect.

Indicative.

'
4'€

I.

p.

€ €
€€

-

(€15

X

2.

[

3-

«

iXv£T£

(£€

Subjunctive,

.
S.
J

2.

.
2.

£ £
£

3-

Imperative.
S.
[

2.

3•

2.
-^

£
or

3•

[

Infinitive.

£

Participle.

, (,
(§ 43)

(,

<(,

<

ACTIVE VOICE OF
I

.
Perfect.
i

i6i
Pluperf.

Aorist.

I

Indicative.
S.

'

I.

'-as

2.

€5

L3•
I.

€<6

6
or

(£)€€
(

(€)£

)65

€<£
€-£

(€)€€1-


6

P.

2.

(€)X£XVIKCI-

3•

'-

Subjunctive
s.

.
2.

(
-)

.3•

I.

p..

2. 3•

•6
(6
-,
Xijcra<ra,

-)5

[ ?
[€€
or

-

(l)\eXvKci

]
?,
(§ 43)

€6

Imperative.

r

2.

s.^
l3'2.

p.-

3•

Infinitive.

- '] '
08

Participle.

,

(§ 43)

l62

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

2.

Middle Voice of
Present.

.
),

Imperfect.

Indicative.
s.

I.

2.

),

Xvei

.3•

Xierai

£
€6-€

(£6

Fiiture.

I.

P.

-

2.
.

\v€<r0€

3•

<

Subjunctive
s.
-

I.

2.

.3•

I.

p.

2.

.3•

Imperative.

2.

S.
[

3•

£•

.
Infinitive.

3


'or

(€(

Participle.

€5,

,

€, -,

(§ 46)

(§46)

MIDDLE VOICE OF

.
Perfect.

163

Indicative.
S.

I.

2.

I

Aorist.

.3•

I.

P.

2.

.3•

« -(
-€ --

' « ' €.
€€

Pluperf.

Subjunctive
s.

I.

2.

.3•

I.

p.

2.

- ' ] - €^ €€'05

' ^

€€09 3
1

.3•

-

Imperative.
s.

'

2.

['

.3•

12.
3•

Infinitive.

Participle.

-?,
or or

-5,

-,

-^

-(§46)

-(§46)

1 64

ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
3.

Passive Voice of
Fut. Perf?i

Indicative.
S.

I.
] 2.
\

[- ? « €,--6
ۥ(3

3•

2. II. 3•

-€ Aor?I

.

Future^•

],

--€

Subjunctive.
S.

.
2.

.;;
Imperative.
S.

Infinitive.

- or

-'

Participle.

£(€5, ,,
-,

-

ۥ,

(€5?
-,

-

(§46)
^

€(§43)

(§46)
in form

All other tenses of the passive voice are the

same

as the middle-

SECOND AORIST, PERFECT,
§ 57.

ETC.,

OF

.

165

Second Aorist (Active and Middle) and Second Perfect and Pluperfect of Xetirw.

2 Aor. Act.

Indicative.
1

I

.

S.

I

2.

I

3.
I.

1

' €-7£
€X.nres

'

2 ^<?r.

y]//i/.

••6
€£•6

P.

1

2. 3.

£--6€

L

Subjunctive.
[

I.

S.

-;

2. 3I
.

1

? ) ]
"•6€
or

I

P.

1

2.

'
or

? [-[
Xe'Xoiira

2 /Vr/.

2 Phiperf.

6€5

€••£

€€€(^

eXe\otireT6

€\e\oiiri(rav]

1

3-

]
[.€
€7€6
[XeXoiirlvai]

ۥ75

Imperative.
.
2.
3•
f

-'

2.

.

J

3•

- -]

Infinitive.

Participle.

, £5, .(§ 45, <)

'

-,

(§ 46)

, ,
-iros (§

43)

6
58.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Future and First Aorist Active and Middle (Liquid Forms) and Second Aorist and Second Future Passive of

.
I

Flit.

Ac
"

Fut. Mid.

Indicative.

V
Is
ii

av(o

lavei

' €) '
€.

Aor. Act.

13

.
€€

'
|$

Subjunctive.

-ii
Imperative.

S.I

2

€ €

€(
-,
(§ 46)

P•

3

«(
or

Infinitive.

Participle.

, €$, , , - -,
(§44)
(§43)

FUIURES AND AORISTS OF
I

.
2 Fiit. Pass.

Aor. Mid.

Indicative.
f'•

S.

-*

2.

«

2 Aor. Pass.

.3•

I.

P.

-

2.

€5 €, € -€ (€ , (€•

--

.3•

<€
-,
(§46)

Subjunctive.
i^•
1

S.

J

2,

.3•

I.

P.

2.

.3•

Imperative, c

i2.

l3\

(

€ € or

2. 3•

.

J

[

Infinitive.

€5, -,
(§46)

€ '
£5.

Participle.

ۥ,
(§43,0

-, -

1

68
'T3

ESSENTIALS OF
"^

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

.» '3

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ p• p• f^ P" ( - <0 «O lO (O
(lO

D

.

--

^^

3
<-»

<^

«3

• ( ( (

^ ^ <<.

3?r:!SS
'K

t/<

'<

^

•< ><

^ <

^
*-«

y^~s.
.
,

r

-

' ^

.

'3

'
<•*

<

V"r .'5

,.

^

%

^

"
"S

S

<3

.^

<P=

W

^"i
3

--4--4-

4----6-

^

•6----•

G

<
3\S
"S "S

"J

§
[^:

^?"?

"^

-- -- --

-^---©-

0-----

3 w

.V.
,
_,

( S I S I
lU

.. 3
»-

.i?. <'

.d. 'd'
I-

<l .s <3 <d
I-

.1 <3

«3

<*

/^s

h

h

>

a

^
a.

V4J

«4^

"Si

i A "a

"
s.

-d

W

"

s. .3.

.1-1

C3

contract' verbs.

169

w
<3
'3

3
•3 <3 /<

w

3

t>

h

3

b
f="

(O (O CO

^ ^ ^ F .£"

"F bO

^^^^^ F - ,
°
(lO

.F

^ F

"3

^

.
"
CO

3 3 :^:<:<
J<

to

(

.3

3-

*^

-

§ 3

"o

^
00 CO

^ ^ ^
iijij-S

00 00 00 00

3

b

"*

i
^^-^
^^
\.-^

^ t
c<
\

t
^w
CV ^^ ^ ^-<
\

^
il2d
^^ ^^ ^^
-^ -^
.-^

^vu

^vt»

"^
"Q,

^ ^
S

ui

^VK

'<
'

^

w

t

^^

^^

V

S_^

Vi

~^

^
» W
<3
u.
->

^
rd sg

3
UJ
I-

b
"^

i i i

«

'3

^

i i i

<iJ

-3

°

-d

i

<d

i

,0

p- 3
^ti

'd

^

lu

^w

lu

^O

§

S "S

g

K^w °
,3-

ci

S

"S
,3-

^S
,3-

§.

,3- ,3- ,3-

.5- ,3-

,3- ,3-

v^'t"

i

170

ESSENTULS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

^ ^ ^
(Soous .«::«.<v

ciocob0ci0(0(o
••
'?:
_.

000000 p-p-p-p-p-p<< J^.S",^
^« ,«
^o
-<
5=~

"3

<3

^3

e3

<3

p-p-p-p-p-p/^

_
3
ff-

v§ ^5

w

3 .£=!=
,5"

3

00 CO *«

"c-

a-^

'<

^ ^ ss-^S"

'^•-S.'< ,5" !=-

^ '< -i s- R-

^

J<

^
-e-

Q

'^

w

'i

.ri

<3

<P=

<• -3

cp•

<3

-- --

^

--

-e-

-- --

-4-

--

~

-- -- -- -- -- --

^
-<_
viJ

!-(/—

:/—\
? ,3 ,5
^.^

_si
S"

^w
nyu

lu

a

%i

,<u

^O ,w

3

p-

3

imi

'^u;

^
<3

^

^^ ^^ \^

^

^ ^—
<3

'

>_/

^^

^^^ ^^^

i3-fc

I.

5
iS-

-5-

2

i i
I-

<*

<5
d.

-3

i i i
h
'f

<§ <3

i <d- <5 i <§ <3 i i i A
'f

-3

-t .«

'i

h

'f

'f

h

h

a

§

a.

^cs

"S -a

a "d ^d
,3- ,3- ,3-

^d "d "d
.3-

d ^d -d
,3- ,3- ,3-

'f

f-e

.3- ,3- ,3-

,3

,3-

0^

c/5

oi

oi

ai

CONTRACT VERBS.

I?!

<=

k ^ 'P SOriS

b
f=^

OB

b

<P b ip

*

^p

i

^ ^ ^ ( bO ( (

^

^
q

^ cp <p vp > ,i ^ <p <p ^ ^ ,< ^ ^ ^ p-p-p-p-p-pvp

OOOCOO
,^-

CO

<^C

CO CO

<^

^^

^2/

w w w w w ^^
5 ^ ^
'i
'i ^

d b

>
3

l•.

^

3

e>

«

3

<r>

b
'i

b b o^i
/<

^ ^
•«-•«-

--->.

'i

"i -^

^
^^
3 <^

5i5

.

^p

,<

><

><

^J.

-------«---:<^

a
3 ^^ < £, b ^b

'T
-^ ^

lu

^.b
^.

J.| -^
-^

^w
'< '<

'<'<'<
"^
-«-

'<
''W

---^^
\_^

- -•^
^^

'<

^
"W

'<
»»vi;

->
3
,

n^

-©-

f.\^

^\U

"W

^^^

d b

^
«3

3

-3-3-3•
f f
l••

b

<§ -d

w b

3

«?

b °-d

fe

b

5
,f-

p•

'S
<3

h

i

-3
i.

<d

%

i. **

i

-3 'd d.

i i

<3

I-

..

3

^3
b
-d

I' ^
3
.

_g

S
^3.

S
-a
:i.

."=

a
3.

b d

b a
S,

b
"S
3-

^o

?^ ^-^ 3.
ci

^^
l~

CIS

Jf <

vS^O
3-

b
^d "d
33-

-d ^d
S.
_^P

S
3-

a. a.

§'Ul

2_^w

h

C

C

^^

~-^

^ '^ ^

172

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

Conjugation of
§ 60.

Verbs.

Verbs

in

differ

from verbs

in

in

the Present and Second Aorist Systems only.

See Lessons
§ 61.

XXXI. and XXXII.

in the Present

and Synopsis of and Second Aorist Systems.
Active.

,, ,
Imper.

Indie.

SubJ.

(, €£
8($
cSiSovv

( €
«»
Sw
86s

(
Infin
.

Part.
IcTTOs

(

4'

(

$
?
?
OcCs

- 1( •
f,

!

Passive and Middle.

< '8
8$
'9 $

600

CONJUGATION OF

VERBS.

173

§62.

PRESENT SYSTEM.
Active Voice.

Sing.
.3•

• ? (<

Freseni Indicative.

-.

(8$

8( 8(

i^•
1

Plur.

-

2.

<€ <€
--.

€€

.3•

€ €
Imperfect.

SCSoTC

€ .
€€ €-

.
]

Sing,

-

2.

3•
.
Plur.
-

2.

(€ <€

€€1$

€(£
£€€ €€
Present Subjunctive.

€ (8€
€($

.3•

I.

Sing.

2.
3•
'

( 1<
•«€
"«<

)5

^

$

I.

Plur.

-

2.

.3•

5(

,

174

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Sing.

2.
3•

2.

Plur.

3•

< € TiOe'rw
'

<

Present Imper ative.

€1
or
or

SCSov

8(>

£€

or

Present Infinitive.

,€
Present Participle (§45).
TiOeis
8i.8ovs

Passive AND Middle.

I.

Sing.

2. 3•
I.

Plur.

2.

3•

.
Sing.
J

2.

.3•

' (£ •• . ' <• 1• ' -(
Present Indicative.
Imperfect.

£€-

1.

'€
i'<j-Tacr0€

CONJUGATION OF

VERBS.

175

66€
cSiSocrOc

Plur.

2.

13

'icTTOVTO

Sing.

->,

2

3
Plur.
-

2

Sine

2.

Is2.

Plur.

3•

(• (-

( 8 ( ( ( € ( ( - - (( £Present Subjunctive. Present Imperative.

€<€

or
j)(rav

'€'(
(€(

(€

or

Present Infinitive.

Present Participle (§46).

1(€$

'

,

or

€8

176
§ 63.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

SECOND AORIST SYSTEM.
Active.

I.

Sing.

J

2.

€< '?
««

Second Aorist Indicative.

[

3•
.

Plur.

\

2.

[3•

'
(.€
€'<€
(TTfjs
*'"'"

^ « '? £ € « ' 4'
€8^

€€

Second Aorist Subjunctive.
'•

I

.

Sing,

j
[

2.

9
^

3•

.
Plur.
[

2. 3•

2.

Sing.
[

3• 2.

€ « «
<(.
or

^


Ois

€ <
05

Second Aorist Imperative.

Plur.
3.

(
5
^ I

or

'
Infinitive.

^
or
(§ 45)
occurs

Second Aorist

Second Aorist Participle.
(§ 45)

£8

(§ 45)

No

2 aor. ind. act. of

aor. in

-

and

— so

the

is

given.

Cf. 235, 3, note.

CONJUGATION OF

VERBS.

1

77

Middle.
Second Aorist Middle Indicative.
!I.
2.
3-

££

'

€'0£TO

.
Plur.
\

2.

€£ €€-€

' 4'

[

3•

'

«
€'•€

Second Aorist Middle Subjunctive.
I
.

Sing.

J

2.

1^

3•

.€
2.

€ -(>
or

3.

Second Aorist Middle Imperative.
2.

Sing.
3.
2.

Plur.
3•

' -or

'-

Second Aorist Middle

-

Infinitive.

'

Second Aorist Middle Participle.
(§ 46) (§ 46)

?

178

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW

TESTAIMENT GREEK.

§ 64.

with compounds),
ular.

, , , ,2, , ), ,
The verbs
am,

Irregular Verbs of the

Form.

and know,

(compounded go (only in

say, are all irreg-

65.

€(
Indicative.
I

(stem

-), am.

Present.
Siibjioictive.

Imperative.

£(
cl

Sins.

2 3
I

OS

«o-tC

€<€

Plur.

i

2 3

««
cl(r(


;

'-,

« «(
$,
etc. (183).

Ifififiittve.

Participle,

, -,
(')

gen. ovtos,

Imperfect.
Indicative.
I.

Future.
Indicative.
Infinitive.

€'(
4'£, €<|

ۥۥ
Participle

Sing.

2. 3•
.

(-)

"

Plur.

2.

€ (£) €

4'<

€(6
eVeo-Ge

3.

-

'.

1

Cf. 78,

:

IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE
S 66.

FORM.

1

79

(stem

e-), revtit.

The
the

following forms of this verb
(Pres.

occur in

New Testament
Fut.

Indicative Active.

?, -, €€, — £$, '. -, €€,
Kas,

etc ^

, .,) as though from

Indicative Mid. and Pass.

Subjunctive
Aor.

-.^. —
).
2

3 per. plur. Act. 2 aor.

Imperative Act. Participle Act. Infinitive Act.
a. In

— Pres. — 2 aor. — Pres.

compounds with the pres. ind. 3 per. plur. and 2 aor. has <)-, and (rvvCov<ri. Subjv. and with 2 aor. Aor. pass. ind. are found. The former b. Pres. part. o-wuCs and is more regular and occurs in

.?. . €. , . ,
2 aor.

... . ,,
Imperf.
etc.

Aor.

— Pres.

Fut. Aor. pass, Pass.

£-

€5,

2 aor. act.

-,

.

-

-8,
1-^1

2 aor. act. part, also occurs.

.
--.

.

§ 67.

«•»-

(stem

go.

in

But few forms compounds.
Uvai.

of this verb occur,

and always

Indicative.
Infinitive.

— Pres. --.

Imperf.

-jfti,

Participle.
ov (183).
^

,

-rov<ra,

Conjugated like the mid. of Such forms only are here given of the compounds of as might be difficult to recognize. The lexicon ought to be consulted for all verb forms
2

.

-,

regular like

, -,

.

:

1

8
I 68.

ESSENTULS OF

NEW TESTAMENl
-), know.

GREEK.

olSa (stem
is

This verb
once,

a second perfect
olSa<;, etc.

and conjugated
3 per. plur.
is

regularly olha,

The
etc.

has

lare in 2 per. plur.
-p'Seis,

Imperfect. Future. Subjunctive. Imperative.

— ', — --. — «, €8. — -€, k/Knvye (occurs once). Infinitive. — «. Participle. — €8,
«18»,

also found.

€l8us,

etSos, like

€5

(§43).

^ 69.

(stem

-),
and

say.

per. sing,

This verb is found and plur.

in pres. ind.

he said.

.

and
Imperf.

,

3

§ 70. The following forms of the mood occur in the New Testament
1.

optative

Present Tense.

2. /^z'rsi Aortst.

, , ., , , ^,
€, OekoL, €,
uyj,

3

Second Aorist.

4•

First Aorist Passive.

1

In fact a 2 pluperf., but the perf. and pluperf. have in this

,

, ,,

...

>;,

evpoiev,

//,

,.

-..

verb the sense of the pres. and imperf.

!

:

8, , , , , €, , , ,
It

may be noted

,
is
€.

OPTATIVE MOOD.
(«)

TENSE SYSTEMS.

l8l

^,

Svvaivro,

Karevui'vai,

form the Optative by the ad;

dition of I, which, with preceding vowel, forms a diphthong

^
this

diphthong is always long, (d) form the Optative by adding
siibscript.
(c)
t\oitv,

',
;

in the case of

], ;
person plural from

the iota
also

evpoiev,

made by adding
(c/)

, the

in the third
differs

changing to in that € and
§ 71.

have changed place.

^
are
to

The

following examples will illustrate

the uses of the optative
1.

T/ie Optative

of Wishing.
6eos
.

Rom. 15:5.
grattt unto
2.

.

.

';

you

,
6

now may God

The Potential Optative.
Acts 26
:

29.

(.

3.

indirect Question.

Luke

I

:

29.

she

was

discussing

?

^,

I could wish

tlf]

what manner of

/,
God.

salutation

this 7night be.
4.

The Conditional Optative.
I

Cor. 14: 10.

£t Tvypi.,

if it should chance.

Tense Systems.
§ 72. No one verb has all nine tense systems, but the following table shows the various tenses (as far as found in the New Testament) in

,

:

.

l82
loose,

desh'oy.

,
.

ESSENTIALS OF
cast,

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

<,

zunte,

and

€,

Present

.

.

.

\v%.

Future
1

.

.

.

.

Aorist
.

.

.

.

2 Aorist
1

Perfect

.

.

.

- €(- (-\v<r%-

%- %- £% €%- %- €%%,()-

2 Perfect

Perfect
J

Perf. 'erf

-

£•

Mid.

I Flit. P. \t\v<r%-

-

iPassi"^""^•
\ Fut.

Aor. 2 Pass. j [ Fut.
73.

%- %-€()- £()«*()Middle and Passive.
Primary.

<%-

Personal Endings.
Active.
Secondary.
Secondary.

Primary.
I.

V

S.

2.

, (<)
<,

(
-€
<rav

3•
I.

.


€ -,
The



,


Middle and Passive.

2.

3•

74.

personal endings of the imperative

are
Active.
r

2.
"K.

f

2.
X.

T€

S.

\

P.

i

[

1^

-

2. o-o
3-

-

2.

P.

\

3.

[

« -£
or

AUGMENT.
§ 75.

183
:

The endings
^
..

of the infinitive are

J
[

iv,

,

contracted with
£vai.

to

eiv.

Mid. and Pass,
§ 76.

The

tenses of the indicative are formed

by adding

to the verb theme, with certain modi-

fications, the following suffixes.
Pres.

Fid.
-<r%-

Aor.

Perf.

Pliiperf.

Active:

-%-

---

--

--

Middle and Passive have the same suffixes except in perf. and pluperf., where there is The aorist passive has -^e- for i aorist none.
and
-e-

for 2 aorist.

Augment.
I. When the verb begins with a con§ 77. sonant the vowel e is prefixed to the theme in the imperfect and aorist e.g. e-\v-o-v, e This is called syllabic augment. In the perfect the initial consonant is placed before the augment e.g. Xe This is called reduplication. In the pluperfect the reduplicated form may be
;

--.

;

--.

augmented
2.

;

e.g. i-\e-Xu-K€i-v.

When
is

vowel

begins with a vowel this =, lengthened in all past tenses
a verb
:

184

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

=, =.
augment
;

.7];
ask for,
3.

thong may lengthen the

); -,
;

, .
e.g.

Such an augment

',

lead,

] ,,
is
;

called temporal

hear,

An

initial
;

first

vowel

pray,

^,.

e.g.

,

come,
diph-

Verbs beginning with two consonants or a double consonant {, , have the augment and no reduplication in the perfect and pluperfect. A mute (§ 2) followed by a liquid , , , , is an

)

the reduplication
behold,

, , ,
exception to this
;

e.g.

and call, has perfect 4. Verbs beginning with a rough mute have the corresponding smooth mute ,
e.g.

,

judge, has perfect

€-&-.

, -, ,
love,

.

,,,
in
;

The Eight

Classes of Verbs.

§ 78. It is necessary in the study of the Greek verb to determine the theme or root, for on this, with certain modifications mostly of tense and mood signs, the various tenses are built. This theme may or may not correspond to the theme as seen in the present indicative. More frequently the present stem is a strengthened form of the theme e.g. loose, has theme and present stem \v- the same, while steal, theme kXett-, has present stem receive, theme \-, present stem
;

\,

,

«, -. \-.

THE EIGHT CLASSES OF

VERBS.

1

85

With reference
to

to the relation of the

the present stem the verbs in
:

theme Greek are

divided into eight classes

Verb stem remains un§ 79. First Class. changed t]iroughoiit. The present stem is formed by adding simply the variable vowel % to the theme
:

,
§ 80.

Theme.

-, say
conquer

.—

Pres. stem.

.%

Xey%

Second Class. Strong vozvel forms. verbs have a theme ending in a mute, § 2, preceded by a short vowel, principally or v. The present theme of these verbs is formed by lengthening this vowel, l to et, to eu, and the addition of %

Some

,
7,

:

Theme.

persuade

^(.v^f>),flee

--

Pres. stem.

- % $%
Fut.

ۥ/%

§ 81.

Third Class.

-class.

Some

mute

adding

a.

, , -

%

, ,
steal
/i/de
is

Verds in or the verbs have the theme in a labial that form the present stem by to the theme
:

-

Theme.

for

-».

-

Pres. stem.

.%

%%
Fut.

kXc{J/%

:

1 86

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

§82.
1.

Fourth Class.
mute
This

— Iota

class.

Some

palatal

verbs having a theme ending in a add t % to form the present /c, 7,

,

stem.

%

with the mute gives

-, •2.

preach
svtite

-t»,

added
Theme.

Theme.

When t%

is

to a

present stem ends

-»,
3-

,

\%•.

Pres. stem.

baptize

/?-

save

-

theme

in a liquid,

,,

for the present.

\l% becomes
Theme.

^,
4.

announce ayytX-

fia.\\m,cast

\and
the

% 7% % %% % % %% % €%
Pres. stem.

%,

rarely

Fut,

.^%
-

theme

in

the

Fut.

/?7%

, , may add l%
:

Pres. stem.

Fut.

But with

usually passes over
or e forms a
Fut.

to the preceding vowel

and with

diphthong

, ,

Theme.

Pres. stem.

take

away

ap•

show

-

alp%

%

apf.%

€%

:

THE EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS.

1 87

The present N-c/ass. §83. Fifth Class. stem of some verbs is formed by adding v% to
the theme
irCv»,
:

Theme.

Pres. stem.

drink

ttl-

iriv%

1.

The

suffix

may be

-av%.

{,
2.

Theme.
sin

(i) 7,

%
Pres. stem.

Under

this

class

come

several verbs
:

that insert a nasal

, ,
The

,

,

before the final mute

Theme.
receive

happen
suffix

«-

/3-

\.%
-,
after
Pres. ind.

%
'/
-^

Pres. stem.

-.
3.

may be
Theme.

a vowel

, ,

(,

show

gird swear

§ 84.

Sixth

- () Class. — Verds
A

-

in

the in-

ceptive class.

stem by adding

^ %
Theme.
yvotvp-

few verbs form their present or to the theme

(, -,^?«/

know

% %

Pres. stem,

1

88
§ 85.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

stem.

Seventh Class. added to shnple This class includes most of the verbs of the yut-Conjugation, which form their present and imperfect tenses luiihotit the use of %.

-,
§ 86.

Theme.

make stand

£, say

-

Pres. ind.

-

of this class are

Mixed class. Verbs Eighth Class. among the irregular verbs and

form different tenses on entirely distinct stems. See the list of irregular verbs.

, ,

Tl lemes.

eat
see

ca^iOpCL-

€, run
€, bear

07-

rpcx-

-

8-

--

OL-

evcK-

, ,', , , , , , ,,,,,, ,, , ),, ,, , ,, , , , , , . , , '/, ,, ,
§ 87. The following verbs may be classified according to the principles laid down above.

)((,

€,

88,

§ 88.

The

following table gives the principal

parts of the

New

most common irregular verbs in the Testament. The aim is to give only such

forms as occur.
reading
that
is

may

in

A rare compound or a variant some few cases present a form

not given.

TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

1 89

g-t:

1

.

.

3
3-

®-I:

^

.1


« >^
-

3

^

-

-a

I

8^
g

^r^
ij^'S

§

I

.^

«

g

al
-p• Ji-"a

-

fris-»?^-??-

»Si•

"a "a

3 b

<3

3 .b

^

»a

a

-a *a

"^s

"B

-a "a

"a

a -a

•^

a
<U

(^>

« ^

'^

;
"^

^^
-.^
*e

1
f

s

^

I

5- 3'

c
'2

3ta 'a 'a

^Sa3
«a "a

K^
-a -a

a

'

190

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

.(1,

'w "w r^

'lu

CO 'w

-w "w

"SS-

"!S•

-^

ti

S

S 3
$

2

3

3

h

mJ" oa.

ir

vifr

CO CO

P^

5i

?-»w

?^

S.ca;:<

oil

i I

S

^cna »v5"5a.
.3
^

w;i.!i.s
^• ?^

T^CO

CO

CO CO «O

§-3o

^""
^i^,'^


-"JUi

I 3

I

'^

I

§<3
1

.^§1-3
?> r^ ?>»CO

^|-^T3
CO
CO CO
I
I

.^J<3 1
CO -w -w
»vi

<3

^i

'i

^3
02.

^
'^S.

§
Qa.

J i ^l^S 11 ?>.^^cococo

.3 c|

cocococo

g

J

-

?;^
"W

^2.

"

><
*"v

"U '5

^

TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

I9I

-.5 'V

1=

3-

>3.

\

<:§

'<

-^

S-

lit I flip
ff-,

Q.'

i

Hi
3|a3
-<3

».?-»>«

W

»vu

^
V k
"^

Is
J s

3

i- b ?^ "P-

3=^=

a

3

^

'^

^

t2

§0
3"

ii

X^ b
Q,

1.3 §

:i

^s

^
,3

!
-<i

1 ^
N*

b

vs

.

3 -3 .b X -I ^ ^ ^ ^^ " *W

-1

3"

3"

.

^

-

-

;.•

=^

*s/>

b tii

g

i;

^ ^

s.

tgi

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

1-

b

b "-

I
1

-=^3

"

.

1
(,

'^
b

1
^
^
g
<3S

1
w
ti"

I - . 1
a §<:§
^§-Ul

a,

art
Q. &,
ti

3- Q.

3- a
Q-

b

"3

a

a

'b
i;

S

J-

I

^1•

>

3

a

gS*!^ i.sl,=3

a

§.

^ ^"§1
»iy
SVji

>\ii

*3

IJ
"^^

1
*VJ
>\ij

fill
»\y
*Vt;

S-1
^VJ
'*'

§:tg
*W »W *W

>\U

I

3
^^
'

3

S c?

1

3


<e -^

<

*<

^

^

•;:;

8
5^

^-^ 1
I 3
S.
3'~

^
3•-

-3

^":<:vi

^::-^~
3"

|i ig ^^ ^ .
;i

;^

><

3'

b

1

3

^

b ig

I

g ^S-

a

a

3

TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

1

93

«3

^
V
-lu -iu "lu 'lu ,j;

'?r

v^.'^T

"
_
3.

^^^

"jr-

'w

-vu "lu

g
1^

CJ

^

« b
a
S.

3. i. s.

^

•^

§

P- 3

b J5 -'^ b

b

b.b t^S
W
I-

-V -r

§
i"

« Oh

^
n^

^
^b

« § a
,b

g;
,i-

I
*-

h Si

b

^

Q^

'S'^tibj-.g-s.tio^
.s
I

g?^o
^

2-

»u; >*>

b i

'W

^
s-Vt;

"

*W *W *w *W

t

^c§- e

S ^
*K*

*W

-§-.b

W "W

^

'3

4 3J
>?

,

I

111
-I-

I
's

.3

"?

b

^-^

-e-S-e-

?<

C
3

^

I
1
§
3'

5^

r^
3

:

3'

1
3"

:^ 3\3
b b b w

3.

3'

-

1^

3

i

:§-,

- ,1s -

--

s

194
§ 89.

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
form
at

To

locate a verbal

once

is

the

most
It is

difficult

thing a beginner has to learn.

intended, therefore, that in the following

pages the student shall have a special opportunity for mastering a large part of this main difficulty. Of the most common irregular verbs there are here gathered into small space the forms that occur, and by a mastery of these pages a great deal will be done towards gaining a rapid and easy understanding of the Greek,
read as Greek.

After a thorough acquaintance with the paradigms and the principal parts of the irregular verbs, nothing may prove of greater profit than repeated drill on these forms.
§ 90.

, , , , },,, , , ,, , ], , ,, ,, , ,, ,, , <;, ,, ,, ,^

^
hear.

€<;,

1

The aim

is

to give

forms of these verbs, but such com-

pleteness can hardly be expected.
often a different form for the
is,

The

various editors give

as yet,

same passage, and no concordance published which gives W. and H's. reading.

, , ,,, , ,,^ ,,, ,,. , , ,, , ,, , , ,,, , , ,. <, , , , >, , ,,, ,, , , ', , -,^, , , ,
IRREGULAR VERBS: STUDY OF FORMS.
1

95

§ 91.

i-aisc up.

,

avaarrj,

<;, <;,
open.

§ 92.

',

')(,

avoiyei,

', ^, ^<;, -, ^, ^<;, , , ^., , -.
§ 93. die.

,, , ,, ,, ^
^, -, ', '<{, ^],

>],

, ^, ,, ^^ ,,^ ^ , ., ,, , , ., , ,,,^ ,, , .) , ,, , ,, , ^. ,, ,^,, ,),, ,,,, , , ,, , ,^, , ,, ., , . , , .)
196
ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

velrai,

.,

)^

§ 94.

destroy, kill.

},

',

cnroXeaei,

-

'?,
send.

§ 95.

XevTi,

], -

IRREGUL.4R VERBS

:

STUDY OF FORMS.

1

97

,, ,, €, , , , , €, , ,.,, , , , , ,-, , ^ , ,, , , , , , , ,, ,,, ,, , ,, ,,,,, ,, , , ,, ,, ,). ,, , , ,,,, , , ,,, , ], , ,, , ,, , , ,,,,
, .,,'?, €,
OJ^\.r\\^\.,

§96.

remit, forgive.

?;€<9,

€,

?],

€<;,

=

-,

§ 97.

go, come,

-, -, -, €-.

',

],

(for

§ 98.

east

-)],

^ ,
igS
§ 99.

ESSENTIALS OF

\],

,, , , ,, .
NEW TESTAMENT
GREEK.
(a verbal,

Luke

yivovrai, iyevovTO,
eyeveaOe,

^, ', ^,^,
be,

-,

yevoevv,
yiveraL^

^,

^^.,yevra, ^^.,
eyeyovei,

, , ,
5
'

],
yevoev,
yeveaOai^

^),

become.

yeyova,

'yeyvaev^

yivov,

yev€,

ylveaOai,

yeyovevai,

yeyevrjadai,

yevrjvaL,

yev6V0Vy
yvevov,

,
1^09,

yeveve^,
yevevov,

ey€vav,
yevijOevTa^,

yve.,
eyevov,

y€vea,
yeyovaai,
yevijaeraL,

y€v,

iy€vv, yeva,

/'

iyivero,

yLv€va,

€<;,

yeyovoTi,

y€Vo€Ii, yev€^ yevoyivoevv, yeyova<;^ yevovo^ yeyovav, yeyovare, iyevero, y€voevv,
yeyovei,

yeve.,

yiveaOe.,

yeveva,

yeyovvia,
yeyo-

yevijaeaOe, yev6eva, yeyovore^.,

eyeve^
it

yeyove,

yevevv,

yevoiro (optative, mostly

in

the phrase

yevoiro,

may

not happen,

God forbid).
§ 100.

^/,

eyvov, yiva>aK6L, eyv€, yvev€^, eyvu>Kare,

,

yv€a,

-,

know.

yLvv,

yvoidi, yvwai., yLvwaKeiv,

,
yvo),

yivodaKerat,
yvco-

€yva.,

yvoiaovrai,

yLvcoaKere, yLV(a-

6,
'^,
=

, ^4. , ,8, , , , , 8 , , /, , ,] 8,
-., ^,<€, €<^ ^,
'yvu>^

yvovi;, yvu)T€,

^, ,

IRREGULAR VERBS: STUDY OF FORMS.

yvovra^

,^, ^ , ', ^^
€<,
<€<;,

^,
eyvw-

1

99

eytVw^/ce, iyvcuKeire,

-,

§ 101.

give.

], , 8, €8, 88, 8, 8., , 8€, 88, ?,. 8, •, 8.8€,
8e8oTai,

€8€, 88, 8, •, , 88, /,^ 8, 88€, 88, 88, and 8, irregular forms , ^, = optative 8, 86, /, ;, 88€, 88, €8€,
SeScuKeiaav,
SoOfj,

iSlSovv,

'^?/,

€^, , ^^ ., ^ ], ,
€\,
€)(^,

§ 102.

,

€)^€,

^, <, -^ ., .
-^,
1

, ., , ^, ,
co;ne, go.

, ,, , ,
for

Sovvai,

€86,

^pxjj, iXOetv, ep

eXOovTC,
form in

Cf. similar

', § 104,

, ,, ,,
eXevaerai,

€7'],
eXO

latter part.

eX^oVre?,

occurs for

,, , , ,, , ,^, ^,
(,
A
§ 103.

200

ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
iXOov,

^, ^^?? %
in

';,

in the 2 aor.

few forms

- ,.
VPX^^^ as
;

6\€<, ^^),
(*

commonly

are omitted.)

., , , ', ', ,, , ,, ,,, , , <, , ,,,, , , , <} ,, ,, ,^ ), , , , , , . , , ,, , , , ,, , , ,, , ' ,,, , , , , ,, ,,,,,,
find.
ebpi']ar]<i,,

^,

,
§ 104.

^},

(opt.),

^'>

/lave.

^'^'

^, ^, ^/^,

],

and

(opt.),

^,

1

Cf note,

p.

189.

^, ^,
part, occur).
§ 105.

IRREGULAR VERBS: STUDY OF FORMS.

20I

both
all

=

', -^ = ^^,
act.

, , ,, , , , 7], }, , , , ,, , , ,, ,,, ,, ,,, , , ,, ',,, ,, ,
<;.
W. and
give

,, , , , , <, ,, , , , ,,,,, , ,,, , , , , ,, ^, ,, , ,, ), ,,, ,, ', ,, , ,,,
cause to stand.

(nearly

the forms of the pres.

[€,

,,
.
e

<;,

]';,

-

throughout the

plupf. instead of § 106.

/-.

take, receive.

',

(opt.),

=

-<;.

, , ., ,., , ,. , ,, ., ,', /, , , ,, , , , ^, ,. , ,' , ,, , ,, ^ ,,,, , .,, €, , , ,, €, , , , €, ,', , , , , , , ', ,. , , , ], ,, , ,, , ,
Trivet,

,, , ', [], , , ,,,^
§ 107.

202

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
drink.

eine,

7€, 7€,

7rivovTe<;,
Trie,

7?7,

],

iriveiv,

§ 107

.

fa//.

eireaov, Trearj,

7€€,

€7€,

(for -<;),

, ,
ire-

§ 108.

put, p/ace.

reOeiKa,

reOfj^

€€,

),

WevTO,

€€,

§ 109.

show, appear.

,, ,, , ], . , ^, ,^ ,, , ,, ^, ,, ^ , ., -,, -, ^, , , ,-, , , ^,
IRREGULAR VERBS
:

SYNTAX.

203

},
dear.

]^,

§ 110.

€€,

€<,

'^,

iveyKare,

<;,
4<],

],

-rjvejKaTe,

<€,

-^,

-],

-€<,

'^<,

-'.

3.

SYNTAX.

§ 111.

It is

tory

work to deal

not the purpose of this introduclargely with Greek syntax.

No

study, however, of the

New

Testament,

in
a

the Greek, can be prosecuted without at least

modicimi of knowledge of the Greek syntax. It is therefore within the scope of this little work to furnish that modicnin. It is believed that the examples and principles here set forth will prove of great value in assisting the beginner to keep his bearings

204

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

amidst the various forms of construction which render the Greek so rich a language, and at the same time make it appear so difficult to the
learner.

The inductive study of syntax is valued by no one more highly than by the author, and I hope that the following principles may not be looked upon as rules that are to serve as pegs upon which the student is to hang his subjunctives, infinitives, genitives, and datives. The study of the syntax should begin with the examples and not with the principles, with the Greek text and not with a work on Greek syntax. The New Testament, written as it was by several different persons, cannot but present the peculiarities of style that belong to these authors. This variety of style often passes
over
into

a

different

syntactical

expression.

Accordingly, what is a very common form of construction in the writings of Paul may not be found in the Gospels, and Luke may use expressions that do not occur elsewhere. The aim has been in the following examples to give those that are representative of the language as used by all the writers of the

New

Testament.

syntax

:

subjunctive.

205

The Moods
§ 112.

in

Independent Sentences.
in

The
is
it

indicative

tences

the natural one and
here.
Subjunctive.

independent senneeds nothing

said about

person plural of the subjuncmay be used to denote a command or cxhortatiojt. The nega§ 113.'
first

The

tive,

either present or aorist,

tive

^

Let

,
lis

is

,

(l

Cor. 15
drink,

:

32),
i

'^
3
:

eat

and

John

18,

/*/;

Let US not love

in zuord.

, -

§ 114.

The

distinction

and

aorist is that the present denotes

between the present what is

continued, extended, or repeated, while the aorist

denotes the fact simply without any continued or extended action. This distinction is generally true of the present and aorist in all moods The aorist subjunctive except the indicative. and imperative do not refer to past time, but
to the present or future.

The

aorist infinitive

may

refer to past time.

115. In questions of doubt or uncertainty the subjunctive is used in the first person, rarely in Mark 12 14, the second or third.
:

8€'

;

shall zue give or shall

we

not give ?

^

206

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

§ 116. The aorist subjunctive is used with the double negative to express a strong negation. John 6:35, 6 e'/ie

,

he who comes me shall not hunger, and he ivho believes on Die shall not thirst. Note that the future indicative is thus also
used.
§ 117.

,

ireivaajf

eh

e'/xe

€holy

The

aorist subjunctive

may

express a
ayiov
is

negative command.

.,

7]86

Xe -,
optative

Matt, y

-.6,

Score

give not that which

to the dogs,

nor throiv your pearls before
Optative.

stvine.

§ 118.

The

is

that refers
ykvoLTo,

to future time.

used to express a wish Luke 20 16,
:

may

this not Jiappen.

See

§ 71.

In Dependent Sentences.
Subjunctive.

§ 119.

duced by

Final clauses denoting piirpose are introor and take the subjunctive,

more
3
:

rarely the indicative

14,

\ €7

/ ]
;

negative
. .
.

7], e

.

Mark
and

7

SYNTAX

:

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

20

he chose
hifn,

tivclve in order that they viight be

with

and
:

that he might send them to preach.

Acts 9

']^
Lord has
§ 120.

l/j

7\)
me

.

.

.

ayiov,

the

sent

that yoii might look up

and

be

filled ivith the holy spirit.

Object clauses after verbs of exhorting,

commanding, and entreating, take the subjunctive with more rarely negative

,

'?
18,

Matt.

14

:

36,

entreated

him that they might but touch

of his garment.

happen not in the

,
Mark
luinter.
:

13

:

and pray ye

^
;

,

' .
the

they

hem
it

that

Conditional Sentences.
condition stated simply without any§ 121. thing being impHed as to fulfilment has in

A

Greek, as in English, the simple present, future,
the same tense in the conclusion.

or past (aorist) indicative in the condition, with

,
all

Matt. 4:6,
if thou, art the

Son of God,

down.

,

Matt. 26
ejco

33, el

men

shall be offended in thee,

,
,,

cast thyself

if

I never shall be

2o8

offended.

we have known Christ according yet noiv tve knoiu him no longer.
if
§ 122.
is

,
The
:

ESSENTIALS OF
2 Cor.
5

NEW TESTAMENT

l6>

^^'

i^^^^

aWa

,
GREEK.
el

and

to the flesh,

Conditions CoJitrary

to Fact.

— When av
appears in

added to the conclusion where
is

the condition, a non-fulfilment same tense of the indicative
parts.
§ 123.

implied.

The

is

used in both

and the aorist or pluperfect denotes past time. Imperfect John 5 46, d for if you ivere now
:

believing in Moses, yoii
in me.

,
§ 124.

imperfect

denotes present time,

^,

would now

be believing

Implying that they are not believing
:

for if they had knozun it they ivonld not have crucified the Lord of Glory, i John 2 19,
et <^ap

', ,

Moses. Aorist or pluperfect

i

Cor.

2

:

8,

in
el
:

ef

.,

for

if they

had

been of

lis,

they

would have

^,
which

re-

mained

zvitJi us.

Future Conditions.

— Clauses that
by
eaV,

refer
is

to future time are introduced

followed by the subjunctive {rarely the indica-

SYNTAX
tive).

:

RELATIVE CLAUSES.

2O9

In the conclusion the future indicative occurs or the present with future sense. Matt. 9:21, iav

ment,

I

ivTo\a<;

if ye shall keep

, ,
If

sJiall

but touch his gar15
:

shall be saved.

John
ev

10,

Tjj

my

commandjnents, ye shall

;,
iav
oh.

re-

main

in

my

love.

§ 125.

usually

,

The

negative

in

the

condition

is

in the conclusion

always

Relatfve Clauses.
§ 126.

as

09,

luJio,

Clauses introduced by relative words and where, follow the same

,

principles as conditional clauses
to present, past, or future time.

when referring The relative
in the
is

word stands as the conjunction
el.

room

of

Where an

eaf-construction

implied, the
el

relative word usually takes the place of the and the dv remains, as 09 av. More rarely

eav

is

found.

Luke 8:18,
14
:

zvhoever has, to
9,

iav

e70Lev
be told.

shall be preached, that luhich she has done will

^ ,
b?

av yap '?;,
shall
it

SoeaL•
be given.

him

eiiayyeXiov,

Mark ...

,

09

zuherever the Gospel

210

essentials of

new testament

greek.

Temporal Clauses.
§ 127.
ivJien,

,

Temporal Clauses introduced by ^^ until, are followed by the same con-

is

struction as relative conjunctions, § 126; ore av always written orav. Mark 6 lO,
:

go out

tJience.

fore the lord of the viiieyard cometJi, what will he do ?
§ 128.

, ,
rarely

abide there

Jintil

Matt. 2I :4, orav ovv 6 wJicn there;

)

you

Luke 22

croiv to-day until

),
More
:

e'fo?

appears without
the cock shall
three
tiifies

av.

34,

not

you deny

that

you

knoiu me.
Infinitive.
§ 129.

meaning
able
;

struction

infinitive

the

is the same as in English. If this has a subject different from that of principal verb, this subject must be in

,
The

infinitive is

of such verbs as

hope;

, ,
:

used to complete the
zuish;
seek.

This con-

,

the acciisative.

Hebr. 6

11,

8 ?/!/,
you
:

we moreover

desire each one of
2 Cor. 11

to exhibit

the sanie earnestness.

16,

SYNTAX

:

INFINITIVE.

211

^)
foolish {that
§ 130.
tJie

elvai,

let

no one

tJiink

me.

be

I am

foolish).

When
as
is

the subject of the infinitive
of

same

that

the

principal

subject

not

commonly
elvai

attributes
I
:

are in

expressed, and all the nominative case. Rom.
they
to

22,

zuere

made

foolish

by declaring themselves

,
verb,

is

this

be wise.
§ 131.

Words
with
in
§

of

pressions of thought
infinitive

saying and in general exmay be followed by the
as above.

the cases

See

last

example
§ 132.

129 and in § 128.

stantive,

The infinitive may be used as a suband in this construction may take the article in any case. This substantive phrase (while keeping its verbal force) is governed as a noun, and often takes a preposition.
:

I Cor. 14 39, ro \a\eiv forbid not the speaking with tongues. Acts he has faith 14:9, that he will be healed, Ut. faith of being healed.

'

John

I

:

48,

Philip called you.
§ 133.
it

, ,,
infinitive,

before

The
to

infinitive is frequent after i'yevero,

came

pass,

where the

with or

2

12

ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

without a subject accusative, is the subject of the ijevero. Luke 6 i, eyeveTo iv

journeyed on the Sabbath.

-,
ayiov eV

8e ev

been baptized {ev

, ,
:

:

and

that the heavens tuere

happened opened, and that the Holy
it

)
zvJien

it

came

to

pass as

Luke 3:21,
Xabv
.
.

iyepero
.

<

he

all the people

had

Spirit descended 7ipon him.
§ 134.

,

so that (to

be distinguished from

as an introductory word,

and so,

therefore),

takes the infinitive (indicative twice), negative

.

Mark 9

26, eyeveTO

he became as one dead, so that the most said that he was dead.
\eyeiv

^,
26
:

,
§ 135.

The

infinitive is

common
34,

after

or

,

before.

Matt.
ev

before the cock croivs.

^,

Acts 7
before
Jie

:

2,

dwelt in

Charran.
Participle.
§ 136.

Verbs

of hcaj'ijig, seeing, knowing,

and

perceiving,

may be
is

followed by the participle.
a form of indirect discourse

This construction

power has gone

^ ', 7€ , '^ ^ ^
was
corn in Egypt.

SYNTAX:

NEGATIVES.

213

and is rendered by such a clause in English. Acts 7:12, A'LyuTTTov, and Jacob having Jicard that there

Luke

8

:

46,

for

knoiu that
:

^
2,

ont

from

Die.

i

John 4
iv

CJirist canie

every spirit zuhich confesses that Jesus For some other exin the flesh.

amples of the participle see 190-193.

Negatives.
§ 137.
is

the usual negative in the condi-

tional,

negative of the main clause.
§ 138.
is

,
]
Tt
to

relative,

and temporal clauses, ov the

the negative of the imperative,
not.

§ 139.

negative reply

aught

'
is is

marvel
used

in

asking questions where a

expected.
e^ere
;

John 21:5,
chi/dren,

/itt/e

have ye

,
17
:

eat ?

§ 140.

is

used
is

in

questions

where

an
17,

affirmative

answer

expected.
;

Luke

-^

SeKu

were the ten not

purified f

214

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESIAMENT GREEK.
is

§ 141.

The

double negative

express a strong negation.

See

§ 116.

used to Matt.

24

:

34,

TrapeXOr)
ykvy]Tai.

yevea

This generation shall not pass

away

until all these tilings come to pass.

§ 142.

several

When a strong emphasis negatives may occur in a

is

desired

, ^. ,
Mark
i
:

provided the simple negative as

followed by the compounds, as
I

John

,,
or

sentence,

be
or
ev

I

:

5,

44,

no darkness pa

is

in

him at

all.

speak ne er a word to any one. negatives are simple, the effect
§ 143.

€77], see to it, But where the
is

as in English.

In general,
;

is

ment

or fact

while

/>;

is

the negative of statethe negative of con-

ception, possibility, or contingency.

Uses of the Cases
§ 144.
It
is

in

Greek.

supposed

that

the student

is

already acquainted with the simpler uses of the cases that have come up in the course of the
lessons.
Genitive.

tive.

,

§ 145.

Time

tuithin luJiich
:

Matt.
they

28

13,

came

in the night aiid stole Jmn.

<

is

put in the geni-

€\€

syntax: uses of the cases.
§ 146.

215

The agent
Mark
i

a vohintaiy agent,
genitive.

he

was baptised by JoJui.

zvind.

,
is
:

after a passive verb, usually

expressed by
Matt, ii

9,

,
.
.
.

and the

:

7,

a

I'eed

shaken by the

and I am of
§ 148.

;
icate
tojicJied
etf

§ 147.

The
,
.

genitive
i

after
.

^.
Christ.

,
Cor.
i

may be used
:

12,

',

as a pred-

of Paul


and

Verbs of touching, begging, hearing, and the like, are usually followed by the genitive. Luke 5:13, he
tasting,

him, saying.

''

his hand.

Luke 5:12,
:

begged Jiim, saying. Matt. 17 hear ye him. John 8 52,

,
and
l
:

, ^, ,
/,
Mark
8
:

23,

and he
:

he shall not taste death forever.

^

took hold of

he

5, d/coi^ere

plenty,

' ,
§ 149.

Words

wa^it,

1:15,

denoting fulness, deficiency, take the genitive. John full of grace

truth.

Luke 1:53,

.,

he filled the hungry zvith good [things).
5, ^l

James

if any of you

is

lacking in zvisdom.

,

and

2l6

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT

GREEK.

§ 150.

The

genitive follows the comparative

degree of the adjective.

mandmcnt
§ 151.

,
to

Mark 12:31,
otlie}'

com-

is

greater than -these.
genitive follows verbs of acciising,

The

condernning,
'yap

and the

like.

Acts

iyKaXeiaOat are in danger of being called
disturbance.

him of man}'
§ 152.

,

,
19

:

40,

for

zve

account for the

Mark

15

:

3,

and

the high priests accused

things.

,,,,
The
5)

genitive follows most adverbs, as

John

:

1

,.
,

:

after
to

me was

before me, because

he who comes lie was prior

me.
Dative.

§ 153. The dative is used after words signifying likeness, agreement, or their opposites.

John

8

:

55,

be like you, a liar.
§ 154.

,

I shall

The

dative follows verbs of approach-

ing, joining, following.

,

Luke 15:25, and as he

\

%uent he

SYNTAX

:

USES OF THE CASES.

,

drciv near to the house.

folUnv

Die.

§ 155.

'€,
:

ship,

are

commonly followed by the
12,

Matt. 21
huti
not.

John 9

and he
§ 156.

zvorshipped him.

,, €& ,
Mark
2
:

14,

\&
2
1

7

believe,

and

wor-

dative.

fe believed

:

381

k^cu

to

eartv
part).

The dative is used after et/it and <ylvodenote the possessor. Acts 8:21, no part is to yo2t {you have no

,

means, manner, degree, and § 157. Cause, instrument are put in the dative the latter usually with a preposition. Rom. 1 1 20,
they were brokeji

^, ,
10
:

;

:

^

more,
€L•

strike with the szvord ?

, 7€ ]
:

because of their ujdielief

Rom. 8 24, rrj yap off. Mark for we are saved by hope.
he cried inueh
:

48,

lit.

more by
ev

inuch.
;

49, Ku^te, Lord, ivhether shall zue

Luke 22

)

§ 158.
;

dative

Time zuhen and place zuhere are in the more commonly with kv. Luke 12 20,
:

rfi

,

this night they ask from thee thy soul.

8

21

ESSENTIALS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Accusative.
§ 159.

Verbs
still

of

motion tozvards require the

accusative case.
subjective,

The motion may be
et?,

the same case occurs, and with
or

a preposition, as
house.

,
7€€,

vTrearpe'^ev

et?
5
:

Mark

23,

he falls at his feet.
the

,

, . , '
Luke
i
:

objective or

56,

Jie

tiirncd into

the

John 1:1,0

\oyo<i

Word

zvas with' God.

Extent of time and space is put in the John 7 33, eVi yet a little while I am with you. John 6:19, €7]\€<; ovv
§ 160.

accusative.

,

:

^
:

'

zvhen then they

had gone about

twenty-five

fnrlongs.

Tivo accusatives may follow verbs of § 161. saying or asking something of some one also Matt. 7 9, doing something to some one.
ov

son ask for bread.

men.
§

,
6

),
Matt. 4
131.

;

:

whom
19,

shall his

I shall make you

fishers of

162.

The

infinitive

has the subject in the

accusative.

See

SYNTAX

:

PREPOSITIONS.

219

§163.

Prepositions.

Genitive only.

-

, ,
,
€K,

instead
fro)n.
of.

of.

out

before.

Dative

only.

-, until.
els, into, to.

Accusative only.

,
Genitive

through.

Gen., Dat.

liri,
-

upon,

at. to.

down.

and
after.

-rra.po..froj/i, by, to.
[

and
Acciis.

£, with,
irepi,

Accns.

irpos,

/<',

at.

about.

,
§ 164.

vTzip,

above.

under.

a

tootJi

instead of oSovra a tooth. for denotes separation, arro
,

,
;

from
sin.

Galilee

tJirongJi

THE SAKE
sake
;

, ) ,
genitive,

,

Source,

through,
eyeveTO,

, ^^'
learn of
the
door.

,

from every
vie.

, ,
8ia

entering through

'

Means,

the zaorld zvas

made
for

him.

Accusative, on

account

of,

of, hia TO

., for

7ny name's

8ta

cls

on account of this. denotes motion toward, either

real

or

2

20

ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

implied,
vioiititain.

eh
Time,
et<f

Used metaphorically
CONDITION,
is

, ,
Jie

zvcnf up into the

to

for everlasting. denote rest or a
Jie

/

eh

in the bosom of the Father.

€K denotes motion out of, where there has been a close union, iic a voice out of heaven. Time, ck after this {time). Place, eV on the rigJit hand.
€V, IN, eV TTf a'yopa., in the

with
iv
T7}

with the genitive, upon, with verbs of RESTING, GOING, STANDING, eVl T^9 /;•?, Upon the earth. Time, eVl in the time of
Claudius.
stern ;

,

]
iv

plural

, ,
;

., .,

market-place ; BeSo(so often

given among men

nouns).
shall

Instrument,

,
,
tive,

With the
errl

a charger. Accusative, motion toward,
Jipon

, ,
we
dative,

strike zvith the sivordf

where,

iirl

},

they

put

-

gathered

to

him.

,
it

upon a lajnpstand, great multitude zuas

Genimotion from above downward. they rushed doivn the steep place. An opinion or judgment against any one, el tl e^eTe ^?, if you have anything against any one.

,

eVl

at the

;

SYNTAX

:

PRErOSITIONS.

, € , ,,
Kara

Accusative^ along,

^^

through, according

to,

throilgJioiit tJiese

€,

according to the
tJie

.

places

;

association with.
FatJier is

Genitive,
zvitJi

Accusative, After, denoting succession, /xera

ravra

genitive,

and after this he said. from the side of.

always of a person, receive from him. Dative, by the side of. Something is done by some one or something, they remained tuith him. Accusative, contrary to, ^X^e
contrary
TTCpi,

, ,
Trepl

^
the sea ;

me.

,

From,
zve

is

or

,

he zvcnt

to

to the teaching.

genitive, about,
it is

concerning,

avTov,

zvritten concerning him.

Accusative, about, around, irepX 8e

and about
Tyre.
irpd,

the eleventh hour;

BEFORE,

the world.

,,

^ ^, ,
88^,

aronnd

before the doors

before the foundation of

irpos, accusative, after

<},
motion
XoL'9j
is

verbs of motion, he departed to tJiem. Where the

not objective,

-

(ind indeed they contended ivith one another.

222

ESSENTIALS OF
Xoyo'i

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.

Proximity,
the mountain.

zvas zviih God.

Dative.,

near,

Genitive but once, Acts 27
of.

for the advantage WITH, with them.
icrrep, genitive.,

,

,
life

?

©eoV,

t/ie

ivord
by
34,

ope<,
:

he proceeded

Accusative, above,

,

for sake

of,

shall lay doiun

my

for yon.

ho\)\o•^

nor
to

,

is the

servant above his fnaster.

,
,/

genitive., always with the passive voice denote the agent, he

.,
elSov

zvas baptized by Jo Jin.

Accusative, under,
sa7v

yon underneath

the fig tree.

The student should by no means

consider this

short treatment of the prepositions exhaustive.

the

them occur more than 1000 times in Testament, and often with varying significance. Only the most fundamental uses have here been indicated. In all cases constant reference should be made
of

Many

New

to the lexicon.

INDEXES.

,

GREEK INDEX.
. . — All
A,
in
references are

made
is

to pages.

Occasionally more particular

reference

made

contraction,
to
rj,

139

;

changed
(note),

15;

to a,

48

,
197.

in parenthesis.

parts,

conjugation, 179; prin. 189; forms in N. T.,

^';,
ay ,
ot,

76,

comparison, 153.
class of verbs, 186.

-,
B,

contract form in, 168.
classification

2 aor., 118 (v. 13).
86.
2 perf.,67 (top)

, ,
,

short in endings, 23 (top).
1

,
209.
196.
axiTos,

and 112

(v. I).

decl., 151.

&v, in apodoses,

208

;

in

temp.

clauses, 210;

in rel. clauses,

, 3,
in

,
in

mutes,

138

among the (2); euph.

changes before
N. T., 197.
prin.

,

49.

prin. parts, 190;

forms forms

parts, 190;

N. T.,

197.

decl., 150.

cLvqp, decl., 45.

'^, forms

, ,
,

,
N.
T., 195.

classification

in

mutes,

138

among the (2); euph.

w. gen., 219.

changes before

,

49; before

forms in N. T., 196. forms in N. T.

-, •,

w. gen., 215.
pron., 30 (top);

pers.

,
198.

,

117 (top).
decl., 151.
\v.

gen., 215.

intensive pron., 29 (bottom); position and meaning with
art., 29, 30,

147.

,
parts, parts,

8g
190;

(bottom) prin. forms in N. T.,
;

190;

prin. 8g (bottom) forms in N. T.,
;

for eavTov, 80.

198.

225

,

,
220

ESSENTIALS OF
2
aor.

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
ei,
?'/,

pass,

-^,
the

207, 208.

69 (bottom).
classification

ei5oi',
et/it,

57 (bottom). conjug., 178; w. dat.
enclitic, 31.

of

,
,
in

among

poss., 217;
eijui,
_

mutes, 138; dropped before 49; euph. changes before
a liquid, 69 (mid.); inserted 45 (bottom).
30.

go,

in

composition only,

179•

, , , ,
^,
Set,

,
-,

elwov, forms of, 58 (top),
et's,

w. ace, 219.
decl., 151
e|,
;

impers., 90.

w. gen., 215 (mid.). of contract conjug.

forms, 168.

w. gen. and ace, 219.
conjug.
87,
;

of,

1

73;

verbs

in

88;
aor.

redupl., 89
in

(bottom)
(note)
;

,

,
ev,

, ,
eis,
e/c

compound,

83.

or

w. gen., 220.

eKeivos, 27.

147

().
148.

e\7r/s, decl., 51,

decl., 154.
vv.

gen., 2l6 (mid.).

w. dat., 220.
w.
gen., dat.,

88

iwl,

and ace,
1

prin.

parts,

190;

forms in N. T., 199.

,,.

E,

in contraction, 138; in aug.

15;
aor.

lengthened to
pass.,

,

48; in
2
;

,
in

220.

parts,

91; forms

N. T., 199.
prin. parts, 191;
class,

187;

forms in N. T., 200.
forms in
of the 3d

of liquid stems, 79;

aor.
fut.

69

(bottom)
1

liquid

stems,

conjug. of

\4,
;

78; 68; vari-

', prin. parts, 190; N. T., 200. -, -3, -, in the gen.
decl., 44, 45.

able vowel, 4, 13 (top), 15 (mid.), 48 (top) contraction

?ws, construction of, 2IO.

of

eai, 13.

Z, double consonant, 12

();

,
iyeipw,
ei

-eat, for -etrat, 13.

verb stems in -', i86 (2).

iav, w. subj., 39, 208, 209.
decl., 154.
fut. of, 78.

H,
-r;s,

see under

e.

adjs. in, 84, 85.

iy^, decl., 29, 153.
for ee in aug., 16 (note).

See

,

classification

among

the

under

e.

mutes, 138.

;

GREEK INDEX.
€, in aor.
pass., 68.

227

M,
prep.
class

138.
decl.,

-;

{),

only w.

-^,

prin. parts, 191;

, -,
I, close

of verbs, 187 (bottom).
decl., 151.
decl., 15
1

, ,

152;

compared,

153•
-w.

gen. and ace, 221.
in cond.,
rel.,

neg.

final,

(top).

temp, clauses, 213; in wishes, 206; w. imp., 213; w. dubitative

vowel, 138 (3); added and adv., 52 (note) ; in redupl., 89; sign of the
to pron.

opt, 181.

-, see
-Lv,

in ace. sing., 51

.

,
187.
V,

subj., 205 (bottom); double neg. 26 (top) in asking questions, 213.

,

decl., I5I (top).

(bottom).
object

N, 138;

in 5th class of verbs,

',

conj., construction w. final

clauses,

206;
89;

vv.

case ending, 51 (bottom).
183.
plur., 4.

',
•,
K,
86.

clauses, 207.

-vat, infin., 76,

redupl.,

inflection
parts,

-, in

3d per.

of forms,

173;

prin.

191; forms in N. T., 201.
-iffTos,

S, double consonant,
O,

17 (top).

comp. and

superl.,
in contraction, 139;

length-

ened
for classification

to

,48;

to 011,52(132);
e.

of mutes,

connect, vowel, see under
0,

138; before <, 49; before 117 (top).

,

,

TO, art.

decl.,

146; pro-

clitics,

21 (note).
8,

88 (note). KUKOs compared, 153. KoXos compared, 153. w. gen. and ace, 220.
in verbs,

-,

, ,
A,

,
01,

diphthong,

.
class of verljs,

conjugation, 180.

,

, ,

prin. parts, 191.

138; verbs in
class

-,
165.

, ,
';,

(-, -),
decl,, 42.

187.

w. gen., 86 (note).

i86.

of verbs,

187;

prin. parts, 192.

,

in obj. clauses

w. subjv.,
192; aug-

207.
prin.
parts,
(v. l).

2 aor.

of,

ment, 112
8i, rel.

conjug., 160.

pron., 33 (bottom).

,

228
da-Tis,
01),

ESSENTULS OF

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
dropped in nouns, 53 (bottom); in and 13 («). 17 («). and 56 (a); movable , 141 (top). and -, see under . 3d per. plur., 15 (top),

,
ing

under

,, .
verbs

forms in N. T., 154. 28 (note 2) ; see
decl., 83.

,.,

,

oCs, ear, decl., 151.

ovTos, decl., 147; use
of, 26, 27.

and mean-

-,

,

-,
n,

in,

168.

for classification,

,
',

fore

,

138; be49; before Oe in aor.
dat.,

, ,
88.

decl., 154.

prin. parts, 193.

decl., 153.

pass., 69.

, ,
202.
153•
Trpos,

w. gen.,

ace, 221.

T, for classification, 138; euph. changes with other Unguals,

iras, 64.

decl., 45.

w. gen.

and ace, 221.
prin.

, , ,
parts,

class of verbs, 187;

,
-?,
Tjoeis,

69; dropped before

,

49.

masc. nouns

in, 22, 23.

see 89 and 90.

192;

forms in N. T.,

foil,

by

dat.,

217 (top).

decl., 44.

/
187
193•

t/s, decl., tIs, decl.,

154; see 75. 154; see 75.

decl., 153.

()

class of verbs.

(mid.);

prin.

parts,

decl.,

152;

compar.

, ,
at

51 (top); decl., 151 (top).

Y, close vowel, 138 (3).

w.
vv.

infin., 212.

',
VL,

decl., 151

(top).
(c),

gen., dat.,

and ace,

diphthong, 10

6,
221.

vios, decl., 145.

w. gen., 216 (middle).

,
,

w. gen. and ace, 222.

TrpQros, w. gen.,

216 (middle).

beginning of a word, 140.
of,

, forms
to
<r

3 (note)
;

,
,

classification,

138

;

euph.

changes, 49, 69 (178). conjug., 166 class of
;

;

classifi-

verbs, 186;

prin. parts, 193;

cation, 138 w. mutes. 49

euph. changes

forms in N. T., 202.
i88 (mid.); prin. parts,

;

Unguals change
a
lingual,

before

69;

193•

GREEK INDEX.
X,

229
0.
01,

Xelp, decl., 151 (top).

,
,
and

see reference under

.

il,

see under
for

, augm.

see KaKos.

,

-$,
19 (a)
138.

double consonant,

,

part, of

,,
and

15 (36).

in adverbs, 86.

w.

inf.

ind., 212,

80

(note l).

;.

ENGLISH INDEX.
See remark, page 225.

Absolute gen., 74 (note 3). Abstract nouns, w. art., 112
(v. I, latter part).

from
Attic
(v.

I

aor. in

form and mean-

ing, 57; aor. in

,
in

S8(note);
aor.,

redupl.

118

Accent, nominal, 24; verbal, 2; gen. and dat. of oxy tones, 20;
monosyllables of 3d decl., 42;
in contr. syllables, 78 (top) in enclitics, 29 (note).

13);

accent of 2 aor.
inf.,

part,
suffix

and
of,

62; aor. pass.,
act.

and

endings,
61

68,

69; sense of aor., (mid.) and 205.
in elision, 141.

Accusative case, 144; uses
218.

of,

Apostrophe

Article decl., 146;
of, foil,

Accusing, verbs
216.

by gen.,

(note); w.

$,

proclitic, 21

29,30; w.

adjs. to give positioti, 27.

Active voice, 157. Acute, see under Accent.
Adjectives,

Augment,
85;

15

and

183.

compar.
1 1
;

of,

Believing, verbs of,

foil,

by

dat.,

agree w. nouns,

attrib.

25 (note 2).

and pred., position of, 27 (64)
Adverbs, formation of, 86 foil. by gen. case, 216. Agent, see under Genitive. Alphabet, 137. Antecedent, assim. of rel. to
;

Cardinal numerals decl., 153. Cause expressed by dat., 217;

by

part.,

72-73 (top).

Classes of verbs, 184.

case of anteced.,

1

15 (v. 24).
of,

Close vowels, 138 (3); stems of nouns ending in, 51 (bot-

Antepenult, 2 {6). Aorist, 158, 159; use
ing
of,

tom).

mean- Command expressed by
diff.

imp.,

55,

56;

2 aor.

83•

; ,

ENGLISH INDEX.
Comparative, see Degree.

231
verbs, 32.

Deponent
of

Comparison of
advs., 86.

adjs.,

85;

Diphthongs,
15•

138 (4); contr. w. vowels, 139 (8) ; in aug.

Compound

verbs, 32, 33;

nega-

tives, 214.

Double consonants, 138 (2);
negatives, 214.

Condition and conclusion (protasis and apodosis) syntax of cond. sent., 206-208.

Doubt, questions
subjv., 205.

of,

exprs.

by

Conjugation of
of
-verbs,

-verbs,

160;
Elision of vowels in prep., 141

172.

Consonants,
(top)
;

division

of,

138

(mid.).
Enclitics, 29 (note).

euph. changes
;

of,

49

and 69
140;

at
;

movable consonants, end of words, 42
consonant stems of

Endings, pers. end. in verbs, 4, 182; case endings in nouns,
23, 42,45, 51. Exhortation exprs.

(note)

3d
in

decl., 53.

by subjv.,

Contraction, 138, 139; of verbs

205.

-, -, -,

1

68; in parts,

Extent, see Accusative.

of same verbs, 156.
Coronis, 139.
Crasis, 139.

Feminine gender, 143.
Final clauses, 206.

Following,
Dative,

meaning

of,

144; uses

ing, verbs of, foil,

of, 216-217. Declension of nouns,

Fulness
7

approachby dat., 216. and want exprs. by
joining,
of, 47-49; in 77-78; syntax

and 142;

A-decl., 19-23; O-decl, 6-11;

gen., 215. Future, formation
liquid verbs,

41-46 and 50-54; irreg. nouns of 3d decl. ,151; of adjs., 26-27; ^djs. of 3d
3d
decl.,

of

fut.

w. ov

,

214 (top).

decl.,

85;

of

participles,

Gender, 143,
Genitive case, meaning
of,

154-157; of pronouns, 153154•

accent of oxytones,

144; 20; in

Demonstrative
27.

pronouns,

26,

3d

Dependent
206-310.

clauses, syntax

of,

41 (bottom) and 51 214-216; prep, w., 219; gen. abs., 74 (note 3).
decl-,

syntax

of,

Grave accent, 9 (note).

,

232

ESSENTLi.,LS
of, foil,

OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
by gen.,

Hearing, verbs
II (note).

Movable consonants, 140-141
(top).

Mutes,
Imperative, 82, 83; endings of, 182; used in commands, 83.
49,

138
69,

;

euph.

changes,

117

(top);

verb

stems, 186.

Imperfect tense, meaning of, 14; aug. in, 15; secondary
tense,

Nasals, 138 (2).

159;

used in cond.

Negatives, 213;

sent., 208.

and

Impersonal verbs, 90.
Indicative, 158;

.

see under

207-208; w.
end.
of,

,

in cond. sent.,

Neuter, see Gender; neut. plur. w. sing, verb, 18 (note);
neut. ace. of adjs. as advs.,

212; pers.
in, 183.
,

182; suffixes

Infinitives, 76;

2 aor. inf

62;

86 (mid.). Nominative case, 144;
decl., 41.

of

3d

syntax
of,

of,

210-212; endings

183.

Number,
nouns of 3d
decl.

143.

Inflexion, 142.

Numerals, 153.
Objective case, 144. Open vowels, 138 (3).
Optative, i8o-i8x.
foil,

Irregular,

151

;

comparison, 153; verbs,

189-193.
Labial mutes, 138. Likeness, words of,
216.
Liquids,

by

dat.,

Oxytone, 20 (bottom).
Palatal mutes,

138;

verb stems

in,

77-79•

stems
exprs. by a

in,

138 (2); 186 (top).

verb

Participle,

70-73 and

37, 39.

Manner, see Dat.
part.,

;

Passive voice, 12, 157;
pass., 69.

second

72 (2).
conjugation

yut-verbs,

Means, see dat. 87-90;
of, 172.

Penult, 2 (bottom).
Perfect tense, 65-67;
tense, 159.

primary

Middle mutes, 138 (2). Middle voice, 157. Moods, 158. Motion toward exprs. by ace,
218.

Periphrastic forms, 1

1

2 (bottom).

Personal endings, 4 and 182183.

Place exprs. by dat., 217 (bottom).

;

ENGLISH INDEX.
Pluperfect tense, suffix in
89act.,

233

Semivowels, 138 (2).

Smooth
syntax

breathing, 140.

Predicate position of adjs., 64
(3d. sent.).

Subjunctive,
of,

35-36, 205-210.

38-39;

Prepositions,
elision,

219-222
;

;

suffer

Subscript iota, 7 (a).
Suffixes, 183.

141

in

compound
primary,

verbs, 32.

Present tense,
159•

3,

4;

Superlative degree of adjs., 85 of advs., 86.

Systems, tense, 159, 181-182.
Tasting, verbs
of, foil,

Primary tenses, 159.
Principal parts of verbs, 159.
Proclitics, 21 (note).

by gen

,

Pronouns, pars, pron., 29;

in-

215 (mid.). Tenses, primary and secondary,
subjv.,
part.,

tensive pron., avTos, 29, 30; interrog. and indef. pron.,

159; tenses of ind., 158; of 35; of inf., 76; of

75;

rel.

pron., 33;

refl.

pron.,

71-72.

80, 81.

Pronunciation, 137 and 138 (4). Punctuation, 142.

Time, within which exprs. by gen., 214 (bottom); -when, dat., 217; how long, ace,
218; use of part, to express
time, 72.

Purpose, exprs. by
206.

final clauses,

Touching,
Quantity of a syllable, 2
subjv., 205.
foil,
(3,

verbs

of,

foil,

by

4).

gen., 215.

Questions of doubt exprs. by

Union and approach, words
by
dat., 216.

of,

Recessive, see Accent.

Reciprocal pronouns, 81.

Voice, 157. Vowels, short and long, open
in

Reduplication in perf., 66; 2 aor., 118 (v. 13); in pres. system, 89-90; Attic redupl.
in perf.,
1

and
of,

close,

138 (3); contract, 142 (bot-

138 (4), 139.
declensions,

Vowel
tom).

12 (v. i).

Relative clauses, 209.

Result exprs. by

Rough Rough

,

Vowel stems in verbs, 48 (mid.).
212.
140.

breathing, 10

(<r),

mutes, 138 (2).

Want, words of, foil, by gen., 215. Wish, exprs. by opt., 181.

AIDS

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NEW TESTAMENT.
CONTENTS.
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Works on the New Testament
Gospels and Acrs Matthew

6
lo
ii

Mark
Luke John
Acts

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12
12

12
13 15

Epistles

Apocalypse The Fathers

15
.

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