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Reading Notes

Economics Dr. Sauer

Chapter 1: Data Collection & Graphical Representation 1.1 Introduction to Statistics Statistics is a ______________ concerned with the: of quantitative data and with the application of ___________________________ to the analysis and estimation of _______________________________________.

A statistic is a ___________________ characteristic. A population is the ________________________________________ that is under study. A parameter is a ___________________ characteristic. A sample is ___________________ of the population.

1.2 Data Collection: Samples, Surveys, and Experiments 1.2.1 Planning a Survey 1. Define the ____________________ of the study. 2. Define the target _______________________. 3. Choose a _________________ method. 4.Decide on the _________________ of the survey. 5. Prepare the ____________________. 6. _______________________ the survey. 7. Carry out a ______________ survey. 8. Carry out a ____________________________ survey. 1.2.2 Random Samples Randomization is fundamental to ___________________________ bias. A simple random sample is a sample in which every member of the population has probability of being selected.

A random sample is a sample in which every member of the population has probability of being selected. Problems with Simple Random Samples 1. 2. 3. 4. Stratified Random Sampling

Problems with Stratified Random Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Problems with Cluster Sampling

Sequential or Systematic Sampling

Problems with Systematic Sampling

1.2.3 Non Random Sampling Quota Samples

Problems with Quota Sampling

Other non-random samples

Mixed Sampling Methods

1.2.4. Methods of Contact

1.2.5 Designed Experiments Experiments usually involve __________________ groups and _______________ groups.

1.3 Sources of Statistical Data

1.4 Sorting and Classifying Data 1.4.1 Qualitative and quantitative Data Qualitative or Categorical Data are:

Quantitative or Numeric Data are:

Discrete Data:

Continuous Data:

Accuracy

Rounding

1.4.2 Sorting and Classifying the Data

1.4.3 Stem-and-Leaf Plot

1.4.4 Frequency Distribution Table How to Sort Data into a Frequency Table: 1. 2. 3. Unequal and open-ended intervals:

1.5 Charts: Bar Charts, Pie Charts, and Plotting in Excel Review as needed. 1.6 Graphs: Histograms and Ogives. Graphs in Excel. 1.6.1 Histograms: For Data Sorted into Equal Intervals

1.6.2 Histograms: Unequal Intervals and Open-Ended Intervals

1.6.3 Cumulative Frequency Graphs (Ogives)

1.7 Line and Lorenz Graphs 1.7.1 Lorenz Graphs

The Gini Coefficient

1.7.2 XY (scatter) Plots and Line Graphs

1.8 Misleading Graphs

Summary After we work through this chapter in class, review this section and write any notes here.