You are on page 1of 179

'

'
PENGUIN JCLASSICS
DISPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Born in Trier in the Rhineland in 1 81 8, KARL MARX was the son
of a Jewish lawyer recently converted to Christianity. As a student
in Bonn and Berlin, Marx studied law and then philosophy. He
joined with the Young Hegelians, the most radical of Hegel's
followers, in denying that Hegel's philosophy could be reconciled
with Christianity or the existing State. Forced out of university by
his radicalism, he became a journalist and, soon after, a socialist.
He left Prussia for Paris and then Brussels, where he stayed until
1848. In 1844 he began his collaboration with Friedrich Engels
and developed a new theory of communism to be brought into
being by a proletarian revolution. This theory was brilliantly out
lined in The Communist Manifesto. Marx participated in the 1848
revolutions as a newspaper editor in Cologne. Exiled together
with his family to London, he tried to make a living writing for the
New York Tribune and other journals, but remained fnancially
dependent on Engels. His researches in the British Museum were
aimed at underpinning his conception of communism with a
theory of history that demonstrated that capitalism was a transient
economic form destined to break down and be superseded by a
society without classes, private property or state authority. This
study was never completed, but its frst part, which was published
as Capital in 1867, established him as the principal theorist of
revolutionary socialism. He died in London in 1883.
|AMES LEDBETTER is deputy manager editor of CNNMoney.com.
He is the author of Starving to Death on $200 Million: The Short,
Absurd Life of the Industry Standard and Made Possible by-:
The Death of Public Broadcasting in the United States.
FRANCIS WHEEN is a journalist, author and broadcaster. He has
written for most British national newspapers and was named
Columnist of the Year in 1997 for his "Wheen's World" page in
the Guardian. His biography of Karl Marx, which won the Isaac
Deutscher Memorial Prize, has been translated into more than
twenty languages. His other books include Tom Driberg: His Life
and Indiscretions, Who Was Dr Charlotte Bach? and Hoo-Hahs
and Passing Frenzies, which won the George Orwell Prize in 2003.
His latest book is How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World: A
Short History of Modem Delusions. He is deputy editor of Private
Eye and a regular panelist on the BBC program The News Quiz.
OispatchcsIorthc
cwYork 1rihunc
Sclcc|cd]curnalismcfKarlMarx
Selected and with an Introduction by
JAMES LEDBETTER
Foreword by FRANCIS WHEEN
PENGUIN BOOKS
PENGUIN BOOKS
Published by the Penguin Group
Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC1X OX1. England
Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York t0014, USA
Penguin Group (Canada), 90Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4P lY3
(a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.)
Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland
(a division of Penguin Books Ltd)
Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camherwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia
(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd)
Penguin Books India Pvt ltd, ll Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi - 110 017, India
Penguin Group (NZ), 67 Apollo Drive, Rosedale, North Shore 0631, New Zealand
(a division of Pearson New Za|aodLtd)
Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, '4 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 1196, South Africa
Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offces: 80 Strand, London WC1X OX1.England
www.penguin.com
This selection frst published 2007
Selection and editorial material copyright James Ledbener, 1007
Foreword copyright Francis Wheen, 2007
All rights reserved
The moral right of the editor has been asserted
Set in 10.15/11.15 pt PostScript Adobe Sabon
Typeset by Rowland Phototypesetting Ltd, Bury 5t Edmunds, Suffolk
Printed in Great Britain by Clays Ltd, St Ives pic
Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject
to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent,
te-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's
prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in
which it is published and without a similar condition including this
condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser
Contents
foreword
Chrouology
lutroductiou
ANoteoutheText
CHlNA
Revolution in China and in Europe
[The Anglo-Chinese Confict]
[Russian Trade with China]
[English Atrocities in China]
History of the Opium Trade [I]
History of the Opium Trade ' ll]
[The Anglo-Chinese Treaty]
The British and Chinese Treaty
Trade with China
!X
xv
XV
XXIX
3
II
17
20
24
28
31
36
42
WAR, REVOLUTl ONANDCOUNTER-
REVOLUTl ONlNEUROPE
The Greek Insurrection 51
Declaration of War. -On the History of the
Eastern Question 54
[Revolution in Spain.-Bomarsund] 63
Prussia 67
[Revolution in Spain] [I] 72
[Revolution in Spain] [II] 78
[On Italian Unity] 84
YI CONTENTS
CONTENTS
NII
A Historic Parallel 90
l NDl AANDlMPERlALlSM
What Has Italy Gained? 93
The British Rule in India
21 2
RlTlSHPOLlTlCSANDSOClETY The Future Results of British Rule in India 219
The Elections in England.-Tories
The Revolt in the Indian Army
225
and Whigs 98
The Indian Question
229
The Indian Revolt
234
Corruption at Elections 1 04
[Investigation of Tortures in India]
237
[Case of Starvation] III
The Approaching Indian Loan
243
[Starvation] II3
The Indian Bill
246
The Duchess of Sutherland and Slavery II3
Great Trouble in Indian Finances
250
[Capital Punishment] II9
[Irish Tenant Right] 1 23
AMERlCAANDSLAVERY
[Chartism] 1 29
[Prince Albert] 131 The British Government and the Slave-Trade
261
The War Debate in Parliament 1 34 The American Question in England
266
[Clearing of Estates in Scotland] 139 The British Cotton Trade
276
The English Middle Class 142 The North American Civil War
280
Fall of the Aberdeen Ministry 1 45 The London Timeson the Orleans Princes
[The Increase of Lunacy in Great Britain] lSI in America
291
The News and Its Effect in London
295
ECONOMlCSANDflNANCE
Progress of Feeling in England
300
Pauperism and Free Trade.-The
English Public Opinion
305
Approaching Commercial Crisis 161
Notes
31 2
The Labor Question
163
The Commercial Crisis in Britain 166
The French Credit Mobilier [I] 1 71
The French Credit Mobilier 'll] 1 77
The French Credit Mobilier 'lll] 1 83
Condition of Factory Laborers 1 89
[The Bank Act of I844 and the Monetary
Crisis in England]
192
[The Crisis in Europe] 198
British Commerce and Finance 200
[Project for the Regulation of the Price of
Bread in France] 204
Foreword
Wheu my biography ofKarl Marxwaspublished, iu I999,
some academic critics complaiued that the book was rather
'i ourualistic"~oueofthemostdamuiugiusultsiutheuuiver-
sitylexicou,eveuiuauagewheumauydousarehappytodash
offathousaudwordsoutheculturalsiguincauceofMadouua' s
uew hairstyle. l had uo defeuse agaiust the charge: l am a
iourualist. lfthis is a crime, however, theuMarx himselfwas
guiltyofit.
forfreelauceiutellectualswhomightotherwisespeudallday
closeted away iu libraries, writiug for uewspapers is a useful
discipliue. ltforcesthemtoeugagewiththehereauduow,to
testtheirtheories agaiust reality, toapply theiruuderstaudiug
ofhistorytothespecinceveutsofthe day,audtowritewitha
clarity that will reach iuto the m|uds ofthegeueral public. lt
caualsoprovidethesatisfactiouofachieviugimmediateresults:
there arefewgreaterpleasures thaupublishiug auarticlethat
sparksoffacoutroversy,ori ufuriatesthehighaudmighty.
AllofwhichisaprettyfairsummaryofwhatdrewMarxto
i ourualismiuthenrst place,wheuasayouugmauiuthe early
:8aoshestartedwritiugfortheCermaupress.Asastudeuthe
had euvisaged some sort of academic career for himself, but
afterleaviugerliuUuiversityhisthoughts shifted from ideal-
ism to materialism, from the abstract to the actual. He had
cometodespisetheuebulous,seutimeutalargumeuts ofthose
Cermauliberalswhothoughtfreedomwasbesthouorediuthe
starry nrmameut of the imagiuatiou iustead of ou the solid
grouudofreality.'Siuceeverytruephilosophyistheiutellectual
quiutesseuceofitstime,"hewroteiu:8az,'thetimemustcome
7
FOREWORD
wheu philosophy

ot ouly iuterually byits couteut, but also


e

teruallythroughrtsform,comesiutocoutactaudiuteractiou
wtththerea

lworldofitsday."'Hisuewdirectiouwouldrequire
au exhaustmg, aud exhaustive, course of self-educatiou but
thatwasuodiscouragemeuttosuchauiusatiableautodidct.
Marxproducedhisnrstarticleiufebruary:8azaudseutit
to

uewspaperiuDresdeu,theDeutsche Jahrbucher.1t wasa


-rrlIaut poemic agaiust the latest ceusorship iustructious
rss

ed by K

ug friedrich Wilhelm IV-aud, with glorious if


uurute

ded rrouy, the ceusor promptly bauuedit.The uews-


paperrtselfascloseddowushortlyafterward byorderofthe
feeralarhameut.MarxtheutriedhisluckattheRheinische
Zeztung ruCologue.
It
^
as immediately clear that he had qualities which are
esseutraltoallgreati ourualists:adetermiuatioutospeaktruth
to power, aud

bsolu

e fearlessuess eveu wheuwritiug about


people
"
hosefne

dshrporsupportouemightueed.forproof,
lookathrs6rsta

rticlefortheRheinische Zeitung~publishediu
MayI8az~whrchreportedoutheRhiueProviucialAssembly's
debatesab

utreedomofthepress.NaturallyMarxcriticized
th

oppres

rverutolerauceofPrussiauabsolutismaudits lick-
sptttles:thrswasbraveeuough,ifuusurprisiug.uttheu with
au exasp

erated cry of 'Cod save me from my frieuds", he


turuers blowtorch ou the feeblemiudeduess of the liberal
opposrtrou.A

leasttheeuemiesofpressfreedomweredriveu
by

a pathologrcal emotiouthatleutfeeliug aud couvictiouto


therr argumeuts: 'the defeuders ofthe press iu this assembly
haveouthewholeuorealrelatioutowhattheyaredefeudiug.
Theyhaveuevercometokuowfreedomofthepressasavital
ueed. forthe

itismatterofthehead, iuwhichthe heart


plays uopart. uottugCoethe,whohadsaid thatapaiuter
cau o

ly succeed rudepictiug a type of beauty which he has


loved ruarealhumaubeiug,Marx suggestedthatfreedomof
the press alsohas its beauty, which ouemusthave loved iu
ordertodefeud it. Yet the so-calledliberals appearedtolead
comp

leteau+ful6lledliveseveuwhilethepresswasiufetters.
ertherdrdMarxexpect, eveuahertakiugovertheeditor-
shroftheCologuepaperiuOctober:8az,toofferauyspecial
F OREWORD 7
harbor to his left-wiug comrades. He had uo time for their
stuutsaudtricks,waruiughiscoutributorsthat 'lregarditas
iuappropriate, iudeed eveu immoral, to smuggle commuuist
aud socialistdoctriues,heucea uewworldoutlook, iuto iuci-
deutal theatre criticisms, etc. l demaud a quite differeut aud
more thorough discussiou of commuuism, if it should be
discussedatall."'
Marx'sowuabilitytodiscusscommuuismwasslightlyham-
pered bythefactthathe kuew uothiug aboutit. Hisyears of
studyhadtaughthimpleutyofphilosophy,theologyaudlaw,
but iu politics aud ecouomics he was a uovice. This is why
his uewspaper experieuce is so importaut to his iutellectual
developmeut,audwhyitdeservesfarmoreatteutiouthaumost
writers have allowed. There are couutless books about Karl
Marx as au historiau, au ecouomist, a philosopher, a revo-
lutiouist or a sociologist, aud eveu oue or two about him as
a mathematiciau, but hardly auy devoted specincally to his
iourualism.
Marx admitted mauy years later that 'as editor of the
Rheinische Zeitung, lexperieucedforthenrsttimethe embar-
rassmeut of haviug to take part iu a discussiou ou so-called
materialiuterests.''lkuowwhathemeaut.Wheulgraduated
from uuiversity at the age oftweuty-oue, l waugledmyselfa
iob as a reporter outhe New Statesman, whichwas the best
crash course imagiuable ou learuiug about 'material iuter-
ests"~auduotmerelybecausethepaywassobad.lrushedoff
tocoverstrikesaudlockouts,lvisitedAsiaufamiliesiutheEast
EudofLoudouwhoeuduredracistattacksalmostdaily,audl
headed offto Scotlaudtoiuterview1eudalgraudeeswhowere
persecutiug local poachers sothey could reut out their river-
baukstorichCermautouristsat:,oooaweek.
Marx'sowucrashcoursebegausimilarly,withalougarticle
about the uew law dealiug with thefts ofwood from private
forests.yaucieutcustom,peasautshadbeeuallowedtogather
falleu brauches for fuel, but uow auyoue who picked up the
meresttwigcouldexpectaprisouseuteuce.Eveumoreoutrage-
ously, the offeuder would have to pay the forest owuers the
valueofthewood,tobeassessedbytheowuersthemselves.
XII FOREWORD
k--e::.aaea:|..l-aal.:-!la:c-a,|,:.c|laa!ewa-:.ie:c-!
Ha:x:e:|.a|!---l,aa!ceac:-:-l,,--:|a-.ie::|-:.::.-,
a|ea:ea-.:.ea.eicla..,-:.a:--:e--::,aa!:|-s:a:-.l:al.e
allew-!|.:e-x-:c..-|..:al-a:ie:!-el..|.aaa:|eaa|:l-..
a:aa-a:w.:|.:.ewalea.c. Oae:.aaace-a:|, ea-ei
:|- a:..:ec:a:.c |aliw.:. .a:|- r:e.ac.aln..-|l,-l: ..
-:-c..-l,|-caa.-:|--.li-:.aaeiwee!..ae::-aa:!-!a.:|-u
:|a:.:ecca:..eeu-a-|-l-::.-w.:|ac|a:ac:-:..:.creductio
ad absurdum: r,aaalea,w.:|:|..,:|-l-a..la:e:weal!|a-
:e!:aw:|-ceacla..ea..:..|-caa.-a|exea:|--a:..ae:
:-aa:!-!a.a:!-::|a:.:|a.|-ce-.ei:-ea-a:.l:.|eal!
|-!-c:--!:|-:-ie:-:|a:a|exea:|--a:..a:!-:.
1|.. wa. !aaa-:ea. .a:ca. ie:a |ea:aal..:w|e.---:,
we:!wa.cle.-l,.c:a:.a.:-!|,:|-c-a.e:..r,]aaaa:,is.,
:|-aa:|e:.:.-.|a!|a!-aeaa|,aa!e:!-:-!:|-a-w.-a--::e
cle.-!ewaal:ea-:|-:a::|--a!eiHa:c|.Ha:xwa.a--:
ea.:-.a:-w|,|..-a--:|a!|--a.a--:-..-!,..ac-aeeic.a|
-x-laaa:.eawa.a.-a.t.::l-!.!|-:-al.:--:|eaa||-.a|:
|a- |--aa:a:.-! :e |-a: .:-:|a::|- aa |-|.a! :|- |aa
wa.ael-..aaa:-:|aaC:a:.c|ela.leika...a,w|e|a!
:a|-aeii-a.-a:a-.-c-.a:|-Rheinische Zeitung aa!a.|-!
:|-r:a...aa

k.aa :e !e .e-:|.aa a|ea: .:. r, :|- aa- ei

-a:,

ie

:,10 e:|-:we:!.,ka:lHa:xwa.al:-a!,w.-l!.aaa
,ea:aal..:.c--

:|

:ceal!:-::.i,:|-c:ewa-!|-a!.eiLa:e--.
Ha:x:|-|..:eoaaa:-wea:eiHa:x:|-| ea:aal..:,|a:|-
weal!ae: |a- |--a aa:-a:-el.:.cal| ea:aal..:.i|-!.!a:
al:-a!,|a-a.-a.-ei|..:e:,.-w.-a--:w:.:-:.w|elac|
:

..

.-a.-a:-.aca-a|l-ei!..:.aaa..|.aa|-:w--aaa-aa.a-l,
..

caa:--a:aa!a-:--a...aai:-a:,:|a:w.ll|-ie:ae::-a
w.:|.aw--|.la:|-we:!.ei:|-:w-a:.-:|c-a:a:,Ha:x..:
l.aacD-a:.c|-:,|..-lia.acc-..ial|ea:aal..: nwa:-a-..ei
|..:e:.cal--:.--c:.-.--.:e-:e-:e.!-:--|-.:aa:.!e:-
:e -xc-...- --..... a.w-lla.-x::aaaaa:e-:...e-:
:|-a:-a:-:e|l-.eiea::.-.

a:x.

aa-.aa!|..:e:.cal-a:all-l.a:-ae:..-l,!a.|-.

i,ea:aa|.:..1a|a.ce,a!!.aa-aaa-ac,:e:|-.:-w.1|-,a:-
.a:-a!-!:eacc-l-:a:-:|eaa|:,:e.aaa-.:a-w.a:-:-:-:a:.ea..
1|-:- ...e-:|.aa .a |aaa |..:e:, l.|- :-::.|a:iea, |-
71
FOREWORD
w:e:-..--:|..ela-,-..,.ei:|-.el-a:.a.a::-c:.ea.a
is ,-|,s--e,.,:|-aa:.-.el!.-:..a:|-naalela!.aaa:,,
aa!.:..a:al-ei|..:e:.cal:-::.|a:.ea:|a:.:..a.::a-a:|-
ie:a-!ae:|,:|-eii-a!-!,|a:|,:|-eii-a!-:|..-li.1|-
i:.:|lew!-al::e:|-r:-ac|eaa:c|, -:ec--!-!i:e:|-
ae|.l.:,, ae:i:e:|- --a.aa:..1|- la!.aa :-el: !e-.ae:
ce-ac-w.:|:|-k,e:.,:e::a:-!,!..|eae:-!aa!.::.---!
aa|-!|,:|-r:.:..|,|a:w.:|:|- s--e,., cla!,i-!,--::-!,
ia::-! aa! -a--:-! |, :|-. O:, :e -a: .: aae:|-: wa,,
-el.:.calr:aa|-a.:-.a. a:- a.aall, !-.::e,-! |,ea.:-:. ei
:|-.:ewac:-a:.ea-a.::a-aewa..:wa.:|-a.
laal-c:a:-ai-w,-a:.aae,ai:-:ae:.aa:|a:aa,ei:e!a,.
celaa..:....a-|ee|l-aa:|cell-c:.ea.ei:|-.:we:|,lcea
cla!-!w.:|:|.. a---al. l. .::ee ac|:e |e--:|a: .e-
-al.a|:-a-!-a|l..|-:.a|:aew!e:|-.a-ie:ka:lHa:x:
r-caa.- ei :|- Communist Manifesto, Capital aa! e:|-:
a.:-:-.-c-.,:|-.-e::aac-ei|..a-w.-a--:we:||a. ie:
:ee leaa |--a aa!-:ala-!. ew, :|aa|. :e ]. t-!|-::-:,
:-a!-:.caa| a!a-.:ie::|-.-l-..H,ewa-:!.c::L-a.i|-
|a!!ea-ae:|.aa-l.-,Ha:xweal!!-.-:-:e|-:--|-:-!
a.ea-ei:|-a:-a:a.a-:--a:|c-a:a:,|ea:aal..:..
I.
2.
3

4
5
6.
r:aac..v|--a
P15
Rheinische Zeitung, July 14, 1 842, translated in Karl Marx,
Frederick Engels, Collected Works (London: Lawrence & Wish
art, hereafter MECW), vol. I ( 1975), D. 1 95
Rheinische Zeitung, May 19, 1842, translated in MECW, vol. I
( 1 975), D- 172.
Karl Marx to Arnold Ruge, November 30, 1842.
Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
( 1 85 9), translated in The Portable Karl Marx ( New York: Pen-
guin, 1983), D 1 5 8. ,
Rheinische Zeitung, October 25, 1842, translated MECW,
vol. I ( 1975), D-
225
Isaac Deutscher, Heretics and Renegades ( London: Hamish
Hamilton, 1 95 5), D
:
7
Chronology
.s.sre:a.a1:.-:,O-:aak|.a-|aa!,eaHa,5.
rs..La:e||-!a::|-ua.-:..:,e:reaa:e.:a!,|aw.
.s.e1:aa.:-::-!:er:.-!:.c|v.||-|ua.-:..:,.ar-:|.aaa!
.:a!.-!-|.|e.e-|,.
.s:r.:.:-a||.ca:.ea.a:|-Rheinische Zeitung. H-:r:.-!:.c|
Laa-|.|:.-i|,.a:|-a-w.-a--:.e:c-.
.s.Ha::.-!]-aa,eav-.:-|a|-a.L.a:a:-!:era:...ra|
|..|-!On the Jewish Question.
.sH-:Laa-|.aaa.a.ara:..,:|..:.-:e::-a!a,..Daaa|:-:
]-aa,|e:a.
.s.v:e:- a eaea:a-| ea -|.|e.e-|,|a:-: -a||..|-! a.
Theses on Feurbach. Daaa|:-:taa:a|e:a.
.s.-ev.:|Laa-|.,|-aaace||a|e:a:.eaea-|.|e.e-|.ca|aa!
-ceae.cw:.:.aa.w|.c|wea|!|a:-:|-ce||-c:-!aa!-a|
|..|-!a.The German Ideology.
.seseaL!aa:|e:a.
.s-ra||..|-!The Poverty of Philosophy, aaa::ac|ea:|-
r:-ac|.ec.a|..:r:ea!|ea.
rssn.:-e|a:.ea..w--:ac:e..La:e--,-a||..|-!Manifesto
of the Communist Party w.:|Laa-|..
rss~, He-! :e Ce|eaa- :e -!.: :|- Neue Rheinische
Zeitung. r:a...aa aa:|e:.:.-.a::-.:-!:|-a-w.-a--:..:a::
aa!:-ce-a!-!:|a:Ha:x|-!--e::-!.
.s.ev.:||..:a.|,,e-!:etea!ea,w|-:-:|-,:-a.a-!
:e::|-:-.:e:|..|.:-.lae-|-:,|...eau-.a:.c|Oa.!e
!.-!a::|-aa-e:ea-.
.s. r-aaa |.. ce||a|e:a:.ea w.:| :|- -wYe:| Tribune,
a.!-!|,Laa-|.,w|ew:e:-aa.a.:.a|.-:.-.e:a::.c|-.ea
xvi
CHRONOLOGY
:|-.:a:-eiO-:aa-el.:.c..ra|l.ca:.eaeiThe Eighteenth
Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte.
1853 Oa:|:-a|ei:|-C:.-aava:,w|.c|Ha:xaa!Laa-l.
ce-:-!:-aala:l,ie::|-Tribune.
1855 Daaa|:-:Ll-aae:|e:a.
I856-? 1|-Tribune i-llea|a:!:.-.aa!,ie:.e-ea:|.,
-a|l|.|-!i-weiHa:x.a::.cl-..1|-la!.aan:,:-|-ll.ea
|:e|-ea:, aa!:|- "Arrow lac.!-a: .-a:|-!:|-.-cea!
O-.a va:, --a:. w|.c| -:e.!-! Ha:x w.:| :-a-w-!
.a.-.:a:.ea.
1859 ra|l..|-! A Contribution to the Critique of Political
Economy.
1862 ra|l..|-!|..aala::.cl-ie::|--wYe:|Tribune.
1864 reaa!.aaei:|-la:-:aa:.eaalve:|.aa-a.n..ec.a:.ea
:|-r.:.:la:-:aa:.eaal.Ha:x-l-c:-!:e:|-|e!,.O-a-:a|
Ceaac.l.
1867 ra|l..|-!Capital.
1871 ncla.||-:w--a::ee-.aa!:|-r:-ac|a:.eaalOaa:!
l-!:e:|-ieaa!.aaei:|-.ec.al..:ra:..Ceaa-,Ha:x
w:e:-aaa!!:-..:e:|-Ceaa-:|a:wa.-a|l..|-!a.The
Civil War in France. u-cla.|-!w.:|H.c|a-lra|aa.ae-:
l-a!-:.|.-aa!!.:-c:.eaei:|-la:-:aa:.eaal.
1872 ra|l..|-!The Fictitious Splits in the International. 1|-
la:-oa:.eaale:-!:e:-leca:-:|-O-a-:al Ceaac.l:e-w
Ye:|.Ha:x.!aaa|:-:;-aa,a::.-!.
1881 v.i-!.-!eaD-c-|-:2.
1883 Ha:x!.-!a:|..Lea!ea|e-eaHa:c|..
1893 ra|l.ca:.eaei.-cea!ela-eiCapital.
1894 ra|l.ca:.eaei:|.:!ela-eiCapital.
Introduction
la.s.s,:|-n-:.caaa-w.-a--:-!.:e:C|a:l-.n.Daaawa.
...:.aa Celeaa- ie::|- :.: :.-. Daaa |a!

eal, :-c-a

l,
je.a-!:|-.:aiiei:|--wYe:|Tribune, w|.c|!..-a:c|-!|.
a|:ea!ie:-.a|:ea:|.:ece-::|--ii-c:.ei:|-

:-ela:.ea.
.w---.aa :|:eaa| La:e-- :|a: ,-a:. Oa :|a: :o-, Daaa, a
:w-a:,a.a-,-a:el! l.:-:a:, a:e-.a

w|e .-

- i|a-a: O-

aa -:a :a!.cal-e-:aa-!r-:!aa!r:-.|a:a:|w|e
:a:a

.a::e!ac-! |.:e ka:l Ha:x. ra:-l,:|.::,, Ha:xwa.


al:-a!,aie:.!a|l-aa:-.aO-:aa-|.le.e-|,

He:-e-:,
w.:|:|--a|l.ca:.ea-a:l.-::|a:,-a:eiThe Mantfesto of the
Communist Party, Ha:x,aleaaw.:||..w:.:.a

a::a-:aa!
a:-a:i:.-a!r:.-!:.c|Laa-l.,|a!|-ce-:|--

c.-al-:e-a
aaa!..:ie:La:e--aa.ec.al...nl:|eaa|:|-:-.

ae:-c

e:!ei
:|--a.--:.aa,.:.cl-a::|a:Ha:xa!-aa

-:-...eaea
Daaa|-caa.-:|:--,-a:.la:-:,Daaaw:e:-:e|.:ea.|:|a:
|--:e!ac-a.-:.-.eia::.cl-.ie::|-Tribune ea:|-c|aaa-.
:|a:|a!:a|-a-lac-.aO-:aa,..ac-:|-:aal:aea.--a

:.
eiis.s. 1|-Tribune |a!|--aieaa!-!|,ue:ac-O

--l

,
s.I a.ac:a.a!.aae:aaaei-:ea:-...-caa.-.,al|-.:w.:|a
!..:.ac:l, n-:.caa aa! C|:..:.aa i|ae:, ea- cea:--e:a:,
w:.:-:!-.c:.|-!:|--a--:.-el.:.cal.:aac-a.na:.sla-:

,
na:.va: na:.ka na:.1e|acce, na:.s-!ac:.ea, na:.-
O:ea.|e.,na:.r:e:s-l.,na:.Oa|l.aauea.-..1|-rri
bune |a! |--a -:e:a|l- i:e .:. :.: ,-a: aa! wa. i--|aa
1a.| -aeaa| :e -aaaa- a :-a eiie:-.aace

:-.
l
ea!a:. :e
a.-.:a.a|.:aa:.-l-aa-eae:-.-a.a:.eaa|.:oal.||-:|-
Herald aa!Sun. Ha:x,:--:-!|e:||,:|-w.!-:-ac|ei:|-
)ribune!a:.aa:|---:.e!w|-a|-w:e:-ie:.:,:|--a--:|a!
xiii
INTROD UCTION
e:-:laa200,000 :-a|-:.,a|.aa.::|-la:a-.:a-w.-a--:.a
:l- we:l| a: :l- :.--aa| :|- -:e.--c: ei .:-a|, .ace-
aa:-

|-aa|:|-a.-|.a:-l,a.|-|raa-l.:ew:.:-:l--.-c-.
ie:l..
1a:--

al.a:.-:eic.:ca.:aac-..aaaaa:a:-|a|-ca|-leaa
:-la:.ea.l.-|-:w--aHa:xaa|a-:ea:-...-n-:.caaa-w.
-a--::a:weal|:--:-.-a::|-cle.-.::l.aal---:la|:ea
.:-a|,

,e|.Oicea:.-,Ha:x|a|ajea:aal..:.cca:--:ea:..|-
:l-Trtbun

; l-la||--aw:.:.aaie:O-:aaa-w.-a--:...ac-
:az,aa|.a:

|-|a|ieaa|-|:l-:a|.calCeleaa-|a.l,
:|- eue Rhet

tsche Zeitung. 1|:eaa|ea: l.. a|al:l.i- |-


cea::.|a

-|

::.cl-. :e a a:.-:, ei-a--:. .a |e:l O-:aa


aa|raal

.|,.acla|.aa:|-r:.:..lC|a::..:e:aaaThe People's
Paper, Dte Presse aa|:l-Neue Oder Zeitung. ra::l-Tribune
wa.|,ia::|

- la:a-.:

-a|l..|-:eiHa:x..aa|,:e a l-..-:
-x:-a

,raa-l..we:|..aall,:|--a--:-a|l..|-|a;a::.cl-.,
eiwl.clHa:xalea-w:e:-3 50, raa-l.w:e:-:25, aa|:ea-:|-:
:|-,w:e:- I2. 1l-.l--: ela-ei:l-we:|..:-a:|a|l-
.
:|- Tribune a::.cl-. :ea-:|-: :a|- a- a-a:l, .--a ela-
ei:l-iela-cell-c:-|we:|.eiHa:xaa|raa-l.-e:-
:|aaCapttal,

:-:|aaaa,we:|-a|l..|-||,Ha:x,al.-e:
-e.:laea.l,

.a |ee|ie:. v|.l-Ha:xla. |--a:--


|

:-|

a. a-l.le.e-l-:, -ceae..:aa|-el.:.cal:l-e:..:,:l-
|..:e:.cal :-ce:| .aaa-.:. :la:w- .|eal| a:l-a.:a::--::e
aa|-:.:aa||.a.ajea:aal..:.
vl,, :|-a, a:- Ha:x. jea:aal..:.c w:.:.aa. .e l.::l- :-a|
:e|a,:e:.eleaaaae,l..:el-a.aa-w.-a--:aawa.w.|-l,
-aeaalaa|-:.:ee|:la:

cr:-..|-a:;elar.k-aa-|,,eiall
--e-l-,i-l:ceie::a|l-,e|aaa|ea:.:.Yeaa,:--|-:
k-aa-|,eac-:el|aa:ea-eia-w.-a--:-a|l..l-:.,
.
that .1 8 5 1 the New York Herald [sic1 Tribune under the spon
sorshIp and publishing of Horace Greeley, employed as its
London correspondent an obscure journalist by the name of Karl
Marx.
,
We are t?ld
,
that foreign correspondent Marx, stone broke,
and WIth a famIly III and undernourished, constantly appealed to
Gree
,
ley and managing editor Charles Dana for an increase in his
mumfcent salary of $ 5 per installment, a salary which he and
I NTRODUCTI ON
717
Engels ungratefully labeled a
s
the "lousiest petty bourgeois cheat
ing." But when all his fnancial appeals were refused, Marx
looked around for other means of livelihood and fame, eventually
terminating his relationship with the Tribune and devoting his
talents full time to the cause that would bequeath the world the
seeds of Leninism, Stalinism, revolution and the cold war. If
only this capitalistic New York newspaper had treated him more
kindly; if only Marx had remained a foreign correspondent,
history might have been different.
2
l:...-e...|l-:e.aa.a-acea:--e:a:,n-:.caa-:-..
|-a:a|.aa.ac|aaalla..ea,--aaeaa.e-w|e|aew
Ha:xw-ll,|..jea:aal..:-a.a.la:a-l,aa|aewa.
1|-:-la:.-e|.ca:.:,eiHa:x.jea:aal..:.cwe:|..ae:|a-
:eaa,la-.-.aeaal.:,.n.aea.c|alaac-a::|--..a,..a:|..
ela-w.ll|-ea.::a:-,|..:|-:e:.cal.|.ll.w-:-a:aaall:.-
|.a||a:.aa:l---:.e|wl-al-wa.w:.:.aaie::l-Tribune. l:
..c-::a.al,::a-:|a::l-ie:ei|..a::.cl-.|e-.ae:ce::-.-ea|
:ee|-:aae:.ea.eijea:aal..:.c-:e:ecel.:|-:-..ae:.:|aa|
:--e::.aai:e:|-.c-a-,:|-:-..a.a:i-.:ei|..:e:.cale|.-:a
:.ea,:|-:-..ae:|.aaa--:eac|.aae|j-c:..:,.ra:.a:|-.-
:-.--c:.,Ha:x.jea:aal..a:.-|i:e:|a:eil..cea:--e:
a:.-.eal,|,|-a:--.1|-c|.-i|.ii-:-ac-|-:w--a|..|..-a:cl-.
aa|::a|.:.eaaljea:aal..,:l-aaa|aew,..|..a::-:|..|a.a
ie-:|-a.-ei|.a|-lac-|.ea:c-..Ha:xwa.ae:acea|aa:
ei|.-lea:.aa|aa|a:.a.,il.::.aai:eea-.ec.-:,--a::e
aae:|-:.|-wa.a.-:.ea..c|ela:,-e:.aa:|:eaal|a.:,:-ce:|.
aa| ie:-.aa a-w.-a--:. .a :|- :-a|.aa :ee ei:|- r:.:..|
Ha.-a.ra:ea-a--|eal,lee|a::|-wa,..aw|.cleic.al.
|-|:|--:-..a.::a,,:|-aaa|aew,:e:-ceaa.:-Ha:x..a|---a
|-ac-i:e:l-a.a .::-aa:|, ae:a w-a|a-... n.:|- la:-
n-:.caajea:aal..:Ha::a,k--:eae|.-:-|.aawea|-:ial
-..a,eaHa:x.jea:aal..,Oiall:l-.lla..ea.ea-|:eaa|:
:e jea:aal.., :l- ea- e.: a.-ial:e le.- ..:|- .lla..ea ei
acc-..:e.ea:c-... .r-:.ea.-:.,:e--a:.-.:|-:|eae:|aew
w|a:...-e::aa:a|ea::|-e:,w|-a:|-,|e,a-a-:all,l.-
. . .Ha:x |a|a-.:|-::|- :--:a:.eaae::l- e--e::aa.:, ei
acc-... '
77
INTRODUCTI ON
oa- :-..ea :|.: H.:x. Tribune .ea::||a:|ea. .:- ae: |-::-: |aewa |. :|.: H.:x ||.-ii ei:-a !-a|e:.:-! :|- we:|. 1|- ||.:e:|..i :-.e:! |. .-:|a|i-! w|:| ||a:. :|.: |- !|.i||-!- |a!--! e:-.:i, :-.-a:-!-:|- ,ea:a.i|.:|. we:| |- !|! ie: :|- Tribune, .--|ae |a |: :|- -:, ..-|:.i|.: -x-ie|:.:|ea :|.: |- .!- ||. i

|i-we:| :e !-.::e,. i:. ::ai, a.a.-.:|ae, |- w:e:- :e rae-i. :8s;, :|.: ea- .|eai! |- .ea!-a-! :e .eaa: |: . |i-

.|ae w|-a :.|-a .|e.:! |, . |ie::|ae--.--: -a!e: .a.| :. :|... 1e .:a.| a- |ea-., e:|a! :|- .a! .|- :|- |a:e .ea- i||- -.

--:. |a

:|- we:||ea.--:|.: |. w|.: :|- -ei|:|..i we:| :e w|..| ea- .. .ea!-a-! |a .a.| i.:e- -..a:- |a . .ea.-:
^
i||- :||. |e|i. !ewa :e. r.:: ei ||. e|,-.:|ea w.. :e :- Trbune .a! |:. -!|:|ae. s, e!-:a a-w.-.--: .:.a!.:!. |.. we:| w.. -!|:-! i.|:i, i|e|:i,, ,-: |- :ee| e:-.: a|:.e- .. --:, e:! .|.ae-. He:- i:a.::.:|ae w.. :|- .:||::.:, a.- :|- !rtbune

!- ei ||. .ea::||a:|ea.. :|- .::|.i-. |e|: |- -a|i..|-! .. .::..i-. aa!-: ||. |,i|a-, e: .. aa.|ea-! -!|:e:|.i. e: ae: .:

r. oi i.:- :|- Tribune |.. .e.|a |--a .--:e-:|.:|a .ii

, .

:..i-. .. i-.!-:. .a!

a::|ae , a.- :e ae:||ae |a: :a||..|, |- w:e:- :e rae-i. :8sa. e-:|-. :|- -!|:e:. we

ai! |a.-::

-x-i.a.:e:, :-.:|. .: :|- |-e|aa|ae ei ||. .::..i-., .e-:.-.

:s-, weai! ae:. ta!, ae: .a:-:|.|aei,, H.:x |.! aa-:ea. -ei.:...i !|..e:---a:. w|:| :|- Tribune's -!| :

:|.i -e.|:|ea., ea :e-|.. :.ae|ae i:e -.a-i.|. :e :|- !..-.:.|- ei i-..-: |a:

r-.:. :|- -.--: --ie,-! |a ia!|..



r

e: :|-.: -.

::, :|- -!.:e:. ei :|- Tribune .---.: :e |.- |.! ...i.:i, ...i-a: i--i|ae. :ew.:! H.:x. we:|. 1|- -.--: w..

-:e.

-a: e:e.a ie: :|e.- w|e e--e.-! .i.-:, |a t-o.., .

a! .: .-::.|ai, !.||i-! |a :|- .ea|.|, .e.|.i|. -e-a i.: .: :|- :.-. 1|- -.--: ..-.|ea-! ie: we:|-:. :e e:e.a|:- .a! w.. :aa :e .e- !-e:-- i||- . .ee--:.:|-, .a! :|-:- w-:- .:.:i

-|-:. .,-.:|-:|. :e :|- a:e-|.a |-w. ei c|.:i-. reao-:. sa: H.:x. .e|:-a: :e :-eia:|ea.:, .e.|.i|. .a! :|

e-:.iic-:.a|. :ea- ei ||. -:e.----a |a raei|.| |--: |.. t-o..a -!|:e:. .: . !|.:.a.-. ia::e!a.|ae ea- ei ||. -..

,., :|-

i-i: .e

-r-! :e !|..i.| H: H.:x |.. -:, !-..!-! e-.ea. ei |.. ewa, w|:| .e- ei w||.| w- .:- i.: i:e .e:--|ae, |-ie:- .ea.-!|ae :|.: :|e.- w|e !e ae: :-.!
I NTRODUCTI ON 71
||. i-::-:. a-ei-.: ea- ei :|- e.: |a.::a.:|- .ea:.-. ei

|

ie


.:|ea ea :|- e:-.:-.: ea-.:|ea. ei .a::-a: ra:e--.a -ei

:....
He:-e-:, :|- -.--:, !-.-|:- |:. -.:i, .a..-.., w.

.a|,-

: :e
iia.:a.:|ea. |e:| -ei|:|..i .a! -.eae|., :|- ia.a...i -.

.. ei
:8s; .w||.| H.:x !e.a-a:-! w-ii |

||.

eia

a. |.: :|-
Tribune |.:!-|e:| .!-::|.|ae .a! ..:.ai.

.ea !.---!, .a!


ea- ei |:. -:|a.|-.i ia.a.|.i |..|-:. w-a: :e

.a:a-:.,.
1||. .:|.|. w.. !|:-.:i, :-.-ea.||i- ie: . :

!a.:.ea .

|e:

H.:x. .ea::||a:|ea. .a! ||. -.,, .a! w|.i- :|- Trzbu

e .
ie::aa-. :-.e-:-!, :|- ea:|:-.| ei .||i w.: |

:|- ua
'
:-!
:.:-. i-! :|- -.--: |a :86::e !|.|.. .ii ei |:. ie:-.

a

.ea:o|a
:e:. -x.--: H.:x. s, H.:.| :86z, o.a. w.. wo:e :e :-ii
|| :e .:e- .-a!|ae .::|.i-. .i:ee-:|-:.
r-:|.-. e.: e.ii|ae :e H.:x w.. . .-a.-

|.: :|- .

ea.:.a:
!-.a!. ei a-w.-.--: we:| |a :|- :8sos !.-::-! |.. ie.a.
ice :|- ..:-:we:| ea -.eae|.. :|.: w.. --a:a

ii,

:e |-
-a|i|.|-! .. Capital. ia :|- |a::ea.:|ea :e A Contrzbutto

to
the Critique of Political Economy, :|- :8s 9 |

e| :|.: iaa.:

.ea.
.. . .a::.|a-:.|.-: :e Capital, H.:x |. !ewa:

.e|: .-eie

-:.. :e
||. :-.!-:., !-.:,|ae :|- |--:.:|- a-.-...:, ei -.:

e ,
|||ae, w||.| :-!a.-! :|- :|- .: , !|.-e..i. u- .ea:a-..
My collaboration, continued now for eight years, with the Ne

York Tribune, the leading Anglo-American newspaper, necessI
tated an excessive fragmentation of my studies . . . Since a con
siderable part of my contributions consisted of articles ealing
with important economic events in Britain and othe Cotmet, I
was compelled to become conversant with practical detail which,
strictly speaking, lie outside the sphere of political economy,6
a.| .:.:--a:., |ew--:, !e ae: -:e|!- . .e-i-:- |-w
ei :|- :-i.:|ea.||- |-:w--a H.:x .a! :|- Tribune, e: |-

--a
H.:x .a! ||. | ea:a.i|.. re: .:.::-:., |- w.. . ae:eoe

a.,
we:i!.i... -:e.:..:|a.:e:, |- w.. iaii, ..-.-i- ei ia!

ae
:-..ea. :e !-i., we:||ae ea ||. ..:-:we:| w.:|ea:

a--!e
:|- -x.a.- ei :-eai.: a-w.-.--: .e|:-a:

. ia--!, :8s;,
w|-a :|- Tribune |-e.a -a|i|.||ae i-w-: ei |.. .::..

i-.

|- .e
-i.|a-! :|.: |- !|!a: |.- -aeae| :e !e. sa:, e:- ..ei..a:i,,
XXll INTRODUCTION
|- :ee| i:-ea-a: .a! .ea.-|.aea. -:|!- | a :|- -|-.-. |- -a|
||.|-! |a :|- Tribune; |||- e.: | ea:a.||.:., |- w.. -|-..-! w|-a
||. -a|||.|-! we:| :-.-|-! ae:|.-. ia : s ;,|- w:e:- . ...:||ae
.:|:|ea- ei s:|:.|a. t aa s.a| t.:, .a! :|- -.eae|. .ea.-
ea-a.-. ei |.a| i.||a:-. |a s:|:.|a ..-- :||. e|a-, -.e- t oz .
H.:x -:-!|.:-! :|.: :|- s.a| wea|! |.- :e |- .a.--a!-!, .
-:e-|-., w||.| :|- New York Times |.|-|-! .|-|, .|.a:!.
a:- -aeae|, :|- s.a| w.. .a.--a!-! .a! H.:x w:e:- . |-::-:
:e rae-|. |e..:|ae ei ||. e:.:|i,|ae ..ee-. H.:x w.. .|.e
-:, .ea..|ea. :|.: :|- Tribune !|.-.:.|-. e.- || . ||e|
-e||:|..| -:ei|- |a :|- ua|:-! :.:-., w||.| |- w.. |e.:|- :e
|e.-. v|-a |- ||: :|- .|a- |a t s;, |- .e-|.|a-! ||::-:|,
:|.: :|- .a:. |.- .a..--!-! |a -.||-.|ae :|- a.- i w..
.||ae ie: ,.-|i .eae :|- Y.a|--. .a! w||.| wea|! |.-
-a.||-! - :e ia! .ae:|-: -.--:, e: :e |e|! e-: :|-|: |-.!.
:|- :|:-.: ei ::.a.i-::|ae :e .ae:|-:.' ta! w|-a |: .a|:-!
||. -a:-e.-, |- w.. -.e-: :e :.|- .!.a:.e- ei :|- Tribune's
|a:-:a.:|ea.| -:-.:|e-. ia t so,w|-a |- |-e.a . ...|- -a|
||.||ae .a! |-e.| i-a! w|:| . c-:.a ..|-a:|.: .a! a.:a:.||.:
a.-! k.:| vee:, H.:x w.. .|| :ee |.--, :e .e||.|:-.a!
:-.-|--. .|.:..:-: :-i-:-a.- i:e o.a., w|e ..||-! || ae:
ea|, ea- ei :|- e.: ||e||, .|a-!, |a: ea- ei :|- |-.: -.|!
.ea::||a:e:. .::..|-! :e :|- [Tribune] ."9
sa: --:|.-. :|- e:-.:-.: ,.:-:, .|ea: :|- :-|.:|- e|..a:|:,
ei H.:x. | ea:a.||.:|. we:| :e!., |. :|.: :|-:- |. .ea.|!-:.||-
.a! |-e::.a: e-:|.- |-:w--a |: .a! :|- e:- .-:|ea. we:|,
w||.| |. .:||| .:a!|-!. ia .e- |a.:.a.-., :|- .eaa-.:|ea |. !|:-.:
:e :|- -e|a: ei |-|ae e||ea.. H.:x. t s , .e|aa 1|-
oa.|-.. ei a:|-:|.a! .a! |.-:, ..-- :||. e|a-, -.e- I : , ,
|. . ..:-:-|-.- ei -e|-|. .a! :-.-.:.|, .::..||ae -|--a:. ei
:|- s:|:|.| .:|.:e.:.., ie: :|-|: |,-e.:|:|..| .::|:a!-. :ew.:!
.|.-:, |a t-:|... u-ea |:. -a|||..:|ea |: ..a.-! . .:|: :e
w||.| H.:x e|--ia||, .||a!-. |a :|- r:|.:, t..aa|.:|ea
.-.:|ea ei Capital.1O ia e:|-: |a.:.a.-., ||. | ea:a.||.:|. w:|:|ae
iaa.:|ea-! .. . ||a! ei i:.: !:.i: ie: ||. e:- .!.a.-! e-a..
1|- ea|, :-.| !|ii-:-a.-, ie: -x.-|-, |-:w--a H.:x. Tribune
.e|aa. ea :|- .|a.|- we:||ae .ea!|:|ea. |a s:|:|.| i..:e:|-.
..-- :||. e|a-, -.e-. : 6,, t o .a! :|- -:, .|||.: !-..:|--
XXIII
I NTRODUCTI ON
| |-! |.:-: . a 1|- ve:||ae o., .-.:.ea
:|ea. :.:

-:
|
- -a| .

.
1 -.: ei :|- eii.|.| :--e::. ea w||.|
ei Csv
si.. : - -.::..a .: Y
|e:| w-:- |..-!
| |! |.- a.-! .a! :-a.-! |.... :-.-.:.|
1|.: .:x . ea

t. ke.a ke.!e|.|,, ea- ei :|-
.:-
o.| .. |.:!|, .a:-o.e.
|
: ! H.:x. ,ea:a.||.
.|e.-.: :-.!-:.
i

i |


-~

v-a

, :-i-: :e |.. aa-:


!|! -:e- a.- a :e .

.
!|:|ea. ea ea-.:|ea. ei ::.!-
ea.
.::|.|-. ea -.

.. .
`e .|..

e--a: .a! .::||-..
-e|..,, ea :- rae lS
.
we:
i:..| .a! .e::..| .e:.:|.a .ea
xe:-e-:, hlS :--e::e e

! :e-! :e |- -x::--|,
!|:.ea.

.a
ea rae|

r
e
l

.
.
'
.
`

- ...e:!|ae|, |a.|a!-!
a.-ia | :|.. :-.--.: . .-
k !e|.|, e!-.:|, .aee-.:., "I
.a :|.. e|a-, |-..a.-, .

e.
.|- . .|e.-: .e-.:|.ea ei
wea|! .-::.|a|, |- :-

e :e
| H.:x !-.|:
w|:| ea :|-
:|- :e-... |a -.eae..
v
..:e
t
:,
`
'ne .a! ea :|- e:|-: |a
ea- |.a! |a :|- New or r

,
C

1"11
|

aptta .
|

.:: |, :|- i:.||.a : -eo.:


1|.: .|.||-ae- w.. :. -a a-

a -
: |-:w--a |H.:x.
|
. . |... .ea:. ,
-:e|e se|eea., w 0 .

-

a :|- |.w. ee-:a|ae
Trz' bune] .::|.|-. .a! |.. -.: |-: wo:e. 0
I ' (The
|
I

:|- t a:-e a:.ea
:|- |-|.|ea: ei :|- we: e . ...

x.:x. a--! ie:
.
F
) ia se|eea. . .-w,
Class Struggles In ranee
.
.
| |
.| :e --:.a.!- ||. Tribune
I ! '1 ! ie:.:.ea .: w .
:.- ,, -:.. -
! a! |:e.!-a-! ||. :|-e:-:|..| aa-:
:-.!-:. |e:| .::-ae:|-a-
!
.
1|:eae|ea: :||. --oe!
i

r .a .:. .o.-..
.:.a!e 0 ..-.:. ..

| . i:|-a! rae-|. |a H.a-
w- ia! || .ea.:.a:|, wo:e :e .
|ew :|- .:|.|. w.. |-|ae
.|-.:-:, e|.-..|-|, .--||ae

-e

:. e
:ea
!|.::|.:. .a! .a -a::-
-x--:|-

.-! .a! aa!-:.:e



I
.

`.|
`

e
:||. |. .|:-.!, :|- x.:x
-:-a-ao.| .a! .e
`
:

.
I"

e|eea. .::..|-. -.::|.a|.:


ei :|- i:.: e|a-

O ap
.
a .
.
-.e- : ; I) x.:x w:e:-
.-e::.a.- : . .-o-. ..--
|
: ..
.|.:e-!, -.eae|..||,
ea :|- -.:.||.|-a:

i : - -
.
f - .--|ae |a .: . .:.|
aa.:.||- c:-!|: He|.
l
-
|
: |.a|
|

a :
"
.

e .a.|,.|. ei .:-!|:
.||i: i:e .a.|,.-. ei : - we: e .
.a! ea-,.'
|
: |- . .--.|.||.: .a
x.:x|.: -.ea
oi .ea:.-, ,ea !ea :

:a

||.:|. -...,. |a:-:-.:.ae. k-e.:!


e|. :|-e:, :e ia! :

|-
|
.-
H.:x. -e||:|.., :|- .|--: :.ae- ei
|-.. ei w|.: ea- :| . O
XXIV I NTRODUCTION
:e:... ea w|..| |- w:e:- .a:|e:.:.:.-|, .. |:-.:|:.|.ae. o-:
:|- .ea:.- e( -|--a ,-.:., H.:x ..e-:.-. w.:| rae-|.. |-|:
.a.e-! :e :..||- .--:.| r:.:..| -|-.:.ea., :|- ea.-: .a! .ea
!a.: e( :|- :.

.

"
.

:, :-

|a:.ea.:, a::.

.ae. .a :..a, i:.|,


.a! c:--.-, ro:. . .:-o.| :e|- 10 ia!.. .a! .:. (.||ea:
.a.|,.-. e( :|- .|.

a!-.:.a- !.

.:.. .aaa.ae e( tea.. .:e


|-ea .a:|- k

...

a c:.:, .o:...| -x..a.:.ea. e( :|- |.:e-.:


-.eae..-. e( |.. :.- .r:.:..a, r:.a.- .a! e:|-:., :|- :e|- e(
c|. 10 we:|! ::.!-, :|- :e|- e( :|- .|.- ::.!- .a :|- .eai|..:
|-

--a :|- ae::|-:a .a! .ea:|-:a ua.:-! :.:-., .a! .:.|| e:|-:
:e:...

e:-e-:, |-..a.- :|-.- .::..|-. .:- :-|.:.-|, .|e:: .a!
w-:-

o::-a (e: . w.!- .a!.-a.-, :|-, ..a, aa|.|- e.: e(


H.:x . |ea

e:|

, |- !.e-.:-! :e!., |, :|e.- w.:| ea|, .


e!-.: (..|i.o:, .:| H.:x..: -.eae....
1|-:- .:- .-::

.a|

.e- w|e wea|! .:ea- :|.: :|- .e||.:.-
e( a-.:|, --:, ..ea.i..a: :e|.:...| :.::, ::e(-...ae :e :a|- .a
.:x. a.- -.a. :|.: |.. w:.:.ae ea e.: :e:... .. aew
.::-|-.a:. t(:-: .||, --:,ea- :e!., ...-::. :|- :-a-:. e( (:--
.:|-:. .a! ..:.:.|.., :.e|: v|.:. :-.:|.||- .|ea: .a.|
.

:-::. :e .|e.- :|- .a||-.: .. :|.: :|-, w-:- ::-...-|, :|-


:.||.:. e( .ea-a:.ea.w..!e w|-a H.:x w.. w:.:.ae, :ee.
a!--!, :|- e.: .ea...:-a: :|-- .a :|- -...,. .a :|.. e|a-
.. :e -:-.:

.e- |.a! e( |.::.-: .e..a.: :|- .:..|.ae w.- e(
:--::.!- .!-e|ee, :|.: |.! .w-:: ..:e.. :|- !--|e:-! we:|!

a :|- i:.: |.|( e( :|- a.a-:--a:| .-a:a:,. H.:x |.! |--a |e:a
:e ea- e( :|- e:-.

:-

:.e!. e( -.eae.. |.|-:.|.. ea . e|e|.|


...|- ..|:|ea

| :-oe!.. w.:. .a :|- |.:- -.e|:--a:| .a! a.a-


:--a:| .-a:ao-. e(:-a ..a.-! .a!..!a.| a.:.ea. :e :--:: :e
-.|.-: ::e:-.:.ea..: -..a:-.. t. t!. .:|. we:|. w-:-
|-e

::.a.|.:-! .a! !..::.|a:-! .|:e.!, (:-- ::.!-.. w..


.w--:e ..:e.. :|- cea:.a-a:. 1|- ta:.-ce:a t.w t-.ea- w..
(ea!-! IO H.a.|-.:-: .a :|- |.:- : ,osw.:| :|- -x:|...: ..

( |i|-:.|i:e :|- ::.!- .a! ::..- e( ea- e( r:.:..a. e.:


.:e::.a: .e

e!.:.-., :|- ce:a t.w. w-:- :-:-.|-! .a : a6,


:-:|.:. :|- |.e|w.:-: .:| e( (:---::.!- .!-e|ee, .: :|- :.-
t..e:!.ae :e .:. .a, .!|-:-a:., (:-- ::.!- -.a: :|.: :.:.((
wea|! .e

- !ewa, :|.: ::.!- wea|! i|ea:..|, .a! :|a. :|.: :|-


.-.:-: :e .!-.::-.! ::e.:-:.:, |.! |--a aa|e.|-!.
XXV
HTRODUCTI ON
1|.: w..~.a! :e .e- -x:-a: .:.|| ..~:|- e(i...| .-w e(
|..:.:,, |a: .: w.. ae: :|- we:|! :.: x.

x .

. u- ..w .
:e
|.:...| .,.:- !e.a.:-! |, |,:e.o., .a! .||-e.:..:- :e

-:.
n- ..w, :-:|.:. e:- .|-.:|, :|.a .a,ea- -|.- e( |.. :.-,
:|.: .a.:-...ae w-.|:| !.! ae: -|..a.:- :e-::, .a!

|a.a
..((-:.ae --a .a :|- we:|!. e.: ::e.:-:ea. .eaa::.

., .a!
.a!--! .::-.:-! :e .|- :|- ::e||-. we:.-. u- ..w ro:.

..:-a..||, ea- e( :|- we:|!. e.: !-e.:.:.. .eaa:o-

.~:w..:
! .ea.-.| :|- !.:|e.:.. :-.e:! .a e:!-: :e |.aa.| !...::ea.
.a
| u
.:. .|:e.!, |e:| .a :|- c:.-. .a! .a c .-.. - ..w .a:-
.c.:.. :ew-:. .a r:.a.- .a! ta.::.. .a.:a|.

- :|- (:.e.|-
.:|.ae. e( !-e.:.., .a e:!-: :e ::-.-:- :|-.: ewa :ew-:
.a! -a:..| :|-.: .:ea.-.. ta!, :-:|.:. e.: e( .||, |- ..w :|.:
:|- ::e.:-:.:, e( :|- v-.: !-:-a-! .a ae ..||
1
.:: ea :|-
-a|e:.-! ::.!- e( e:.a, .a! :|- .:-..-! ::.!- 10 .|

-:,-
.a! :|.: v-.:-:a :ew-:. w-:- .|| :ee w.||.ae :e -ae.e- 10 |-:|.|
(.:.- :e ::e:-.: :|e.- ::.!-..
\|:|eae| :|- --a:. :|-, !-..:.|- .:- |eae e-:, H.
x.
.::..|-. :-..a ..|.ae|, :-|-.a: .a . we:|! e( ea:.ea:.e,
::.!- !..:a:-. |-:w--a :|- v-.: .a! c|.a., w.:. e-: ...

..
:. e.| .a! --a w.:-:, .a! ..:..ea. :e .|- :e-::, |..
:.:, . re: .|| :|- .a::e.-! .ea.-a.a. .|ea: :|- ::.a:| ( (:--
:..!- .: .. :-.:|.||- |ew |.::|- .ea.-a.a.| aa!-:.:.a! 109 e(
-.ea... |.. .!.a.-! ..a.- H.:x. -:.. v- .:- :e|! :|.: w-
.:- |..ae :|:eae| .a -:. e( e|e|.|.:.:.ea, .a! e( .ea:.- :

|-
-.!-a.- .. .|| .:eaa! a.. 1|e.. r:.-!.a |.. .!- :|- :e:
..a:-|, |, ::...ae :|- e:.e.a. e( --:, -|-

-a: e( |.. |.::

:.
x-: .:|...: .a :|- r.:.:ve:|! aa!-:.:.a! 109 e( e|e|.|.:.:.ea
.. :|- ae:.ea :|.: .a.:-...ae ::.!- .a! e:|-: (e:. e( .e-:.-
.|| |-a-i: .|| we:|! :|.,-:. -ea.||,. o-: .a! e-: .e..a,
.:.:..:...| -.!-a.- .|ew. :|.. :e |- aa::a-~|a.: .. .: w.. w|-a
x.:x w.. w:.:.ae. ia!--!, :|-:- .. . .e:-||.ae ...- :e |- .!-
:|.: |e:| :e-::, .a .a .|.e|a:- .-a.- .a! .:

-ea.|:, |.-
.a.:-..-! .a :|- (..- e( e|e|.|.:.:.ea. t..e:!e :e ua.:-!
.:.ea. iea:-., :|- .-:.e- t(:...a |ea.-|e|! .e a.

-! zo:-:
.-a: |-.. .: :|- -a! e( :|- :w-a:.-:| .-a:a:, :|.a .: !.! . ea.::-:
.-a:a:, -.:|.-:. r.||.ae .ee!.:, ::..-.~. !.:-.: :-

a|:

e(
-a(e:.-! (:-- ::.!-~.a! |.||.ea. e( !e||.:. 10 ::e:-.:.ea..
XXVI I NTRODUCTI ON
i:e r.:.:-ve:i! .eaa::.-.-.a -x.:i- ei :|- i..:. ei
v-.:-:a .e.:-a: :e e-aa.a- i:-- ::.!---.a :|.: i.:-:.
.a ti:... .a! t.:.a t-:... a.: .a.:-..- ::e!a.:.ea --:,
,-.: |a.: :e .|- :|- ..- .eaa: ei ea-,-. ::-.!.ii
H.:x weai! |.- :-.eea.:-! .ii :ee w-ii.
1|- .:-..i. ...a-. ei .ea:.- .|.ae-. v|.i- H.:x w.. .ea
.-:a-! w.:| eaa|e.: !.:ie.., w|..| ie:.-! ia!..a. :e e:ew
e:.a, :e!.,. v-.:-:a ::e:-.:.ea..:. :..i .e..a.: |e|. |-.ae
ea:.ea:.-! :e Ha|... v|.i- H.:x w:e:- ...!i, ei :e-::, .a
r:.:..a, |.. .a..-..e:. .. :e .|- :e-::, |..:e:, .a :|- 1|.:!
ve:i!. ta! ,-: :|- !,a.... .:- -:, a.| :|- ..-. ia :|-
!--ie:-! v-.:, .eaa::.-. w|..| w-:- .:.aa.| ::e:-.:.ea..:.
.a :|- a.a-:--a:| .-a:a:, .:- .-i-.:.- i:---::.!-:. :e!.,, w|.i-
:-.-a: -i-.:.ea. .a v-a-:a-i. . i,,s, r:.:.i .:ee, .a! rei...
.:ee. !-ea.::.:-! :|.: --a w|-:- i:-- ::.!- :.|-. |ei! .a
i-..-!--ie:-! a.:.ea., .: w.ii ae: .:., ieae .i .: !e-. ae: ::e.!-
:|- -:, |-a-i:. w|..| H.:x. a--.-. .eai!-a:i, ::e..-!
|..| .a :|- -.:i, : see.. 1|- .-.:-:. :e aa.ie:, aa.-:..i -.ea
e.. e:ew:| :-..a -ia..- --a :e :|- w..-.: -.eae..:. .a!
:ei..,.|-:., .a! :|- :-:...:-a.- ei eie|.i .a-ea.i.:, -.a.
:|.: :|-:- .:- .iw.,. |aa!:-!. ei .ii.ea. ei |a.a. .ea.a.-!
:|.: . |-::-: -.eae.. e:!-: a.: |- :e...|i-. ta! :|.:. w|,
:|- .ea.:-:- :-:e::. :|.: H.:x ii-! ie: !..i, a-w.:.:-:. :-:..a
.a.| :-i-.a.-. aai.|- :|- e:- !--ie:-! :|-e:.-. ei, ..,,
Capital, :|-.- !..:.:.|-. :-:..a . i:-.| .-a.- ei . w:.:-: .::ae
ei.ae ea !-.!i.a- :e aa!-:.:.a! :|- !,a.... ei :ei.:... .a!
:|- -.eae,, ei ea::.e- .: w.:, :e-::, .a! |:a:.i.:,, .a!,
e.....ea.ii,, ei |e:- ie: :-eia:.ea.:, -a-:e,. v- .:- ae: .e
!.ii-:-a: :e!.,.
P15
I . Cited in G. G. Van Deusen, Horace Greeley: Nineteenth-Century
Crusader (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953),
P
51

2. "The President and the Press: Address Before the American
Newspaper Publishers Association," Speech delivered by Presi-
xxvii
I NTRODUCTI ON
J:
h F Kennedy Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York, April
:
t
l061
n
(aailable a; http://W.jfklib
%
Orgl

04
:
7
;:

f
Murray Kempton, "K. Marx, Reporter, ew or
Books, Ju
E
ne 1
1
5,
A
I 9
p
6
r
7
1 '
1
'22 1854 in Karl Marx, Frederick Engels,
Marx to nge s,
"
. h h fter
4
Collected Works (London: Lawrence & WIS art, erea
MECW), vol. XXXIX (1983), p. 439
New York Tribune, April 7, 185..
. I E
5
Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of pol/tlCa c-omy,
6.
S W Ryazanskaya (Moscow: Progress, 1970), p. 3
:r t Egels, December 8, 1857, MECW, vol. XL (1983),
7

p.215
8 MECW vol XL (1983),
8. Marx to E ngels, January 20, I 57,
, .
P
93
M h 8 1860 MECW vol. XVII (1981),
9. Dana to Marx arc ,
,
,
1\
.
V.
tns. E den and Cedar Paul (London: J. M. Dent and
Sons, 1933), p. 8

9
h M k' fMarx's "Capital", trans. Pete
Roman Rosdolsky, T e a tng L
Burgess (London: pluto Press, 1977), pp. 6-7
d f
.
1 "Money and Crisis: Marx as Correspon ent
s
h
erg
;:
Bo
r
g

a
oailN Tribune," in Crisi e organizzazione

perala
\ e ew or
E d E and John Merngton,
(Milan: Feltrinelli, 197

); tr

ns.
.
ery
tl rtide pPsid=oS/021
d . ted at http
'
lImfo mteraCtlVlst.ne a .,
an repnn
. '
27!I956213

P Note on the Text
1a- .::|.|-. |a :||. e|a- |.- |--a .|e.-a .a! .::.ae-!
|, :|--, :|-, .:- |:e.!|, :--:-.-a:.:|- |a: ei .ea:.- ae:
.e-:-|-a.|-. .1|e.- w|.||ae :e .-- :|- .e-|-:- .::|.|-.
., .ea.a|: Karl Marx, Frederick Engels, Collected Works,
-a|||.|-! |a iue|a-. .|a.- :,-. |, t.w:-a.- &v|.|.::
|a iea!ea. i a.-! .--:.| .:|:-:|. ie: :|- .-|-.:|ea. oa- |. :|.:
:a-.- -...,. w-:-, ...e:!|ae :e :|- |-.: ..||.||- ..|e|.:.||-,
w:|::-a -a:|:-|, |, H.:x ||.-|i, .. e--e.-! :e |.|ae |--a
w:|::-a |, e: w|:| rae-|.. -.ea!|,, i |.- ::|-! :e |a.|a!-
-...,. w||.| .:- ei .|-.: ||.:e:|..| |a:-:-.:-.a.| .. :|e.-
.ea.-:a|ae :|- ia!|.a :-e|: |a : .--e: -...,. w|:| -.::|.a|.:
:-i-.a.- :e :e!.,. e|e|.| -.eae|. .a! -e||:|..| |..a-.-.a.|
.. :ae.- --::.|a|ae :e ::.!- |a c||a.. r|a.||,, i |.- -a!-.e:-!
:e |a.|a!- -...,. w||.| -|:|-: :-i|-.: :|-.-. H.:x !--|e--! |a
|.. |ee||-ae:| we:|. e: w||.| !-ea.::.:- ||. --a-::.:|ae
-:e.- .:,|-.
e- ei :||. .:-:|.| |.. |--a -:-|ea.|, .c||-.:-! |a |ee|
(e:, .|e.: .|w.,. e:e.a|:-! .:eaa! . .|ae|- :|--. re:
-..-|-, .: |- -:, -a! ei :|- a|a-:--a:| .-a:a:,, H.:x.
!.ae|:-:, :|- .a:|e: .a! ::.a.|.:e: r|-.ae: H.:x t-||ae,
-!.:-! . e|a- ei ||. -.:|, Tribune -...,. aa!-: :|- :|:|-
Revolution and Counter-Revolution, or Germany in I848:
Articles Reprinted from the "New York Tribune", ..|aew|-!e-
.ae, ei .ea:.-, :|.: rae-|. |a i..: w:e:- a.| ei :|.: .:-:|.|.
ia ., . ., t.w:-a.- & v|.|.::, w||.| w.. .ii||.:-! w|:| :|-
:|:|.a ceaa|.: r.::,, -:e!a.-! Marx on China, I853-
r86o: Articles from the New York Daily Tribune. ia .,-i,
|a:-:a.:|ea.| ra|||.|-:. |..a-! On Colonialism, w||.| w..
xxx A NOTE ON THE TEXT
|.:e-|, |..-! ea Tribune .::..|-.. r-:|.:. :|- ea|, .::-:: :e
|ee| |:e.!|, .: :|- w.. . :o66-w t-:...a t.|:.:, e|
a-, The American Jouralism of Marx & Engels, A Selection
from the New York Daily Tribune, -!.:-! |, u-a:, c|:..:.a
.a! w.:| . i:.::.:- .a::e!a.:.ea |, c|.:|-. s|.::-:. sa: w|.|-
:|- ::-.-a: e|a- e-:|.:. :e .e- !-e:-- w.:| .|| e( :|-.-,
:|.. .-|-.:.ea, .a! :|- .::-a!.a: :-.-.:.|, .:- , ewa.
1e .:.a!.:!.:- :|- :-x:, . (-w .ae: .|:-:.:.ea. |.- |--a
.!-. oa- :e :|- (..: :|.: H.:x. !..:.:.|-. w-:- !-|.-:-! |,
.|.:, :|-:- w.. e-a-:.||, . :-a:ei(:--a!., e.:-.e-:.-.
|eae-:~|-:w--a . .a|....ea .a! .:. :a||...:.ea. re: ..
:|...:,. ..|-, :|- .::..|- !.:-. .a :|.. e|a- :-(|-.: :|e.- ea
w|..| :|- -...,. w-:- i:.: :a||..|-! |, :|- Tribune .w|-:|-:
.a .:. !..|,, w--||, e: .-.-w--||, -!.:.ea :.:|-: :|.a :|- !.:-.
w|-a :|-, w-:- w:.::-a. oa- -...,, 1|- e::| t-:...a c..|
v.:, w.. :a||..|-! .a Die Presse; .: .. .a.|a!-! |-:- |-..a.-
.: .. :|- (a||-.: -x::-...ea e( H.:x. .-w ea :|- .a||-.:. t||
.:-||.ae. |.- |--a .!.::-! :e .a::-a: t-:...a a..e-. He.:
e( :|- .::..|-. .:- :-::e!a.-! .a :|-.: -a:.:-:,, .a .e- ...-.,
H.:x ., |.- ::-.:-! e:- :|.a ea- :e:.. .a . .e|aa, .a!
i |.- :-::e!a.-! ea|, :|- :e::.ea :-|-.a: :e :|- .-.:.ea e(
:|.. e|a- .a w|..| .: |.. |--a :|..-!. ia .:.|| e:|-: ...-.,
-!.:e:..| .a:. |.- |--a .!- (e: .|.:.:, .a! |:-.:,. ta -||.:...
.a .ea.:- |:..|-:. .a!...:-. w|-:- i |.- .!- . .a:, .a, e:|-:
-||.:.-. .:- .a :|- e:.e.a.| -...,..
t. ae:-! .|e-, :|- -!.:e:. e( :|- Tribune w-:- .a.ea...:-a:
.|ea: |ew H.:x. !..:.:.|-. w-:- :-::e!a.-! .a :|- :.:-:.
r-:|.:. e:- -x.ae .. :|- ea-.:.ea e( :.:|-.. t: :.-., :|-
Tribune wea|! e.- H.:x. :.-.-. :.:|-. |, :a::.ae |-.!|.a-.
ea :|-, .: e:|-: :.-., :|- :.-.-. wea|! :aa w.:|ea: :.:|-.. ia
.a|.-ea-a: .e||-.:.ea., .::..|- :.:|-. w-:- ....ea-! |, e:|-:..
re: .ea...:-a.,. ..|-, i |.- :-::e!a.-! :|- :.:|-. a.-! .a Karl
Marx, Frederick Engels, Collected Works. ia .a.:.a.-. w|-:- .
:.:|- w.. ....ea-! |, :|.: .e||-.:.ea. -!.:e:., .: .::-.:. |-:- .a
.ea.:- |:..|-:., w|-:- :|- :.:|- .. :|.: a.-! |, Tribune -!.:e:.,
.: .::-.:. w.:|ea: :|-.
CHI NA

( |
I :, ae :e:.. :...-!
v.:| :|- :e...||- -x.-::.ea 0 a

.a . .
.:| c|.a.. i: ..
....:- .. ::e(eaa!|, .. :|- e:m ::

-
.a!e.a.:-!
+.(
s.a|: :e!., :

e:..:

|- (a|| !

e:-

:e
'
.
"
: .a
|a.a |.-.
c|.a-.- .e..-:, a :|- a-:--a: .-a a:

( :|ea..a!. e( c|.a-.-
: ea|, |-..a.- :-a. 0
.. -a

"

:

!:ae :|.: .!- ae:.| |.(- .:e...|

|-, |a
!
:
-:- . ..-

a: |- .a :|- s:.:..| .e|e.| .a
|-..a.- -, :|- :.- :|- .-


Y :e :.|i.a|.:.a:..| .eaa:. e(
-:..a:.|- .|...-. w-:- . ae
f (:e ia!.. :e c|.a..
!

! | : :|- a.:.e:.. ewae
|..

a e:
|
-: :e --
:-! :e |.a .: :e |.::|- ...|. .. |.:- .. : ;o,
c|a-.- :a -:. .::-:


! (

1
t.
..

e.: |.|( e( :e:.| .:e:



:e
:


-
! -:e
.
e.a.
.:| :|- e!-:a !:ae ::. -,

: e( :|- c|.a-.- .:|-:.
w-:- ..:|, :ee |.e| :e

|--: e
"
|

a
i:.: (:e : ,a:e : a,,
u-a.- :|- .e..||-! o:. v.

| ! ( s 6 !a:.ae :|-
:a-

.-.ea! |:-.|.ae ea:

e
*
.:
(
!
:
:
:

- ribn. 1|..:.|,.: (e:


,-.e! w|-a x.:x w.. w:ae 0
ia..!-a:, .a w|..| c|.a-.-
:|- .-.ea! w.: w.. :|- Arrow
|. .a! .::-.:-!
.|i...|. |e.:!-! . -..-| .a.:-

! e( .aee

e
a.-! :|.. .. .
:-|-
c|.a-.- ..:.:-a.. 1|- so:..

.:, .a::e:: (:e


,:-:-x: :e .::
|
..| ca

ae:


`: :|.: wea|! |..: aa:.| : 6o.
:|- i:-a.| : a. .-::ae 0
| |
-
\. ..a |- --a (:e :|- .::..|-. .a :|.. .-.:.ea, x.:
(
x, . - .e
r ! | :| ::-:-x: e: w.: w..
.| |.. .ea:-:e:.:.-., |- .--
|

:

-
e( :|- s:.:..| :e |--:
|!.., .a! ..|-! :|-

e:- a.
.
...-

::e.!- :|- (a||-.:


.:.
eae:e|,
^
a :|- e:.

::. -
. e!a.-! . :we:.::
..a:-x: (e: |.. :-.!-:., a I

| .a! .. !.
h' ( :|- 0 .a ::.!-, w|..| .. .. : e:eae

:
.a a!..:a: e( .:-:..|.. .. .a,:|.ae -|.- |- w:e:-.

DI S PATCHES FOR THE


NEW
YORK TRIBUNE
oi .ea:.-, H.:x. ia:,
e-: :|- O |
!
.|-|, ea: ei . e:.| |
- a ::. - !.! ae:
.:|.-
.
O ;-.:.ea :e
!:ae. | | |
! c|.a-.-
-e-a|.:|ea w.. . I
!
, - - .-- :|.: :|-
. -a. .- -.ea ' 11
'
a.:.e:|... i: .|ea|! |- :- II ! |
|
e... ,

.. .: w.. |,

.. - : .: : - !,a.
i

a.:.ea.| ::.!- w-:- .: :|- :
|. |
... O
:-:
|a H.:x. tea!ea, e.: ei
.- U - aa!-

.:ee! .a!, .: |-..:


|.- .a|..:||-! :e .e
:|e

.-

a:-:-.:-! :|- .a|,-.: wea|!



- .o.:.ea ei :|
:|
i k...:!e-:|.: |. :e . | I' i |

- -eo-. O D.|!

,
- .- : .: .:-.. c|
.

.:| :|- v-.: wea|! |-a-i: |
|
e
.a. . .e-:.-
iea:-. i.|:|, .e|-:|, ..w .e
..!

.. H.:x, -x.|a|ae :|-


w.. ..:a.||,
|--!|e :|- !-`-|
ae !.ii-:-a:.

- e-|a ::.!-
.e-:.-. 1||. w.. ae:
I |
--a: ei |-e.:.
.:- c||a-.-
|:. .!!|.:., |a: |-..a.- |
.e - , |-..a.- :|- !:ae
|-e-:|.|-!
|a-ii.|-a.|-. |,
.||ae |
.
:
::a
r
:-! a.:e. eii.|.|., .:-.:-!
a-.-...:,
.a!-
O .aee e .a! |.w -aie:.--a: ,
e.: .-e::.a:|,
! ! |
a.|a--!-! ...| 1|
!
- :.- : - a.:|ea ei
.
.. .:-.:- .a .-a:
| c| .|:-
aeae-|a |
e::.
.a!

.

e: : -
-.- :e
v-.:. 1|.: ::.!- ||.|.a-
~.x..:-
-x-e::. :e :|-
.a! .!- :|- e:- a|a-

.
.

a:a, ..:e::-
-
v-

:-o .:|-:.
.. H.:x !|..a..-. . a
1 !
:

.
|
e-:...| .o.-., |, : so,
:. - .:
c|
s | w|e! |e--! :|.: :|- e--a|a
ei c|
.a.,
o:..
eii.|

.|.
:|- |e- .:|-: ieaa! :|--|-.
-.-

:|

:. wea|! -ao.|
:|- ea-. .e||ae
e-|a. 1|- c||a

a!-oae .

:|-,
|.! |--a
-x

e::., w|||-
:-.|.:|ae
|-e::.-. c|
w-:- .
r.!|, -x-.a!|ae
w|..| v-.:-:a ee-o-a:. . |
-.- -a e-a ea .|ea:
:|-:|
.-a:a:,, -.eae|.:.
.a!
e

e :.. !.,. ia :|- :w-a


wea|! !--|e- -|.|e:.:- :|-e

e..e
i
..:.
:|a-a.-! |, H.:x
!---a!-a., :|-e:, :e
I

.-.
|
e
aa!-:!--|e--a: .a!
-x- ..a : - :-.
|
-e-::, |a ti:|..
t.:.a t

!
a:oae - -ae-aea ei
,
-o.. .a
-.::.
i t

w.|- ei :-.|
ae|e |..| !
O
... --a :|-
|-o-| ei :|.:
|.:-:|-`
.a.-
|
.! ie:-ea |a-.:-a:. 1|-
c||a..
:, ..a - eaa! H.:x. -...,. ea

1 .
fJI
Michael Greenberg,
British
Trade and
'
(Cambridge: Cambridge Uni
' p
the
Opemng of China
verslt ress, 1951), p, 127.
REVOLUTI ON I N CHI NA AND IN EUROPE
Revolution in China and in Europe
ra|||.|-! aa- :a, : s ,
3
n e.: -:eieaa! ,-: i.a:..:|. .--.a|.:e: ea :|- -:|a.|-|-.
||.| ee-:a :|- e--a:. ei ua.a|:,, w.. wea: :e -x:e|
.. ea- ei :|- :a||ae .-.:-:. ei a.:a:-, w|.: |- ..||-! :|- |.w ei
:|- .ea:..: ei -x::--.. ' 1|- |e-|, -:e-:| :|.: -x::--.
--: w.., |a ||. |-w, . e:.a! .a! -e:-a: ::a:| |a --:, .-|-:-
ei ||i-, .a .x|e w|:| w||.| :|- -|||e.e-|-: .ea|! .. ||::|-
!|.--a.- .. :|- ..::eae-: w|:| :|- |.w. ei k--|-: e: :|- e:-.:
!|..e-:, ei -w:ea.
v|-:|-: :|- .ea:..: ei -x::--. |- .ac| . aa|-:..| -:|a
..-|- e: ae:, . .::|||ae |||a.::.:|ea ei |: ., |- .--a |a :|-
-|i-.: :|- c||a-.- :-e|a:|ea .--. |||-|, :e -x-:.|.- a-ea
:|- .||||:-! we:|!. i: ., .-- . -:, .::.ae-, .a! . -:,
-.:.!ex|..| ...-::|ea :|.: :|- a-x: a-:|.|ae ei :|- --e-|- ei
ra:e--, .a! :|-|: a-x: e--a: ie: :--a|||..a i:--!e .a!
-.eae, ei ee-:a-a:, ., !---a! e:- -:e|.||, ea w|.:
|. aew -...|ae |a :|- c-|-.:|.| r-|:-,-:|- -:, e--e.|:- ei
ra:e--,-:|.a ea .a, e:|-: -e||:|..| ..a.- :|.: aew -x|.:.,-
e:- --a :|.a ea :|- -a..-. ei ka..|. .a! :|- .ea.-ea-a:
|||-|.|ee! ei . e-a-:.| ra:e--.a w.:. sa: ,-: |: |. ae -.:.!ex,
.. .|| ., aa!-:.:.a! |, .::-a:|-|, .ea.|!-:|ae :|- .|:.a
.:.a.-. ei :|- ...-.
v|.:--: |- :|- .e.|.| ..a.-., .a! w|.:--: :-||e|ea., !,a
..:|., e: a.:|ea.| .|.-- :|-, ., ...a-, :|.: |.- |:eae|:
.|ea: :|- .|:ea|. :-|-|||ea. .a|.|.:|ae |a c||a. ie: .|ea: :-a
,-.:. -..:, .a! aew e.:|-:-! :ee-:|-: |a ea- ie:|!.||- :-e
|a:|ea, :|- e....|ea ei :||. ea:|:-.| |.. aaea-.:|ea.||, |--a
.iie:!-! |, :|- rae||.| ..aaea ie:.|ae a-ea c||a. :|.: .e-e:
|. !:ae ..||-! e-|a. s-ie:- :|- s:|:|.| .:. :|- .a:|e:|:, ei
:|- H.a.|a !,a..:, i-|| :e -|-.-., :|- .a--:.:|:|ea. i.|:| |a :|-
-:-.a|:, ei :|- c-|-.:|.| r-|:- |:e|- !ewa, :|- |.:|.:ea. .a!
|-:-:|. |.e|.:|ea i:e :|- .||||:-! we:|! w.. |ai:|ae-!, .a!
.- e--a|ae .. .!- ie: :|.: |a:-:.ea:.- w||.| |.. .|a.-
;.e.--!-! .e :.-|!|, aa!-: :|- ee|!-a .:::..:|ea. ei c.||ie:a|.
.a! ta.::.||.. t: :|- ..- :|- :|- .||-: .e|a ei :|- r-|:-,
4
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
|:. ||i-||ee!, |-e.a :e |- !:.|a-! .w., :e :|- s:|:|.| r..: ia!|-.. u- :e :

,o, :|- |.|.a.- ei ::.!- |-|ae .ea:|aa.||, |a i.e:

i :|- c|-.-,

:|-:-

-x..:-! .a aa|a:-::a-:-! |-e::.:|ea ei .

|-: i:e ia!.., s:

:. .a! :|- ua|:-! :.:-. |a:e c||a..

- : , , ,

a! -.--...||, .|a.- : ao,:|- -x-e:: ei .||-: i:e c|

. :e ia!.. |.. |-.e- .|e.: -x|.a.:|ae ie: :|- c-|-.:|.| r

-.:-. n-a.- :|- .::eae !-.:--. ei :|- r--:e: .e.|a.: :|- e-.a ::.!-,

:-.-e

! :e |, .:||| .::eae-: :-.|.:.a.- :e ||.

..a:-.. s-..!-. :|

. .

-!|.:- -.eae|..| .ea.-ea-a.-, :|- -o|-:, .ea

-.:-! w.:| e-.a .aee||ae |.. -a:|:-|, !-e:.| .:-! :|- c|-.- :.:- eii.-:. |a :|- ea:|-:a -:e|a.-.. )a.: ..

|- r--

e: w.. wea: :e |- .ea.|!-:-! :|- i.:|-: ei .|| c|., .e |.

. eii.-:

w-:- |ee|-! a-ea .. .a.:.|a|ae :|- -.:-:a

| :-|.:.ea :e :|-.: :-

--.:|- !|.::|.:.. sa: :||. -.::|.:.|.| .a:|eo:,, :|- ea|, e:.| || -|:..|ae :|- ..: ..||a-:, ei :|- :.:-, |.. e:.!a.||, |--a .e::e!-! |, :|- .e::a-:|ea ei :|

.- eii.-:., w|e |

.- .!- e:-.: e.|a. |, .eaa||ae .: e-.a .aeee. 1|.. |.. e..a::-! -:|a.|-.||, |a :|- ..- ea:|-o -:e.-. w|-:- :|- :-|-|||ea .e-a.-!. i: |. .|e.: a--!|-.. :e e|.-:- :|.:, |a :|- ..- -..a:- |a w|..|
| | ! |
e-.a .. O :.- : - .e-

-|ea:, e-: :|- c||a-.-, :|- r--:e: i .a! |

. .:.:i ei --!

a:.. .a!.:|a. |.- |-.e- !|.-e..-..-! ei :|-.: ewa .e-:-.ea:,. i: wea|! .-- .. :|eae| ||.:e:, |.! i:.: :e .|- :|. w|e

|- --e-|- !:aa| |-ie:- |: .ea|! :ea.- :|- ea: ei :|-.: |-:-!.:.:, .:a-|!|:,.

1|eae| ...:.-|, -x|.:|ae |a ie:-: :|-., :|- |-e:: ei rae |..|

.e::

a.,

a! :e . ..|| -x:-a: ei rae||.| wee||-a., |.. :.


i
.!|, :

.-a ..- : , , , :|- --e.| w|-a :|- eae-e|, ei ::.!- w.

:| c|. w.. ::.a.i-::-! i:e :|- r..: ia!|. ce-.a, :e -o.:- .e-:.-, .a!

ea . a.| e:-.:-: ...|- .|a.- : ao,:|- -

e.| w|-a

:|-: a.:.ea., .a! -.--.|.||, ea: ewa, .|.e e| :.-! . .|.:- :|- c|.a-.- ::.!-. 1||. |a::e!a.:|ea ei ie:-|ea .aai.

:a

-. |.. |.! . .|||.: -:i-.: ea :|- a.:|- |a!a.::, :e :|.

: w|..| .

ie:-:|, |.! ea t.|. H|ae:, r-:.|. .a! ia!|.. ia c|.

. :|- .-

. .a! w-.-:. |.- .a:i-:-! e:-.:|, aa!-: :||. e:-.ea .e

--:.:.ea, .a! :|- .eaa|:, |.. |-.e- aa.-::|-! -:e-e::.ea.


1|- ::||a:- :e |- -.|! :e rae|.a! .i:-: :|- aaie::aa.:- w.:
REVOLUTI ON I N CHI NA AND I N EUROPE
S
.i : ao, :|- e:-.: aa-:e!a.:|- .ea.a-:|ea ei e-|a

|-
+:..a ei :|- -:-.|ea. -:.|. |, :||. ::.!-, :|- !-.::a.:.-
i|a-a.- ei ie:-|ea .e--:|:|ea e a.:|

.a

i..:a:-., :|-
+-e:.||:-! .ea!|:|ea ei :|- -a||i. .!..::.:.ea, -:e!a.-!
:-. :|.ae.. :|- e|! :.x.:|ea |-..- e:- |a:!-a.e-

a!
a.:...|ae, .a! a-w :.x.:|ea w.. .!!-! :e :|- e|!. 1|a. H .
+-.:-- ei :|- r--:e:, !.:-! r-||ae, ).a. s , : s ,, w- ia!
:+-:. e|-a :e :|- |.-:e,. .a! ee-:ae:. ei :|- .ea:|-:a
:e|a.-. ei va-.|.ae .a! u.aeY.ae :e :-|: .a! !-i-: :|-
.,-a: ei :.x-., .a! -.--.|.||, ae: |a .a, ...- :e -x..: e:-
:|.a :|- :-ea|.: .eaa:, ie: e:|-:w|.-, ..,. :|- !-.:--, |ew
||| :|- -ee: --e-|- |- .||- :e |-.: |:: ta! :|a., --:|.-.,
.ea:|aa-. :|- r--:e:, w||| , --e-|-, |a . --:|e! ei e-a-:.|
a.:!.a|- .a! !|.::-.. |- -x--:-! i:e :|- -||. ei |-|ae
:a:.a-! .a! we::|-! |, :|- :.xe.:|-:-:.
a.| |.aea.e- .. :||., .a! .a.| .ea.-...ea. w- :--|-: :e
a.- |-.:! i:e ta.::|., :|- c||a. ei c-:.a,, |a :a.
t|| :a-.- !|..e||ae .e-a.|-. ..:|ae :ee-:|-: ea :|- ia.a.-.,
:|- e:.|., :|- |a!a.::,, .a! -e||:|..| .::a.:a:- ei c||a., :-
.-|-+ :|-|: ia|| !--|e--a: aa!-: :|- rae||.| ..aaea |a : ao,
||.| |:e|- !ewa :|- .a:|e:|:, ei :|- r--:e:, .a! ie:.-!
:a- c-|-.:|.| r-|:- |a:e .ea:..: w|:| :|- :-::-.::|.| we:|!.
ce:|-:- |.e|.:|ea w.. :|- -:|- .ea!|:|ea ei :|- -:-.-:.:|ea
.i o|+ c||a.. 1|.: |.e|.:|ea |.|ae .e- :e . |e|-a: -a! |,
:|- -+|a ei rae|.a!, !|..e|a:|ea a.: ie||ew .. .a:-|, ..
:a.: ei .a, a, ..:-ia||, -:-.-:-! |a . |-:-:|..||, .-.|-!
.e|a, |-a--: |: |. |:eae|: |a:e .ea:..: |:| :|- e--a .|:.
ew, rae|.a! |.|ae |:eae|: .|ea: :|- :-e|a:|ea ei c||a.,
:|- ea-.:|ea |. |ew :|.: :-e|a:|ea, w||| |a :|- :-..: ea rae
|.a+, .a! :|:eae| rae|.a! ea ra:e--. 1||. ea-.:|ea |. ae:
+
.ii.a|: ei .e|a:|ea.
1|-
.::-a:|ea ei ea: :-.!-:. |.. ei:-a |--a ..||-+ :e :|-
aa:.:.||-|-! e:ew:| ei s:|:|.| .aai..:a:-. .|a.- : so. t|!
:a- e.: .a:-:|.|ae -:e.--:|:,, |: a.. ae: |--a !|ii.a|: :e -e|a:
.a: :|- .|-.: .,-:e. ei .a .--:e..||ae |a!a.::|.| .:|.|..
.:|:|.:.a!|ae c.||ie:a|. .a! ta.::.||., ae:|:|.:.a!|ae :|-
.-a.- .a! aa-:-.-!-a:-! -|e:.:|ea, :|-:- a.: --: w|:|
.a: .a, -.::|.a|.: ...|!-a:, |a !a- :|- .::|- . e-a: w|-a
6 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK WJ
:|- -x

-a..ea

i

:|- .:|-:. .. aa.||- :e |--: :..- w.:| :|
i
-x

-a..ea ei ro:..| .aai..:a:-., .a! :|.. !..::e:e::.ea a.

oae .|ea: . a-w .:.... w.:| :|- ..- .-::..a:, .. .: |.. !ea
:|- :..:. ra:, .i ea- ei :|- e:-.: .:|-:. .a!!-a|, |-.e-s
.ea::..:-!, :|- .::..| ei :|- .:.... .. a-.-...:.|, ...-|-:.:-!
:|-:-|,. ew, :- c|.a-.- :-|-||.ea a.:, ie: :|- :.- |-.ae,
s.- ::-...-|, :|.. -ii-.: a:ea rae|.a!. 1|- a-.-...:, ie: e:-a

w .:|-:., e: ie: -x:-a!.ae :|- e|! ea-., w.. ea- ei :|-


::

..:...a.-. e:|- :-!

.:.ea ei :|- r:.:..| :-.!a:.-.,' ..,


i
w.:| .a .:-..-! .:e::.:.ea ei :-., .a .a.:-..-! -x:e::.:.ea
ei .aai..:a:-. :e c|.a. w.. -x:-.:-! :e :.|- :|..-. ew,
:|- .|a- ei :|- .aaa.| -x:e::. i:e :|- ua.:-! k.ae!e :e
c|. .eaa:-!, |-ie:- :|- :-:-.| .a i s, , ei :|- ::.!.ae
eae:e|,
"
e..-..-+ |, :|- r..: ia!.. ce:.a,, :e ea|,

see,ee

, i s, s, .: :-..|-! :|- .a ei :i,, :s,, ss, .a i s..,


.: |.! o.-a :e ::,,,.,s:-, .a i s.:, .: .eaa:-! :e .|ea:
:,,eee,eee. 1|- ea.a:.:, ei :-. .:e::-! i:e c|.a. !.! ae:
-x.--!, .a i-,,, i s, i s-,, , i ||.., |a: .a is.., .: .eaa:-! :e

.:,-i .,s.- ||.., .a i s.s, :e .-,.s...si ||.., .: .. aew .|e-
se,eee,eee ||..
1|- :-. .:e: ei :|- |..: .-..ea w.|| ae: ::e- .|e::, .. .|ewa
i
.|:-.!, |, :|- -

:e:: |..:. i:e |.ae|.., ei :,eee,eee ||.

.|e

:|- ::-.-!e ,-.:. 1|.. -x.-.. .. :e |- ...eaa:-! ie: |,

:we ..:.a.:.a.-.. oa ea- |.a!, :|- .:.:- ei :|- .:|-: .: :|-
.|e.- ei i s.i w.. a.| !-::-..-!, .a! :|- |.:e- .a::|a. .:e.|
|-i: |.. |--a :|:ewa .a:e :|- -x:e:: ei i s.:. oa :|- e:|-:
|.a!, :|-

:-.-a: ...eaa:. ei :|- .|:-:-! r:.:..| |-e..|.:.ea w.:|


:-e.:! :e .:e::. ei :-., :-..|.ae c|.a., |.- |:eae|: ie:w.:!
.||

:|- ...|

||- :-.. :e . :-.!, .:|-:, .: e:-.:|, -a|.a.-!


:

..-.. ra: .::

.:-.: :e :|- .e.ae .:e:, :|- ...- .:.a!. -:,


!.ii-:-a:|,. 1|.. .. .|ewa |, :|- ie||ew.ae -x::..:. i:e :|-
.e::-.:ea!-a.- ei . |.:e- :-.i: .a tea!ea.
In Shanghai the terror is extreme. Gold has advanced upward of
2S per cent., being eagerly sought for hoarding, silver has so far
disappeared that none could be obtained to pay the China dues
on the
.
British vessels requiring port clearance; and in consequence
of whIch Mr Alcock has consented to become responsible to the
UTl ON I N CHI NA AND I N EUROPE
REVOL
Chinese authorities for the payment of these dues, on e
.
ceipt of
East India Company's bills, or other approved securitles. The
. f the precious metals is one of the most unfavorable
scarCIty
L
.
d f
f
f
when viewed in reference to the Imme late uture 0
eat
ures,
.
.
d
rce as this abstraction occurs precIsely at that perJO
com
me
,

h n their use is most needed, to enable the tea and SIlk buyers
`into the interior and effect their purchases, for which a large
t. n of bullion is paid in advance, to enable the producers to
por L

' '
7
carry
on their operations . . . At thiS perIod of the year It IS
usual to begin making arrangements for the new tea, whereas
at present nothing is talked of but the means of protectmg person
and property, all transactions being at a stand . . . If the means
are not applied to secure the leaves in April and May, the early
D Which includes all the fner descriptions, both of black and
cro ,
h
.
green teas, will be as much lost as unreaped wheat at C nstmas.
ew :|- -.a. ie: .-.a:.ae :|- :-. |-.-., w.|| .-::..a|,
ae: |- e.-a |, :|- rae|..|, t-:...a e: r:-a. .ea.!:e

.
.:.:.ea-! .a :|- c|.a-.- .-.., |a: :|-.- ., -...|,, |, :|-.:
.a:-:i-:-a.-, ::e!a.- .a.| .e:|...:.ea

, ..

e .a: eii .|| ::.a.


..:.ea. |-:w--a :|- :-.::e!a..ae :-oe: .a!

:|

:-.
-
.
:e::.ae .-. :e::.. 1|a., ie: :|- ::-.-a: .:e:, . o.- :|-
::..-. a.: |- -x:-.:-!~.:-.a|.:.ea |.. .|:-.!, .e-a.-!
.a iea!ea~.a! ie: :|- .:e: :e .e- . |.:e- !-..: .. .. eee!
.. .-::..a. e: .. :|.. .||. 1|- c|.a-.-, :-.!, :|eae| :|

, .,
|-. .. .:- .|| :-e:|- .a :-:.e!. ei :-e|a:.ea.

:

.eaa|..ea, :e
.-|| eii :e :|- ie:-.ea-: .|| :|- |a||, .ee!a-. :|-, |.-ea
|.a! w.|| .. :|- o:.-a:.|. .:- a.-! :e !e .a :|- .:::-|-a..ea
ei e:.: .-.ae-., .-: :e |e.:!.ae, ae: :.|.ae a.| .a :-:a:

ie:
:|-.: :-. .a! ..||, -x.-:: |.:! ea-,. rae|.a! |

. ...e

:!e|,
:e -x:-.: . :..- .a :|- ::..- ei ea- ei |-: .|.-i .
:..|-. ei
.ea.a::.ea . !:..a ei |a||.ea, .a! . e:-.: .ea::..:.ea ei .a
.:e::.a: :|-: ie: |-: .e::ea .a! wee|-

eee!.. r

a The
Economist, :|.: e::...: .ea,a:e: ei .|| :.e

-a..e :|-
:..aea.| .a!. ei :|- -:..a:.|- .ea:,, .. .e:-||-!

:e
..- |.aea.e- |.|- :|... v- a.: ae: ii.::-: ea:.

|-. .:|
a!.ae .. -x:-a..- . .:|-: ie: ea: -x:e::.

:e c|. | . | i:
is e:- ::e|.||- :|.: ea: -x:e:: ::.!- :e c|. .|ea|! .aii-:,
8 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
aa!:|a::|-:-.|ea|!|-a!..a..|-!!-aa!ie::|--:e!ac-
eiHaac|-.:-:aa!O|a.aew.
l: a.: ae: |- ie:ae::-a :|a: :|- :..- .a :|- -:.c- ei.e
.a!..--a.a||-aaa::.c|-a.:-a,aa!:|-cea::ac:.eaei.e.-e:
:aa:aa:|-:a.C|.aa,w.||ce.ac.!-w.:|a!-c.-a:|a:-.:
.av-.:-:aLa:e--,aa!,:|-:-ie:-,w.:|:...aa-:.c-.ei-a:,
ce:a, aa! a|| e:|-: aa:.ca|:a:a| -:e!ac-. u-ac- cea::ac:-!
.:|-:.ie:aaaiac:a:-., |-caa.---:,:..-.a:|--:.c-.ei
:|- :.: a-c-..a:.-. ei |.i- .. ceaa:-:|a|aac-!, a:|e- aa!
a|:ea!,|,ace::-.-ea!.aa!-!ac:.ea.a:|-!-aa!ie:aaa
iac:a:-.. r:e --:,-a:: eiO:-a: r:.:a.a ce-|a.a:. |a-
|--a:-c-.-!ea:|-|ac|wa:!.:a:-eie.:ei:|-c:e-..The
Economist .a,.ea:|...a||-c:.
In the South of England not only will there be lef much land
unsown, until too late for a crop of any sort, but much of the
sown land will prove to be foul, or otherwise in a bad state for
corn-growing. On the wet or poor soils destined for wheat, signs
that mischief is going on are apparent. The time for planting
mangel-wurzel
4
may now be said to have passed away, and very
little has been planted, while the time for preparing land for the
turnip is rapidly going by, without any adequate preparation for
this important crop having been accomplished . . . Oat-sowing
has been much interfered with by the snow and rain. Few oats
were sown early, and late sown oats seldom produce a large crop
. . . In many districts losses among the breeding flocks have been
considerable.
1|--:.c-eie:|-:ia:-:e!ac-:|aace:a..i:e20 :e30,
aa!--a5 0 --:c-a:.|.a|-::|aa|a.:,-a:.Oa:|-Cea:.a-a:,
ce:a|a.:..-ace-a:a:.-|,e:-:|aa.aLaa|aa!. k,-|a.
:..-a.a r-|a.aaa!ue||aa!ia|| 1 00 --:c-a:.v|-a:aa!
e:|-:a:a.a.a:-ie||ew.aa.a.:.
ua!-::|-.-c.:ca.:aac-.,a.:|-a:-a:-:-a::ei:|-:-aa|a:
ce-:c.a|c.:c|-|a.a|:-a!,|--a:aa:|:eaa||,r:.:..|::a!-,
.:a,.ai-|,|-aaaa:-!:|a::|-C|.a-.-:-e|a:.eaw.||:|:ew
:|- .-a:| .a:e:|- e-:|ea!-! .a- ei:|--:-.-a:.a!a.::.a|
.,.:-aa!caa.-:|--x-|e..eaei:|-|eaa-:--a:-aa-a-:a|
9
nON I N CHI NA AND I N EUROPE
REV
OLU

:-a!.a a|:ea!, w.|| |- c|e.-| ie||ew-

|
.:.
.,
w|
.c|, .

a
|-Cea:.a-a:. l:wea|! |-acaoea.
-e|.:.ca|
:-e|a:.ea.e:
! !..e:!-: .a:e :|- v-.:-:a
.
--c:ac|-, :|a: ei.aa .-a
`:. |, Laa|..|, r:-ac| aa!
we:|!
w|.|- :|-
-.:-:a -e

ae:!-: :es|aaa|a.,

-:.
a:- cea-
n
-ocaawa:-.:-a
|

i |
O:-a:Caaa|.De:|-.-e:!-:
|
!:|-
ea: . e : -
| aa

,aa
w|.c|wea|!a::--::e.a--e::: -

a-:
e
a.-oaa-e
w-:.,
i
| ::|-|a::-!aaa.a.:ie:-.aa-:.
.a.
xa
ac|a!a

a.:, e:a-:
.

eac-:|--:-:-.a|:ei
aa!:|-.:-xc
|a..e
|

i:
|
e:
!
-
-:'
:
a.a-|.ca| ..:aa:.ea, |a-
|
-ea:a- .ca aa
i |
:
C .-a. a
I ..ac-:|-ceaea-.:0 : -ceaa:
|-ce-a-e
|:.ca|
.,.:-
|
e
1
a
1|-:-caa|-ae!ea|::|a:
i:| Haac a a::a:..
|,:|-
:ac-0

a :|-La:e--aaaa:.ea.w|e,a:
:|-:a:|
a|-a:!...-
a..ea.ae a

1 !-ac|e:|-:.a:|-::a!-
:|-|a:-:

-a!ei:|-:-

:|
|
-a

:
.xc|a..--e|.ca!e-:-!
w.:|
C|a,|-a:a.a
-:|aa:|..wa.!ea-|,:|-i-a:ei
|:|-Haac|a..ra:e
i .a|:iae::|-!..cea:-a:
:|-a-w!,aa.:,,|-.::|- e:-.a

-:.
i:|-C|.a-.-!a:.aa:|-

|a:a- -:e-e::.ea0
| -..:aaeaaa
|-:-a|ea:. ei :|-.: .a|,-c:.ea :e : -
|:.: |a|i c-a:a: e: :

ie:-.aa-:.w-:-:|-a-:e-
+
a::a:.

r:e:|-.-cea..

:a:

ea.,
.:| :|- C|.a-.-, -xc--:
|.|.:-! i:e a|| ceaa

:.

a:
`
..:aac-
i:e
r-|.aaaa!
:|:eaa|Caa:ea,a:ewa

a
a
-:-.::.c:-!:e.a:-:cea:.-
!
a!:|-.:ce-:c
:|-:-a ..:oc:., a

! | :|- Oe-:a-a: -x
.:| :|- ueaa
-:c|aa:.,
|

-a.-
!
:
:e|---:|-
:-.:ei.:.
| i
::a!- 10 e: -:
-:-..|ie:: - e:-.aa

:|:|-e!.ea..::aaa-:..laaa
..|,-c:.i:ea||ceaa-c:.eaw.
i | v-.:-:aOe-:a-a:.a:
ca.-aa.a:-:i-:-ac-ea:|--a: 0 :
|
-
e|a:.eae:-.e|-a:,
:|..:.-caaea|.-:-:e:-a -:: -:-
aaa-:e::ac::|-

.:aa

:.ea

i::

-!w.:|:-aa:!:e
la!.a,
n::|-.a-:.-.:5 :e -0 .
::
!---a!.
ie:ia||
:aa::|-r:.:..|

Oe-:a-a:ei:
.|.
a
e.:e:|-C|.a-.-,
ea-.--a:|ei.:.:--aa-ea:

-
i | la!.aa !-aa! ie:
a.|- a cea..!-:a||- -:e-e::.ea
|
e : -
! :eaei:|a:e-.a

! !.ea: --:e ac1


su:..|aaaiac:a:-.

-a
e:-|.|-|:e:-aeaac-
.aia!.a.+|-C|.a-.-,.:l5 ::a-,
O
a:-ae
: ie:.w-a::e|acce.
a
|
:|- -:aa. 0
t -..-eie-.a: aaa:

!
!:e|-iae:a||-:e:|-
s.:a.:|-a-wL--:e:5 aa -:.:ee

ie-.a .aC|.aa
..|:.:-ei:|--e--aa!:|--:--a:a:.ea0
10 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
.:.-|i, .: .. -.!-a: :|.: . !-.:|||ew .. -:, |.|-|, :e |- .::a.|
.: ea.- .: :|- |a..a-.. ei eo.a:....ae .a ia!.., :|- ia!..a
:--aa-, .a! :|- .e-:...| :-.ea:.-. ei u.a!e.:.a. 1|eae|
:|.. ||ew wea|! ae: .-!..:-|, |- i-|: |, :|- .a:-:-.:. .ea
.-:a-!, .: wea|! eo-:.:- -ii-.:a.||, .a !a- :.-, .a! wea|!
.e- .a :e .a:-a..i, .a! o:e|eae :|- aa.-:..| ia.a...| .:....
w|e.- |e:e..eo- w- |.- ...: .|e-.
.a.- :|- .e-a.--a: ei :|- -.e|:--a:| .-a:a:, :|-:- |..
|-- ae .-:.ea. :-e|a:.ea .a ra:eo- w|..| |.! ae: |--a o:--
.-!-! |, . .e-:...| .a! ia.a...| .:..... 1|.. .oo|.-. ae |-..
:e :|- :-e|a:.ea ei :;o :|.a :e :|.: ei : a. i: .. ::a-, ae:
ea|, :|.: w- --:, !., |-|e|! e:- :|:-.:-a.ae .,o:e. ei
.ea(|..: |-:w--a :|- :a|.ae oew-:. .a! :|-.: .a|,-.:., |-:w--a
:|- :.:- .a! .e..-:,, |-:w--a :|- .:.ea. .|...-., |a: .|.e :|-
.ea(|..: ei :|- -x..:.ae oew-:. .eae -..| e:|-: e:.!a.||,
:-..|.ae :|.: |.e|: w|-:- :|- .we:! a.: |- !:.wa, .a! :|-
ultima ratio ei o:.a.-. |- :-.a::-! :e. ia :|- ra:eo-.a ..o.:.|.,
--:, !., |:.ae. !..o.:.|-. |.e w.:| aa.-:..| w.:, .a..|.ae
aa!-: :|- !..o.:.|-. ei :|- ie||ew.ae !.,, |-.:.ae :|- ...a:.a.-
ei o-..- ie: . w--| e: .e. v- ., |- .a:-, a--::|-|-.., :|.:
:e w|.:--: |.e|: :|- .ea(|..: |-:w--a :|- ra:eo-.a oew-:.
., :..-, |ew--: :|:-.:-a.ae :|- ..o-.: ei :|- !.o|e.:..
|e:.:ea ., .oo-.:, w|.:--: e--a:. ., |- .::-o:-!
|, .e- -a:|a....:.. i:..:.ea .a :|.. e: :|.: .eaa::,, :|- :.e-
ei o:.a.-. .a! :|- ia:, ei :|- o-eo|- .:- .|.|- -a-:.:-! |, :|-
|:-.:| ei o:e.o-:.:,. -.:|-: w.:. ae: :-e|a:.ea. .:- |.|-|, :e
oa: ra:eo- |, :|- -.:., aa|-.. .a .ea.-ea-a.- ei . e-a-:.|
.e-:...| .a! .a!a.::..| .:...., :|- ..ea.| ei w|..| |.., ..
a.a.|, :e |- e.-a |, rae|.a!, :|- :-o:-.-a:.:.- ei ra:eo-.a
.a!a.::, .a :|- .:|-: ei :|- we:|!.
i: .. aaa-.-...:, :e !w-|| ea :|- oe|.:...| .ea.-ea-a.-. .a.|
. .:.... a.: o:e!a.- .a :|-.- :.-., w.:| :|- aao:-.-!-a:-!
-x:-a..ea ei i..:e:.-. .a rae|.a!, w.:| :|- a::-: !...e|a:.ea ei
|-: eii...| o.::.-., w.:| :|- w|e|- :.:- ..|.a-:, ei r:.a.-
::.a.ie:-! .a:e ea- .-a.- .w.a!|.ae .a! .:e.|,e||.ae
.ea.-:a, w.:| ta.::.. ea :|- -- ei |.a|:ao:.,, w.:| w:eae.
--:,w|-:- ...aa|.:-! :e |- :--ae-! |, :|- o-eo|-, w.:| :|-
.ea(|..:.ae .a:-:-.:. ei :|- :-..:.ea.:, oew-:. :|-.-|--., .a!
1 1
GLO- CHINESE
CONF LI CT1
[ TlI E
AN
|
:|- ka....a
!:-. ei .eaea-.: ea.- e:- :--.|-! :e :|-
V
\I
w
.:|!.
(The Anglo-
Chin
ese Conict1
ra||..|-! ].aa.:, z,,
1 8 57

w|..| :-..|-! a. ,-.:-:!., e:a.ae
1|-
..|. ei :|- Amertca
:|- r:.:..|
ea.::-| w.:|
i !e.a-a:. .ea
.-:ae

i
-:.ae . -.o-:, 0


.a! :|-
w.:|.|- eo-:.:.ea. 0
:|- c|.a-.- .a:|eoo-. .: c.a:
|
ea,
| | . ..:-ia| .:a!, ei :|-
|
1|- :-.a : w .c
|
\!.:.
-,ea:.
|
:|-
r:.:..| .a!
c|.a-.- .a:
.i|...| .e::-.oea
!-a.- -
!
:w
c
--a
: a
a.:
w- :|.a|, o:e!a.-
n
reae .a
.a 0
,
...:.-.
.:

eae
! .. :|.: :|- r:.:..|
.:- .a :|- w:eae
a-.a
---:, .o.::..

.:.
1|- .||-e-! ..a.- ei :|-
ea.::-,

..
.- :|-
w|e|- o:e.--

.:.e
|

! ei .oo-.|.ae :e :|- ro:..|
! |
|
|.::-: l5 : .: ..:-.
!
.:.:-
, : -


eii.-:.
|.!
-.e|-a:|, :-e

- .e-
c.-.a|, .-

a c|.:.-.-
|e:.|. |,.ae .a c.a:ea o--:, .a!
c|.--.- .o.|. i:


.
(

w|..|
w.. (

,.ae i:e .:.


..:

|.a|-! !ewa
:|- ro.|
,
e
:|-:-
.:-, .a!--!, .::-:. .a
aa:
.. ..,. 1

!
.
^
.
^
|

"

|.
w.. ..::,.ae
r:.:..|
.e|e:.,
+..-a:- .a.| .. w|-:|-: : - e:.
I
.:.-! .a :|- .:-o. :|.:
.-! w|-:|-: :|-
cea.a|
w.. -ao:- Y , a
|- :e.|.


.ea
:-!
w|-a w- :--|-:
1|- !ea|: :|a. .!.::-! l5
| | :|-
cea.a| .a...:. .|ea|!
:|.: :|- o:e-...ea ei :|- ::-.:,
I
= w .c
r
: .| .|.o. .|ea-,
w|.|-
!
| .
.|. :- .:-. :e
o !
|- .--|.- :e : l5 e: ,
.. ae: .a .a, ,a.: .-a.-
:|- |.:.|., .. .: .|aa!.a:|,
.oo-
!
.:., w
|.- :|-
w|e|- ...-

!
:|.:
ea: :-.
-:. .,
ii I a
..:..|. ra: U e: -:
.-- w|.: .. .oe::.a: .a :|- 0
...
|-|..- :|-, w- o:e.--! :e e
aa...:.ea
!.:-!
o.:. z:,
....-.-ea!-a.-. r.:.:, w

.
|
--
c
. .e

: c.a:ea, :e ce-:ae:
|:. x:. r.:|-., :|- ro:..
ea.a .
c---:.| Y-|, .. ie||ew..
"
h 8th inst
the
British lorcha Arrow,
when
On the mornmg of t e
h
'
d b f e the city
was boarded,
h h" "
anc
ore
e or
,
lying among t e s Ippmg
b
. de to the British Consul,
.
"
s reference
emg ma
WIthout any prevlOU
ff
d
ldiers in uniform, who,
f Ch"
se V
cers an so
by a large force O
me
1 2 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBU
in the face of the remonstrance of the m
seized bound and carried I
ster, an Englishman,
away twe ve Chmes f h
of fourteen and hauled d h i
e out V er crew
, own er co ors I d I
ticulars of this public insult to th B O O h fl
'
reporte a I the par-
f h O
e ntIs ag and g
0
I
0
o t e mnth article of th S I
, rave VIO atlOn
l
e upp ementary Treaty t
ency the same day and I d
q V your Excel
for the insult and .aus t
ppea e
o o
to you to afford satisfaction
case faithful.y observe B
e provIsIOn of the treaty to be in this
d
o
. ut your Excellenc
0
h
Isregard both to JO ustic d
y, Wit a strange
e an treaty engagement h ff d
reparation or apology fo th
+ =
1
as V ere no
you have seized
0
r e mlury, and, by. retaining the men
+
H your custody si
0
fy
vIOlation of the treaty and I h
'
gm
o
your approval of this
, eave er Majesty's G
out assurance that a simol h
overnment with-
I ar event s all not again occur.
t: .--. :|.: :|- c|.a-.- ea | ! |
:|- c|.a-.- eii.-:., |-..a.- :|-

:.|.

-:- .-.:-! |,
.e- ei :|- .:-w |.! o.::...o : !

:-:
_
. |--a

e:-! :|.:
. c|.a-.- -:.|.a:.a |
-

.., .e.::-! .e..a.:


c|.a-.- ce--:ae:c-a-:.. i
o:.. cea.a| ...a.-. :|-
:|- r:.:..| i|.e ei !-.|
O .-.
i
:
i
e :|- .:-w, ei |.a|.ae !ewa

, e :e 0 -: .a, I !
0
e :|- -a .-.:-! .a |.. .a.:e! 1
.oe

ee,, .a ei :-:.
. |-::-: .!!:-..-! :e t!
0
I s
,

|- c|-.- ce--:ae:, .a
o
.:. -,ea: .ii | |
0
...-::.-! :|.: a.a- ei :|

, :. : .:, .-e
A
- ..o:.--. w-:- .aa | !
ea .:. :e, .a eii.-: :e : |
e.-a:, - .:-.:-!,
.e..a, |a: :|.: cea.a| r.'. -.
a |e.:ei :|-.: --..-|
:|

|e:.|. .:.-|i, |- .:.:-. :|.: w|--
:e
|

-.-.v- :|-. t. :e
.-.:-!, .|- w.. .aooe.-! :e | c|
c -.- ea |e.:! w-:-
|-..a.- .|- w.. |a.|: | c|
. -.- --..-|, .a! :.e|:|, .e
|
, . -.- .a! |-|e ! O
w O |.! i:.a!a|-a:|, e|:
0
!

0
ae- :e . c|-.-,

, -a:-:.ae |.. --..-| ea :|

ei

. r:.:..| -a..ea,
.: .--., |.|.:a.| w.:| c|

. o:.. :-e..:-:-. -:|e!
ei :|- .a.a|: :e :|- i|.e :|

c
-.- .aee|-:.. t. :e :|- ea-.:.e
, - e--:ae: :-.:|..
It has been the invariable rule with lor h
nation, to haul down th fl
c as of your Excellency'S
hoist it again when th
e ag w
d
hen they drop anchor, and to
b
ey get un er way Wh h I h
oarded in order that th
o
en t e orc a was
.
1
e pnsoners might b O d
0
h
satIsfactorily proved that n fl
e seize , It as been
o ag was flymg. How then could a
["IE A
NGLO- CHI NES E CONFLI CT]
1\
flag have been
hauled down?
Yet Consul Parkes, i n one dispatch
after another, pretends that satisfaction is required for the insult
offered to the flag.
r:e :|-.-
o:-..-. :|-
c|.a-.-
ce-
-:ae: .ea.|a!-. :|.:
a. |:-..| ei .a, ::-.:,
|..
|--a .e
.::-!. oa
o.:.
i :,
a---::|-|-.., :|- r:.:..| r|-a.oe:-a:..:, !-.a!-! ae: ea|, :|-
.a:
:-a!-: ei :|- w|e|- ei :|- .::-.:-!
.:-w, |a: .|.e .a .oe|ee,.
1|- ce
--:ae: :|a. :-o|.-..
Early in the morning of Oct. 22, I wrote to Consul Parkes, and
at the same time forwarded to him twelve men, namely, Leong
Mingtai and Leong Kee-foo, convicted on the inquiry I had insti
tuted, and the
witness,
Woo Ayu, together with nine previously
tendered. But
Consul Parkes
would neither receive the twelve
prisoners nor my letter.
r.:|-. .e|:, :|-:-ie:-, |.-- aew ee: |..i :|-
w|e|- ei |..
:-|--
-a, :ee-:|-:
w.:|
w|.: w.. e.: o:e|.||, .a .oe|ee,
.ea:..a-! .a . |-::-: w|..| |- !.! ae: eo-a. ia :|- ---a.ae
of :|- ..- !.,, ce--:ae:
Y-|
.e..a .!- .aea.:, w|, :|-
-:..ea-:. :-a!-:-! |, |.
w-:- ae: :-.-.--!, .a!
w|, |- :-
.-.--+ ae .a.w-: :e |.. |-::-:. e ae:..- w.. :.|-a ei :|..
.:-o,
|.: ea :|-
:.:|
i:- w.. eo-a-! ea :|-
ie::., .a! .---:.| ei
them
-:- :.|-a, .a! .: w.. ae:
aa:.|
e-. I :|.: t!.:.|
s-,ea: -xo|..a-! :|- .oo.:-a:|,
.a.e
o:-|-a..||- .ea!a.:
of cea.a|
r.:|-. .a . -...e- :e :|- ce--:ae:
1|-
-a, |-
..,., |.. |--a :-.:e:-! :e :|- cea.a|, |a: ae: publicly :-.:e:-!
to :|-.: --..-|, ae: |.! :|- :-ea.:-! .oe|ee,
|--a .!- ie: :|-
.e|.:.ea ei :|- cea.a|.:
,a:..!..:.ea. 1e :|..
ea.|||-, :|-a,
e| ae: :-.:e:.ae .a .:.:- . .-: ei -a
aa|-:.ae :|:-- .ea-..:-!
....a.|., :|-
w|e|- ...- .. :-!a.-!. 1e :|.. :|- ce--:ae: ei
c.a:ea .a.w-:., i:.:, :|.: :|- :w-|-- -a |.!
|--a ..:a.||,
|.a!-! e--: :e :|- cea.a|, .a! :|.: :|-:- |.! ae: |--a .a,
:-|a..| :e :-:a:a :|- :e :|-.: --..-|.
v|.:
w.. .:.|| :|- .::-:
with :|.. r:.:..| cea.a|, :|-
c|.a-.-
ce--:ae: ea|,
|-.:a-!
after the ..:, |.!
|--a |e|.:!-! ie: ..x !.,.. t. :e .a .oe|
e.,, ce--:ae: Y-| .a...:. :|.: aea- .ea|! |- e.--a, .. ae i.a|:
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
|.! |--a .e|::-!. v- eae:- ||. we:!.. e ie:-|ea i|.e w..
.--a |, , -x-.a:|- .: :|- :|- ei :|- ..o:a:-, .a! .., |a
.!!|:|ea :e :||., |: w.. ...-::.|a-! ea -x.|a.:|ca ei :|- o:|.
ea-:. |, :|- eii.-: !-oa:-! :e .ca!a.: |:, :|.: :|- |e:.|. w..
|a ae :-.o-.: . ie:-|ea -..-|, i .|a:.|a :|.: :|-:- w.. ae
|.:.|- .e|::-!.
ia!--!, :|- ie:.- ei :||. c||a..a. !|.|-.:|.. !|.oc.-. .e
-ii-.:a.||, ei :|- w|e|- ea-.:|ea-.a! :|-:- |. ae e:|-: .oo.:
ta: ...--:|.: t!|:.| -,ea: .: |..: |.. ae :-.ca:.- |-i:
|| |a: . !-.|.:.:|ea |||- :|- ic||ew|ae. i a.: oe.|:|-|,
!-.||a- .a, ia::|-: .:ea-a: ea :|- -:|:. ei :|- ...- ei :|-
|c:.|. Arrow. i . o-:i-.:|, ..:|.i-! ei :|- i..:. .. :-o:-.-a:-!
:c ,ea: rx.-||-a., |, x: cca.a| r.:|-..
ra: .i:-: |.|ae :.|-a :|- ie::., |:-..|-! :|- w.||. ei :|-
.|:,, .a! |e|.:!-! c.a:ea ie: .|x !.,., :|- t!|:.| .a!!-a|,
!|..e-:. ea|:- . a-w e||-.: ie: ||. -..a:-., .. w- ia! ||
w:|:|ae :e :|- c||a-.- ce-:ae: ea o.:. ,o: i: |. acw ic: ,ca:
rx.-||-a.,, |, |-!|.:- .ca.a|:.:|ca w|:| -, :e :-:|a.:- .
.ea!|:|ea ei :||ae. ei w||.| :|- o:-.-a: -|| |. ac: .||e|:, |a:
w||.|, |i ae: .-a!-!, ..a ...:.-|, i.|| :e |- o:e!a.:|- ci :|-
c.: .-:|ea. ..|.|:|-..
1|- c||a-.- ce-:ae: .a.w-:., :|.: ...e:!|ae :e :|- cea
-a:|ea ei : ao, |- |.! ae :|e|: :e ..| ic: .a.| . .ea.a|:.:|ea.
u- ia::|-: ..,.
In reference to the admission into the city, I must observe that,
in April, 1 849, his Excellency the Plenipotentiary Bonham issued
a public notice at the factories here, to the effect that he thereby
prohibited foreigners from entering the city. The notice was
inserted in the newspapers of the time, and will, I presume, have
been read by your Excellency. Add to this that the exclusion of
foreigners from the city is by the unanimous vote of the whole
population of Kwang-Tung. It may be supposed how little to
their liking has been this storming of the forts and this destruction
of their dwellings; and, apprehensive as I am of the evil that
may hence befall the offcials and citizens of your Excellency'S
nation, I can suggest nothing better than a continued adherence
to the policy of the Plenipotentiary Bonham, as to the correct
LO-CHINESE CONFLI CTl
[ TfE
jNG
d As to the consultation proposed by your
course to be pursue .
d
days
ago
deputed
Tseang,
Excellency,
I have alrea y, some
,
Prefect of Luy-chow-foo.
1 5
.i-. . .|-.a |:-..: ei |:, !-.|.:.ae
\!.:.|
-,ea: ac
i x: rea|..
:|.: a-
|c-. ae: ..:- ie: :|- .ea-a:.ea O
.
,
refers me to the notifcation of the British
Your Excellncy s reply
rohibiting foreigners from entering
Plenipotentiary of 1 849,
"
P
d
h t although we have indeed
N
I must remm you t a ,
f
Canton.
ow,
" " the
Chinese Government or
"
t of complamt agamst
"
sen
oUS mat er
" " 8
to admit foreigners mto
h f h
romise given H 1 47
"
"
breac
O
t e p
demand noW
made IS m no
Canton at the end of tw
f
O years, m
ations on the same subject,
ted
with
ormer nego
f
" I way
connec
d "
" f any but the foreign O cia s,
" h
I demanding a miSSIOn O
" d nelt er am
" I and suffcient reason above asslgne .
and this only for the simp e
II
with your Excellency, you
On my proposal to treat prsn.
y.u sent a Prefect some days
do me the honor to remar t a
l l ' whole
ago. I am compelled therefor
h
e to regard YO
n
u
d
r E
`e `.
S
to add
" f
y in t e extreme a
letter as unsatls actor
.
I" "
urance of your
I "
d" tely receive an exp IClt ass
that, unless Imme la
d I h 11 at once resume offensive
assent to what I have propose , s a
operations.


:
:a- |-:..|. ei
cc-:ae: Y-| :-:e::. |, .e..a
-a:-oae .a O
:a- cca-a:|ea ei ao:
I
controversial correspondence on the
In 1 848 there was a ong
S
d the British Plenipoten-
" b
predecessor eu an
subJect etween my
h
b "
satisfed that an inter-
"
h
d Mr Bon
am, emg
nary, Me. Bon a, an
.
I
f the question, addressed a
view within the city was utter y ut
h
"
h h
" d "At the present
"
A
" I f 8 9 m w IC e sal ,
letter to Seu Hthe pn O
" " h
r Excellency on this
e diSCUSSIOn Wit
you
time I can have no mor
" f
the factories to the effect
subject." He further issued a not
h
lce
.
rom
h" h was inserted in the
.
t enter t e City, w IC
that no foreigner was O
d this to the British Govern
ment.
papers, and he commumcat-
.
of any nation who did not
There was not a Chinese or orelgner
"
d
ain
know that the question was never to be dlscusse ag .
1 6 DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE ,
lmpatientofargument, theritishAdmiral hereupon forces
his way into the City ofCanton to the residenceofthe Cov-
ernor,atthesametimedestroyingthelmperialf|eetintheriver.
Thustherearetwodistinctactsinthisdiplomaticandmilitary
dramathenrstintroducingthe bombardmentofCantonon
thepretextofabreachoftheTreatyof: azcommittedbythe
Chinese Covernor, andthe second, continuingthatbombard-
ment on an enlarged scale, onthe pretext thatthe Covernor
clung stubbornly to the Conventionof : ao. first Canton is
bombardedforbreakingatreaty,andnextitisbombardedfor
observingatreaty.esides,itisnotevenpretendedthatredress
wasnotgiveninthenrstinstance,butonlythatredresswasnot
givenintheorthodoxmanner.
TheviewofthecaseputforthbyThe London Times would
donodiscreditevento CeneralWilliamWalkerofNicaragua.
'ythisoutbreakofhostilities,saysthati ournal,
existing treaties are annulled, and we are left free to change
our relations with the Chinese Empire as we please. The recent
proceedings at Canton warn us that we ought to enforce that
right of free entrance into the country and into the ports open to
us, which was stipulated for in the Treaty of 1 842. We must not
again be told that our representatives must be excluded from
the presence of the Chinese Governor-General, because we have
waived the performance of the article which enabled foreigners
to penetrate beyond the precincts of our factories.
lnotherwords, 'wehavecommencedhostilitiesinorderto
break an existing treaty and to enforce a claim which 'we
havewaivedby an expressconvention! Wearehappyto say,
however, that another prominent organ of ritish opinion
expressesitselfina morehumaneandbecomingtone. 'ltis,
saysThe Daily News,
a monstrous fact, that in order to avenge the irritated pride of a
British offcial, and punish the folly of an Asiatic governor, we
prostitute our strength to the wicked work of carrying fre and
sword, and desolation and death, into the peaceful homes of
N
TRADE
WI TH
CHI NA)
( RUS S I A
,
,
on whose shores we were origi
nally
mtru
ders.
unoffendmg men,
,
f h'
Canton bombardm
ent, the
Wh
atever may
be the Issue O
t IS
eckless and
wanton waste
,
b d d a base one-a r
deed itself I a a an
,
f
false etiqu
ette and a mistaken
of human hfe at the shnne O a
policy.
t
onwhetherthe
civi|ized
nationsofthe
It is,
perhaps,aque

!
d
f
adinga peacefu| cou
ntry,
wor|d
wi||
approvethism
'
eo
f
uv
r for an a|leged
infringe-
with
out
previous

+e
|
ca.i

ipatic
etiquette. lf th

nrst
ment of the fancru

f
s pretext
was patrent|y

of its u
amou
,
Chinese
war, u
spite
b
auseithe|doutthe
prospect
|ooked
uponbyotherp

o
'
ec

notthis secondwar likely


o|openingthetradewrt
r

a
d

r
h
s
r te
period? lts
hrst result
h
t ade
for an u e n

to
obstruct t at r
f
thetea-gro
wing
drst
ncts,
h

ffofCanton rom

mustbet ecuttugO
the handsof the imp
enahsts

a
as yet, for the
mostpart, u
h
body but the Russian
circumstance
which cannot
pro t any
o\er|andteatraders.
[R
ussian Trade

ith
Chinal
Pub|ished
Apn|7, 1 8 57

course with
China, of which
In the matter of trade and uter
1
have undertaken the
Lord Pa|merston and Louis
a
|
poeo

s evident|y
fe|t of the

b f
no |itt|e jea
ousy !
h
ext

sron y

rce,

lndeed it is
quite possib|e t at
pos:t:on occupiedby Russia.
ertionofmi|itary
force
withoutanyexpenditureofmoney
d
orex
consequ
ence
of the

e in the en
as a
Russta may gau

or

tsaneitherofthebe||igerent
pendingquarrelwiththeChuese,
nations.
Ch
Empire
are
altogether
There|ationsofRussiatothe ues
|
e
for in the
matter

h | h E
|ish
and
ourseves~
pecubar. W 1 e t e

n
F
ch are
but
|itt|e more than
of
the pending hosnhtres the fren
d
th China
are
not
amateurs, as they rea||y have

no tra e wr
nication even
with
a||owed the privi|ege of a drrec

com

u
the
adva
ntage of
the Viceroy of Canton, the Russtans enioy
1 8
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW
YORK TRIBUN
a.a:a.a.aaaaL|a..,a:r-| l

a|aa:aa-..-a:cla.-|ea| |

|
:

.a.|,|--|,:la:
:l..
|- :-c|ea-| a: :l- C-|-:

I
,
C
.a .::a:ea||ewka...a:e
..a ea:: a. e i l | |---a|-ac.-.ei:l- Cl.a-.-L
a- e : -

:o a:a:,
ka...aa|.-|eac, a..aL
-.:-. --::l-|-...:-aa||-.
.:.-|i.aCl.aawl l

|
a:e--,:-

:a||..laa.ai|a-ac-ie:
.c ..
,ae-aa.|:|
|
e--:a:.ea..
I - :e-a:-,|.-ie
a:.c .
r-.aa -xc|a|-| i:e :l-

ao:.- ::a|- l Cl

a...aa.a:-i:--i:eaa
w.:
a, :l-

,:-:-.:e:.a I
'
.
--a|a
|..-a:-. ea :la: . |
e--a:-a.:e:
aa:.-a:l,w.:lwl.cli
,-

:, aa| :l-,
a|.e
-.ca--
:la:
:e:.-.-
' I l Cl
:-aa:|-|a||ie:-.aa-:.
a--:e l
l

eoa : - -.-la-
i
|
aca: -.:ceaa::,|
eaa a:l-,aa|ae:
-a:.:-| w.:le

,.-a,cea
ca|a|-a:a:-:.|,wle:l-l
a::-a.ea,w.:l:l--.:a:.
|--a.ai-.:-|.ra:a.aa.a|-a.

a-.-
cea

.:.
.--

--::ela-
a:.:.-::a|- :l- k

ie::l..-xc|a..eai:e
:l-
,
a...aa. -a,e,
' I |
::a|---ca|.a::e:l-.-|-.
aa|
a

aa aa| e-:|aa|
ie::l-:ela-aa,:.a|

1l
.c .:.--..-e...||-
a|-.a : ;sk |
l
.

..::a
c,:-aa
|a:-||,a::-a:,
, aoaa : - :-.aa eiC l
-:.ac.-a|, .iae:
.a|--| .: I
: -oa-

ll, la. ie: .:.


..:aa:-| ea :l- i:ea:.-:. e
.
i
.e-
l
.-a: e
|
e-

:a:.ea.,
k.a|l:a,
1
.ea:
-:a 51 -oaaa|
i Cl ::a:,,eaa::.|a
:a:,ei:l-ta|-ra.| I
e -.-
||-..ea:lei:l-
C.:,eil:|ee:.|.1l
,aa|a|ea:alaa|:-|
.e::
eiaaaaa|ia.:,..aaa -||
..::a|-,cea|ac:-|a:a
a:-ka...aa.aa| ..xCl
a
,
l
:w-|-iac:e:.,eiwle..x
l
-.-, w e--:a:k |l
| : -
:a:-.-
..ac-:l-::a|

.a :a, aa ax
-..-a:.:-l, |,| :
l -:cl
aa|..-.a--|.-||,-.:l
l
a:-:-a:w .cl:l-
-:.a
c.-a|a::.c|-.ei::a|-a
-:-a,. a|||--xclaae-|. 1l-
aa| ea:l-
-a::ei:l k
:-,ea: --a::ei:l-
Cl.a-.-,:-a,
1l..::a|-,ei|a:-
,-a:.
-
.-
a...aa. ce::ea

a|
wee|-a
c|e:l..
.ac:-a.-.1l-eaa
a:.:,i:
-.:
|
la-
l
a::a-

acea..|-:a||-
|.|ae: :-a e::w-|-
-a.e
:e: -ka...aa.a:k.a|l:a
:lea.a|cl-.:.

|a:.a
,-

:.a

e,-xc--|aa
a-:aa-
eiie::,
.--a:,-:le.aa|cl.:`
2 .a

ea:-|:ealaa|:-|aa|
:la:
.a--:.e:eaa|.:,
w-|||

e
.c :
-|a:a-:-a::wa.ei
ca:aaa :-a
.a cea: |

cea:-a:a|cea.a-:.a.

,
:a ..:c:.ea i:e
:l .-e::-||,.-a 1l-e:l
1
- -oe: a::.c|-
.
-:a::.c-..e|| | :l Cl .e-
.a||eaaa:.:.-.ei.
,

-
-.-w-:-
aaa:,ce::ea,:aw..||aa|..||aee|.,
[ RUS S I AN TRADE WI TH CHI NA] 19
-a:
.|| :e -:, |..:-| aeaa:.. 1l- ka...aa. -a.| a|ea:
-
|a.||,.ace::eaa

|wee|-aaee|.,w.:l:l-a!!.:.eaei.a||
|a.a:.:.-.eika...aa|-a:l-:,w:eaal:-:a|.,ia:.aa|--a
-.a. 1|-w|e

-aeaa:eiaee|.|eaal:aa!.e||-w|.cl
.--.a:|--a||..l-|acceaa:.:e|-.:a:-|a:-:,e|-:a:-
-...-.-
.-ac|-|:l-|a:a-.aeia-wa:|ei(i:--a.||.ea.ei
|e||....Ia : s ,, ew.aa:e:l-.a:-:aa|::ea||-.eiCl.aaaa!
:|-
e..a-a:.eaei:l-:ea!i:e:l-:-a-:e.ac-.|,|aa|.ei
...a|.aa:-|-|.,:|-eaaa:.:,ei:-a.-a::ek.a||:ai-||eii:e
-:,:|ea.aa!cl-.:.,aa|:l-w|e|-a|a-ei:|-::a|-ei:la:
,-....|a:a|ea:..x.||.ea.ei|e||a:..ia:l-:weie||ew.aa
,-... |ew--:, :l.. ce-:c- :-.-|, aa| :l- :-a .-a: :e
i..||:aie::|-ia.:eiIs s |.|ae:ia||.le::eialaa!:-|aa!
:-|-:|ea.aa!cl-.:..
In .ea.-ea-ac-ei:l-.ac:-a.-ei:l..::a!-,k.a|l:a,wl.cl
....:a.:-!w.:l.a:l-ka...aai:ea:.-:, i:ea-:-ie::aa|
.....eaa!,|a.a:ewaa-.a:eacea..|-:a||-c.:,.l:la.|--a
.-|-.:-|a.:l-ca-.:a|ei:la:-a::ei:l-i:ea:.-::-a.ea,aa|..
:e |-!..a.-||,la.aaa.|.:a:,ceaa!aa:aa|ac..|
.e-.ae:.n::l-.a-:.-a!.:-c:aa!:-aa|a:-e.:a|ce
aaa..a:.eaie::l-::aa.....eaeiei(c.a||..-a:cl-.la.|a:-|,
---a-.:a||..|-||-:w--ak.a|l:aaa|r-|.a,w|.cl..!..:aa:
e.:a|ea:a.a-laa|:-|.|-..
It ..-.|-a::la:,.lea||:|---a!.aale.:.|.:.-.:-.a|:.aa
.a--.-...ea ei:l- a:.:.- ::a|-, La:e-- .al: :-c-.- .:.
-a:.:-.a--|,ei:-a|,:l..:ea:-.la!--|, .:...aaa-.:-|:la:
--a.:l:|-a:.:.-::a|-e--a,ka...aa,,a-ea:l-ce
-|-:.eaeil-:.,.:-ei:a.|:ea|.,|-ce-a-ew-:ia|ce--:.
:e
w.:l :l- a:.:.- aa:.ea. ie: .a--|,.aa :l- La:e--aa
a.:|-:.w.:l:-a.1|-.-:a.|:ea!.w.||.a--|,a|.:-c:ceaa.
..:.ea |-:w--a :l- -e::. ei C:ea.:a|: aa| t.|aa aa| :l-
.a..-a:c.:,ei.|a.eae:e!.a:l-.a:-:.o:eika...a,:|-
-..|-ac-ei:|- -:c|aa:.|, w|e :|-::a!-a:k.a|l:a ..
..:.-! ea. 1|- .a--|,ei La:e-- w.:l:-a |, :|..e-:|aa!
.ca:-..c-::a.a|,e:--:e|a||-:laa:|---|e,-a:eiea:
-
e,-.:-|rac.(cka.|:ea|ie::la:-a:-e.-.s.||,:ee,:l-e:l-:
.a.-i-x-e::eiCl.aa,..aaa::.c|-ei.acl.a|||a||.ace
-
..
.ea:e.:.ce.:,a.:ea|-.:.::aa.-e::a:.ea|,|aa||,ae
20
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
-a

..-e...||-,wl.|-:l..Cl.a-.-::aiace--a.
I i ..~
,
aa
|
aiac:a:-
l
.,.acla.:l-,caaae:-|.-wl`a.
e:
e .-:-, ew--: :la::l ii
i
ae-aa.|..:-|:e:l-|--ie -a:
-- e

:.

e ka...aa:-|,
.--:a|,-a:...ac-.l-:ee|
-

e

:l.|aa|::a|-.l:..
nea: :l-aa:.-
-e..-...eaO :l-|aa|.ei:l-k.-:

-:-
::..a:l..
'
.

a
e
'
-
'

-
aa

ac-
|
.

Cl.aa.

:.ea |a:.aa :l- |a:- wa: |a: r| |


1 -c aa

a:-::a-
-a.l-|w.l
,
w ea : -.. |-:-.-| aa|
:l-a-.al|:.
.
a..
a

l-ka:.|-.|

a|

aa| .
a--:.a:le.-.-a. aa|w.||| |
1 : -a|,.l-a:a.a
:la:a,eii-::e

e|:a.a
ea

-..

.-

:e-aa,e--e::aa.:,
w.:lCl.aa.1l..,lew--
.::.

:.ea:l-a:.:.-::a|-
-a:-|
w.:l
:l--.:-a..ea

i:

a:
.

ea

-ea

ac-:el

:ce
.
-e..-..-.:l-eae-e|,.
aa ::a -eiwl.cl.l-
[Eng'is Atrocities in China]
ra||i.l-|n-:.|IC. : ks ;
ni-w,-a:...ac-,wl-a:l-i:. li |

wa.-.-e.-|.ara:|.a-a:s.:;.--
,.:-ei:e::a:-

aa|.a
ei:l-:e.:ueae:a||-L : l | C
eaa,ea-ei:l-D.:-c:e:.
:la::l-.:a:--a:. |
a. a .
i
a e-aa,,|e|||,a..-::-|

a -w-:-aaeaa|-| sa|

aa:.ea,lew--:,-:e-| :l-:e | |
.-ea-a:-

:.
.lea||la-|--aw-r|
-

.-|a-ea iac:.wl.cl
la||-i:l.:ea|.:-.
w

i
l-.:-c:e:.,aa|s.:;a-.
|aew|-|a-ei:l-le::.||-
w.
I
.aae:aac-e:c:..aa|
te:|ra|-:.:ea :l--:-.-:
:a-

. a::l-Ce-aa,.|ee:..
eiC|a:-a|ea :l:. a :
i
:
r
-.

:eiLaa|aa|,aa|:l-La:|
,
..-:O e:-.aan:(

:e|--|ac-|.aa...|a:aa-a.a||

a.:.,.--, a.:aew
:a,e:. |aaea-: :l-r

-r

..:.ea.n::l-|a:-te:|

,
:-.-: .a.| U l..
l l :--:a:e;a.:.i,:l- :

.
.

.---c , w .|- a:
a:ec.:.-.ce.::-|a-ea:l-Cl.a-.-.
If the Government had in th'
proceedings they
h d
'
d
.case, approved of unjustifable
deserved to ,
ncur th
`
ce

u
of
t

.
followed a COurse
which
ar lament and of the country.
[ ENGLI S H ATROCI TI ES IN CHI NA) 21
We were persuaded, however, on the contrary, that these pro
ceedings were necessary and vital. We felt that a great wrong had
been inflicted on our country. We felt that our fellow-countrymen
in a distant part of the globe had been exposed to a series of
insults, outrages and atrocities which could not be passed over
in silence [Cheers] . We felt that the treaty rights of this country
had been broken, and that those locally charged with the defense
of our interests in that quarter of the world were not only j usti
fed, but obliged to resent those outrages, so far as the power in
their hands would enable them to do so. We felt that we should
be betraying the trust which the citizens of the country had
reposed i us if we had not approved of the proceedings which
we thought to be right, and which we, if placed in the same
circumstances, should have deemed it our duty to have pursued
[Cheers].
ew,lew--:acl:l---e-|-eiLaa|aa|aa|:l-we:||a:
|.:a-a,|-|-c-.-||,.acl-|aa..||-.:a:--a:.,l..te:|
.l.-l..-|ic-::a.a|,|e-.ae:|-|.--:l-:e|-::a-,e:.il-
ae-.,l-la.|-::.,-|aw.||ia|.aae:aac-a|e.:a.aa| a.:.a||-
:.c:..aa||aew|-|a-. L-:..ac-:l-a:.::--e:::-acl-|a.
of iaa|..l le.:.|.:.-. .a Cl.aa, :l- Oe-:a-a: |ea:aa|. ei
iaa|aa|aa|a-e::.eaei:l-n-:.caar:-..la-|--al-a-.aa
le|-.a|-|-aaac.a:.ea.a-ea:l-Cl.a-.--.w---.aacla:a-.
of ..e|a:.eaei::-a:,e||.aa:.ea.-.a.a|:.:e:l-Laa|..li|.a-
a-a:a|a:.eaeiie:-.aa-:. :-..|.aaea:l-.:.e.|,aa|:l-|.|-,
,-:ae:ea-..aa|-|..:.ac:cla:a-la.|--aa|-e:a..aa|-i.c:
.-.:aac-|.a .a--e::ei:l-.- |-aaac.a:.ea.,.a-:l-ca.- ei
:l-|e:cla Arrow, aa|, w.:l:-.--c::e :l.. ca.-, :l-c.:ca
.:.ac-.la-|--a.e..:--:-.-a:-|aa|a|e..-|e-:|,ra:|.a
-a:a:,:l-:e:.ca.a::-:|,:e..|-a|:le.-wle:-a||,|-..:-
to
aa|-:.:aa|:l--:.:.ei:l-ea-.:.ea.
1l-|e:claArrow wa.a .a||Cl.a-.--..-|, aaa-||,
cl.a-.-,|a:--|e,-||,.e-Laa|..l-a.n|.c-a.-:eca::,
:l- Laa|..l1aa la| |--a:--e:a:.|,a:aa:-| :el-:, wl.cl
|.
c-a.-la|-x-.:-|-:.e::e:l-a||-a-|.a.a|:.sl-...a.|:e
a.-|--aa.-|:e.aaa|-.a|:,aa|la|ea|ea:|eil-:.e-
.-:,|a|cla:ac:-:.-Cl.a-.--.:a:-.aa|.aaa|-:.-wle,
2 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
being oldo|fenders againstthe laws the
0
beentryingtoarrest.While| i

uthontres had long
with sai|s furled and
f yngtanchoru|ronto|Canton
becameawareo(thepen`
w tever displayed~the police
arrestedthem~preciselys h
on oardoftheseoffenders,and
here,hadthepolicea|ongo
uc a
h
nactas
k
wouldhavetakenplace
d
urw arves nownth
0
h
an smugglers weresecreted

tnver-t reves
b h

u a native orforeign I
y. ut,a

t rsarrestinterferedwithth b
vesse near
thecaptauwentto theEnglishC
e
l

usressofth

owners,
Consul, a young man recent|
on

u
d
an complaued.The
f d
y appoute and as

orme , a personofaquickandirrit bl d

?
we are u-
board in propria person
a e rsposrtron,rusheson
the police who have O l
a,
d

ets
h
uto an excited parley with
, ny rsc arg d h
0
consequently fails inobtaining t

err srmple duty, and


backtotheConsulate w

t
sa

rsaction.Thencehe rushes
+
q n esan rmperati d df
tutronandapologytoth C
ve eman orresti-
Province,andanotetoSr1
eror-eneraloftheQuangtung
atHong-Kong,representin th.t
wruga

ndAdmiralSeymour
beeninsu|tedbeyondendurnc
ea

hrs

ou

try'sflaghave
termsthatnowisthetime|ora
endutrm

tugu

rettybroad
suchashadlongbeenwaited|o

monstratronagaustCanton,
Cov. Yehpolitely and calml re d
mandsoftheexcitedyoungrit`h
on .to the arrogant de-
ofthearres

,andregretsthattheresh
ns

Hestatesthereas

n
understanduginthe matter atthe
ou
0
have beenanymrs-

deniestheslightest intentio f
0
s.

etimeheunquali6edly
sends back the men whom
O .utugtheEnglishfIag,and
desirednotto detain

atth
, a t oug
f
h law|ully arrested, he
e expense O so

0
standing.utthisisnotsatis|actor t H
senousamrsunder-
musthaveanof6cial apol `
O r.ConsulParkeshe
orCov.Yehmustabidethe
o
c
gy, an a more formal restitution,
S
onsequences Ne t
0
d
0
eymour with the t

h 1
. x arnvesA mrraI
n rs eet and th
correspondence, dogmatic and

threa
e

commence

another
Admiral
.
cool unim 0
0
tenug, on the srde o|the
ofncial.
\
dmi
,
alSey
"
o

ed,po

tte,onthesideoftheChinese
the walls o| Canton C
r em
\
an
h
sapersonalinterviewwithin
. ov. e says th
0
precedent and that S C
rs rs contrary to all
, rr eorge onha h d
should notberequired.He |d d

|
m a agreed that it
wou rea I V consentto aninter-
[ ENGLI S H ATROCI TI ES IN CHI NA1
v|ew
, as usual, outside the walledtowni|necessary,ormeet
th
eAdmiral's
wishesinanyotherway
not
contrarytoChinese
usageandhereditaryetiqu
ette.utthisdidnotsuitthebellicose
tepresent
ativeo|ritishpowerinthe
East.
(pon
the
grounds thus brieBy
statedand the
ofhcial
accountsnowbeforethe
peopleofEnglandfullybearoutthe
statementthis most unrighteous
war has been waged.
The
uno||ending
citizens and
peaceful tradesmenof Canton have
beenslaughtered,theirhabitationsbatteredtotheground,and
the
clai
ms of hum
anity violated, on the
fIimsy pret
ense
that
En
glish
li|e and property are endangered by
the aggressive
acts o|the Chinese! TheritishCovern
ment and theritish
pe
ople-atleast,thosewho
havechosentoexaminetheques-
tion-knowhow|alseandhollowaresuch
charges.Anatte
mpt
hasbeenmadetodivertinvestigation|romthe
main
issue, and
to impress the public mind with
the idea that a long series
o| injuries, preceding the
case of the lorcha
Arrow, form
of
themselvesa
su|hcientcasus belli. utthesesweepingassertions
arebaseless.The
Chinesehave atleast ninety nine
injuriesto
complainoftooneonthepartoftheEnglish.
How silent is the press of
England
upon the
outrageous
v|olationsofthe
treaty
daily practiced by |oreigners living in
Chinaunderritishprotection!
Wehear nothingofthe
illicit
op|um trade, which yearly |eeds the ritish
treasury
at the
expense o| human li|e and morality. We hear nothingof the
constantbriberyofsub-o|hcials,bymeansofwhichtheChinese
Covernment isdefraudedof its right|ul revenueonincoming
and outgoing merchandise. We hear nothing of the wrongs
inflicted 'evenuntodeath uponmisguidedandbonddemi-
arantssoldtoworsethanSlaveryonthecoasto|Peruandinto
Cuban bondage.Wehearnothingof thebullyingspirito|ten

xercisedagainstthetimidnatureoftheChinese,oro|thevice
.ntroduced by |oreigners atthe ports opentotheir trade. We
hear nothing of allthis and o| much more, hrst, because the
maj orityofpeopleouto|Chinacarelittleaboutthesocialand
moralconditionofthatcountry:andsecondly,becauseitisthe
part of policy and prudence not to agitate topics where no
pecuniaryadvantagewouldresult.Thus,theEnglishpeopleat
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
ho

e, who |ook nofarther thanthegrocer'swheretheybuy


therr tea, are prepared to swallow a|| the misrepresentations
which the Ministry and the Press choose to thrust down the
pub|icthroat.
eanwhi|e, inChina, thesmotherednresofhatred kindled
agaust the

Engish during the opium war have burst into a


me ofammosrty, which notenders ofpeace and|riendship
wi||bevery|ike|ytoquench'. o .]

History of the Opium Trade [ I ]


PublishedSeptemberzo, : s
The

news

he
'
ew t

eaty wrung from China by the al|ied


P|

mp

tentranes ias,rtwou|dappear,conj uredupthesame


wrld vrstas of an rmmense extension oftrade which danced
before

he eyes of the commercial mind in : as, after the


c

nclusron o|the nrst Chine

se

war.

Supposing the Petersburg


wrres to havespoken truth, rs rtquttecertainthatanincrease
ofthehinesetrademustfollowuponthemu|tiplicationofits

ponums? ls there any probabi|ity that the war of : s;-


wr|| |e

dtom

oresplendidresultsthanthewarof: a:~z?So
much

rscertautha

thetreaty of : a,, instead o|increasing


Amer

rcan a

Eng|rsh exports to China provedinstrumenta|


only10 precrprtating andaggravatingthecommercia| crisisof

t a;. lna simi|arway, byraising dreams of an inexhaustib|e


market and by f
'
stering |alse speculations, thepresenttreaty
mayhelp prepannga newcrisisattheverymomentwhenthe
m

rket o|the wor|d is but slow|yrecoveringfrom the recent


umversal sock

esid

its negative result, thenrstopium-war


su

eded 10 strmu|atug the opium trade at the expense of


|egrtrmate commerce, andsowil|this secondopium-wardo i|
England be not |orced bythe generalpressureofthecivili.ed
world to abandon the compu|sory opium cu|tivation inlndia

ndthearmedopiumpropagandatoChina.Weforbeardwe|l-
109 o

th

morality ofthat trade, described by Montgomery


Martu,hrmselfanEng|ishman, inthefollowingterms:
Ry OF THE OPI UM TRADE [ I ]
STO
Wh
the slave trade was merciful compared with the opium
d
y
,
We did not destroy the bodies of the Africans, for it was
tra
e:
.
.
d b
. .......ediate interest to keep them alive; we did not e ase
OuI

. I B
t
heir
natures, corrupt their
minds, nor
destroy their sou s. ut
h
u ... seller slays the body after he has corrupted, degraded,
\ e Opl "' '
d
nnihilated the
moral
being of unhappy stnners,
whIle every
an
a .
'

h
.
s bringing new
victims to a Moloch
which knows no satiety,
OUI
" d
. '
h
and
where the
English murderer and Chinese SUlCI e vie WIt
each
other in offerings at his shrine.
TheChinesecannottake
both
goodsanddrug,underac

ual

mstances extension o| the Chinese trade reso|ves rnto


CIICU
.
f h 1 . '
extens|ono|theopiumtrade,thegro

thO t e atterrsucom-
pat|ble with the deve|opment o||egrtrmate commercethese
ptopositionswere
pretty genera||y
admittedtwoyears ago. A
Committee o|theHouseo|Commons,appointed in

I a; to
take |nto consideration the state o|ritish commerc.a| rnter-
COUI5C w|thChina,reportedthus:
We regret that the trade with that country has been for some
time in a very unsatisfactory condition, and that the result of our
extended intercourse has by no means realized the just expec
tations which had naturally been founded in a free access to so
magnifcent a market. We fnd that the diffculties of the t.ade do
not arise from any want of demand in China for articles of
British manufactures, or from the increasing competition of other
nations; the payment for opium absorbs the silver to the great
inconvenience of the general traffc of the Chinese, and tea and
silk must in fact pay the rest.
The Friend of China, o|]u|yz, : ao,genera|izingthesame
ptoposition, says in set terms: 'The opium trad

pr

gresses
steadily.Theincreasedconsumptiono|teasand

srlk r
"
Creat
btitainandtheUnitedStateswou|dmere|yresultrntherncrease
o|theopiumtrade;thecaseo|themanu|a

ture

sishope|ess

Oneo|the|eadingAmericanmerchantsrnChuareduced,rn
anatticleinsertedinHunt'sMerchant's Magazine, |or]anuary,
: s o,thewho|equestiono|thetradewithChinatothispoint:
26
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
'Which branch ofcommerce is to be su
tradeortheexport trade f A

ppressed, the
opium
The Ch
h
O mencanorEnglishproduce?
tr:ese t emselves took
I h
.
case.Mont omer M
exacty t e sameview of the
atShangha`whic-wl
i

.r.e:'Iinquiredo:theTaoutai''
commercewith China dh

6
est means ofrt:creasingour
f
,an
rs rstanswe t
o Capt.alfour HerMajest ' C I
r o me,U
presence
,
ys onsu was' C
sonuch opium and we will b

.
easetosendus
factures. ' ''
e able to take your manu-
Thehistoryofgeneralcommerced

has, ina new and stri k

unng
thelasteightyears
but,beforeanalyzingth
i
er.
r,rIl
f
stratedthe

positions;
merceoftheopiumtrade we ro
use

sonlegrtrmatecom-
theriseandprogressofth
,
t
p psegrvtngashortreviewof
weregard thetragical co
a
l l
s

upe ou

traf6c,which,whether
rsions ormii:g s t
h roundwhichitturns orth f
, O O say, t e axis
relationsoftheEastrna
e
W
ectsproducedbyitonthegeneral
recordintheannalsof
n
k
e
d
sternworlds,stands
solitaryon
man U ,
Previousto: ;s;
thequantit of

did notexceed zoo chests th`che


oru

portedfromIndia
Opium was
legally admit.ed in C
weighirigabout : , , lbs.
dutyofabout$,perchest as

on thepayment of a
brought it from Turk
b
, a

medicir:e;thePortuguesewho
ey eirig rts almost I ' , rritotheCelestialEm
excusive tmporters
i
pire.
n : ;;,, ColonelWatsonand Vice-P d
sonsdeservingtotake
I
resi entWheelerper-
apaceamongtheH

andotherpoisonersofwo ld

d f
ermentiers,Palmers
i d
r -wr e ame-sug
d h n iaCompanytheidea f
geste tot eEast
Ch
O entennguponth
rr:a. Consequently th

eoprumtraf6cwith

, erewasestablrsh d d
U vessels anchored ina b
h
e a epotforopium
speculationproved a fail
ayo t e southwest ofMacao. The
sentanarmedvessel lad
ure.

h
n :

k: the
engal Covernment
h
,
enwrt optum toCh
d t eCom
pany
stationedaI

rr:a;an , rtit ;oa,


anchorage for the port
.eoptumvesselatWham
poa,the
proved a more convenie

t de
a

It seems that Whampoa


twoyearsafteritsselection tCh
an Macao, because, only
necessarytopassa law h

h
\ tr:eseCovernmentfound it
opium to bebeatenwith
w c reatens Chinese smugglersof
a am OO andexposedinthestreets
HI S TORY OF THE OPI UM TRADE [ I ] 27
wit|
woodencollarsaroundtheirnecks.About : ;ok, theEast
In
dia Companyceasedtobedirectexportersofopium,butthey
became its producers. The opium monopoly was established
in lndia; while the Company's own shipswerehypocritically
forbidden from traf6ckinginthe drug, thelicenses itgranted
for
privateshipstradingtoChinacontainedaprovisionwhich
attac|ed a penalty to them if freighted with opium ofother
t|ant|eCompany'sownmake.
In : oo,theimportintoChinahadreachedthenumberof
2.OOO chests.Having,duringtheeighteenthcentury,bornethe
aspectcommonto all feuds betweenthe foreign merchantand
t|enationalcustom-house,thestrugglebetweentheEastlndia
Companyand the Celestial Empire assumed, since the begin-
ningofthenineteenthcentury,featuresquitedistinctandexcep-
tional;whiletheChineseEmperor,inordertocheckthesuicide
ofhis people, prohibited at oncethe importofthepoison by
t|efoteigner,anditsconsumptionbythenatives,theEastIndia
Companywas rapidly converting thecultivation of opium in
Ind|a, and itscontraband saleto China, intointegralpartsof
its own 6nancial system. Whilethesemi-barbarian stood on
t|eprincipleofmorality,thecivilizedopposedtheprincipleof
pe|f.Thata giantempire, containing almost one-third of the
human race, vegetating to the teeth oftime, insulated by the
forcedexclusionofgeneralintercourse,andthuscontrivingto
dupeitselfwithdelusionsofCelestialperfectionthatsuchan
empireshouldatlastbeovertakenbythefate onoccasionofa
deadlyduel,inwhichtherepresentativeoftheantiquatedworld
appearsprompted by ethical motives, whiletherepresentative
'
foverwhelmingmodernsocietyhghtsfortheprivilegeofbuy-
irig in the cheapest and selling in the dearest markets~this,
indeed, is a sort of tragical couplet, stranger than any poet
wouldeverhavedaredtofancy.
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
History of the Opium Trade [ I I ]
ra||..|-!s--:-|-::, , : s , s
i:

.:|-a..a-:.eaei:|-e-.aeae-e|,.aia!.a|,:|-
ro:..Oe

:a-a:,w|.c||-:e:|--:e.c:.-:.eaei:|-e-.a
:a+-.aC|.aa.t|-c:a-|-a.|-a:..a1.c:-!|,:|-C-|-.:.a|
-a.l

a:

a-ea|..ewacea:aac.ea..a||-c:.,aa!:|-.::.aa-a:
-e|.|.:.ea -.:a||..|-! a: :|- C|.aa ca.:e|ea.-., -:e-!
a|-aaaa:e:,.1|-a-x:-ii-c:ei:|-e:a|:-...:aac-ei:|-
C|a

aawa.

-!-e:a|.:a:.ea,|,:|-Laa|..|aa,ei:|-
i--oa|aa:|eo:.-.

ca.:e|ea.-eic-:.aa!aa!a:.a.a-a
-:a||,.1|-ce::a-:.ea:|a:a:-.a:e:|-|-a::ei:|-C-|-.:.a|
|

:-

ac:ac,,aa!!-.::e,-!:|-|a|wa:|ei:|--a::.a:c|a|cea
.:.:a:.ea

wa.,:ea-:|-:.:|:|-e-.a|-.:.,.aaa|-!.a:e
:|-L-.:-i:e:|-Laa|.|.:e:-.|.-.aac|e:-!a:v|a-ea
a::a:-!|,:|-La.:ia!.aCe-aa,,a.a|,ce|a::-!|

:|-C-a::a|Oe-:a-

:a:r-|.a,:|-e-.a ::a!-a:a!aa`

..a-!|a:a-:-:e-

::.ea.,aa:.|.:a|.e:|-!a|ea:t:

,ee,ee
.a : s : s. 1|-:|:ewae--a.a :|a:,-a:ei:|- ia!
| |
.aace
-:

-, w.: : - ..aa|- -xc--:.eaei:|-:-a ::a!-, w|.c| .:.||


cea:a-.:e|-eac-e|.:-!|,:|-La.:ia!.aC
aa-w ! i I
e-aa,,aa-
aa

ew-:a .:.a|a.:e:|-e--:a:.ea.ei:|-La |..|

e
|

::aa

..:..ia: s :e,:|-aa|-:eic|-.:..aaa|-!a:e
.aa a .ac:-a.-!:e,, :.-,.a: s:: , :e-,eee aa!.a: s:.
:e: : s,, H-aaw| | | C|

:
-,: - .a-.- Oe-:a-a:,a::|-.a-
:.-:|a:.:a!!

-..-!:|:-a:-a.aa:-ea.::aac-.:e:|-ie:-.aa
-:c|aa:.,-a.|-!:|-ueaa-:c|aa:.,|aewaa.:|-.:a|-:
:e:

,!--

|e--!aaaawea:-!ac:..:,.a.:.-:e.-ca:.eaei:|-
aa:.

e-.ace

.a-:.,aa!,a:.:.ca.:e|ea.-.,-a:.a:e
-

:a:.c-e:

.:o

aa-a:-a.a:-..1|-aa|:-.a|:,|.|-:|a:ei
...|a:-

x-::.ea..a: -,.,wa.:e!:.-:|-e-.a!--e:.i:e
a-:-caoea.:eae:-cea-a.-a:|a...eie--:a:.ea..Hacae
aa!v|a-eaw-:-a|aa!ea-!ie::|-i.|aa!eit.a:.a a::|-
-a::ac- ei

:|- Caa:ea k.-:,:|-:-:e |-ce- --:a-a:|


-.:a||.|-! -..-|. a:-!:e :|-:--:| aa! w-|| !
,
ia:|-.a- | |
. aaa- .

wa,, -a: -C|-.-Oe-:a-a::--e:a:.|


.acc--!-!.a.:e--.aa:|-e--:a:.ea.ei:|-e|!Caa:ea|ea.- ,
29
HI STORY OF THE OPI UM TRADE lI I }
:|
-::
a!-
ea|, .|.i:-!|aa!.,aa!-a..-!:ea |ew-:c|a..ei
-a
-:--a:-!:eca::,.:eaa:a|||a:a:!.aa!|,w|a:--:
`-a..1|aa|.:e:|-a:-a:-:iac.|.:.-.:|a.aiie:!-!,:|-e-.a
::a!-.ac:-a.-!!a:.aa:|-:-a,-a:.i:e: s :.:e: s,.i:e
. :. -,,
:e::, -s ,c|-.:..
t.|-:|-,-a:.: see,: s:saa!: s :., :|-,-a:: s,.a:|.
aa
--ec|.a:|-|..:e:,ei:|- e-.a::a!-. 1|-La.: ia!.a
cc-
aa,:|-a|e.:ae:ea|,.:.-:..|-a-ei::a!.aa.aC|.a

.-
:-a
|a:|a!:e !..cea:.aa- aa!a|.:a.ai:ea||ce-:c.a|
|a.a-..w|a:--:.i:|-.aa:|a.::aa.ie:-!i:ea-:caa:.|-
.a:ea -:-|, ae-:a-a:-.:a||..|-a:,:|-::a!- :e C|.aa
|-ca-ce-|-:-|,:|:ewae--a:eLaa|..|-:.a:--a:-:-:..-,
w|.c|-a.|-!eaw.:|.ac|.ae::|a:,.a: s,-, ,,,eeec|-.:.
cic-.a,a|a-!a:t:, ,eee,eee,w-:-.acc-..ia||,.aaa|-!
.a:c C|.aa, !-.-.:- :|- !-.--:a:- :-...:aac- ei:|- C-|-.:.a|
Oc-:a-a:.1weiac:.|-:-c|a.ea:a::-a:.ea.r.:.:,:|a:ei
--:,.:--.a:|--:ea:-..ei:|--x-e::::a!-:e C|.aa..ac-
.s: -,a!..-:e-e::.eaa:-|,|a:a- -a::-:ea:-...-|,i-||a-ea
:|-c-.a.aaa|.aa|:aac|,aa!.-cea!|,,:|a:|aa!.a|aa!
w.:|:|-a:a!aa|-x:.a.:.eaei:|-e.:-a..||--:caa:.|-.a:-:-.:
ci:|-naa|eia!.aaOe-:a-a:.a:|-e-.a::a!-,a:-w:|-
.-e::aac-ei.:..ca|.a:-:-.:.a:|a:.||.c.:::aiic.ia: s, -:|-
c|.a-.-Oe-:a-a:|a!a:|a.:a::.-!a:a-e.a:w|-:-!--
c...-ac:.eacea|!ae|eaa-:|-!-|a,-!.1|-cea:.aaea.!:a.a
ci...-:, caa.-! |,:|- e-.a .-e::a:.ea., |a! |-aaa :e
!-:aaa-:|--xc|-ea-:,a.w-||a.:|-ea-,-!c.:ca|a:.eaci
:|-c-|-.:.a|L-.:-.u-aa-:.-,ea-ei:|-e.:!..:.aaa..|-!
c|.a-.-.:a:-.-a,-:e-e.-!:e|-aa|.:-:|-e-.a::a!-aa!
a|-ea-,ea:ei.:,|a:ai:-:aia||!-|.|-:a:.ea,.aw|.c|a||
:|-|.a|eiic-:. ei:|-L-.:- .|a:-!, aa!w|.c|-x:-a!-!
c-: a --:.e! ci e:- :|aa a ,-a:. !a:a:.ea, :|- C|.a-.-
Oc-:a-a: !-c.!-! :|a:, Oaacceaa:ei:|- .a,a:.-..: .a
i|.c:-!ea:|---e-|-,:|-a-ia:.ea.::aic.|ea|!ae:|-|-aa|-
.:-!

n.-a:|, a. : s,e, a !a:,ei :, --: c-a:wea|!|a-


,.-|!-!a:--aa-eit,, s,e,eee.ia: s,-,.:wea|!|a-,.-|!-!
!ca||- :|a: .a, |a: :|-a :|- C-|-.:.a| |a:|a:.aa !-c|.a-!
|a,.aaa:ax.a:-:e:..-.a-:e-e::.ea:e:|-!-a:a!a:.eaei|..
--c-|-.ia: s , , , n.-araaa,:|--:-.-a:L--:e:,aa!-:.:.||
3
0 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
e:-!..::-..-!c.:ca.:aac-.,aa!w.:|:|-ia|||aew|-!a-ei
:|-ia:.|.:,ei a||-iie::.a:.:e--.aa:|-.ac:-a..aa.-e::ei
e-.a,--:.--:-!.a:|-.:-:a-e|.c,ei|..aac-.:e:..t-:-
:-a:|,en passant, :|a:|,--:.-ca:.aa:|-e-.acea.a-:.ea
a.a|-:-.,:|-L--:e:aa-.:.::aica||:|-a!aa:aa-.eia
:-|.a.ea. -:e-aaaa!a. 1|- -x::ae:!.aa:, -a.a:-. ei :|-
C|.a-.-Oe-:a-a:!a:.aa:|-,-a:.: s, -, : s, s aa!: s,,,
w|:c| ca|.aa:-! . aCe....ea-: t.a. a::.a| a:Caa:ea,
aa! :|- cea.ca:.ea aa! !-.::ac:.ea, |, |.. e:!-:., ei:|-
.aaa|-! e-.a, aiie:!-! :|- -:-:-x: ie: :|- :.: naa|e
C|.a-.-wa:,:|-:-.a|:.eiw|.c|!--|e--!:|-.-|-..a:|-
C|.a-.-:-|-||.ea,:|-a::-:-x|aa.:.eaei:|-l--:.a|-xc|-
ea-:,:|- .acc-..ia|-ac:eac|-a:eika...a i:e:|-e::|,
aa!:|-a.aaa:.c!.-a..ea.a..a-!|,:|-e-.a::a!-.a:|-
sea:|.n|:|eaa|-:e.c:.|-!.a:|-::-a:,w.:|w|.c|Laa|aa!
:-:.aa:-!awa:,ce-ac-! aa!ca::.-!ea.a.:. !-i-a.-,
:|-e-.a::a!-|a.-:ac:.ca||,-a|e,-!--:i-c:.-aa.:,..ac-
: s.,. 1|- .-e::a:.ea wa. -.:.a:-!, .a : s, s, a: a|ea:
t, , ,eee,eee,w|.|-,.a:|-.a-,-a:,:|-naa|ela!.aaOe
-:a-a:!:-wa:--aa-eit:,,eee,eee,| a.::|-..x:|-a::ei
.:.:e:a|s:a:-.ace-,i:e:|-e-.aeae-e|,.1|--:-:-x:.
eaw|.c|:|-.-cea!e-.awa:|a.|--aaa!-::a|-aa:-ei:ee
:-c-a:!a:-:ea--!aa,ce-a:a:,.
v-caaae:|-a-:|..-a::ei:|-.a||-c:w.:|ea:..aa|.aaea:
ea-i|aa:aa:.-|icea::a!.c:.eaei:|-C|:..:.aa.:,-caa:.aaaaa
c..|.:a:.eaeaa-:.aa r:.:..| Oe-:a-a:. la .:. .--:.a|
ca-ac.:,.:aii-c:.:e|-a:|e:eaa|.::aaa-::e:|-cea::a|aa!
e-.a::a!-,aa!--a:e-a:-:.a:e::-a:.-.-:e.c:.|.aa.:.Y-:,
.a .:. la!.aa ca-ac.:,, .: ie:c-. :|- e-.a ca|:..:.ea a-ea
r-aaa|,:e:|-a:-a:!aaa-ei:|--:e!ac:.-:-.ea:c-.ei:|a:
ceaa::,,ce--|.ea--a::ei:|-la!.aa:,e:.:e-aaaa-.a:|-
-e--,ca|:a:-,-a:.c-.aae:|-:-a::.a:e:|-.a- |,!.a:ei
ea-,a!aac-.,|---.:|-w|e|-.a|-aaaiac:a:-ei:|-!-|
-:-:.ea.!:aaac|e.-eae-e|,.a.:.|aa!.,wa:c|-.|,aw|e|-
a:,eieic.a|.-.-..:.a:ew:|,.:.!-|.-:,a:a--e.a:-!-|ac-.,
.:. .a.-...a:.ea aa!-:--a:a:.eaie::|-:a.:- ei:|- C|.a-.-
cea.a-:.,.:.ie:a:.ea.a:e-ac|aa-.-.--c.a||,a!a-:-!:e
:|-cea-a.-ac, ei .aaa|.aa, aa!-a||,.:. cea-,aac- :e
La-CHINE SE TREATy1
[ TBE
D
|L

a:a a:aac:.eaa::|-
Oe-:a-a:.a|-.,
c.
..a::a,w|-:-:..
s:-eic-:.:e:|-.--ca|a:e:.,:|-

ac-
.a!..

!-e-:
`.

i:|-cea::ataa!..:.w|e|aa!.:.aC|a

.
c.
o...
a:e:|-

|a
:|-r:.:..|
Oe-:a-a:atea::,e:a---...
1|
-
.|
-.:
ce.:aa
:.eaa::a:a-:.c-:aaa.aai:e
: , ::e
...!
.::|-Ca|ca::aaac

!w.:|:|..
a::-:eiiac:ce
.ra:ae:,-:.a:.. -

:.
. , -ee:a
---.
O
-a: :e:|..|ea:,
-a:-:.a:e-x-:-..
-..c.:,.:|-.a-
e-:a
:|:

|--:c|aa:.aa!
.|.---:., w|e
f
!|e..acceaa:.w.
o:. :.a

|a:a:!ea.e--:a:.eaei-e..ea.aaaa-

.:-.
-|..|a:|-
i | r :..|Oe-:a-a:|a-,aiac:,
+|-
i
a!.aaaaac-.O : -
|
o
:|-e-.a::a!-w.:|C|.aa,
|--a.!-:e!---a!
!
ae
|
:ea,ea
i:|a:::a!- v-:-:|-C|.a-.-
|
taa
c a:ac:-:O
e

|
|a:ea: -cea::a
|
r :|-
e-.a::a!-..
a|:aa
-ea.|,w.:
c.-:a-a::e -

a.:

-
ei:|-
e--, .a
C|.aa,:|-
naa|e
:.|-..:.aa:|-ca|:.a:.e
-:.ac- a .-:.ea. ca:a.::e-|-.
t
a!.

.a
-xc|-ea-:
-
ea
i
-

a!-.a-e..ea,.:.-c:-:|,!-i-a!.
v|.|-e--a|,-:-ac aa :--
i
v|-a--:w-|ee|
c|e.-|,
| i :.aaaac:a:-.
:|-
eae-eY O
'

||
!
eae
-e|,..-:-::,a-a-:
. a:.:|-aa:a:-eiro:.. :--::a -,
i !
i : :-- e
.||,i.aa!:e|.-a::|-|e::eO l .
.
[The Anglo-Chinese
Treaty)
rat|..|-!Oc:e|-:,, : s , s

e-:c.a|
-e.a:ei.-w,eis.:
:|-aa.acc-..iai...a-,a a c

!eanaaa.::,
:s.:,
u-a:,ie::.aa-:.C|.a-.-::-a

,..

a
C|.aa a::|-c.aaea.
.a!!.c:a:-!,|.|-:|-a-w::-a:..w.:
|,:|:-.a-a:e:aaa
.a:|,

..aiac:aew:-ce||-c:-
!
-a
nomist.
ua.aa.:ee!
.ir..:..|r:--1:a!-,:|- tea ea
I
co
, : ei:|-|a:-.aa..ea
i.cwa

!a.ea-

ei:|-.:aaac|-
'|| .-!:e:---::|-
.i
c|aa,:|a:, ea:aaiaewi--
I ' :-!.ae:|-:eaa::-:..
|
| ||a-t--aca:.a
..aaaa- e--.w .

ii
:|-r:.:..|-x-e::::a!-
The Economist cea..!-:.:|--
!
-c:.e
|
a
|.c|:eaaa:!ea:.-|i
i |
i a-:-c- -a: ,w

. : -::-a:,O 1 .:,

1|..
c-::aa|, ..

|
| i ..:a|-a
e--:a:.ea..
.a.a.: : - :-.a: O
| |x:
v.|.ea'a||-a-.

1|
a.|ew--:w ..
.
..aa!a!..-. -:-a.e

.
i s i : a::--:a: ie:c.t|,
in -x-|aaa:.eaei:|- ia.|a:- O : - :.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
-a|a:a.aa:|-C|.a-.-a:|-:ie:v-.:-:ao:e!ac-,aoo-a:ia:
i:eceac|a..-.
1|-:.:a:-a:caa.-oe.a:-!ea:ei:|-..aaa|ia.|a:-..:|-
.o-ca|a:.-e-:.:ec|.aaei:|-C|.a-.-a:|-:,!a:.aa:|-:.:
:|:--,-a:.ie||ew.aa:|-re::.aa-:::-a:,,aa!:|-ca:-|-..a-..
ei:|-Laa|..| -:c|aa:. a.:e :|- aa:a:- ei:|-C|.a-.-!-
aa!.1|-Laa|..|-xoe::.:eC|.aaw|.c|,.a: s, s,aeaa:-!
:e ::, , .s,eee,|a!ia||-a .a : s..:e:,s,,eee.1|-.::ao.!
aa!cea:.aa-!:..-!a:.aa:|-ie||ew.aaiea:,-a:.,...|ewa|,
:|-.-aa:-..
1842 969,000
1843 1,456,000
1844 2,305,000
1 845
2, 395,000
Y-:.a: s.s:|--xoe::.!.!ae:ea|,..a||-|ew:|-|--|ei
: s, s,|a::|-!..a.:-:.e-::a|.aa:|-C|.aa|ea.-.a:tea!ea
!a:.aa:|- c:.... ei : s.-o:e-!:|-computed a|a- ei:|-
-xoe::.i:e: s.,:e : s.s,.ac|a..:aoo-a:..a:|-eic.a|
:-:a:a:a||-.,:e|a-|,ae-aa.ce::-.oea!-!:e:|-a|a-
ac:aa||,realized. li:|- Laa|..| -xoe::-:. :|a. -::-! .a :|-
eaaa:.:,,:|-,!.!ae:|-...e.a:|-eaa|.:,ei:|-a::.c|-.eii-:-!
:eC|.a-.-cea.ao:.ea.lao:eeiei:|-|a::-:a..-::.ea,The
Economist eae:-.i:eH:.v.Cee|-,:|-|a:-ce::-.oea!-a:
ei:|-tea!eaTimes a:s|aaa|a.aa!Caa:ea,:|-ie||ew.aa
oa..aa-..
In 1843, 1 844 and 1845, when the northern ports had just
been opened, the people at home were wild with excitement. An
eminent frm at Sheffeld sent out a large consignment of knives
and forks, and declared themselves prepared to supply all China
with cutlery . . . They were sold at prices which scarcely realized
their freight. A London house, of famous name, sent out a tre
mendous consignment of pianofortes, which shared the same
fate. What happened in the case of cutlery and pianos occurred
also, in a less noticeable manner, in the case of worsted and
cotton manufactures. Manchester made a great blind effort when
the ports were opened, and that effort failed. Since then she has
fallen into an apathy, and trusts to the chapter of accidents.
a_ CHI NES E TREATy1
33
-BE
ANGL

<
[
:|-!-o-a!-ac-ei:|-:-!ac:.ea,a:-a
ia.:|,,:e
o:ev-
i | ::a!- ea:|-.:a!,ei:|-waa:.

:ev--a:O : -
,
|
aac-
e:.
o
The
Economist :-o:e!ac-. i:e: - .a-
i
|
cea.a-:,
s s

:
-

:|-ie||
ew.aa:-:a:aie::|-,-a:: , .
aa:|
eo:,
1845

1846.
13, 5
69
8,41 5
Worsted Stuffs (pieces)
13, 374
8,034
Camlets
75 ,7
84
Long ells
91, 53
0
5
6,99
6
woolens
62,73
1
81,1 5
0
Printed Cottons
100,615
1,8 59,7
4

Plain Cottons
2,998,126
Cotton w\st,!bs
2,640,090 5,3 24,05
185
6.
7,428
4,47
3
6,642
3
8, 553
281,7
84
2,817,624
5, 579,600
N
11 :|-.-a:aa-a:.aa!.||a.::a:.ea.-xo|a.aae:.a

a
ewa

i 11

:| ev-:::a!-ei: s.,-.,. : ..
|-,ea!:|-:-ac:.ea O ewa
:e:|-C|.a-.-::a!-,:|a:
ao|-ae-aea|,ae-aa.o-ca.a:
| |!|-ie||ew-!|, .:.

ice-:c- . ea
a .a!!-a -xoaa..eaO
a:|-: a: .:. eo-a.aa,

e: :|a: a a-w
,
.e|-a: cea::ac:.ea.,
r ` :|-a::.c|-.:|:ewa
.|ea|!|-c|e|-!
|,r:

:..

ev

:.

o
!
-

:-aa:!-.:|-::e:|-
aoea.:|-.aaae:v-:,a

c-,c
.
a
`i|-cea.a-:..laiac:,
a.:aa|waa:.e::|-oa,

o
|

i:|-a:|-:.ei:|-
:a....a.:aa!.aai-a:a:-:
i:
- .:e:,O
aaei:|-ra:eo-aa
w
o
r
ld
.
Oaaoe|-ea.
ia||,a -:
!
: -e
r
!

:eoe::.eaa:-:e:|-

| oe::. o:ev- .e ..o


.ea:a-a:, o:..

:|a::|-::aa..:.eai:e
.ea:.a-a:a|iaca|:.-.eia|.e:o:

.ea,
|
:|- cea:.a-a:a|

-!e:- !..a.::ea. : aa
i
a: :e o-ac- o:e

'` ei:|-
.a!-
o-a!-ac- O
.,.:-.:.-|i. Caa

a. :-ce

:.ea
|.e.a.::a-a:a|.a
o:e-
:|-soaa..|
ce|e-.

-oca,wa.a
va:-.ca|ca|a:-!ie:
:|-
!a..aa:|-ce-:c.a|co...ei: s.,

!
H
aa!
|
!..oa:c|- :e
-x.ce
-:.!.aa ei He.cew, w-:- : -a

|
! aa.:.-|a.:.c.:,.

! , ae:w.: .:aa .
Colombia. na!ea:ewa a ,
:e a|| a-w
!:|- ia:-ceea
-.-a
na.::a|.a |a. ae:-.cao-

w-|| a..:.

icea.ao:.ea a.
a:|-:. ei |ava .:.oew-:. O
l' :e
| ! I|
|-ae-aeao-ca.a:
-aa.eioa,-a:ev-:.:ec -

-
|,:|-::-a:,
h

.
| | :.c-.:.eo-aa
: -c|-.-a:|-:..: ..,: a
i
! ||eiC|.a-.-
O r :

aO :-aaa ..
ei1 842, :|--xoe:::e :-a: oa.
34
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK J11LT1
l
:e!a.-|...ea:.aa.||,|--a-x-.a!.aa w|.|-:|-
!
: C| i s

|
.-e:: ::. -
e .O o:.. .aai..:a:-.|.. ea:|-w|e|-

!
.: :
1|

,
,:-.-
i
..ea:

-.ea:aea..a!.a.:-...aa|.|.a.-ei::.!-.o
.e:O

..a|:|-...!:e|-.:.a.a.|ea,:e:|-.:.:-ei
.e

-:...| |.|.a.- |-:w--a ka.... .a! O:-.:s:.:..a

|a:

:|

,||.::-:...-,--:,:|.aa..-x-|..a-!|,:|--:e:.:.-
-e.c, O a...., w|.|- :|- C|.a-.- .-e:: !a:
|
:| | i
.-. .:- ew-:
.: e.-O .a,e:|-:.eaa::,Laa|.a!::.!-.w.:| 1|

a.:-.|a-eiC|.a-.--x-e::.:eLaa|.a! | ||

i
-.aa:-

| |
!
. .c -e:-: s.. .a :
i
-
|
:.:- .:.|ea::-,eee,eee,.eaa:-!.a: s , s:e:|-
.aO . ea::,,ee v| | |

,eee. .-: -ea.a:.:,ei:-..-e::-!


:e :-.:so:. a--: :-..|-! e:- :|.a

|-ie:-: s.. .:|.!. ||

,e,eee,eee||..
Oa:|
we

-a : s , s:e.|ea:,e,eee,eee||..
C|
-e:

|
||
-:|.a!, :|- .-e::.a.- ei:|-s:.:..|.-e::ei
-.- .. . ea|, !.:-. i:e : s l
.e-a:-!i:e:|-ie||ew.aa(aa:-.
.. :. -:ea:-.. ., |-
Silk imp'd. lb.
Value
3, 3!8, I I2 3, 013, 396 3, 676, I l6
ew:.|-,ea:|-e:|-:|.a!,:|-e--a:ei:|-
UH11b1 L71LHb L L11M. V|LLL 1M 1LLMLb bLHL1ML
8
.
r 34 842,852
1836 r,326,388
183 5 1,74,78
183 8
re::|---:

ie||ew.aa:|-e--a.aaei:|-.:|-:.a:s

.a
|
!
|
:|

..ea...:.eaeiueaakeaa|,:|-s:.:..| w-(a!:` e ewa:-:a:a..

1845
2,3 5
9,000 1853
1846
1,749, 597
1,200,000
1854
1 848
1,000,716
1,445,95 1855
1852
1, 122,241
2,58,5
99 1856, upward of 2,000,000
:

l
'
e
d
Econo
"
ist

:.-.:e.cceaa:ie::|-.:.:.ea.:,.a!:-|. .-, -.:-..a . : i s

|
-e:. O o:.. .aai..:a:- .a:e :|-
[ THE ANGLO- CHI NES E TREATY]
3 5
c|.a-.-.:|-:|,ie:-.aa.e--:.:.ea,.a!H:.Cee|-...a..a
ac:-a:e|-.:w.:-..:e:|..-:e-e..:.

a. n..e:+aa:

:|..
.a:|c:.:,, :|- Laa|..| .:- |-.:-a |, i..:.e--:.:.ea :|-
c|.a-.-.:|-:.a.a,|:.a.|-.ei::.a-.1|-n-:...a.,|-
..., |-.::|- Laa|..|.a a:.||..a!.|--:.aa..n:s|.aa|.. .a
i s, -:|- .-e::. w-:- ..:, -:s -.-.-. ei n-:...a !:.||.,
.a..a.: s,-. , Laa|..|, .a! i.,..e ei n-:...a .|--:.aa.,
.a..a.: : , ..eLaa|..|. lawee|-aaee!., ea :|-e:|-:|.a!,
c-:.a,.a!ka.....:-...!:e-:-..|.:!|,ea:|-.:Laa|..|
...|..v-w.a:aee:|-:-:eei:|.a:|...||a.::.:.ea:e.ea.a.-
a.:a.:H:.Cee|-.a!Th
e
Economist .:-|e:|..:.|-a.a:|-
.--:-...:.eaei:|-C|.a-.-.:|-:.1|-,.ea..!-:..|..:-!
:c:|-naa|eC|.a-.-::.!-i-.:a:-.w|..|.:--x..:|,:--:e
aa.-!.a:|-::.!-|-:w--a:|-ua.:-!s:.:-..a!:|-C-|-.:..|
i-.:-.iai s, -,:|--x.-..ei:|-C|.a-.--x-e::.:e:|-ua.:-!
s:.:-.e-::|-.-e::..a:eC|.a.w...|ea::s-e,eee.Da:.aa
:a- --c.ea ..a.- :|- ::-.:, ei : s.., :|- ua.:-! s:.:-. |.-
:-.-.-a.a.aaa.|.-:.a-ei:.,eee,eee.aC|.a-.--:e!a.-,
:c:w|..|w--..!.an-:...a-:.|.a!..-:,ee,eee.Oi:|-
ti ,-e.,s.,, :e w|..| :|- .aa:-a.:- .-e::. .a:e s|.aa|..,
-x.|a..- ei .--..- .a! e-.a, .eaa:-! .a : s , , , Laa|.a!
.a--..-a::, : ..,..:, n-:...:.-.,-es,.a!e:|-:.eaa::.-.
:.e-,,ee,w|.l-:|--x-e::.:-..|-!.:e:.|ei::., se, , ,.e,ei
|..a:-,.e, ,e.ew-:-:eLaa|.a!, :,, ,,s,.es:en-:...,
.-a:ie.,ess:ee:|-:.eaa::.-..Ce-.:-ea|,:|-n-:...a
-x-c::. :e :|- .|a- ei :.-.,-es, w.:| :|-.: .-e::. i:e
s|.-a|.. -x.--!.aa :,,eee,eee. li, a--::|-|-.., n-:...a
.c--:.:.ea|..,:e.a,.-a..||-!-a:--,.!-.a:e.!.eas:.:..|
::.ii., |ew|..:-!. -|! ei--|e,-a:ie::|- .aa:-a.:-
.c
-:.-eiie:-.aaa.:.ea.:|-C|.a-.-.:|-:a.:eu-:.

1a-|..:..a.-....aa-!:e:|-::.1.aa.-e::.a.-:|-C|.a-.-
-c::
.:|-:|.....a-!..a.-.:.e--a.aa.a : s..,..:|-
c
|.-
-.-:-e|a:.ea,''|a:ae:w.:|.:.a!.aa:|.::-e|a:.ea,:|-

x:e::.:eC|.a.:-|.:.-|,.|.:-!,.a : s , : -, .,.a:|-a-a-:.|
.
:-..- ei::.!-,.a!,!a:.aa:|-w|e|-ei:|-:-e|a:.ea.:,
--
c.|,:|-e-.a::.a-,.a.:-.!eii.||.aaeu,:.-.!|,e|:..a-!
.c|c...|a.-a..ea..uew--::|.:.,|-:|..a.|w.|||-
.
a
.::-!,:|.:.||:|-e|.:..|-.:eie:-.aa.-e::.e:.a.a.:.aa
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUN
inthedisorderedstateoftheempiremustbeincreased instead
ofbeingdiminished, bythe latepiraticalwar, '`and .he fresh
humiliationsheapedontherulingdynasty.
i appears to us, after a careful survey of the history of
Chmese

commerce, that, generally speaking, the consuming


andpaymgpowersoftheCelestialshavebeengreatlyoveresti-
mated. With the present economical framework of Chinese
society,whichturnsupondiminutiveagricultureanddomestic

anufacturesasitspivots,anylargeimportofforeignproduce
tsoutofthequestion.Still,totheamountofLk oooooo asum
^
hichmayberoughlycalculatedtoformtheagreate-alance
m favor ofChina, as against England and the United States
it mi

ht gradually absorb a surplus quantity of English an1 t


Amencan goods, if the opium trade were suppressed. This .
conclusionisnece

sarilyarrivedatontheanalysisofthesimple
fa

t, that the Chmese 6nances and monetary circulation, in


sprte ofthe favorable balance oftrade, areseriously deranged
byanimportofopiumtotheamountofaboutL;,ooo,ooo.
1ohnull,owever,usedtoplumehimselfonhishighstan-
dardofmoralrty,preferstobringuphisadversebalanceoftrade
by periodical war tributes, extorted from China on piratical
pretexts. He only forgets that the Carthaginian and Roman
methodsofmakingforeignpeoplepay,are,ifcombinedinthe
samehands,suretoclashwith,anddestroyeachother.
The British and Chinese Treaty
PublishedOctoberIs, Ik s k
Te

of6ci

summary ofthe Anglo-Chinese treaty, which the


ntrsh Mmistry

has at last laid before the public, adds, on


the whole, but lrttleto theinformation that had alreadybeen
conveyedthroughdifferentotherchannels.The6rstandthelast
artices

omprise,infact,thepointsinthetreatyofexclusively
Englrshmterest. y

he6rstarticle, 'the supplementarytreaty


and general regulattons of trade, stipulated after the con-
clusion of the treaty of Nankin, are 'abrogated. That sup-
BRI TI S H AND CHI NES E TREATY
1
37
leentary treaty provided that the English Consuls resii

ng
P H g Kong and the 6ve Chinese ports opened to ntrsh
ar
on
,
h

rce were to cooperate with the Chinese aut ontres m


co
e

. .
f h

nyEnglishvesselsshouldanvewrthmtherangeO t err
casea

I h b lar J
'
urisdictronwrth optum on board. A forma pro t -
consu
s
ition
wasthus laiduponEngltshmerchantstotmportthecon-
traband drug, and the English Covernment, to some degree,
constituted itself one of the Custom

-House of6cers of te
Celestial Empire. That the second opru

war sho

ld end m
ovingthefettersbywhichthe6rstoptumwarstrll affected
re
I I I d
tochecktheopiumtraf6c,appearsaresutqutte ogrca ,a

a
consummation devoutly called for by that part ofthe ursh
ercantile public which chanted most lusty applause

to
la|erston's Canton 6reworks. We are, however, much mts-
taken ifthisof6cialabandonmentonthepartofEngland of
herhpocriticoppositionto the opium tradeisnotto lead

to
consequences quitethereverseofthose expected. y

engagmg
the ritish Covernmenttocooperate inthe suppresstonofthe
opium traf6c, the Chinese Covernment had recognizedits in-
abilitytodosoonitsown account. Thesupplementarytre

ty
ofNankinwasasupremeand ratherdesperateeffort

atgetmg
rid oftheopiumtradebyforeignaid.Thiseff

rthavmgfatl

d,
and being now proclaimed a failure, the optum traf6c bemg
now,sofarasEnglandisconcerned

legalized,littledoubtan
reuainthatthe Chinese Covernmentwilltrya method alike
tecommended by political and6nancialconsiderations~vi

. :
|eaalize the cultivationofthe poppy i nChina, and ay d

ttes
ontheforeignopiumimported.Whatevermayethemtentro

s
ofthepresent Chinese Covernment,thevery

ctrcu

stancesm
whichit 6ndsitselfplaced by thetreatyofTien-tsm, showall
thatway.

That change once effected, the opium monopoly of lndta,


andwith itthelndianExchequer,mustreceive adeadlyblow,
whiletheritishopiumtraf6cwillshrinktothedimensionsof
an ordinarytrade,andverysoonprovealosingone.Tilnow,
it
has been a game played by1ohn ull with loaded drce. To
havebaffleditsownobiect,seems,therefore,themostobvtous
resultoftheopiumwarNo.ll.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Having declared 'a iustwar on Russia,generous England
desisted, at the conclusion of peace, from demanding any
indemnityforherwarexpenses.Having,ontheotherhand,all
alongprofessed to be atpeacewith China itself, she, accord-
ingly, cannot but make it pay for expenses incurred, in the
opinion of her own present Ministers, by piracy on her own
part.However,the6rsttidingsofthe6fteenortwentymillions
ofpoundssterlingtobepaidbytheCelestialsprovedaquieter
to the most scrupulous ritish conscience, and very pleasant
calculationsastothebene6cialeffectsoftheSyceesilver''upon
the balance of trade, and the metal reserve of the ank of
England,wereenteredinto by The Economist andthewriters
ofmoneyarticlesgenerally.utalas!the6rstimpressionswhich
the Palmerstonian press had given itself so much trouble to
produceandworkupon,weretootendertobeartheshockof
real information. A 'separate articleprovidesthat a sum of
two millionsoftaels''''shallbepaid'onaccountofthelosses
sustained by ritish subi ects through the misconduct of the
Chineseauthorities atCanton;anda further sum oftwomil-
lionsoftaelsonaccountoftheexpensesofthewar.
Now,thesesumstogetheramounttoL:, ,,a,oooonly,while,
in t kaz, the Emperor of China had to pay La,zoo,ooo, of
whichLt, zoo,ooo was indemnity for the contraband opium
con6scated, and L, ,ooo,ooo for the expensesof the war. To
comedown from La,zoo,ooo, withHong Kongintothe bar-
gain, to simple L:, ,,a,ooo, seems no thriving tradeafterall;
but theworstremains still to be said. Since, saysthe Chinese
Emperor,yourswasnowarwithChina,buta'provincialwar
with Canton only, try yourselves how to squeeze out of the
provinceofKwang-tungthedamageswhichyour amiablewar
steamers have compelled me to adiudge to you. Meanwhile,
your illustrious Cen. Straubenzee' may keep Canton as a
materialguaranty, and continue tomake the ritish arms the
laughing-stockevenofChinesebraves.The doleful feelings of
sanguine1ohn ull attheseclauses, which the small booty of
L:, , ,a,ooo is encumbered with, have already vented them-
selvesinaudiblegroans.'lnstead,saysone Londonpaper,
BRI TI S H AND CHI NES E TREATY
rBE
of
being able to withdraw our 5 3 ships

of-war, and see them


n triumphant with millions of Sycee Silver, we may look for
retur
d to the pleasing necessiry of sending an army of 5,000 men to
war
f
.
39
recapture and hold Canton, and to assist the eet in carrymg on
h
rovincial war which the Consul's depury has declared. But
t at p
.
.
'\1 this provincial war have no consequences beyond dnvmg our
WI
h
.
+
Cant
on trade to other Chinese ports? . . . Will not t contmuatton
of it [the provincial war] give Russia a large portIOn of the tea
trade? May not the Continent, and England herself, become
dependent on Russia and the United States for their tea?
|ohn ull'sanxierastoteeffects

ofthe'provincialwar'
upon the tea trade is not qutte gratutto

s. from McCregors
Commercial Tariffs itmaybeseen thatmthe last year ofthe
torer Chinese war, Russia received : zo,ooochestsof

tea at
Kiakhta.TheyearaftertheconclusionofpeacewithChmathe
Russiandemandfelloff75 percent,amountingto,o,oooonly.
At all events the costs still to be incurred by the ritish in
distrainingKang-tungaresuresotoswellthewrongsideof
the ba|ance that this second China war will hardly be self-
paying,thegreatestfaultwhich,asMrEmersoniustlyremarks,
anythingcanbeguiltyofinritishestimation.

AnothergreatsuccessoftheEnglishinvasio

is

ontamedm
Att s : , according to which 'thetermbar-

rtanr

not

to be
appliedtotheritishCovernmentnortor

ttshsubject

nay
Chineseof6cialdocumentissuedbytheChmeseauthortttes.
The Chinese authorities styling themselves Celestial, how
hubletotheirunderstandingmustnotappear1ohnull,who,
insteadofinsistingonbeingcalleddivineorOlympian,contents
hiselfwithweedingthecharacterrepresentingthewordbar-
barianoutoftheof6cialdocuments.
ThecommercialarticlesofthetreatygiveEnglandnoadvan-
tage not to be enioyed by her rivals, and, for the present,
disso|veintoshadowypromises,forthegreaterpartnotworth
theparchmenttheyarewritten on. Art. tostipulates:
British merchant ships are to be allowed to trade up the great
river (Y ang-tse) , but in the present disturbed state of the Upper
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUN
and Lower Valley, no port is to be opened for trade with the
exception of Chin-kiang, which is to be opened in a year from
the signature of the treaty. When peace is restored, British vessels
are to be admitted to trade at such ports, as far as Hankow,
not exceeding three in number, as the British Minister, after
consulting with the Chinese Secretary of State, shall determine.
r :|.. .::..|-, :|- r:.:..| .:- .a i..: -x.|a!-! i:e :|- e:-.:
.e-:...| .::-:, ei :|- w|e|- -o.:-, i:e :|- ea|, |.a-,
.. The Moring Star ,a.:|, :-.:|., |, w|..| :|-, ..a oa.|
:|-.: .aai..:a:-. .a:e :|- .a:-:.e:. ii :|-, w.|| |- eee! |e,.,
.a! |-|o :|- io-:..| ce-:a-a: .a !..|e!e.ae :|- :-|-|. i:e
:|- :-e.ea. aew e..ao.-! |, :|-, :|-a :|-, ., --a:a.||,
a..e.:- :|- e:-.: :.-:, |a: ea|, :e o.::..a|.: |.:|e:.. t.
:e :|- a-w .-.oe::. eo-a-!, i:e .|| :|- oe::., .. .: i:.:
.!-::..-!, :|-, |.- !w.a!|-! !ewa :e i- oe::., .!!-! :e
:|- i- oe::. ei :|- ::-.:, ei .a|.a, .a!, .. . tea!ea o.o-:
:-.:|., :|-, .:- e-a-:.||, :-e:- e: .a.a|.:. r-..!-., .: :|..
:.- ei :|- !.,, :|- !-|a..- ae:.ea ei :|- e:ew:| ei ::.!- |-.ae
o:eoe::.ea.:- :e :|- aa|-: ei oe::. eo-a-!, .|ea|! |.- |--a
-xo|e!-!. cea..!-: :|- |.:|e:. ea :|- .e..:. ei c:-.: r:.:..a,
e: r:.a.-, e: :|- ua.:-! :.:-., |ew i-w ei :|- |.- !--|eo-!
:|-.-|-. .a:e :-.| -oe:.a. ei .e-:.- r-ie:- :|- i:.:
c|.a-.- w.:, :|- rae|..| ::.!-! -x.|a..-|, :e c.a:ea. 1|-
.ea.-...ea ei i- a-w oe::., .a.:-.! ei .:-.:.ae i- a-w
-oe:.a. ei .e-:.-, |.. e:.!a.||, ::.a.i-::-! ::.!- i:e
c.a:ea :e |.ae|.., .. ., |- .--a i:e :|- ie||ew.ae iea:-.,
-x::..:-! i:e :|- r.:|..-a:.:, r|a-ree| ea :|- ::.!- ei
.:.ea. o|..-. ie: : s , s-5 7. t: :|- ..- :.-, .: .|ea|! |-
:-.e||-.:-! :|.: :|- c.a:ea .oe::. .a.|a!- :|- .oe::. :e
te, .a! ra.|ew, w|..| .:- ::.a.|.oo-! .: c.a:ea.
1|- .e-:...| .|.a.-. ei :|- ::-.:, .:- aa..:..i..:e:,, ..
. .ea.|a..ea .::.-! .: |, The Daily Telegraph, r.|-:.:ea.
e.: .|| -.: .,.eo|.a:, |a: .: .|a.||-. .: :|- |:.e|:-.: oe.a: .a
:|- o:ee:.-, .:.. :|.: :|- r:.:..| x.a..:-: ., -.:.||..|
|..-|i .: r-|.a, w|.|- . x.a!.:.a w.|| .a.:.|| |..-|i .a
tea!ea, .a! oe...||, .a.:- :|- oa--a :. . |.|| .: t||-:: c.:-.
uew--: e|a ra|| ., .a!a|e- :|.. iaa, :|-:- ..a |- ae !ea|:
H AND CHi NES E
TREATY
(I1E
bBI TI S
.
e|.:...| .a(|a-a.- ., |- -x-:...-! .: r-| .||
that w|.:---:
P
i k . w|..| |, !.a: ei :|- |..: ::-.:,, |e|!.
h o.:: O
U55 .
.
|.|| :. :
-

|-.ae .. |.:e- .. r:.a.-, .a!, e:-.: o.::, ea
.
a--
:

o:e
`

.|-. ea|, !..:.a: i:e r-|.a. i: .. |, ae -..
its
|:.a:.-:, s
| f ie: ]e|a ra|| :|.: |- |..-||, |, |..
|
:.|
- :- -.:.ea

|

.
..

:
: :e.a:-! ka... . ::-.:, ,.-|!e |-: : - a.v.
frst .o.e-
w

,
P
! i:-- ::.!- ea :|- |.a! i:ea:.-:, w|.|-
..:..a
.| :|-

e: .a
|- |.. |-|o-! |-: :e :|- .a.|a.||-
h'
.ea! eo.e-w.:
| 1
|,
.. .

-
w--a :|- ca|i ei 1.::.:, .a! t.|- r.. . ,
::..:
|,e
|-:
| ! | ka.... :|.: i:e c:.: t|-x-.
.
O a. .e-:- ,
! :-
...a
| ! a :e ..|e|.. .|- |.. .|w.,. .::-o:- :e
v...- ew
`
1
e

! :|- tea!e Times |--| :|.: .:.ae :|.:,


.-: .:

.
||

,
i :|- : r-:-:.|a:e a-w., w|..| e:-.:|,
: oa .c.:ea e
.


! H . .
!
a |, c:-.: ro:., eee ..:-
-
.
.ee-:.:-! :|- . .a:.

: ei :|- :-|-e:. w|..|


-a

-
:
`.`..:.`|,::-.:, ei :|- .||-, ei :|- tee:.
British import trade to
British export trade from
Shanghai,
Canton,
Shanghai,
Canton,
$2,500,000
$17,900,000
$ 2,300,000
1844 $15, 500,000
6,000,000
10,700,000
5, 100,000
27,700,000
1 845
6,400,000
3,800,000
1 5 ,300,000
1 846
9,900,000
6,700,000
1 847 9,600,000
4,300,000
1 5,700,000
2,500,000
8,600,000
5,000,000
1848 6,500,000
6,500,000
4,400,000
1 1,400,000
1849 7,900,000
8,000,000
3,900,000
9,900,000
1 850 6,800,000
1 1, 500,000
4,500,000
13, 200,000
I 8 S ! 10,000,000
1 1,400,000
4,600,000
6,500,000
1 85 2 9,900,000
13, 300,000
3 ,900,000
6,500,000
1 853 4,000,000
1 1,700,000
6,000,000
1 854 3. 300,000
1, 100, 100
3,400,000
2,900,000
19,900,000
1 85 5 3,600,000
25,800,000
6,100,000
8, 200,000
1 856 9, 100,000
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
Trade with China
PublishedDecember3 , t k so
Ata

ime when

ry wild views obtained astothe impu|se


Amencanandntrshcommerceweresuretoreceivefromthe
throwing open, as it was called, ofthe Celestial Empire, we
unuertooktoshow,byasomewhate|aboratereviewof

foreign

ommercesincethecommencementofthiscentury,that
those hrg
-own anticipations had no solid ground to stand
upon.

Qurte

apartfromtheopium-trade,whichweprovedto
grow manmverseratiotothe sale ofWestern manufactures

e found the main obstacle to any sudden expansion of th-


tmporttradeto China inthe economica|structure ofChinese
so

ciety,depe

ninguponthecombinationofminuteagriculture
wrthdomestrcmdustry.Wemaynow,incorroborationofour
formerstate

ments,refertothelueookentitled,'Correspon-
denceRelatrve to Lord Elgin's Special Missions to China and
1apan.
Wherever the real demand for commodities imported into
Asi

tic

countri
'
s does not answer the supposed demand~
whtch,mmostmstances,iscalculatedonsuchsuper6cia|data
as

the extent ofthe new market, the magnitude of its popu-


latron,andtheventforeignwaresusedto6ndatsomeoutstand-
ingseaportscommercia|men,intheireagernessatsecuringa
|

rger a

ea of exchange, are too prone to account for their


drsapp

mtment by the circumstance that arti6cial arrange-


ments,mventedbybarbarianCovernments,standintheirway,
and may, consequently, be cleared away by main force. This
verydelusionhas,inourepoch,convertedtheritishmerchant
fori

sta

ce,intotherecklesssupporterofeveryMinister,who
by prratrcal aggressions, promises to extort a treaty of com-
mercefromthe barbarian.Thusthearti6cia|obstac|esforeign
comm

ewassupposedtoencounteronthepartoftheChinese
authontres,for

ed,infact,thegreatpretextwhich,intheeyes
ofthe mercantrlewor|d,i usti6ed everyoutragecommittedon
the Celestial Empire. The valuable information contained in
43
DE
W\ 1H
CHI NA
1BA
Lord
E|gin'slueook,will,with

veryunpreiudicedmind,go
dispe|suchdangerousdelusrons.
far to
d d k f M
the
|ue ook contains a report, ate

m t sz, O r.
. h 11 a ritish agent at Canton, to Sir Ceorge onham,
MltC
e ,

from
whichwequotethefo||owmgpassage.
Our commercial treaty with this country (China) has ow ( 8 5 2)
been nearly ten years in full work, every presumed ImpedIment
has been removed, one thousand miles of new coast have been
opened up to us, and new marts established at te very hreshold
of the producing districts, and at the best pOSSible pomts uon
the seaboard. And yet, what is the result as far as the promised
.
f
'
d-
increase i n the consumption of our manu actures IS concerne .
Why, plainly this: that at the end of ten years the tables of the
Board of Trade show us that Sir Henry pottinger found a larger
trade in existence when he signed the supplementary treaty in
1843 than his treaty itself shows us at the end of 1 8 50!-that is
to sa, as far as our home manufactures are concerned, which is
the sole question we are now considering.
Mt.Mitche||admitsthatthetradebetweenIndiaandChina,
cons:stinga|mostexc|usive|yinanexchangeofsilverforopium,
hasbeengreat|ydeve|opedsincethetreatyof kaz,but,even
inregardtothistrade,headds:
It developed itself in as fast a ratio, from 1 834 to 1 844, as it has
done from the latter date to the present, which latter period may
be taken as its working under the supposed protection of the
treaty- while on the other hand, we have the great fact staring
us in
'
the fae, in the tables of the Board of Trade, that the
export of our manufacturing stuffs to China was less by nearly
three-quarters of a million sterling at the close of 1 8 50, than it
was at the close of 1844
That the treatyoft kazhadnoinI|uenceata||infosterng
thebtitishexporttradetoChinawi||beseenfromthefo||owmg
tab
u|arstatement:
44 D I S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
DECLARED VALUE.
1 849. 1 85. 1 851 .
1 852.
1853.
Cotton Goods
1,001,283 1 ,020,91 5
1, 598,829
1,95,321
Woolen do
370,878 404,797
3 73,399 434,616
Other articles 164,948 148,433 1 89,04 1 63,662
Total
1,53 7, 109 1 ,574, 145 2,161,268
2,503, 599
1 854. 1 85 5. 1 85 6.
1 857.
Cotton Goods 640,820 883,985 1,544,235 1,73 1 ,909
Woolen Goods 1 56,959 1 34,70
268,642
286,852
Other articles 202,937 259,889 43,246
43 1, 221
Total
1,000,716 1,277,944 2,216,123
2,449,982
Now, comparingthese6gureswiththe Chinese demandfor
ritish manufactures in t a,, stated by Mr Mitchell to have
amountedtoL:, ;so,ooo,itwill beseenthatin6veoutofthe
last nine years the ritish exports fell far below the level of
: a,, andin t sawereonly to~t ;ofwhattheyhadbeenin
t a, MrMitchell,inthe6rstinstance,explainsthisstartling
factbysomereasonswhich appear toogeneral to proveany-
thinginparticularHesays:
The habits of the Chinese are so thrifty, and so hereditary, that
they wear just what their fathers wore before them; that is to say,
just enough and no more of anything, no matter how cheap it
may be offered them |. & . ]No working Chinaman can aford to
put on a new coat which shall not last him at least three years,
and stand the wear and tear of the roughest drudgery during that
period. Now, a garment of that description must contain at least
three times the weight of raw cotton which we put into the
heaviest goods we import to China: that is to say, it must be
three times as heavy as the heaviest drills and domestics we can
afford to send out here.
Absenceofwants, andpredilectionforhereditary modes of
dress,areobstacleswhichcivilizedcommercehastoencounter
DE WITH CHI NA
(V
45

l|
new markets.Astothe thickness and strength ofdrills,
a

d h
bt
ritish and Amencan manufacturers not a apt t err
..estotbepeculiarrequirementsoftheChinese?utherewe
to the real point at issue ln : aa, Mr Mttchell sent
coe

h
p|es of the native cloth ofevery qualtty to Englan , wtt
s

prices speci6ed. Hiscorrespondents assuredhimthatthey


t e
|d
not produce it in Manchester, and much less ship it to
bna, at the rates quoted Whence this inability in the most
advancedfactorysystemoftheworldtoundersellcoth

woven
b
|and in the most primitive looms? The combmatton we
bve already pointed to, of minute agriculture with domestic
industry, solvestheriddleWequoteagainfromMrMitchell:
When the harvest is gathered, all hands in the farm-houses, young
and old together, turn to carding, spinning, and weaving this
cotton; and out of this homespun stuff a heavy and durable
material, adapted to the rough handling it has to go through for
two or three years, they clothe themselves, and the surplus they
carry to the nearest town, where the shopkeeper buys it for the
use of the population of the towns, and the boat people on the
rivers. With this homespun stuff, nine out of every ten human
beings in this country are clothed, the manufacture varying in
quality from the coarsest dungaree to the fnest nanking, all
produced in the farm-houses, and costing the producer literally
nothing beyond the value of the raw material, or rather of the
sugar which he exchanged for it, the produce of his own hus
bandry. Our manufacturers have only to contemplate for a
moment the admirable economy of this system, and, so to speak,
its exquisite dove-tailing with the other pursuits of the farmer,
to be satisfed, at a glance, that they have no chance whatever in
the competition, as far as the coarser fabrics are concerned. It is,
perhaps, characteristic of China alone, of all countries in the
world that the loom is to be found in every well-conditioned
hometead. The people of all other countries content themselves
with carding and spinning, and at that point stop short, sending
the yarn to the professional weaver to be made into cloth. It
Was reserved for the thrifty Chinaman to carry the thing out to
perfection. He not only cards and spins his cotton, but he weaves
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBU
it himself, with the help of his wives and daughters, and farm
servants, and hardly ever confnes himself to producing for the
mere wants of his family, but makes it an essential part of his
season's operations to produce a certain quantity of cloth for the
supply of the neighboring towns and rivers.
The Fukien farmer is thus not merely a farmer, but an agricul-
. . turist and a manufacturer in one. He produces his cloth literally
for nothing, beyond the cost of the raw material; he produces it,
as shown, under his own roof-tree, by the hands of his women
and farm servants; it costs neither extra labor not extra time. He
keeps his domestics spinning and weaving while his crops are
growing, and after they are harvested, during rainy weather,
when out-of-door labor cannot be pursued. In short, at every
available interval throughout the year does this model of dom
estic industry pursue his calling, and engage himself upon some
thing useful.
Asa complementofMr. Mitcbell 'sstatement,may be con-
sidered tbefollowing description lord Elgingives oftberural
population be met witb during bis voyage up tbe Yang-tse-

kiang:
What I have seen leads me to think that the rural population of
China is, generally speaking, well-doing and contented. I worked
very hard, though with only indifferent success, to obtain from
them accurate information respecting the extent of their holdings,
the nature of their tenure, the taxation which they have to pay,
and other kindred matters. I arrived at the conclusion that, for
the most part, they hold their lands, which are of very limited
extent, in full property from the Crown, subject to certain annual
charges of no very exorbitant amount, and that these advantages,
improved by assiduous industry, supply abundantly their simple
wants, whether in respect of food or clothing.
ltistbissamecombinationofbusbandrywitbmanufacturing
industry, wbicb, for a long time, witbstood, and still cbecks,
tbeexportofritisbwarestoEastlndia;buttberetbatcombi-
D
E WI TH CHI NA
JVD
47
was based upon a peculiar constitution oftbe landed
natIOn
b

b
ty wbicb tbe ritisb in t err posttton as t e supreme
Proper
J
d

dl dsoftbecountry bad itintbeir power to un ermme,


Ian
or
,
|f

an
d tbus forcibly convert part of te Hi

doo se -sus

ar

mg
unitiesintomerefarms,producmgoptum,cotton,mdrgo,
comm
f b ff
dotberrawmateria|s inexcbange or ntts stu s.
hemp, an
'
.
.
loCbinatbeEnglisbbave notyetwteldedtbts power,norare
tbeylikelyevertodoso.
WAR, REVOLUTI ON AND
COUNTER- REVOLUTI ON
I N EUROPE
lt isnoexaggerationto saythatthehistoricaleventthatmost
intluencedMarx'swritingand analysiswasthe revolutionary
uptisingthatexplodedinmanyWesternEuropeancountriesin
ia Duringafewheadymonthsthatyear,itseemedplausible
tbat kings andlandedaristocracies could be swept away and
replacedbya surging coalitionofworkers,peasantsandpro-
gtessiveelementsofthebourgeoisie. Continent-widesocialism
waspetbapstoomuchtohopefor, butcertainlyanincreasein
deuoctacy and a rationalization of how nation-states were
govetnedseemed verymuchathand.
Fotthemostpart,however, those revolutionsfailedwithin
alew months,andtheenergybehindthemevaporated,falling
victimtobtutalcrackdownsonsomeofMarx'swould-beallies,
tbe betrayal of the middle classes and the rise ofautocratic
nationalists such as france's Louis Napoleon; indeed, the
uannet in which france purged itself of revolutionary spirit
alter : aledMarxtowritewhatmanyconsiderhisgreatest
rbetoticalwork,The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte.
Ior
Marxthispost-revolutionaryperiodwas characterized by
two
intellectual imperatives. 6rst, a need to understand what
bad
gone wrong in : a~where the balance of forces had
been
off, where the masses were unprepared, what kind of
eda
cation and agitation would be necessary to succeedand
seCond, aconstantvigilforanyhintofnewrevolutionaryfever
tbat
mightspreadacrossEurope

he Tribune columns provided Marx an ideal outlet for


.la

ter task: Hediligently scoured the European pressand


5
pnvate correspondence for every detail of rebellion and
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
insurrection,whichhe pored overwitha political
glass. Even if few actual, permanent revolutions
themselves, events never failed to provide him with material.
onthecontrary:thesensethatEuropewasonegiantpolitical
ttnderboxledMarxtoseeksparksinsomeseeminglyunlikely
places, including Creece, Spain and the possibility that the
outbreak ofthe CrimeanWarmightdislodgethegovernments

ofFrance,Cermanyorritain | inthelattercaseitdid,though
hardlytorevolutionaryeffect . Theseanalysesreliedheavilyon
historic understanding oflocal culture and politics, far more

thanmostofhisAmericanreaderswerelikelytopossess.They
also brought out Marx's remarkable autodidactic spirit; in
ordertoproduce his signi6cantvolume ofwork on successive
uprisings in Spain, for example, he taught himself Spanish,|
apparentlybecomingpro6cientinamatterofweeks.
ltcouldbearguedthatthroughhisinsistenceonseeingEuro-
pe

revolution in the broadest possible contextalways


wetghmgthe cloutofthe Creat Powers, always insisting that
hundreds orthousandsofyears ofhistorymustbe broughtto
bearMarxsometimesmissedtheimportanceoflocal nation-
alistrevolutions.yoverestimatingtheinuenceoffrnceand
Austria,forexample,he mayhavefailedto seethe long-term
prospectsoftheltalianagitationsthat,withinafewshortyears,
wouldleadtotheRisorgimento.Ontheotherhand,hisrigorous
commitmenttohistoricalunderstandingledMarxtoconclude
thatthe deep-seatedrole oflslamin places like theNearEast
would make itimpossible for the West to impose secularized
government there without provoking the most fundamental
crisis~alessontheWestwouldcontinuetograpplewithforat
leastanother : soyears.
rIE GREEK I NS URRECTI ON
The Greek Insurrection
PublishedMarch29, : k sa
S 1

be insurrection among the Creek subj ects of the Sultan,'


wbich caused such alarmat Paris and london, has nowbeen
suppressed, but its revival is thought not impossible. With
regardtothispossibilityweare ableto saythatafter acareful
investigation ofthe documentsrelatingto the wholeaffair so
|ar,weareconvincedthattheinsurgentswerefoundexclusively
aongthe mountaineers inhabitingthesouthernslopeofthe
lindus,andthattheymetwithnosympathyonthepartofthe
otber Christianraces ofTurkey, savethe pious freebootersof
Montenegro; andthattheoccupants oftheplainsofThessaly,
wboformtheonlycompactCreekcommunitystilllivingunder
Turkishsupremacy,aremoreafraidoftheircompatriotsthan
o| tbe Turks themselves. lt is not to be forgotten that this
spiritlessandcowardlybodyofpopulationdidnotdaretorise
evenatthetime oftheCreekwarofindependence."Astothe
reainderoftheCreekrace,numberingperhaps, oo,ooosouls,
d|stributed throughout the cities ofthe Empire, they are so
tboroughlydetestedbytheotherChristiantribesthat,whenever
apopularmovementhasbeensuccessful,asinServiaandWal-
lacbia,'' ithasresultedindrivingaway allthe priestsofCreek
origin,andinsupplyingtheirplacesbynativepastors.
butalthoughthepresentCreekinsurrection,consideredwith
re|erence to its own merits, is altogether insigni6cant, it still
derivesimportancefromtheoccasionitaffordstothewestern
lowersforinterferingbetweenthePorte'andthegreatmaior-
itv o|its subi ects inEurope,amongwhom theCreeks count
onlv one million against ten millions of the other races pro-
tessing the Creek religion. The Creek inhabitants of the so-
calledkingdomaswellasthoselivinginthelonianlsles`under
britisb rule considerit,of course, to betheir nationalmission
toexpeltheTurksfromwherevertheCreeklanguageisspoken,
and toannexThessalyandEpirustoaStateoftheirown.They
uav even dream ofa yzantinerestoration, although, on the
wbole,theyaretooastuteapeopleto believe insuch a fancy.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UN
uttheseplansofnational aggrandizementand

onthepartoftheCreeks;proclaimedatthismomentincor:se-
quenceofRussianintrigues, asisprovedbythelately
conspiracy of the priest Athanasius, and proclaimed too
the

robbers ofthe mountains without being reechoed by


agncultural population ofthe plain~all have nothing to
with

he religiousrightsofthesubi ects ofTurkeywith


anattemptismadetomixthemup.
AswelearnfromtheEnglishiournalsandfromnotice
inthe House oflords by lord Shaftesbury, and in the Com-
monsby Mr. MoncktonMilnes,the ritish Covernmentis
becalleduponinconnection,partlyatleast,withthese
movementstotakemeasuresto melioratethecondition ofthe
I
Christian subiects ofthe Porte. lndeed, we are told
thatthegreat end aimed at by thewestern Powers is to
the Christian religion on a footing of equal rights with the
Maho

etan in Turkey. Now, either this means nothing at


all, or ttmeans the granting politicaland civil rights, bothto
Mussulmans and Christians, without any reference to either
religion,andwithoutconsideringreligionatall .lnotherwords
it means the complete separation of State and Church o
Religion and Politics. utthe Turkish State, like all Orietal
States,isfoundeduponthemostintimateconnection,wemight

almost say, the identity of State and Church, of Politics and


Religion.The Koranisthedoublesourceoffaithandlaw for
thatEmpireanditsrulers.uthowisitpossibletoequalizthe
1aithfulandtheCiaour,theMussulmanandtheRaiahbefore
theKoran? To do that itis necessary, infact, to supplantthe
Koran bya newcivil code, in otherwordsto breakdownthe
frameworkofTurkishsocietyandcreateaneworderofthings
outofitsruins.
Ontheotherhand, the main feature thatdistinguishes the
CreekconfessionfromallotherbranchesoftheChristianfaith
is the same identincation of State and Church, of civil an-
ecclesiastical life. So intimately interwoven were State and
Church in the yzantine Empire, thatitisimpossibletowrite
thehist

ryoftheonewithoutwritingthehistoryoftheother.
lnRusstathesameidentityprevails,althoughthere,incontra-
nlE GREEK I NS URRECTI ON 5 3
dis
tin
ctiontotheyzantineEmpire,theChurchhasbeentrans-
tor
ed
into the mere tool of the State, the instrument of
subiu
gationathomeandofaggressionabroad.lntheOttoman
l
pir
ein conformitywiththe Orientalnotions oftheTurks,
the yzantine theocracy has been allowed to develop itself
to such a degree, that the parson of a parish is at the same
tie the i udge, themayor,the teacher, theexecutoroftesta-
ents, the assessor oftaxes, the ubiquitous factotum ofcivil
|||e, not the servant, but the master of all work. The main
reproach to be castupontheTurks in thisregardis notthat
theyhavecrippledtheprivilegesoftheChristianpriesthood,but,
onthecontrary,thatundertheirrulethisall-embracingoppres-
sivetutelage,control,andinterferenceofthe Churchhasbeen
permitted to absorb thewhole sphere ofsocial existence. Mr.
Fa|lmerayerveryamusinglytellsus,inhisOrientalische Briefe,25
howaCreekpriestwasquiteastonishedwhenhe informedhim
thattheLatinclergy enioyed no civilauthority at all,andhad
toperformnoprofane business. 'How,exclaimedthepriest,
'doourLatinbrethrencontrivetokilltime?
ltisplainthenthattointroduce anewcivilcodeinTurkey,
a code altogether abstracted from religion, and based on a
completeseparationofStateandChurch,wouldbenotonlyto
abol|sh Mahometanism, but also to break down the Creek
Church as now established in that Empire. Can any one be
credalousenoughto believeingoodearnestthatthetimidand
teactionaryvaletudinariansofthepresentritishCovernment
have ever conceived the idea of undertaking such a gigantic
task, involving a perfect social revolution, in a country like
Turkey? Thenotion is absurd. They can only entertain itfor
thepurposeofthrowingdustinthe eyesoftheEnglishpeople
and otEurope.
54 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
Declaration of War. -On the History of the
Eastern Question
PublishedApril: s, :ksa
Warhasatlengthbeendeclared.'TheRoyalMessagewas
yesterdayinbothHousesofParliament;byLordAberdeen
theLords,andbyLord;.Russellinthe Commons.lt

the measures about to be taken as 'active steps to ODIm,e


the encroachments of Russia uponTurkey. To-morrow
London Gazette will publish the of6cial notincation of
andonfridaythe addressinreplytothemessage will eecome
thesubjectoftheParliamentarydebates.
SimultaneouslywiththeEnglishdeclaration,LouisNav'll;uU
has communicateda similar message to his Senate and
Legislatif
The declaration of war against Russia could no longer
delayed, after Captain lackwood, the bearer of the
frenchultimatissimum totheCzar,hadreturned,onSaturday
last,withtheanswerthatRussiawouldgivetothatpaperno
answerat all . The mission ofCapt. lackwood,however,
notbeenaltogetheragratuitous one.lthasaffordedtoRus
themonth ofMarch, that most dangerous epoch ofthe
toRussianarms.
The publication of the secret correspondence between
CzarandtheEnglishCovernment,insteadofprovokinga
ofpublicindignationagainstthelatter,has-incredibile attu;
beenthe signal forthe press, both weekly and daily,for
gratulating England on the possession of so truly national
Ministry.l understand,however,thatameetingwillbecalled
togetherforthepurposeofopeningtheeyesofablindedritish
publiconthereal conduct ofthe Covernment. ltistobeheld

on Thursday next in the Music Hall, Store-st ; and Lord


Ponsonby,Mr. Layard,Mr. Urquhart,etc.,areexpectedto
takepartintheproceedings.
TheHamburger Correspondent hasthefollowing:'Accord-
ingto advices from St. Petersburg, which arrived here onthe
: 6thinst. , theRussianCovernmentproposestopublishvarious
DECL
ARATI ON OF WAR
55
ot|
er
documentsonthe Eastern question. Among the docu-
ents
destinedforpublicationaresomeletterswrittenbyPrince
|bert

ltisacuriousfactthatthesameeveningonwhichtheRoyal
Message wasdeliveredin the Commons,theCovernment suf-
leredtheirnrstdefeat inthepresentsession;thesecondreading
ott|ePoor-SettlementandRemovalbillhaving,notwithstand-
ina
theeffortsoftheCovernment,been adj ournedto the zkth
otApril,byadivisionofzooto: k,. Thepersontowhomthe
Covernment is indebted for this defeat, is no other than my
LordPalmerston. 'Hislordship,says The Times ofthisday,
|asmanaged toputhimselfandhiscolleagues between two
nres |theToriesandthelrishparty without muchprospect of
leavingthemtosettleitbetweenthemselves.
We are informed that on the :zth inst. a treaty of triple
alliancewas signed between france, EnglandandTurkey, but
t|at,notwithstandingthepersonalapplicationofthe Sultanto
the Crand Mufti, the latter supported by the corps of the
I|euas,

refusedtoissuehisfetva30 sanctioningthestipulation
aboutthechangesinthesituationoftheChristiansinTurkey,
as being incontradictionwiththepreceptsoftheKoran. This
inte|ligencemustbe lookeduponasbeingthemoreimportant,
asitcausedLordDerbytomakethefollowingobservation:
I will only express my earnest anxiety that the Government will
state whether there is any truth in the report that has been
circulated during the last few days that in this convention entered
into between England, France and Turkey, there are articles
which will be of a nature to establish a protectorate on our part
as
objectionable at least, as that which, on the part of Russia, we
have protested against.
The Times ofto-day, whiledeclaringthatthe policy ofthe
Cov
ernment is directly opposed to that of Lord Derby adds:
`We
should deeply regret ifthe bigotry oftheMufti or the
Uleuas succeeded in opposing any serious resistance to this
policy.
In
order to understand both the nature of the relations
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
betweentheTurkish

Covernmentandthespiritual

fTurkey,

ndthedtf6cultiesinwhichtheformeris

t
n
mvolve,

tth respect to the question of a protectorate


ts
l
C
nstransubiectsofthePorte,thatquestionwhich
sr y te

atthe bottom ofall the actual complications in


h
E

st, tt ts necessary to cast a retrospective glance at its


tstoryanddevelopment.

TheKoranand the Mussulman legislation emanatin
ttteduc

thegeographya

dethnographyofthevarious
g
tothestmpeandconvententdistinctionoftwonationsand
two c

untnes; those ofthe faithful and ofthe ln6d I


ln6delts"ha b
h

es.
f h
r y, t.e.t eenemy.lslamrsmproscribesthe
o t e ln6dels, constituting a state of permanent
betw

en t|e Mussulman andtheunbeliever. lnthatsense


corsarr-shtp

oftheerberStates`'weretheholyNeetof
H
b
ow,then,tsteetstenceofChristiansubiectsofthePorte
ereconciledwtththeKoran?'lfatow
h
I
.
I
n, sayst e+wUUU8I egtsatton,
surrnders by capitulation, and its habitants consent to become

..

s, tha
.
t is, subjects of a Mussulman prince without aban
ta

mng their creed, tey have to pay the ...(capitation


), when they obtaIn a truce with the fal
'
thf I d " .
d
u , an It IS not
p.rte any more toconfscate their estates than to take away
t elr ouses
.
. . . In thiS case their old churches form part of th
.
property, with permission to worship therel' n B t th
elr
11 d
. u ey are not
.
h
owe terect new ones. They have only authority for repairing
em, an to reconstruct their decayed portions At
.
h
'
.
. certaIn
epoc s commlssanes delegated by the provl
'
n
.
I
" h
cia governors are
to ViSIt t e churches and sanctuaries of the Ch
.
t'
.
d .
ns lans, In or er
to ascertaIn that no new buildings have been added d
f
.
f
un er pretext

h
eprs. a town is conquered by force, the inhabitants retain
elr
.
c
.
urc es, but only as places of abode or refuge, without
permiSSIOn to worship.
ma
.tntinoplehavingsu

renderedbycapitulation,asinlike
.
asth

greaterporttonofEuropeanTurkey theCh

trans there e
h

ns
njoyt e prrvtege ofliving as rayahs, under the
CLA
RATl ON OF WAR
D
5 7
1url
isb
Covernment. This privilege they have exclusively by
itt
ue
oftheiragreeingtoaccepttheMussulmanprotection.lt
s
tberefore,owingtothiscircumstancealone,thattheChris-
..
-
submit to begoverned by the Mussulmans accordingto
Mussu|man law, that the patriarch of Constantinople, their
sp
iritualchief, isatthesametimetheirpoliticalrepresentative
aod
tbeirChief1ustice. Wherever,inthe OttomanEmpire,we
--+an agglomeration ofCreek rayahs, the Archbishops and
isbopsarebylawmembers oftheMunicipalCouncils, and,
uodertbedirectionofthepatriarch,'watch]overtherepartition
oftbetaxesimposedupontheCreeks.Thepatriarchisrespon-
sib|etothePorteastotheconductofhisco-religionists.lnvested
witbtherightofiudgingtherayahsofhisChurch,hedelegates
tbis rigbt to the metropolitans and bishops, in tbe limits of
tbeitdioceses,theirsentencesbeingobligatoryfortheexecutive
ofhcers,kadis,`etc. ,oftbePortetocarryout.Thepunishments
wbichtheyhavetherighttopronounceare6nes,imprisonment,
tbe bastinade,and exile. esides, theirownchurchgivesthem
tbe power of excommunication. lndependent of the produce
ofthe6nes,theyreceivevariabletaxesonthecivilandcommer-
cial law-suits. Everyhierarchic scale among theclergyhas its
uoneyedprice.ThepatriarchpaystotheDivanaheavytribute
in orderto obtainhis investiture, buthe sells, inhis turn,the
atcbbishopricsandbishopricstotheclergyofhisworship.The
latter indemnify themselves by the sale of subaltern dignities
and the tribute exactedfrom the popes. These, again, sell by
retail tbe power they have bought from their superiors, and
traf6cinall actsoftheirministry,suchasbaptisms,marriages,
divorces,andtestaments.
lt is evident from this expose that this fabric oftheocracy
ovetthe CreekChristians ofTurkey, andthewhole structure
oftbeir society, has itskeystoneinthe subi ectionoftherayah
undertbe Koran, which, in itsturn, bytreatingthem asin6-
delsi.e.,asanationonlyinareligioussense~sanctionedthe
combinedspiritualandtemporalpoweroftheirpriests.Then,
ifyouabolishtheirsubi ectionundertbeKoranbyacivileman-
cipation, you cancel at the same time their subi ection to the
c|ergy, and provoke a revolution intheir social, political and
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB
religiousrelations,which,inthe6rstinstance,mustinevitably
handthemovertoRussia.lfyousupplanttheKoranbyacode
civil, you mustoccidentalize the entirestructure ofyzantine
society.
HavingdescribedtherelationsbetweentheMussulman and
hisChristiansubj ect,thequestionarises,whataretherelations
betweentheMussulmanandtheunbelievingforeigner?
Asthe Koran treats allforeignersasfoes, nobody willdare
to present himself in a Mussulman country without having
takenhisprecautions.The6rstEuropeanmerchants,therefore,
whoriskedthechancesofcommerce with suchapeople,con-
trivedtosecurethemselvesanexceptionaltreatmentandprivi-

legesoriginallypersonal,butafterwardextendedtotheirwhole
nation. Hence the origin of capitulations. Capitulations are
imperialdiplomas,lettersofprivilege,octroyedbythePorteto
different European nations, and authorizing their subjects to
freely enterMohammedan countries, and there to pursue in
tranquillitytheir affairs, and to practice theirworship. They
differ from treaties in this essential point that they are not

reciprocalactscontradictorilydebatedbetweenthecontracting
parties, and accepted by them on the condition of mutual
advantagesandconcessions.Onthecontrary,thecapitulations
areone-sidedconcessionsonthepartoftheCovernmentgrant-
ingthem, inconsequenceofwhichtheymay berevokedatits
pleasure The Porte has, indeed, atseveraltimesnulli6edthe
privilegesgrantedtoone nation, byextendingthemto others,
orrepealedthemaltogetherbyrefusingtocontinuetheirappli-
cation. This precarious character of the capitulations made
themaneternal source ofdisputes, ofcomplaints on thepart
ofEmbassadors,andofaprodigiousexchangeofcontradictory
notesand6rmans``revivedatthecommencementofeverynew
retgn.
lt was from these capitulations that arose the right of a
protectorate offoreignpowers,notovertheChristiansubj ects
ofthePorte~therayahs~butovertheirco-religionistsvisiting
Turkey or residing there as foreigners. The 6rst power that
obtained such a protectorate was france. The capitulations
between franceandthe Ottoman Porte made in t s, s, under
DECLARATI ON OF WAR
59
Solimanthe Creatand francis l; in t 6oa underAhmedl and
Henry lV; and in t 6;, under Mohammed lV andlouis XlV,
wererenewed, con6rmed, recapitulated,and augmented inthe
compilation of t;ao, called'ancientand recent capitulations
and treaties between the Court of france and the Ottoman
lorte, renewed and augmented in the year t ;ao, A.D., and
I I s , of the Hegira,` translated |the 6rst of6cial translation
sanctionedbythePorteatConstantinoplebyM.Deval,Secre-
taty lnterpreter of the King, and his 6rst Dragoman at the
OttomanPorte.Art., z ofthisagreementconstitutestheright
offrancetoaprotectorate overall monasteriesprofessing the
Frankreligionto whatevernationtheymay belong, andofthe
FrankvisitorsoftheHolyPlaces.
Russiawasthe6rstpowerthat,in t ;;a,insertedthecapitu-
|ation,imitatedaftertheexampleoffrance,intoatreaty-the
treaty of Kainardj i . Thus, in t oz, Napoleon thought 6t to
make the existence and maintenance of the capitulation the
subiect of an article oftreaty, and to give itthe character of
synallagmaticcontract.``
In what relation then does the question ofthe Holy Places
standwiththeprotectorate?
ThequestionoftheHolyShrinesisthequestionofaprotec-
totate over the religious Creek Christian communities settled
at 1erusalem, and over the buildings possessed by them on
tbe holy ground, and especially over the Church ofthe Holy
Sepulcher.ltistobeunderstoodthatpossessionheredoesnot
mean proprietorship, whichis deniedtothe Christians by the
Koran, but only the right of usufruct. This right of usufruct
excludesbynomeanstheothercommunitiesfromworshipping
in the same place; the possessors having no other privilege
besidesthatofkeepingthe keys, ofrepairingandenteringthe
edi6ces, ofkindlingtheholy lamp, ofcleaningtheroomswith
the
broom, andofspreading thecarpets, whichisanOriental
sy
mbol of possession. ln the same manner now, in which
Christianity culminates atthe Holy Place, the question ofthe
protectorateistherefoundtohaveitshighestascension.
lartsoftheHolyPlacesandoftheChurchoftheHolySepul-
cherarepossessedbythelatins,theCreeks,theArmenians,the
60 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Abyssinians,theSyrians,andtheCopts.etweenallthesediverse
pretendentstb
ereoriginatedaconflict.ThesovereignsofEurope
whosaw,intbisreligiousquarrel,aquestionoftheirrespective
influences in the Orient, addressed themselves in the 6rst-
instance to th
e masters of the soil, to fanatic and greedy
Pashas,'' wbo abused their position. The OttomanPorte and
its agents ado
pting a most troublesome systeme de bascule37
gave iudgment in turns favorable to the Latins, Creeks, and
Armenians, aking and receiving gold from all hands, and
laughing at each of them. Hardly had the Turks granted a
6rman,acknovledgingtherightoftheLatinstothepossession
ofacontestedplace,whentheArmenianspresentedthemselves
with a heavier purse, and instantly obtained a contradictory
6rman. Same tactics with respect to the Creeks, who knew,
besides, asofnciallyrecordedindifferent6rmansofthe Porte
and "hudjets" | i udgments ofits agents, howto procure false
and apocrypb titles. On other occasions the decisions ofthe
Sultan`sCovernmentwerefrustratedbythecupidityandill-will
of the Pashas and subaltern agents in Syria. Then it became
necessary to resume negotiations, to appoint fresh commis-
saries, andto make newsacri6ces of money. WhatthePorte
formerlydidfrompecuniaryconsiderations,inour daysithas
done from fear, with a view to obtain protection and favor.
Having done iustice to the reclamations of france and the
Latins, ithastenedtomake thesame conditionsto Russiaand
theCreeks, thus attempting toescapefrom a storm which it
feltpowerlesstoencounter.There isnosanctuary, nochapel,
no stone oftheChurchoftheHolySepulcher,thathad been
leftunturnedforthepurposeofconstitutingaquarrelbetween
thedifferentChristiancommunities.
AroundtheHolySepulcherwe6ndanassemblageofallthe
various sects
ofChristianity, behind the religious pretensions
ofwhomareconcealedasmanypoliticalandnationalrivalries.
1erusalemandtheHolyPlacesareinhabitedbynationspro-
fessing religions: the Latins, the Creeks, Armenians, Copts,
Abyssinians,andSyrians.Therearez,oooCreeks,I.OOOLatins,
, soArmeniau
s, IOO Copts, zoSyrians,andzoAbyssinians~
,,aoo.
n the Ottoman Empire we 6nd : , , ;,o,ooo Creeks,
DECLARATI ON OF WAR 6r
z,aoo,ooo Armenians, andooo,ooo Latins. Each ofthese is
againsubdivided.TheCreekChurch,ofwhichltreatedabove,
theoneacknowledgingthePatriarchofConstantinople,essen-
tially differs from the Creco-Russian, whose chief spiritual
authorityistheCzar;andfromtheHellens,ofwhomtheKing
andtheSynodofAthensarethechiefauthorities.Similarly,the
LatinsaresubdividedintotheRomanCatholics,UnitedCreeks,
andMaronites; and the Armenians into Cregorian and Latin
Armenians~thesamedistinctionsholdinggoodwiththeCopts
andAbyssinians.Thethreeprevailingreligiousnationalitiesat
theHolyPlacesaretheCreeks,theLatins, andtheArmenians.
The Latin Churchmay be said torepresentprincipallyLatin
races,theCreekChurch,Slav,Turko-Slav,andHellenicraces;
andtheotherchurches,AsiaticandAfricanraces.
lmagine alltheseconicting peoples beleaguering the Holy
Sepulcher,the battleconductedbythemonks, andtheosten-
sible obiect of their rivalry being a star from the grotto of
ethlehem,atapestry, akeyofa sanctuary, an altar,a shrine,
achair,acushion~anyridiculousprecedence!
lnorderto understand sucha monasticalcrusade itisindis-
pensable to consider 6rstly the manner of their living, and
secondly, the mode of their habitation. 'All the religious
rubbishofthedifferentnations,saysarecenttraveler,
live at Jerusalem separated from each other, hostile and jealous,
a nomade population, incessantly recruited by pilgrimage or deci
mated by the plague and oppressions. The European dies or
returns to Europe after some years; the pashas and their guards
go to Damascus or Constantinople; and the Arabs fy to the
desert. Jerusalem is but a place where every one arrives to pitch
his tent and where nobody remains. Everybody in the holy city
gets his livelihood from his religion-the Greeks or Armenians
from the 1 2,000 or I3,000 pilgrims who yearly visit Jerusalem,
and the Latins from the subsidies and alms of their co-religionists
of France, Italy, etc.
esides their monasteries and sanctuaries, the Christian
nationspossessat1erusalemsmallhabitationsorcells,annexed
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and occupied by the
monks,who have towatchday and nightthatholyabode.At
certain periodsthese monksarerelieved intheir dutybytheir
brethren. These cells have butone door, opening into the in-
terior of the Temple, while the monk guardians receive their
food from without, through some wicket. The doors of the
Church are closed, and guarded by Turks, who don't open
themexceptformoney, andclose itaccordingto theircaprice
orcupidity.
The quarrels between churchmen are the most venomous,
saidMazarin.Nowfancythesechurchmen,whonotonlyhave
toliveupon,butlivein,thesesanctuariestogether!
To 6nish the picture, be it remembered that the fathers of
the Latin Church, almost exclusively composed of Romans,
Sardinians, Neapolitans, Spaniards and Austrians, are all of
them iealous of the french protectorate, and would like to
substitutethatofAustria,SardiniaorNaples,theKingsofthe
twolattercountriesboth assumingthetitle ofKingof1erusa-
lem; andthatthesedentarypopulationof1erusalemnumbers
aboutt s, soosouls,ofwhoma,oooareMussulmansand,ooo
1ews. The Mussulmans, forming about a fourth part of the
whole, and consisting of Turks, Arabs and Moors, are, of
course, the masters in every respect, as they are in no way
affectedwiththeweakness of their Covernment atConstanti-
nople.Nothingequalsthemiseryandthesufferingsofthe1ews
at1erusalem, inhabiting the most 6lthy quarter ofthe town,
calledhareth-el-yahoud, thequarterofdirt,betweentheZion
and the Moriah, where their synagogues are situatedthe
constant obi ects of Mussulman oppression and intolerance,
insulted by the Creeks, persecuted by the Latins, and living
onlyuponthescantyalmstransmittedbytheirEuropeanbreth-
ren.The1ews,however,arenotnatives,butfromdiherentand
distant countries, and are only attracted to 1erusalem by the
desireofinhabitingtheValleyof1ehosaphat, andto dieinthe
veryplaceswheretheredemptoristobeexpected. 'Attending
theirdeath,saysafrenchauthor,'theysufferandpray.Their
regards turnedto thatmountain ofMoriah, where once rose
thetempleofSolomon,andwhichtheydarenotapproach,they
[ REVOLUTI ON I N SPAI N. -BOMARSUND)
shedtearsonthemisfortunesofZion,andtheirdispersionover
theworld.
To make these 1ews more miserable, England andPrussia
appointed, in :ao, an Anglican bishop at1erusalem, whose
avowedobi ectistheirconversion.Hewasdreadfullythrashed
in : as, and sneered at alike by1ews, Christians andTurks.
Hemay,infact,bestatedtohavebeenthe6rstandonlycause
ofaunionbetweenallthereligionsat1erusalem.
ltwillnowbeunderstoodwhythecommonworshipofthe
ChristiansattheHolyPlacesresolvesitselfinto acontinuance
of desperate lrish rows between the diverse sections of the
faithful;butthat,ontheotherhand, thesesacredrowsmerely
conceal a profane battle, not only of nations but of races;
and that the Protectorate of the Holy Places which appears
ridiculoustothe OccidentbutallimportanttotheOrientalsis
one ofthe phases ofthe Oriental question incessantly repro-
duced,constantlystifled,butneversolved.
[Revolution in Spain. -Bomarsund]
PublishedSeptembera, t sa
The 'leadersoftheAssemblee Nationale, Times, andJournal
des Debats prove thatneitherthepure Russianparty, northe
Russo-Coburgparty, northeConstitutionalpartyaresatis6ed
withthecourse ofthe Spanishrevolution. fromthis itwould
appear that there is some chance for Spain, notwithstanding
thecontradictionofappearances.
Onthe th 'ofAugust]adeputationfromtheUnionClub`
waited on Espartero`' to present an address calling for the
adoptionofuniversa|suffrage.Numerouspetitionstothesame
effect were pouring in. Consequently, a long and animated
debatetookplaceattheCouncilofMinisters.utthepartisans
ofuniversalsuffrage,aswellasthepartisansoftheelectionlaw
of t as, have been beaten. The Madrid Gaceta publishes a
decreefortheconvocationoftheCortes"onthethofNovem-
ber preceded by an expose addressed to the Queen. At the
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
elections,the lawof: ,;willbefollowed,with slightmodi6-
cations. The Cortes are to be one Constituent Assembly, the
legislativefunctionsoftheSenatebeingsuppressed.Twopara-
graphsofthelawof: ashavebeenpreserved,viz.:themode
offormingtheelectoralmesas | boardsreceivingthevotesand
publishingthereturns,andthenumberofdeputies;onedeputy
tobeelectedforevery s,ooo souls.The Assemblywill thusbe
composedoffromazotoa,omembers.Accordingtoacircular
ofSantaCruz,theMinisterofthelnterior,theelectorsmustbe
registeredbythe6thofSeptember.Aftertheveri6cationofthe
lists by the provincial deputations, the electoral lists will be
closedonthe : zthofSeptember.Theelectionswilltakeplace
on the , dof October, at the chief localities ofthe Electoral
Districts. The scrutiny will be proceeded to on the : 6th of
October,inthecapitalofeachprovince. lncaseofconf|icting
elections, the new proceedings which will thereby benecessi-
tated,mustbeterminatedbythe,othofOctober.Theexpose
states expressly that 'the Cortes of: sa, like those of : ,;,
will savethemonarchy; they will be a newbond between the
throne andthenation, obi ects which cannotbe questionedor
disputed.
lnotherwords,theCovernmentforbidsthediscussionofthe
dynastic question; hence, The Times concludes the contrary,
supposing that the question willnow be between the present
dynastyornodynastyatall~aneventualitywhich,itisscarcely
necessary to remark, in6nitely displeases and disappoints the
calculationsofThe Times.
TheElectoral lawof : , ;limits thefranchise by the con-
ditions of having a household, the payment of the mayores
cuotas |theshiptaxesleviedbytheState , andtheageoftwenty-
6veyears.Therearefurtherentitledtoavote:themembersof
the Spanish Academies of History and of the Artes Nobles,
doctors,licentiatesinthefacultiesofDivinity,law,ofmedicine,
membersofecclesiasticalchapters,parochialcuratesandtheir
assistantclergy,magistratesandadvocatesoftwoyears'stand-
ing;of6cersofthearmyofacertainstanding,whetheronservice
or the retired list; physicians, surgeons, apothecaries of two
years' standing; architects, painters and sculptors, honoured
[ REVOLUTI ON I N SPAI N. -BOMARSUND]
withthemembershipofanacademy;professorsandmastersin
anyeducationalestablishment,supported bythepublicfunds.
Disquali6ed forthevotebythesamelawaredefaulterstothe
commonpueblo-fund,ortolocaltaxation,bankrupts,persons
interdictedbythecourtsoflawformoral orcivilincapacity;
lastly,allpersonsundersentence.
ltistruethatthisdecreedoesnotproclaimuniversalsuffrage,
and that it removes the dynastic question from the forum of
the Cortes. Still itis doubtfulthateven thisAssemblywill do.
If theSpanishCortesforborefrominterferingwiththeCrown
in : : z, itwas because the Crown was only nominally rep-
resented~the KinghaxingbeenabsentforyearsfromSpanish
soil.lftheyforbore in : , ;, itwasbecausetheyhadto settle
with absolute monarchy before they could think of settling
withthe constitutional monarchy. Withregardto the general
situation, The Times has truly good reasons to deplore the
absenceoffrenchcentralizationinSpain,andthatconsequently
even a victory over revolution in the capital decides nothing
withrespecttotheprovinces,solongasthatstateof'anarchy
survivestherewithoutwhichnorevolutioncansucceed.
Thereare,ofcourse,someincidentsintheSpanishrevolution
peculiarlybelongingtothem.forinstance,thecombinationof
robberywithrevolutionarytransactionsaconnectionwhich
sprungupintheguerrillawarsagainstthefrenchinvasions,'
andwhichwascontinuedbythe 'royalists in : z,, andthe
Carlists since : , s . No surprisewilltherefore befeltatthe
informationthatgreatdisordershaveoccurred at Tortosa, in
Lower Catalonia. TheJunta Popular of that city says, in its
proclamation of , : st 1uly: 'A band of miserable assassins,
availingthemselvesforpretextoftheabolitionoftheindirect
taxes, have seized the town, and trampled upon all laws of
society.Plunder,assassination,incendiarismhavemarkedtheir
steps.
Order,however,wassoonrestoredbythe1unta~thecitizens
armingthemselvesandcomingtotherescueofthefeeblegarri-
sonoftheplace.Amilitarycommissionissitting,chargedwith
the pursuit and punishment ofthe authors ofthecatastrophe
of1uly, o.Thiscircumstanceshas,ofcourse,givenanoccasion
66 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
tothereactionaryiournalsforvirtuousdeclamation.Howlittle
theyarewarrantedinthisproceedingmaybeinferredfromthe
remark of the Messager de Bayonne, that the Carlists have
raisedtheir bannerintheprovincesofCatalonia, Aragonand
Valencia, and precisely in the same contiguous mountains
where they had their chief nest in the old Carlist wars. lt
was the Carlists who gave origin to the ladrones facciosos,
that

ombination of robbery and pretended allegiance to an


oppressedpartyintheState.TheSpanishguerrilleroofalltimes
hashadsomethingoftherobbersincethetimeofViriathus;`
butitisanoveltyofCarlistinventionthatapurerobbershould
invest himself with the name ofguerrillero. The men ofthe
Tortosaaffaircertainlybelongtothisclass.
AtLerida,Saragossaandarcelonamattersareserious.The
two former cities have refused to combine with arcelona,
becausethe militaryhadtheupperhandthere. Stillitappears
that even there Concha is unable to master the storm, and
CeneralDulceistotakehisplace,therecentpopularityofthat
general being considered as offering more guarantees for a
conciliationofthedif6culties.
The secret societies have resumed theiractivity at Madrid,
andgovernthedemocraticpartyiustastheydidin : z,. The
6rstdemandwhichtheyhaveurgedthe peopleto makeisthat
all ministerssince: a, shallpresenttheiraccounts.
Theministryarepurchasingbackthearmswhichthepeople
seized on the day of the barricades. ln this way they have
got possession of 2, 500 muskets, formerly in the hands of
insurgents. Don Manuel Sagasti, theAyacuchoJefe Politico of
Madrid of: a,, has been reinstated in his functions. Hehas
addressedtotheinhabitantsandthenationalmilitiatwoprocla-
mations, in whichhe announceshis intention ofenergetically
repressingalldisorder.TheremovalofthecreaturesofSartorius
fromthe differentof6ces proceedsrapidly. ltis, perhaps, the
only thingrapidly done in Spain. All partiesshowthemselves
equallyquickinthatline.
Salamancaisnotimprisoned, aswasasserted.He had been
arrested at Araniuez, but was soon released, and is now at
Malaga.
PRUS S I A
Thecontroloftheministrybypopularpressurei sprovedby
thefact,thattheMinistersofWar,ofthelnterior,andofPublic
Works,haveeffectedlargedisplacementsandsimpli6cationsin
their several departments, an event never known in Spanish
historybefore'e .]
ThechiefcauseoftheSpanishrevolutionwasthestateofthe
nnances, and particularlythedecreeofSartorius,orderingthe
payment of six months' taxes in advance upon the year. All
the public chests were emptywhen the revolution broke out,
notwithstandingthecircumstancethatnobranchofthepublic
service had been paid; nor were the sums destined for any
particular service applied to it during the whole of several
months. Thus, for instance, the turnpike receiptswere never
appropriated to the use ofkeeping up theroads.The moneys
setasideforpublic works shared thesame destiny. When the
chest of public works was subiected to revision, instead of
receiptsforexecutedworks,receiptsfromcourtfavoriteswere
discovered.ltisknownthat6nancieringhaslongbeenthemost
pro6table businessinMadrid ' . . j
SpainistheleasttaxedcountryofEurope,andtheeconomi-
calquestionisnowhere so simpleasthere.Thereductionand
simpli6cation ofthe bureaucratic machinery in Spain arethe
lessdif6cult,asthemunicipalitiestraditionallyadministertheir
ownaffairs;soisreformofthetariff,andconscientiousapplica-
tion of the bienes nacionales44 not yet alienated. The social
questioninthemodensenseofthewordhasnofoundationin
acountrywithitsresourcesyetundeveloped,andwithsucha
scantypopulationas Spain~1 5,000,000 only'. . . ]
Prussia
PublishedMay s, t s 6
Thestrangefrenzywhichhasconvertedfranceintoagambling-
house, andidenti6edtheNapoleonicEmpirewiththeourse,
hasbynomeansbeencon6nedwithinCallicboundaries.That
plague, unrestrained by political frontiers, has crossed the
68 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Pyrenees, the Alps, and the Rhine, and, wonderful to say, has
seized upon solid Cermany, where speculation in ideas has
givenway to speculationin stocks, thesummum bonum45 to
the bonus, the mysterious iargon of dialectics to the no less
mysteriousiargonoftheExchange,andtheaspirationforunity
to the passion for dividends. Rhenish Prussia, from its prox-
imity to france, as well asfrom the high development ofits
industryandcommerce,wasthe6rstto catchthedisease. Not
onlydidtheColognebankersenterintoaformalalliancewith
thegreatswindlersatParis,bypurchasingwiththemtheInde
pendance beige as their common organ, and establishing an
international bankatLuxemburg; notonlydid theydrag into
the whirlpoolofthe CreditMobilier' allSouth-Western Cer-
many,butinthelimitsofRhenishPrussiaandintheDuchyof
Westphaliathey succeeded sowell that at this moment every
layerofsociety,exceptthatformedbytheworkingclassesand
smallerpeasantry,ispermeatedbythegoldmania,sothateven
thecapitalofthesmallmiddleclass,divertedfromitscustomary
channels, seeks for wild adventure, and every shopkeeper is
turned into an alchemist. That the rest of Prussia has not
escaped the contagion will be seen by the following extract
fromthePreussische Correspondenz, aministerialpaper.
Observations recently made on the money market justify the
assumption that there is again approaching one of those frightful
commercial crises which return periodically. The feverish move
ment of an immoderate spirit of speculation, frst prompted
abroad, has, since last year, pervaded Germany to a great extent,
and not only the Berlin Bourse and the Prussian capitalists have
been dragged into this whirlpool, but also whole classes of
society, which, at every former time, endeavored to shun any
immediate participation in the hazards of the stock market.
On this apprehension of an imminent 6nancial crisis, the
Prussian Covernmentgroundedits refusalto allowthe estab-
lishment of a Credit Mobilier, the dazzling colors of which
weresuspectedtoconcealaswindlingpurpose.utwhatisnot
permitted under one form may be allowed in another; and
PRUSSI A
whati snotpermittedaterlinwillbetoleratedatLeipsicand
Hanover.Thelatestphaseofthespeculativemania hassetin
at the close of the war, which, apart from the commercial
excitementinseparablefromanyconclusionofpeaceaswit-
nessedin : ozand : : sisthistimemarkedbythepeculiar
feature thatPrussia hasformallyexpressedherwishtothrow
open her markets to the importation of western capital and
speculation. We shall, accordingly, soon hear of the grand
lrkutsk trunk-line with branchesto Pekin, and othernot less
monstrous schemes, the question being not what is really
designedforexecution,butwhatfreshmaterialmaybeoffered
for the spiritofspeculation to feed upon. There was nothing
wantingbutthepeacetohurrythegreatcrashapprehendedby
thePrussianCovernment.
This uncommon participation by Prussia in the speculative
movementofEuropewouldhave been impossible butforthe
great strides made by its industry of late years. The capital
investedinrailwaysalonehasbeenincreasedfrom:o,ooo,ooo
to t sa,ooo,oooPrussianthalers,intheinterval from t aoto
t sa~s s . Otherrailroadsatanestimated costof sa,ooo,ooo,
are in progress; andthe Covernmenthave further authorized
theconstructionofnewlines ata costofs;,ooo,ooo. Eighty-
sevenioint-stockcompanies,withacapitalof, ,ooo,ooo,have
sprung into life since t ao. from t sa~s6, nine insurance
companies,withacapitalofzz,ooo,ooo,havebeenregistered.
lntheselasttwoyears,likewise,sixioint-stockcompanies,with
acapitalofto, soo,ooo,havecommencedtorunspinning-mills.
From the Cotton Report it will be seenthatthe quantity of
cotton received by the different ports of Europe, has, from
: s ,~s 6,variedinthefollowingproportions,accordingtothe
return ofthe 6rst seven monthsoftheyearthe export ofbales
beingasfollows:
1853 1 854 1855 1 856
To England 1, 100,000 840,000 963,000 1, 131,000
!Iancc 255,000 229,000 249,000 354,000
Other European ports 204,000 179,000 1 67,000 346,000
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Hence itfollowsthattheContinent,whichin :ks,received
onlyaboutonethirdofthecottonexportedtoEngland,received
in:ks 6asmuchas6veeighthsofit.Tothismustbeaddedthe
cottonreshippedbyEng|andtotheContinent.Thegreatexport
tofranceisonlysoinappearance,considerablequantitiesbeing
transportedfromHavre to Switzerland,aden,frankfortand
Antwerp. The development of Continenta| industry as ex-
hibited bythe above 6gures denotes therefore, above al|, the
increase of Cerman, and chief|y of Prussian industry. The
wea|th accumulated by the industrial midd|e classes of |ate
years, is nearly rivaled by the appreciation of land-owners'
pro6tsduringthewarperiodofdearthandhighprice.Horses,
cattle,live-stock ingeneral, and not leastcorn,have kept so
high in Cermany itself, that the inuence offoreignmarkets
hashardlybeenneededtoenab|ethegreat|andho|derstoroll
ingold.ltiswealth~therapidincreaseofwealthneverbefore
experienced by these two classes~which has furnished the
basisforthepresentspeculativemurraininPrussia.
Thebursting ofthe bubblewill putthePrussian State to a
severetest. Thedifferentcounter-revolutionsithas undergone
since: kaohaveendedinplacingtheCovernmentinthepower
ofthenarrowclassofnoble|andowners,withrespecttowhom
theKing,who has done everythingto createtheirsupremacy,
now 6nds himself in the same situation as did Louis XVlll
toward the Chambre introuvable.48 frederick Wil|iam had
neverthesensetoputupwiththedrybureaucraticmachinery
ofCovernmentbequeathedhimbyhisfather.Hehasal|his|ife
beendreamingofbeautifyingthePrussianStateedi6cebysome
romantico-gothic decoration. The short experience which he
hashadofhisHerrenhaus,49 however,musthavesatis6edhim
thatinrealitythelandocracyorKraut junkers, astheyarecalled
inPrussia,sofarfromdeemingthemselveshappyinservingas
amediaevalornamenttothebureaucracy,arestrivingwithall
theirmighttodegradethebureaucracyandmakeitthesimple
executor oftheir class-interests. Hence the split between the
1unkers and the Administration; between the King and the
Prince of Prussia. To show the Covernment how much they
are in earnest, they have iust refused to renew the grant of
PRUSSI A
anadditional tax which had been levied during the war~a
thing unheard of in constitutional Prussia. They have coo||y
anddeliberatelyproclaimedthedoctrinethattheyareasmuch
kings over their little estates as the King himself is over the
countryatlarge.TheyinsistthattheConstitution,whileitisto
remainashamforall otherclasses,mustbearealityforthem-
selves. Emancipating themselves from all control of the
bureaucracy,theywishtoseeitweighwithdoubleforceonthe
classesbe|ow.
Themiddleclass,whobetrayedtherevolutionof: kak, have
nowthe satisfaction, evenwhile they are accomplishing their
social triumph by the unrestrained accumulation of capital,
of seeing themselves politica|ly annihilated. Moreover, the
Kraut junkers delight in every day 6nding fresh occasions to
make them feel their humiliation, even setting aside the
common laws ofetiquette. Whenthe middle-class spokesmen
getupintheHouseofDeputies,the1unkersleavetheirbenches
en masse, and when requested at least to listen to opinions
contrarytotheirown,theylaughinthefacesofthegentlemen
oftheLeft. Whenthe latter complain oftheobstructions put
inthewayofelections, theyareinformedthatitissimplythe
dutyofthe Covernmentto protectthe massesfromseduction.
Whentheycontrastthe licentiousness ofthearistocratic,with
the shackled condition ofthe liberalpress, they are reminded
thatlibertyinaChristianStateisnottodoasonepleases, but
as pleases Codandtheauthorities. One daytheyaregivento
understandthat'honoristhemonopolyofanaristocracy;the
nextdaytheyarestungtothequickbyapracticalil|ustrationof
theexplodedtheoriesofaHa|ler,adeonaldandadeMaistre.
Proudofhisphilosophical enlightenment,thePrussiancitizen
has the morti6cation of seeing the 6rst scienti6c men driven
from the universities, education handed over to a gang of
obscurants,ecclesiasticalcourtsmeddlingwithhisfamilycon-
cerns, andthe police taking himto church ona Sunday. Not
contentwithexemptingthemse|ves from taxes so far asthey
could, the1unkers have packed the middleclassinguilds and
corporations, adulterated their municipal institutions, abol-
lshedtheindependenceandimmovabilityoftheir1udges,can-
7
2 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
celledthereligiousequalityofthedifferentsects,and so forth.
lf at times their choking anger breaks through their fears, if
they occasionally muster enough courage to threaten, from
their seats in the Chamber, the 1unkers with a coming revol-
ution, theyare sneeringly answered thatthe revolution has as
heavyanaccounttosettlewiththemaswiththenobility.
lndeed, the higher middle class is not likely to 6nd itself
again, as in : a, at the head ofa Prussian revolution. The
peasantry in Eastern Prussia have lost not only all that the
revolutionof : ahadbroughtthemintheshape ofemanci-
pation,buthavebeenreducedoncemore,bothadministratively
andiudicially,underthedirectyokeofthenobility.lnRhenish
Prussia,bytheattractionofcapitaltowardindustrialenterprise,
theyhavesunkdeeperintothebondageofthemortgage,atthe
same rate at which the interest on loans has risen. While in
Austria something, at least, has been done to conciliate the
peasantry,inPrussianothinghasbeenleftundonetoexasperate
them.Astotheworkingclasses,theCovernmenthasprevented
themfromparticipatinginthepro6tsoftheir masters bypun-
ishing them for strikes, and has systematically excluded them
from taking part in political affairs. A disunited dynasty, a
Covernment broken up into hostile camps, the bureaucracy
quarrelingwiththearistocracy,thearistocracywiththemiddle
classageneralcommercialcrisis,andthedisinheritedclasses
broodinginthe spiritofrebellion againstall the upperlayers
ofsociety:suchistheaspectofPrussiaatthishour.
[Revolution in Spain] [ I ]
PublishedAugust , t s 6
ThenewsbroughtbytheAsia yesterday,thoughlaterbythree
days thanour previous advices, contains nothingtoindicatea
speedyconclusionofthecivilwarinSpain.O`Donnell'scoup`"
d'etat, although victorious at Madrid, cannot yet be said to
havennallysucceeded.ThefrenchMoniteur, whichatnrstput
down the insurrection at arcelona as a mere riot, is now
[ REVOLUTI ON IN SPAI N] [ I ]
73
obligedto confess that 'theconflict there was verykeen, but
thatthesuccess ofthe Queen's`' troopsmaybeconsideredas
secured.
According to the versionofthat ofncial iournalthe combat
atarcelonalastedfroms o`clockintheafternoon of1uly t
tillthe same houron the zt stexactlythreedayswhenthe
'insurgents are saidto have beendislodged fromtheir quar-
ters, andfled into thecountry,pursuedbycavalry. ltis, how-
ever, averred that the insurgents still hold several towns in
Catalonia, including Cerona, 1unquera, and some smaller
places. lt also appearsthatMurcia,Valencia and Seville have
madetheirpronunciamientos52 againstthecoup d'etat; thata
battalion ofthe garrison ofPampeluna, directed by the Cov-
ernor of that town on Soria, had pronounced against the
Covernmentontheroad, andmarchedtoiointheinsurrection
at Saragossa; andlastlythatat Saragossa, fromthebeginning
theacknowledgedcenterofresistance, Cen.falconhadpassed
in review :6,ooo soldiers of the line, reinforced by t s ,ooo
militiaandpeasants fromtheenvirons.
Atallevents,thefrenchCovernmentconsidersthe'insurrec-
tion in Spain as not quelled, and onaparte, far from con-
tentinghimselfwiththesendingofabatchofbattalionstoline
thefrontier,hasorderedonebrigadetoadvancetotheidassoa,
which brigade is being completed to a division by reinforce-
ments from Montpellier and Toulouse. lt seems, also, thata
seconddivisionhas beendetachedimmediatelyfromthe army
of Lyons, according to orders sentdirect from Plombieres on
thez,dult.,andisnowmarchingtowardthePyrenees,where,
by this time, there is assembled a full corps d'observation of
zs,ooo men. Should the resistance to the O`Donnell govern-
ment be able to hold its ground; should itprove formidable
enough to inveigle onaparte into an armedinvasion ofthe
Peninsula,thenthecoupd`etatofMadridmayhavegiventhe
signalforthedownfallofthecoupd'etatofParis.
H we considerthegeneralplot andthedramatis personae,
this Spanish conspiracy of t s 6appears asthe simple revival
ofthesimilarattemptof t a,, with some slightalterationsof
course. Then, as now, lsabella at Madrid and Christina`` at
74
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Paris;LouisPhilippe,insteadofLouisonaparte, directingthe
movement from the Tuileries; onthe oneside,Espartero and
hisAyacuchos; ontheother,O`Donnell,Serrano,Concha,with
Narvaez`thenintheproscenium,nowin thebackground.ln
t a,, Louis Philippe sent two millions ofgold bylandand
Narvaez and his friends by sea, the compact of the Spanish
marriagesbeingsettledbetweenhimselfandMadameMunoz.
ThecomplicityofonaparteintheSpanishcoupd'etatwho
has,perhaps,settledthemarriageofhiscousinPrinceNapoleon
witha Mdlle. Munoz, orwho at allevents, mustcontinuehis
mission of mimicking his unclethat complicity is not only
indicatedbythedenunciationshurledbytheMoniteur forthe
lasttwomonths atthe communist conspiracies in Castile and
Navarre, by the behavior before, during and after the coup
d'etatofM.deTurgot,thefrenchEmbassadoratMadrid,the
same man whowasthe foreign Ministerofonaparte during
hisowncoupd'etat;bytheDukeofAlba,onaparte'sbrother-
in-law,turningupasthePresidentofthenewayuntamiento at
Madrid,immediatelyafterthevictoryofO'Donnell;byRosde
Olano,anoldmemberofthe frenchparty,beingthenrstman
offeredaplaceinO'Donnell'sMinistry;andbyNarvaezbeing
dispatchedtoayonneby onaparteassoonasthenrstnews
of the affair reached Paris. That complicity was suggested
beforehandbytheforwardingoflargequantitiesofammunition
fromordeauxtoayonneafortnightinadvanceoftheactual
crisisatMadrid. Above all,itissuggestedbytheplanofoper-
ationsfollowed by O'Donnellinhisrazzia againstthe people
ofthatcity.Attheveryoutsetheannouncedthathewouldnot
shrink from blowing up Madrid, and during the nghting he
acteduptohisword.Now,althoughadaringfellow,O'Donnell
has never ventured upon a bold step without securing a safe
retreat. Like his notoriousuncle,theherooftreason,henever
burntthe bridge when he passed the Rubicon. The organ of
combativeness is singularly checked in the O'Donnel|s by the
organs of cautiousness and secretiveness. lt is plain that any
general who shouldholdforth the threatof layingthe capital
inashes, andfail inhisattempt, wouldforfeithis head. How
then did O'Donnell venture upon such delicate ground? The
[ REVOLUTI ON IN S PAI N] [ I ] 75
secretisbetrayedbytheJournal des Debats, thespecialorgan
ofQueenChristina.
O'Donnell expected a great battle, and at the most a victory
hotly disputed. Into his provisions there entered the possibility
of defeat. If such a misfortune had happened, the Marshal would
have abandoned Madrid with the rest of his army, escorting the
Queen, and turning toward the northern provinces, with a view
to approach the French frontier.
Doesnot all this look as ifhe had laidhis planwithona-
parte? Exactly the same plan had beensettledbetweenLouis
PhilippeandNarvaezin t a,, which,again,wascopiedfrom
the secretconventionbetweenLouisXVllland ferdinandVll,
int z,.
This plausibleparallel between the Spanish conspiracies of
t a,andt s 6onceadmitted,therearestillsufncientlydistinct
featuresinthetwomovementsto indicatetheimmensestrides
made bythe Spanish people within so briefan epoch. These
features are: the political character of the last struggle at
Madrid;itsmilitaryimportance;andnnally,therespectivepos-
itionofEsparteroandO'Donnellint s 6comparedwiththose
of Espartero and Narvaez in t a,. ln t a, all parties had
become tired of Espartero. To get rid of him a powerful
coalitionwasformedbetweentheModerados andProgresistas.
Revolutionary i untas springing up like mushrooms in all the
towns, pavedthe way for Narvaez and his retainers. ln t s 6
we have not onlythecourt andarmy on the one side against
thepeopleontheother, butwithintheranksofthepeoplewe
havethesamedivisions asinthe restofWestern Europe. On
the t,th of1uly the Ministry ofEspartero offered its forced
resignation; in the night ofthe t , th and tath the Cabinet of
O'Donnell was constituted; on the morning of the tath the
rumorspreadthatO'Donnell,chargedwiththeformationofa
cabinet, had invited Ryos y Rosas, theill-omened Minister of
the bloody days of1uly, t sa, to ioin him. At I I a.m. the
Gaceta connrmed the rumor. Then the Cortes assembled,
o, deputiesbeingpresent.Accordingtotherulesofthatbody,
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
zomemberssufncetocallameeting,andsotoformaquorum.
esides, the Cortes had not been formally prorogued. Cen.
lnfante,thePresident,couldnotbutcomplywiththeuniversal
wishtoholdaregularsitting.Apropositionwassubmittedto
the effectthat the new Cabinet did not enioy the conndence
ofthe Cortes, and that her Maiesty`` should be informed of
this resolution. At the same time, the Cortes summoned the
NationalCuardtobereadyforaction.TheirCommittee bear-
ing the resolution ofwantofconndence,wentto the oueen,
escortedbyadetachmentofNationalMilitia.Whileendeavor-
ingt

enterthepalacetheyweredrivenback bythetroopsof
the lme, whonred upon them and theirescort. This incident
gavethesignalfortheinsurrection.Theordertocommencethe
building of barricades was given at 7 in the evening by the
Cortes,whosemeetingwasdispersedimmediatelyafterwardby
thetroopsofO'onnell.Thebattlecommencedthesamenight,
only one battalion ofthe National Militia ioining the Royal
troops.Itshould benoted thatasearlyasthemorning ofthe
I 3 th,SenorEscosura,theEsparteristMinister ofthelnterior
hadtelegraphedtoarcelonaandSaragossathatacoupd'eta
wasathand,andthattheymustpreparetoresistit.Atthehead
oftheMadridinsurgentswereSenorMadozandCen.Valdez,
thebrotherofEscosura.lnshort,therecanbenodoubtthatthe
r

istancetoth

ecoupd'etatoriginatedwiththeEsparterists,the
crtrzens and Lrberals in general. While they, with the militia
engagedthelineacrossMadridfromeasttowest,theworkme
underPucheta occupiedthesouthandpartofthenorthsideof
thetown.
Onthemorning ofthe : sth, O'Donnell tookthe initiative.
Even by the partial testimony of the Debats, O'Donnell ob-
tained no marked advantage duringthe nrst halfofthe day.
Suddenly,atabout I o`clock, withoutanyperceptiblereason,
theransoftheN

tionalMilitiawerebroken;at2 o'clockthey

ere strll more thmned,and at6o'clocktheyhadcompletely


drsappearedfromthescene ofaction,leavingthewholebrunt

fthe

battle to be bornebythe workmen,who fought itout


trll 4 m the afternoon of the : 6th. Thusthere were, in these
three days of carnage, two distinct battles~the one of the
[ REVOLUTI ON I N S PAI N] [ I ] 77
LiberalMilitiaofthemiddleclass,supportedbytheworkmen
againstthearmy, andtheotherofthe armyagainstthework-
mendesertedbythemilitia.AsHeinehasit: 'ltisanoldstory,
butisalwaysnew.
EsparterodesertstheCortes;theCortesdeserttheleadersof
theNationalCuard;theleadersdeserttheirmen, andthe men
desertthepeople.Onthe: sth,however,theCortesassembled
again, when Espartero appeared for a moment.1e was re-
mindedbySenorAssensioandothermembersofhisreiterated
protestationsto drawhisgrandswordofLuchanaonthenrst
day when the liberty of the country should be endangered.
EsparterocalledHeaventowitnesshisunswervingpatriotism,
andwhenheleft,itwasfullyexpectedthathe wouldsoonbe
seen atthe head ofthe insurrection. lnstead ofthis, he went
to the house of Cen. Currea, where he buried himself in a
bomb-proofcellar, a la Palafox, and was heard ofno more.
Thecommandants ofthe militia,who, onthe evening before,
hademployedeverymeans toexcitethemilitiamentotakeup
arms, nowproved as eagerto retireto theirprivatehouses.At
zx p.m. Cen. Valdez, who for some hours had usurped the
commandofthemilitia,convokedthesoldiersunderhis direct
command on the Plaza Mayor, and told them that the man
who naturally oughtto be attheir headwould notcomefor-
ward, andthatconsequentlyeverybodywasatlibertytowith-
draw. Hereupon the National Cuards rushed to their homes
andhastenedto get rid oftheir uniformsand hidetheir arms.
Such is the substance of the account furnished by one well-
informedauthority.Anothergivesasthereasonforthissudden
actofsubmissiontotheconspiracy,thatitwasconsideredthat
thetriumphoftheNationalCuardwaslikelytoentailtheruin
ofthethroneandtheabsolutepreponderanceoftheRepublican
Democracy. The Presse of Paris also gives us to understand
that Marshal Espartero, seeingtheturn given to things in the
CongressbytheDemocrats,didnotwishtosacrincethethrone,
or launch into the hazards of anarchy and civil war, and in
consequence did all he could to produce submission to
O'Donnell.
It istruethatthe details astothetime,circumstances, and
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
break-downoftheresistancetothecoupd'etat,aregivendiffer-
ently by different writers; but all agree on the one principal
point,thatEsparterodesertedtheCortes,theCortestheleaders,
the leaders the middle class, and that class the people. This
furnishes a new illustration of the character of most of the
Europeanstrugglesoft aao,andofthosehereaftertotake
place in the Western portion of that continent. On the one
handtherearemodernindustryandtrade,thenaturalchiefsof
which,themiddleclasses,areaversetothemilitarydespotism;
ontheotherhand,whentheybeginthebattleagainstthissame
despotism,insteptheworkmenthemselves,theproductofthe
modern organization oflabor, to claim theirdue shareofthe
resultofvictory.frightenedbytheconsequencesofanalliance
thusimposedontheirunwillingshoulders, themiddleclasses
shrinkback againunderthe protecting batteries ofthehated
despotism. Thisisthesecretofthestandingarmies ofEurope,
which otherwise will be incomprehensible to the future his-
torian.The middleclassesofEuropearethusmadetounder-
standthattheymusteithersurrendertoapoliticalpowerwhich
theydetest, and renouncethe advantages ofmodern industry
andtrade,andthesocialrelationsbasedupon them, orforego
theprivilegeswhichthemodernorganizationoftheproductive
powersofsociety,initsprimaryphase, hasvestedinanexclu-
siveclass.ThatthislessonshouldbetaughtevenfromSpainis
somethingequallystrikingandunexpected.
[Revolution in Spain] [ ! ! ]
PublishedAugustt, t s 6
Saragossa surrendered on August I , at t . ,o p.m., and thus
vanished the last center ofresistance to the Spanish counter-
revolution.Therewas,inamilitarypointofview,littlechance
ofsuccessafterthedefeatsatMadridandarcelona,thefeeble-
ness of the insurrectionary diversion in Andalusia, and the
converging advance ofoverwhelming forces from the asque
provinces,Navarre,Catalonia,ValenciaandCastile.Whatever
[ REVOLUTI ON I N S PAI N] [ I I ]
79
chancetheremightbewasparalyzed bythecircumstancethat
it was Espartero' s old aide-de-camp, Ceneral falcon, who
directedtheforcesofresistance;that'EsparteroandLiberty"
wasgivenasthebattlecry;andthatthepopulationofSaragossa
hadbecomeawareofEspartero'sincommensurablyridiculous
6ascoatMadrid.esides,thereweredirectordersfromEspar-
tero'sheadquarterstohisbottle-holdersatSaragossa,thatthey
were to put an end to all resistance, as will beseen fromthe
followingextractfromtheJournal de Madrid of|ulyzo: 'One
ofthe Esparterist ex-Ministers tookpart in the negotiations
going on between Ceneral Dulce and the authorities of Sara-
gossa,andtheEsparteristmemberoftheCortes,|uanMartinez
Alonso,acceptedthemissionofinformingtheinsurgentleaders
thattheQueen,herMinistersandhergenerals,wereanimated
byamostconciliatoryspirit."
The revolutionary movement was pretty generally spread
overthe whole of Spain. Madrid and La Mancha in Castile;
Cranada, Seville, Malaga, Cadiz, |aen, etc., in Andalusia;
Murcia and Cartagena in Murcia;Valencia,Alicante, Alzira,
etc., in Valencia; arcelona, Reus, figueras, Cerona, in Cata-
lonia;Saragossa,Teruel,Huesca,|aca,etc.,inAragon;Oviedo
in Asturias; and Coruna in Calicia. Therewere no moves in
Estremadura, Leon and old Castile, where the revolutionary
party had been put down two months ago, under the i oint
auspices of Espartero and O'Donnell~the asque provinces
andNavarrealsoremainingquiet.Thesympathiesofthelatter
provinces, however, were with the revolutionary cause, al-
though they might not manifest themselves in sight of the
french army ofobservation.Thisisthemoreremarkableifit
beconsideredthattwentyyearsagotheseveryprovincesformed
the stronghold ofCarlismthen backed by the peasantry of
AragonandCatalonia,butwho,thistime,weremostpassion-
atelysidingwiththerevolution;andwhowouldhaveproveda
mostformidableelementofresistance,hadnottheimbecilityof
theleadersatarcelonaandSaragossapreventedtheirenergies
from being turned to account. Even The London Morning
Herald, theorthodoxchampionofProtestantism,whichbroke
lances for the Quixote of the auto-da-fe, Don Carlos, some
80 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
twentyyears ago, has stumbledoverthatfact, which itisfair
enoughtoacknowledge.Thisisoneofthemanysymptomsof
progressrevealedbythelastrevolutioninSpain,aprogressthe
slownessofwhichwillastonishonlythosenotacquaintedwith
the peculiar customs and manners ofa country, where 'a la
manana"isthewatchwordofeveryday'slife,andwhereevery-
body is ready to tell you that 'our forefathers needed eight
hundredyearstodriveouttheMoors."
Notwithstanding the general spread of pronunciamientos,
the revolution in Spain was limited only to Madrid and ar-
celona. ln the south it was broken by the cholera morbus,56
in thenorth bythe Esparteromurrain. froma militarypoint
of view, the insurrections at Madrid and arcelona offer
few interesting and scarcely any novel features. On the one
sidethearmyeverythingwaspreparedbeforehand;onthe
othereverythingwasextemporized;the offensive neverfora
momentchangedsides.Ontheonehand,awell-equippedarmy,
movingeasilyinthestringsofitscommandinggenerals;onthe
other,leadersreluctantlypushedforwardbytheimpetusofan
imperfectly-armedpeople. At Madrid the revolutionists from
the outset committed the mistake of blocking themselves up
in the internal parts of the town, on the line connecting the
eastern and western extremities~extremities commanded by
O'Donnell and Concha, who communicated with each other
andthecavalryofDulcethroughtheexternalboulevards.Thus
the people were cutting off and exposing themselves to the
concentric attack preconcerted byO'Donnell and his accom-
plices.O'DonnellandConchahadonlytoeffecttheiriunction
andtherevolutionaryforcesweredispersedintothenorthand
southquartersofthetown,anddeprivedofallfurthercohesion.
ltwasadistinctfeatureoftheMadridinsurrectionthatbarri-
cadeswereusedsparinglyandonlyatprominentstreetcorners,
whilethe houses were made thecenters ofresistance; and~
whatisunheardofinstreetwarfare~bayonetattacksmetthe
assailingcolumnsofthearmy.ut,iftheinsurgentspro6tedby
theexperienceoftheParisandDresdeninsurrections,thesol-
diershadlearnednolessbythem.Thewallsofthehouseswere
brokenthrough one by one, andthe insurgents were taken in
[ REVO LUTI ON IN SPAI N] [ I I ]
8 1
the flankandrear,whilethe exitsintothe streetswere swept
bycannon-shot.Anotherdistinguishedfeatureinthisbattle of
Madrid was that Pucheta, after the iunction of Concha and
O'Donnell, when he was pushed into the southern |Toledo
quarterofthetown,transplantedtheguerri

llawararefrom

the
mountainsofSpainintothestreetsofMadnd.Themsurrectron,
dispersed, faced about undersome arch ofa church, in some
narrowlane, onthe staircase ofa house, and there defended
itselftothedeath.
At arcelonathe6ghtingwasstillmoreintense,therebeing
no leadership at all. Militarily, this insurrection, like all pre-
vious risingsinarcelona,perished bythefactofthe citad

el,
fortMonti uick,remaininginthehandsofthearmy.TheVO~
lence of the struggle is characterized by the burning of
: so soldiers in their barracks at Cracia, a sub

rb which the
insurgentshotlycontested,after being already drslodgedfrom
arcelona.lt deserves mentionthat, while atMadrid '. . . ] the
proletarianswerebetrayedanddesertedbythebourgeoisie,the
weavers of arcelona declared at the very outset that they
would have nothing to do with a movement set on foot by
Esparterists, and insisted on the declaration ofthe Republic.
Thisbeingrefused,they,withtheexceptionofsomewhocould
notresistthesmellofpowder,remainedpassivespectators of
thebattle,whichwasthuslostallinsurrectionsatarcelona
beingdecidedbyits zo,oooweavers.

The Spanish revolution of :s6is distinguishedfrom all rts


predecessorsbythelossofalldynasticcharacter.ltisknownthat
the movement from : oto : :awasnationalanddynastic.
AlthoughtheCortesin::zproclaimedanalmostrepublican
Constitution, they did it in the name of ferdinand Vll. The
movement of : zoz,, timidly republican, was altogeth

r
premature and had against it the massesto whose support rt
appealed,those masses beingboundaltogethertothe Church
andtheCrown.SodeeplyrootedwasroyaltyinSpain,thatthe
struggle between old and modern society, to b

come s

rious,
needed a testament offerdinand Vll, and the mcarnatron of
theantagonisticprinciplesintwodynasticbranches,

th

Carlist
and Cristina ones. Even to combat for a new prmcrple the
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Spaniardwantedatime-honoredstandard.Underthesebanners
the strugg|e was fought out, from t , , to t a,. Then there
wasanendofrevolution,andthenewdynastywasallowedits
trialfromt a,to t sa. lntherevo|utionof1uly, t sa, there
wasthusnecessari|yimpliedanattackonthenewdynasty;but
innocentlsabe|wascoveredbythehatredconcentratedonher
mother,andthepeoplereve|ednotonlyintheirownemanci-
pation but also in that of lsabel from her mother and the
camarilla.
ln t s 6the cloak had fallen and lsabel herself confronted
the peop|e by the coup d'etat that fomented the revo|ution.
She proved theworthy,coo||y cruel, and cowardly hypocrite
daughter offerdinand Vll, who was so much given to lying
thatnotwithstandinghisbigotryhecouldneverconvincehim-
self,evenwiththeaidoftheHolylnquisition,thatsuchexalted
personagesas1esusChristandhisApost|eshadspokentruth.
Even Murat's massacre of the Madrilenos in t o dwindles
intoaninsignincantriotbythesideofthebutcheriesofthet a
t6th 1uly, smiled upon by the innocent lsabel. Those days
sounded the death-knell of royalty in Spain. There are only
theimbeci|e|egitimistsofEuropeimaginingthatlsabelhaving
fallen, Don Carlos may rise. They are forever thinking that
whenthelastmanifestationofaprinciplediesaway,itisonly
togiveitsprimitivemanifestationanotherturn.
lnt s6,theSpanishrevolutionhaslostnotonlyitsdynastic,
but also its military character. Why the army played such a
prominent partin Spanishrevolutions, may betold in a very
few words. The o|d institution of the Captain-Ceneralships,
whichmadethecaptains thepashas oftheir respective prov-
inces;thewarofindependenceagainstfrance,whichnoton|y
made the army theprincipa| instrument of national defense,
butalso the nrstrevolutionaryorganizationandthecenter of
revolutionary action in Spain; the conspiracies of t ta~to,
all emanating from the army; the dynastic war oft , , ~ao,
depending on the armies of both sides; the isolation of the
liberalbourgeoisieforcingthemto employthe bayonetsofthe
armyagainstc|ergyandpeasantryinthecountry;thenecessity
forCristina andthecamarillato employbayonetsagainstthe
[ REVOLUTI ON I N SPAI N] [ I I ]
Liberals, as the Liberals had employed bayonets against the
peasants; the tradition growing out of a|l these precedents;
thesewerethe causeswhichimpressed onrevolutionin Spain
a military, and onthe army a pretorian character. Ti|l t sa,
revo|ution always originated with the army, and its different
manifestationsuptothattimeofferednoexternalsignofdiffer-
ence beyond the grade in the army whence they originated.
Evenin t sa the nrst impulse stillproceededfromthe army,
butthereisthe Manzanares manifestoofO' Donnel|to attest
how slender the base ol the military preponderance in the
Spanish revolution had become. Under what conditions was
O'Donnellnna|lyallowedtostayhisscarcelyequivoca|prom-
enadefromVicalvarotothePortuguesefrontiers,andtobring
backthearmytoMadrid?Onlyonthepromisetoimmediately
reduceit,toreplaceitbytheNationalCuard,andnottoallow
thefruitsoftherevolution,tobesharedbythegenerals.lfthe
revolutionoft sa connned itselfthustotheexpressionofits
distrust,onlytwoyearslater,itnndsitselfopenlyanddirectly
attackedbythatarmyanarmythathasnowworthilyentered
thelists bythesideofthe Croats ofRadetzky,theAfricansof
onaparte, and the Pomeranians of Wrangel. How far the
gloriesofitsnewpositionareappreciatedbytheSpanisharmy,
isprovedbytherebellionofaregimentatMadrid,onthezothof
1uly,which,notbeingsatisnedwiththemerecigarros oflsabe|,
struckforthenvefrancpieces,andsausagesofonaparte,and
gotthem,too.
Thistime,then,thearmyhas been all againstthe people,
or indeed, it has onlyfoughtagainstthem, andtheNational
,
a + +
Cuards. lnshort,there is anendofthe revolutronarymrssron
ofthe Spanisharmy.ThemaninwhomcenteredthemiIitary,
thedynastic,andthebourgeoisliberalcharacteroftheSpanish
revolution~Esparterohas now sunk even lower than the
common law of fate would have enabled his most intimate
connoisseurs to anticipate. lf, as is generally rumored, and is
veryprobable,theEsparteristsareabouttorallyunderO'Don-
nell,theywillhaveconnrmedtheirsuicidebyanofncialactof
theirown.Theywil|notsavehim.
The next European revolution will nnd Spainmatured for
DI S PATC HES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
cooperation with it. The years : sa and :s6 were phasesof
transitionshehadtopassthroughtoarriveatthatmaturity.
[On Italian Unity]
Published1anuaryza,: s o
Liketheboyandhiswolfalarm,theltalianshavesorepeatedly
af6rmed that'ltalyisrifewithagitation, and ontheeveofa
revolution,thecrownedheadsofEuropehavesooftenprated
abouta 'settlement ofthe ltalian Question, thatitwill not
be surprising ifthe actual appearance of the wolf should be
unheeded, andifarealrevolutionandageneralEuropeanwar
shouldbreakoutandtakeusunawares!TheEuropeanaspectof
: so isdecidedlywarlike,and,shouldthe hostilebearing,the
apparent preparations of france and Piedmont for war with
Austria,endinsmoke,itisnotimprobablethattheburninghate
oftheltalianstowardtheiroppressors,combinedwiththeirever-
increasingsuffering, will 6ndventinageneralrevolution.We
limit ourselves to a not improbable-for, if hope deferred
makeththeheartsick,fulnllmentofprophecydeferredmaketh
themindskeptical.Still,ifwearetocreditthereportsofEnglish,
ltalianandfrenchiournals,themoralconditionofNaplesisa
facsimile ofherphysicalstructure,andatorrentofrevolutionary
lavawouldoccasionnomoresurprisethanwouldafresherup-
tionofoldVesuvius.WritersfromthePapalStatesdwellindetail
ontheincreasing abusesofclericalgovernment,andthedeep-
rootedbeliefoftheRomanpopulationthatreformorameliora-
tionisimpossible~thatatotaloverthrowofsaidgovernmentis
thesoleremedy~thatthisremedywouldhavebeenadminis-
teredlongsince,butforthepresenceofSwiss,frenchandAus-
triantroops~andthat,inspiteofthesematerialobstacles,such
anattemptmaybemadeatanydayoratanyhour.
fromVeniceand Lombardy,thetidingsaremorede6nite
andremind usforciblyofthesymptomsthatmarkedtheclose
of : a;and the commencement of :a in these provinces.
AbstinencefromtheuseofAustriantobaccoandmanufactures
[ ON I TALI AN UNI TY]
isuniversal,alsoproclamationstothepopulacetorefrainfrom
placesofpublicamusement~studiedproofs ofhate offeredto
theArchduke`andtoallAustrianof6cialsarecarriedtosuch
apointthatPrinceAlfonsoParcia,anltaliannoblemandevoted
to the House of Hapsburg, dared not, in the public streets,
removehishatastheArchduchesspassed,thepunishmentfor
whichmisdemeanor,administeredintheformofanorderfrom
theArchdukeforthePrince'simmediatedeparturefromMilan,
actsasanincentivetohisclasstoiointhepopularcryoffuori
i Tedeschi. 58 lfweaddtothesemutedemonstrationsofpopular
feelingthedailyquarrelsbetweenthepeopleandthesoldiery,
invariablyprovoked by the former, therevoltofthestudents
of Pavia, and the consequent closing of the Universities, we
havebefore our eyesareenactmentofthe prologueto the 6ve
daysofMilanin : a.
utwhilewebelievethatltalycannotremainforeveri nher
presentcondition,sincethelongestlanemusthaveaturning~
whileweknowthatactiveorganizationisgoingonthroughout
thepeninsula,wearenotpreparedto saywhetherthesemani-
festationsareentirelythespontaneousebullitionsofthepopu-
larwill,orwhethertheyarestimulated bytheagentsofLouis
Napoleonand ofhis ally, Count Cavour.`'1udgingfrom ap-
pearances,Piedmont,backedbyfrance,andperhapsbyRussia,
meditates an attack on Austria in the Spring. from the
Emperor's reception of the Austrian Embassador at Paris, it
would seem that he harbors no friendly designs toward the
Covernment represented by M. Htibner;'" from the concen-
trationofsopowerfulaforceatAlgiers, itisnotunnaturalto
suppose that hostilities to Austria would commence with an
attack on her ltalian provinces; the warlike preparations of
Piedmont, the all butdeclarationsofwartoAustriathatema-
nate daily from the ofncial and semi-ofncial portion of the
Piedmontese press,givecolortothesurmise thattheKingwill
availhimselfofthe6rstpretexttocrosstheTicino.''Moreover,
the report that Caribaldi,' the hero of Montevideo and of
Rome, has been summoned to Turin, is con6rmed from pri-
vate and reliable sources. Cavour has had an interview with
Caribaldi,informedhimoftheprospectsofaspeedywar, and
86 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
has suggested to him the wisdom ofcollecting and organizing
volunteers. Austria, one ofthe chief parties concerned, gives
evidentproofthatshelendscredencetotherumors.lnaddition
toher 1 20,000 men,concentratedinherltalianprovinces,she
isaugmenting herforcesbyeveryconceivablemeans; andhas
iust pushed forward a reinforcement of 30,000. Thedefenses
ofVenice,Trieste, &c., are beingincreasedand strengthened;
and in all her other provinces land-owners and trainers are
called on to bring forward their studs, as saddle-horses are
required forthe cavalry and pioneers. And while, on the one
hand, she omits no preparations forresistance in a 'prudent
Austrian way, she is also providing for a possible defeat.
from Prussia, the Piedmont of Cermany, whose interestsare
diametrical|y opposed to her own, she can, atbest, hope but
forneutrality.ThemissionofherEmbassador,aronSeebach,
toStPetersburg,seemstohavefailedutterlytowinaprospect
ofsuccessinthecase ofattack.Theschemesofthe Czar,` in
morewaysthanone, and nottheleastonthequestionofthe
Mediterranean, where he, too, has cast anchor, coincide too
nearlywiththoseofhisex-opponent,nowfastally,inParis,to
permithimto defend 'thegratefulAustria. Thewell-known
sympathyoftheEnglishpeople withtheltaliansintheirhatred
ofthe giogo tedesco64 renders it very doubtful whether any
ritishMinistrywoulddaretosupportAustria,anxiousasone
andallwouldbetodoso.Moreover,Austria,incommonwith
manyothers,hasshrewdsuspicionsthatthewould-be'avenger
ofWaterloo'` has by no means lost sight of his anxiety for
thehumiliationof'perndiousAlbion~that, notchoosingto
beard the lion in his den, he will not shrink from hurling
denance at him in the East, attacking, in coniunction with
Russia,theTurkishEmpire|despitehisoathsto maintainthat
empire inviolate , thus bringing half the ritish forces into
action on the Eastern battle-neld, while from Cherbourg he
keeps the other half in forced inaction, guarding the ritish
coasts. Therefore, in the case of actual war, Austria has the
uncomfortable feelingthatshemustrelyonherselfalone; and
oneofhermanyexpedientsforsufferingtheleastpossibleloss,
incaseofdefeat, isworthyofnoticeforitsimpudentsagacity.
[ ON I TALI AN UNI TY]
The barracks, palaces, arsenals and other ofncial buildings
throughoutVenetianLombardy,theerectionandmaintenance
ofwhichhavetaxedtheltaliansexorbitantly,are,nevertheless,
considered the property of the Empire. At this moment the
Covernmentis compelling the differentmunicipalitiesto pur-
chase all these buildings at a fabulous price, alleging as its
motive that it intendsto rent insteadofowning them forthe
future.Whether the municipalities will ever see a farthingof
therent, evenifAustriaretainshersway, is doubtful atbest;
but, should she be driven from all, or from any part of her
ltalian territory, she will congratulate herself on her cunning
schemeforconvertinga largeportionofherforfeitedtreasure
intoportablecash.ltisasserted,moreover,thatsheisusingher
utmosteffortstoinspirethePope,theKingofNaples,theDukes
ofTuscany, Parma and Modena, withher ownresolutionto
resisttotheuttermostallattemptsonthepartofthepeopleor
the crowned heads to change the existing order ofthings in
ltaly. ut none knows better than Austria herself how bad
would be the best efforts of these poor tools to make head
againstthetideofpopularinsurrectionorforeigninterference.
And, while war on Austria is the fervent aspiration ofevery
true ltalian heart, we cannot doubt that a large mai ority of
ltalianslookupontheprospectsofawar,begunbyfranceand
Piedmont, as doubtful, to say the least, in its results. While
noneconscientiously believethatthemurderer ofRome''can
byanyhumanprocessbetransformedintotheSaviorofLom-
bardy,asmallfactionfavorLouisNapoleon'sdesignsofplacing
MuratonthethroneofNaples,professtobelieveinhisinten-
tiontoremovethePopefromltalyortoconnnehimtotheCity
andCampagnaofRome,andofassistingPiedmonttoaddthe
wholeofNorthernltalytoherdominions.Thenthereisaparty,
smallbuthonest,whoimaginethattheideaofanltaliancrown
dazzles Victor Emmanuel, as it was supposed to dazzle his
father;who believethathe anxiously awaitsthenrstopportu-
nity to unsheathe his sword for its attainment, and that it is
withthis sole end in view thatthe King will avail himself of
help from france, or any other help, to achieve this coveted
treasure.Amuchlargerclass,numberingadherentsthtoughout
88 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
the oppressed provinces oflta|y, especia||y in Lombardy and
amongtheLombardemigration,havingnoparticularfaithin
the PiedmonteseKingorPiedmontesemonarchy,yetsay. 'e
theiraimswhattheymay,Piedmonthas anarmyofIOO.OOO
men, a navy, arsenals, andtreasure; let her throwdown the
gauntlettoAustria;wewillfollowhertothebatt|e-neld.ifshe
is faithful, she sha|l have her reward; ifshefal|sshortofher
mission,thenationwil|bestrongenoughtocontinuethebattle
oncebegunandfo|lowituptovictory."
TheltalianNationalparty,'onthecontrary,denounceasa
nationa| calamity the inaugurationofanltalianWaroflnde-
pendenceundertheauspicesoffranceandPiedmont.Thepoint
at issue with them is not, as is often erroneously supposed,
whether ltaly, once free from the foreigners, shall be united
under a republican or monarchical form of government, but
thatthemeansproposedmustfailtowinltalyfortheltalians,
and can at best on|y exchange one foreign yoke foranother
equally oppressive. They believe that the man of the zd of
Decemberwi|lnevermakewaratall, unlesscompelledbythe
growing impatience ofhis army, or bythe threatening aspect
ofthefrenchpeople;that,thuscompelled, hischoiceofltaly
asthetheaterofwarwouldhaveforits obiectthe fu|nllment
of his uncle's scheme~the making of the Mediterranean a
'french |ake~whichendwould beaccomp|ishedbyseating
Murat on the throne of Nap|es; that, in dictating terms to
Austria,heseeksthecompletionofhisrevenge,commencedin
theCrimea,forthetreatiesofI:5, whenAustriawasoneof
the parties who dictated to france terms humi|iating in the
extreme for the onaparte family. They |ook upon Piedmont
asthemerecat's-pawoffrance~convincedthat,hisownends
achieved,notdaringto assistltalytoattainthatlibertywhich
he denies to france, Napoleon lll wi|| conclude a peace with
Austriaandstiflealleffortsoftheltalianstocarry onthewar.
lfAustria sha|| have at a|l maintained her ground, Piedmont
mustcontentherselfwiththeadditionoftheDuchiesofParma
and Modena to her presentterritory; but, should Austria be
worstedinthenght,thatpeacewi|lbeconcludedontheAdige,
whichwillleavethewholeofVeniceandpartofLombardyin
[ ON I TALI AN UNITY]
the handsofthehatedAustrians.Thispeace upon the Adige,
theyafnrm, isalreadytacitlyagreedonbetweenPiedmontand
france.Conndentasthispartyfeelsofthetriumphofthenation
inthe eventofa nationa| war againstAustria, they maintain
that, should that war be commenced with Napo|eon for
lnspirer,andtheKingofSardiniaforDictator,the ltalianswill
haveputitoutoftheirownpowertomoveastepinopposition
totheir acceptedheads,toimpedeinanymannerthewilesof
diplomacy,thecapitulations,treatiesandthererivetingoftheir
chains which must resu|t therefrom; and they point to the
conductofPiedmonttowardVeniceandMi|anin: a, andat
Novara in : ao, andurgetheir countrymen to pront by that
bitterexperienceoftheirfataltrustinprinces. Alltheirefforts
aredirectedto complete the organizationofthepeninsula, to
induce the people to unite in one supreme effort, and not to
commence the struggle until they feel themselves capable of
initiatingthegreatnationalinsurrectionwhich,whiledeposing
thePope,omba & Co., wouldrenderthe armies,naviesand
warmaterialoftherespectiveprovincesavailablefortheexter-
mination oftheforeignfoe. Regarding the Piedmontese army
andpeop|easardentchampionsoflta|ianliberty,theyfeelthat
theKingofPiedmontwi|lthushaveamplescopeforaidingthe
freedom and independence of lta|y, ifhe chooses; should he
prove reactionary, they know that the army and people will
sidewiththenation.Shouldhei ustifythefaithreposedinhim
byhispartisans,theltalians willnotbebackwardintestifying
theirgratitudeina tangible form. lnany case, the nation will
beinasituationtodecideonitsowndestinies,andfee|ing, as
theydo,thata successfulrevolutioninltalywillbethesignal
forageneralstruggleonthepartofalltheoppressednationali-
ties toridthemselvesoftheiroppressors,theyhavenofearof
interferenceonthepartoffrance, sinceNapoleonlllwillhave
toomuchhomebusinessonhishandstomeddlewiththeaffairs
ofothernations,evenforthefurtheranceofhisownambitious
aims.A chi tocca-tocca?68 astheltalianssay.Wewil|notven-
turetopredictwhethertherevolutionistsortheregulararmies
will appear nrst on the neld. What seems pretty certain is,
thatawarbeguninany partofEuropewil| notendwhere it
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
commences; and if, indeed, that war is inevitable, our sincere
andheartfeltdesire is,thatitmaybringabouta trueandiust
settlement of the ltalian question and of various other ques-
tions, which, until settled, will continue from time to time
to disturb the peace ofEurope, and consequently impede the
progressandprosperityofthewholecivilizedworld.
A Historic Parallel
PublishedMarch , : , : so
WhenLouisNapoleon,emulatingthelessluckyMarinofaliero
ofVenice,'' vaulted to a throne by periury and treason, by
midnight conspiracy and the seizure of the incorruptible
members of the Assembly in their beds, backed by an over-
whelming display of military force in the streetsofParis, the
sovereignprinces and aristocracies ofEurope, the greatland-
owners, manufacturers, rentiers and stockiobbers, almost to
a man, exulted in his success as their own. 'The crimes are
his, was their general chuckle, 'but their fruits are ours.
Louis Napoleon reigns in theTuileries;while we reign even
moresecurelyanddespoticallyonourdomains,inourfactories,
on the ourse, and in our counting-houses. Down with all
Socialism! Vive rEmpereur!"
AndnexttotheMilitary,thefortunateusurperpliedallhis
artstoattachtherichandpowerful,thethriftyandspeculating,
tohisstandard.'TheEmpireispeace,heexclaimed,andthe
millionaires almost deined him. 'Our very dear son in 1esus
Christ, thePope affectionately termed him; and the Roman
Catholicpriesthoodsalutedhim (pro ter. ) witheveryexpres-
sion ofconndence and devotion. Stocksrose; anks ofCredit
Mobilier sprang up and flourished; millions were made at a
dash ofthe peninnew railroads, a new slave-trade, and new
speculationsofeverysort.TheritishAristocracy,turningtheir
back onthe past, doffedtheir caps andpulledtheirforelocks
tothenewonaparte;hepaidafamilyvisitto QueenVictoria
andwasfeastedbytheCityofLondon;theExchangetouched
A HI STORI C PARALLEL 91
glasseswith the ourse;therewas general congratulationand
hand-shakingamongthe apostlesofstocki obbing, anda con-
victionthatthe golden calf had nnally been fully deined, and
thathisAaronwasthenewfrenchautocrat.
Sevenyearshaverolledaway,andallischanged.Napoleonlll
hasspokenthe word thatmaynever beunsaidnor forgotten.
Nomatterwhetherhe rushesonhisdestinyasrecklesslyashis
forerunnerdidinSpainandRussia,orisforcedbytheindignant,
universalmurmuroftheroyaltiesandbourgeoisesofEuropeinto
a position of temporary submission to their will, the spell is
foreverbroken.Theyknewhimlongsinceasavillain;butthey
deemedhimaserviceable,pliant,obedient,gratefulvillain;and
theynowseeandruetheirmistake.Hehas beenusing them all
thetimethattheysupposedtheywereusinghim.Helovesthem
exactlyasheloveshisdinnerorhiswine.Theyhaveservedhim
sofarinacertainway;theymustnowservehiminanotherway
orbravehis vengeance.lf'the Empireispeacehenceforth, it
ispeace onthe Mincio orthe Danube~peacewith his eagles
6aunting in triumph on the Po and the Adige, ifnot on the
RhineandElbeaswellitisPeacewiththelronCrownonhis
brow;ltaly afrenchsatrapy, andwithCreatritain, Prussia,
Austria,merely satellitesrevolvingaround and lighted by the
centralorbfrance,theEmpireofCharlemagne.
Ofcourse,thereisgnashingofteethinroyalpalaces,butnot
lessinthehallsofbankersandmerchantprinces. fortheyear,
: so,wasopeningunderauspicesthatpromisedarestoration
ofthe golden days of ' ,6 and ' s6. The long protracted stag-
nationofmanufacturinghadexhaustedstocksofmetals,wares
andfabrics.Themanifold bankruptcies hadmeasurablypuri-
nedtheatmosphereofCommerce. Shipsbeganagaintohavea
market value; warehouses were about once more to be built
andnlled.Stockswerebuoyantandmillionairesdecidedlyiolly;
in short, there was never a brighter commercial prospect, a
moreserene,auspicioussky.
Awordchangesallthis;andthatwordisutteredbythehero
of the Coup d
E
tatthe Elect of December~the Savior of
Society. lt is spoken wantonly, coolly, with evident premedi-
tation,toM.Hubner,theAustrianEnvoy,andclearlyindicates
9
2 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
a settled purpose to pick a quarrel with francis 1oseph or
bullyhim intoahumiliationmorefatalthanthree lostbattles.
Thoughevidentlycalculatedforinstanteffectontheourse,in
aidofgamblingstocksalestodeliver, itbetrayedanxedpur-
posetorecastthe map ofEurope. Austria mustrecedefrom
all thosenominallyindependentltalianStates which she now
practically occupies by virtue of treaties with their willing
rulers,orfranceand SardiniawilloccupyMilanandmenace
Mantua with such an army as Cen. onaparte never com-
mandedin ltaly.ThePopemustreform the abuses ofclerical
ruleinhisStates~abusessolongupheldbyfrencharms~or
followthepettydespotsofTuscany,Parma,Modena, &c.,in
theirheadlongracetonnd safetyatVienna. TheRothschilds
groan over their Eleven Millions of Dollars lost by the
depreciation of stocks consequent on the menace to Htibner,
and utterly refuse to be comforted. The manufacturers and
tradersmournfullyrealizethattheiranticipatedharvestof:so
i s likely to give place to a 'harvest of death. Everywhere
apprehension,discontentandindignationconvulsethe breasts
on which the throne of the Man of December reposed so
securelyafewmonthsago.
Andthecast-down,brokenidolcanneverbesetonitsped-
estal again. Hemayrecoilbeforethestormhehasraised,and
againreceive thebenedictionsofthePope andthecaresses of
theritish Queen; but neither will be morethan lip-service.
Theyknowhimnow,whatthepeoplesknewhimlongsince~
arecklessgambler,adesperateadventurer,whowouldassoon
dice with royal bones as any other if the game promised to
leave him a winner. They know him one who, having, like
Macbeth,wadedtoacrownthroughhumangore,nndsiteasier
togoforwardthantoreturntopeaceandinnocence.fromthe
hour of his demonstration against Austria, Louis Napoleon
stoodandstandsaloneamongpotentates.TheyoungEmperor
of Russia" may, for his own purposes, seem to be still his
friend;butthatseemingisan empty one.Napoleonl in : : ,
wastheprototypeofNapoleonlllin: so. Andthelatterwill
probablyrushonhisfateassubstantiallyastheformerdid.
WHAT HAS I TALY GAI NE D?
93
What Has Italy Gained?
Published1uly27, : so
Theltalianwarisnnished. Napoleon hasendeditassuddenly
and unexpectedly as the Austrians began it. Though brief, it
hasbeencostly.lthasconcentratedintoafewweeksnotonly
theexploits,the invasionsandcounterinvasions,themarches,
thebattles,theconquestsandthelosses, butalsotheexpendi-
tures, both in life and money, of many much longer wars.
Someoftheresultsofitarepalpableenough.Austriahaslost
territory;herreputationformilitaryprowesshasbeenseriously
damaged;herpridehas beendeeplywounded.utthelessons
she has learned, if any, are, we apprehend, rather military
than political, and any changes she may be led to make in
consequenceofthiswar,willbechangesindrill,disciplineand
arms, rather than in her political system or her methods of
administration. Shemayhavebeenmadeaconverttotheefn-
cacy of rifled cannon. She may perhaps introduce into her
service some imitation ofthe french Zouaves.' This is much
morelikelythanthatshewillessentiallymodifythegovernment
ofwhatremainstoherofherltalianprovinces.
Austriahaslost,too, atleastforthepresent,thatguardian-
shipoverltalyherpersistenceinwhich,inspiteoftheremon-
strancesandcomplaintsofSardinia,wasmadetheoccasionof
the late war. ut, though Austria has been obliged for the
presenttorelinquishthisofnce,theofnceitselfdoesnotappear
tobevacant.ltisaverysignincantfactthatthenewsettlement
oftheaffairsofltalywasdecidedatashortinterviewbetween
theEmperorsoffranceandAustria,bothstrangers,eachatthe
headofanarmyofstrangers,andthatthissettlementwasmade
notonlywithouttheformality ofevenseemingtoconsultthe
partieswhowerethesubi ectsofit, butwithouttheknowledge
on their part that they were thus being bargained away and
disposedof.TwoarmiesfrombeyondtheAlpsmeetandnght
in the plains of Lombardy. After a six weeks' struggle, the
foreign sovereigns of theseforeign armies undertake to settle
andarrange the affairs ofltaly withouttaking a single ltalian
94
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
into their councils. The King of Sardinia, who in a military
pointofviewhadbeenplacedonthelevelofafrenchgeneral,
seemstohavehadnomoreshareorvoiceinthennalarrange-
mentthanifhehadbeen,infact,merelyafrenchgeneral.
lt was the ground of the complaints so loudly urged by
SardiniaagainstAustria,notmerelythatsheclaimedageneral
superintendenceofltalianaffairs,butthatshewastheadvocate
ofahexisting abuses; thatitwasherpolicyto keepthings as
theywere, interferingwiththeinternal administration ofher
ltalian neighbors, andclaimingtherightto suppress by force
of arms any attempt on the part ofthe inhabitants of those
countriesto modifyor improvetheir political condition. And
what morerespectispaid to ltalian sentimentand wishes, or
to that right ofrevolution ofwhich Sardinia was the patron,
underthenewarrangementthanundertheoldone?Theltalian
duchiessouthofthePo,thoughtheirproffered aidinthewar
was accepted, are, itwouldseem,underthe treaty ofpeace to
behandedbacktotheirexpelledprinces.lnnopartofltalyhas
misgovernmentbeenmorecomplainedofthanintheStatesof
the Church. The maladministration ofthose States and the
countenanceandsupportgivenbyAustriatothatmaladminis-
tration, have beenprominently setforth as one ofthe worst
features, ifnottheveryworst feature, inthelatecondition of
ltalian affairs. ut,thoughAustriahas beenobliged to relin-
quishherarmedprotectorate ofthe Statesofthe Church,the
unfortunate inhabitantsofthoseTerritorieshavegainednoth-
ing by the change. france supports the temporal authority of
the Holy Seetofull asgreatanextentasAustriaeverdid;and
sincetheabusesoftheRomanCovernmentareregardedbythe
ltalian patriots as inseparable from its sacerdotal character,
there seems to be no hope of improvement. france, in the
position which she now holds of sole protector ofthe Pope,
makes herself in factmore responsible for the abuses of the
RomanCovernmentthanAustriaeverwas.
WithrespecttotheltalianConfederationwhichformsapart
ofthenewarrangement,thereisthistobeobserved:Eitherthat
Confederation will be a political reality possessing a certain
degreeofpowerandin6uence,or elseameresham.lfitbethe
WHAT HAS ITALY GAI NED?
95
latter,ltalianunion,liberty,anddevelopmentcangainnothing
byit. lfitbea reality, consideringthe elements ofwhich itis
composed,whatcanbeexpectedfromit?Austria | sittinginit
fortheProvinceorKingdomofVenice , thePopeandtheKing
ofNaples combined in the interests ofdespotism, wi|l easily
carrythedayagainstSardinia,eveniftheother smallerStates
shouldsidewithher.Austriamayevenavailherselfofthisnew
standinggroundtosecureacontrolovertheotherltalianStates
quiteasobiectionable,tosaythe least, asthatwhichshelately
claimedtoexerciseunderspecialtreatieswiththem.
BRI TI SH POLI TI CS
AND S OCI ETY
More of Marx's Tribune dispatches dealt with ritain than
withanyothercountry,includinghisnativeCermany.lnpart,
this was because he lived in London continuously from t so
until his death; in addition, ritain was the European nation
with which American readers could be presumed to be most
familiar.utit'salsothecasethatfromMarx'spointofview,
ritain~particularly industrial Englandin the : sos rep-
resented human society in perhaps its most advanced form.
Thatistosay,thelndustrialRevolutionhadgonefurthestthere
and had created a more robust proletarian class than in any
othercountry. Andonmanyother scoresritainwasdecades
ahead ofmany other nations: slaveryhad been formally out-
lawed and the voting reforms of t , t had opened up the
politicalprocesstoahistoricallylargenumberofpeople:indeed
Marx's very ability to live in the country was testament to
ritain'spoliticaltoleranceandfreepress.
NotthatMarxentirelyapprovedofhisadoptedhomeland.
Oneofthedominantthemesofhiscoverageofritishpolitics
particularly the pieces from the early t sos included in this
sectionwasthatagooddealofritain'smuch-praiseddemoc-
racywas a sham. for Marx, a Parliament elected almost ex-
clusively by bourgeois and aristocratic voters was bound to
produceresultsthatreflectedtheinterestsofthoseclasses.The
nominal differences between the political parties or between
therapidlyrotatingsetsofMinisterswere,asfarasMarxwas
concerned, dramatically less importantthanthe classinterests
theyrepresented. Histaskasai ournalistwastostriptherhet-
oricawayanddealwiththe economic agendasunderneath.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Hence the hugenumberofcolumnsthat dealtwiththefree-
trade politics and ideology that swept ritainafter the repeal
of the Corn Laws in t a6. To Marx's eyes, the economic
doctrines of the time were not simply misguided, they were
deadly; his dispatches regarding needless starvation and the
violentremovalofthelrishandScottishfromestatesaremuch
closertoheart-tuggingreportagethantoclassiceconomics.He
belieedthattheritishworkingclasshadpotential |evenifit
had been largely untapped in the course of the Continent's
: a uprisings; thus he documented the activities of trade
unions,suchasintheStockportstrike,andalsosupportedthe
radical Chartist movement, often reprinting relevant Tribune
piecesintheirorganThe People's Paper. AndMarxbelieved,
when free-tradeeconomics brought on theirinevitab|e crises,
governments wouldinevitablyturnto foreign adventures and
warsinordertodistractthemasses,whichhecoveredsome-
timeswithanguishandsometimesaswhentheCrimeanWar
destroyedthegovernmentofLordAberdeenwithundisguised
g|ee.
The Elections in England. -Tories and Whigs
PublishedAugustzt, : s z
Theresults ofthe Ceneral Election for the ritish Parliament
arenowknown '. . . ]
Whatwerethepartieswhichduringthiselectioneeringagita-
tionopposedor supportedeachother?
Tories,Whigs,LiberalConservatives|Peelites,freeTraders,
par excellence |themenoftheManchesterSchool,`Parliamen-
taryandfinancialReformers , andlastly,theChartists.
Whigs, free Traders and Peelites coalesced to oppose the
Tories.ltwasbetweenthiscoalitionononeside,andtheTories
ontheother,thattherealelectoralbattlewasfought.Opposed
toWhigs,Peelites,freeTradersandTories,andthusopposed
toentireofncialEngland,weretheChartists.
ThepoliticalpartiesofCreatritainare sufnciently known
THE ELECTI ONS I N ENGLAND. -TORI ES AND WHI GS
99
intheUnitedStates.ltwill besufncienttobringtomind,ina
fewstrokesofthepen,thedistinctivecharacteristicsofeachof
them.
Up to : a6the Tories passed as the guardians ofthe tra-
ditionsofOldEngland.Theyweresuspectedofadmiringinthe
ritish Constitution the eighth wonder of the world; to be
laudatores temporis acti/
4
enthusiastsforthethrone,theHigh
Church,theprivilegesandlibertiesoftheritishsubiect.The
fatalyear, : a6,with its repeal of the Corn Laws,` andthe
shout of distress which this repeal forced from the Tories,
provedthattheywere enthusiasts for nothing buttherent of
land,andatthesametimedisclosedthe secretoftheirattach-
menttothepoliticalandreligiousinstitutionsofOldEngland.
These institutions aretheverybestinstitutions,with the help
ofwhichthelarge landed property-the landedinterest~has
hithertoruledEngland,andevennowseekstomaintainitsrule.
Theyear: a6broughttolightinitsnakednessthesubstantial
class interest whichformsthereal base oftheToryparty.The
year : a6tore down the traditionally venerable lion's hide,
underwhichToryclassinteresthadhithertohiddenitself.The
year: a6transformedtheToriesintoProtectionists. Torywas
thesacredname,Protectionististheprofaneone;Torywasthe
political battle-cry, Protectionist is the economical shout of
distress; Tory seemed an idea, a principle; Protectionist is an
interest.Protectionistsofwhat? Oftheir ownrevenues,ofthe
rentof their ownland. ThentheTories,inthe end, areour-
geoisasmuchastheremainder,forwhereistheourgeoiswho
isnotaprotectionistofhisownpurse?Theyaredistinguished
fromtheotherourgeois, inthesamewayastherentofland
isdistinguishedfromcommercialandindustrialpront.Rentof
land is conservative, pront is progressive; rent of land is
national, pront is cosmopolitical;rentofland believesin the
State Church, pront is a dissenter by birth. The repeal of the
CornLawsint a6merelyrecognizedanalreadyaccomplished
fact,achangelongsinceenactedintheelementsofritishcivil
society,viz.,thesubordinationofthelandedinterestunderthe
moneyedinterest,ofpropertyundercommerce, ofagriculture
under manufacturing industry, of the country under the city.
100 DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Couldthisfactbedoubtedsincethecountrypopulationstands,
inEngland,to thetowns`populationintheproportionofone
tothree?ThesubstantialfoundationofthepoweroftheTories
wastherentofland.Therentoflandisregulatedbytheprice
offood.Thepriceoffood,then,wasartinciallymaintained at
a high rate by the Corn Laws. The repeal ofthe Corn Laws
broughtdownthepriceoffood,whichinitsturnbroughtdown
thc rent of land, and with sinking rent broke downthe real
strengthuponwhichthepoliticalpoweroftheToriesreposed.
What,then,aretheytryingtodonow?Tomaintainapoliti-
calpower,thesocialfoundationofwhichhasceasedtoexist.
Andhowcanthisbeattained?ynothingshortofa Counter
Revolution, that is to say, by a reaction ofthe State against
Society.Theystrivetoretainforciblyinstitutionsandapolitical
powerwhicharecondemnedfromtheverymomentatwhich
the ruralpopulationfounditselfoutnumbered three times by
thepopulationofthetowns. Andsuchanattemptmustneces-
sarily endwith their destruction; itmust accelerate and make
more acute the social development ofEngland; itmust bring
onacrisis.
TheToriesrecruittheirarmyfrom thefarmers,whoeither
havenotyetlostthehabitoffollowingtheir landlords astheir
natural superiors, or who are economically dependent upon
them,orwhodonotyetseethattheinterestofthefarmerand
the interest of the landlord are no more identical than the
respectiveinterestsoftheborrowerandoftheusurer.Theyare
followedandsupportedbythe Coloniallnterest, theShipping
lnterest,theStateChurchParty,inshort, byallthoseelements
whichconsideritnecessarytosafeguardtheirinterestsagainst
the necessary results ofmodern manufacturingindustry, and
againstthesocialrevolutionpreparedbyit.
OpposedtotheTories,astheirhereditaryenemies,standthe
Whigs, a party with whom the AmericanWhigs have nothing
incommonbutthename.
TheritishWhig, inthe naturalhistoryofpolitics, forms a
specieswhich,likeallthoseoftheamphibiousclass,existsvery
easily,butisdifnculttodescribe.Shallwe callthem,withtheir
opponents,Toriesoutofof6ce?or,ascontinentalwriterslove
THE ELECTI ONS I N ENGLAND. - TORI ES AND WHI GS 101
it, take them for the representatives ofcertain popular prin-
ciples? lnthelattercaseweshouldgetembarrassedinthesame
difncultyasthehistorianoftheWhigs,Mr.Cooke,'who,with
great naivete, confesses in his 'History of Parties" that it is
indeed a certain number of 'liberal, moral and enlightened
principles" which constitutes the Whig party, butthat it was
greatlytoberegrettedthatduringthemorethanacenturyand
a half thatthe Whigs have existed, they have been, when in
of6ce, alwayspreventedfromcarryingouttheseprinciples.So
thatin reality, according to the confession oftheirown his-
torian,theWhigsrepresentsomethingquitedifferentfromtheir
professed 'liberal and enlightened principles." Thus they are
in the same position as the drunkard brought up before the
LordMayor,whodeclaredthatherepresentedtheTemperance
principlebutfromsomeaccidentorotheralwaysgotdrunkon
Sundays.
utnevermindtheirprinciples;wecanbettermakeoutwhat
theyareinhistoricalfact;whattheycarryout,notwhatthey
oncebelieved,andwhattheynowwantotherpeopletobelieve
withrespecttotheircharacter.
TheWhigs,aswellastheTories,formafractionofthelarge
|andedproperty ofCreat ritain. Nay, theoldest,richestand
mostarrogantportion ofEnglish landed property is the very
nucleusoftheWhigparty.
What,then, distinguishesthemfromtheTories?TheWhigs
are the aristocratic representatives of the ourgeoisie, ofthe
industrial and commercial middle class. Under the condition
thattheourgeoisieshouldabandontothem, toanoligarchy
of aristocratic families the monopoly ofgovernment and the
exclusive possession ofofnce, they make to the middle c|ass,
andassistitinconquering,allthoseconcessions,whichinthe
course ofsocial and political development have shown them-
selves to have become unavoidable and undelayable. Neither
more nor less. And asoften as such anunavoidable measure
has beenpassed,theydeclareloudly thatherewiththeend of
historical progress has been obtained; that the whole social
movementhascarrieditsultimatepurpose,andthenthey'cling
to nnality." Theycansupport, moreeasily thantheTories, a
102 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
decreaseoftheir renta| revenues, becausetheyconsiderthem-
selvesastheheaven-bornfarmersoftherevenuesoftheritish
Empire. They canrenouncethe monopoly ofthe Corn Laws,
aslongastheymaintainthe monopolyofgovernmentastheir
fami|yproperty.Eversincethe'g|oriousrevolution''of:6
the Whigs,with shortintervals,causedprincipa||ybythenrst
french Revolution and the consequent reaction, have found
themselves in the enioyment of the pub|ic ofnces. Whoever
recal|s to his mind this period ofritish history, will nnd no
other distinctive mark of Whigdom but the maintenance of
theirfamilyoligarchy.The interests and principleswhichthey
represent besides, from time to time, do not belong to the
Whigs; they are forced uponthembythe development ofthe
industria| and commercial class, the ourgeoisie. After : 6
wenndthemunitedwiththeankocracy,iustthenrisinginto
importance,aswe nndthem in : a6, united withtheMi|loc-
racy.TheWhigsaslittlecarriedtheReform i|l of :, :, as
theycarriedthe free Trade ill of : a6. othReformmove-
ments,thepoliticalaswellasthecommercial,weremovements
ofthe ourgeoisie. Assoonas eitherofthese movementshad
ripenedintoirresistibility;assoonas,atthesametime,ithad
becomethesafestmeansofturningtheToriesoutofofnce,the
Whigs stepped forward, took upthe direction ofthe Covern-
ment,andsecuredtothemselvesthegovernmentalpart ofthe
victory. ln :,: they extendedthepolitica|portion ofreform
asfar as was necessary in ordernotto leave the midd|ec|ass
entire|ydissatisned;after : a6theyconnnedtheirfreeTrade
measuressofaraswasnecessary,inordertosavetothelanded
aristocracythegreatestpossib|eamountofprivileges.Eachtime
theyhad takenthemovementinhand inordertopreventits
forward march, and to recover their own posts at the same
time.
ltisclearthatfromthemomentwhenthelandedaristocracy
is no longer able to maintain its position as an independent
power, to nght, as an independentparty, forthe government
position, in short,thatfromthemomentwhentheTories are
dennitive|yoverthrown,ritishhistoryhasnolongeranyroom
fortheWhigs.Thearistocracyoncedestroyed,whatistheuse
THE ELECTI ONS IN ENGLAND. - TORI ES AND WHI GS 103
ofanaristocraticrepresentationoftheourgeoisieagainstthis
aristocracy?
ltiswe|lknownthatintheMiddleAgestheCermanEmperors
puttheiustthenarisingtownsunderlmperialCovernors,"advo
cati," toprotectthese towns againstthesurroundingnobility.
Assoonasgrowingpopulationandwealthgavethemsufncient
strength and independence to resist, and even to attack the
nobi|ity, the towns also drove out the noble Covernors, the
advocati.
The Whigs have been these advocati of the ritish middle
class, andtheirgovernmenta| monopo|ymustbreakdownas
soonas the landed monopoly oftheTories is broken down.
In the same measure as the middle class has developed its
independentstrength,theyhaveshrunkdownfromapartyto
acoterie.
ltisevidentwhat adistastefullyheterogeneous mixture the
characterofthe ritishWhigs must turnoutto be:feudalists,
who are at the same time Ma|thusians, money-mongers with
feuda| preiudices, aristocrats without point ofhonour, our-
geoiswithoutindustrialactivity, nnality-menwithprogressive
phrases, progressists with fanatical Conservatism, trafnckers
in homeopathical fractions of reforms, fosterers of family-
nepotism,CrandMastersofcorruption,hypocritesofreligion,
T artuffes of po|itics. The mass of the English people has a
sound aesthetical common sense. lt has an instinctive hatred
against everything mot|ey and ambiguous, against bats and
Russellites.Andthen,withtheTories, themassoftheEnglish
people, the urban and rura| proletariat, has in common the
hatred againstthe 'money-monger. Withthe ourgeoisie it
hasin commonthehatredagainstaristocrats.lntheWhigsit
hates the one and the other, aristocrats and ourgeois, the
land|ordwho oppresses, andthe money lordwho exploits it.
lntheWhigsithatestheoligarchywhichhasru|edoverEngland
formorethanacentury,andbywhichthepeopleisexc|uded
fromthedirectionofitsownaffairs.
ThePee|ites|LiberalsandConservativesareno party;they
are mere|y thesouvenir ofa party man, ofthelate Sir Robert
Peel.utEng|ishmenaretooprosaical,forasouvenir toform,
10
4
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
withthem, thefoundationforanythingbutelegies. And now,
thatthe people have erected brass and marblemonuments to
the lateSir RobertPeelinallpartsofthe country,theybelieve
theyareableso muchthemoretodowithoutthoseperambu-
lantPeelmonuments,theCrahams,the Cladstones,theCard-
wells, etc. The so-called Peelites are nothing butthisstaffof
bureaucratswhichRobertPeelhadschooledfor himself.And
because they form a pretty complete staff, they forget for a
momentthatthereisnoarmybehindthem.ThePeelites,then,
areold supporters ofSir Robert Peel,vho have notyetcome
to a conclusionastowhat party to attach themselves to. ltis
evidentthatasimilarscrupleisnotasufncientmeansforthem
toconstituteanindependentpower'. . . ]
Corruption at Elections
PublishedSeptembera,t s z
1ustbefore thelateHouse ofCommonsseparated, itresolved
toheapupasmanydifncultiesaspossibleforitssuccessorsin
theirwaytoParliament.ltvotedaDraconianlawagainstbrib-
ery,corruption,intimidation,andelectioneeringsharppractices
ingeneral.
Alonglistofquestionsisdrawnup,which,bythisenactment,
maybeputtopetitionersorsittingmembers,themostsearching
andstringentthatcanbeconceived. Theymayberequiredon
oathtostatewhoweretheiragents,andwhatcommunications
theyheldwiththem.Theymaybeaskedandcompelledtostate,
notonlywhattheyknow, butwhatthey'believe,coniecture,
and suspect," asto money expended either by themselves or
any one else acting~authorized or not authorizedon their
behalf.lnaword,nomembercangothroughthestrangeordeal
withoutrisk ofperiury, ifhe have the slightestidea that it is
possible or likelythatany one hasbeenledtooversteponhis
behalfthelimitsofthelaw.
Now,evensupposingthislawtotakeitforgrantedthatthe
newlegislatorswillusethesamelibertyastheclergy,whoonly
C ORRUPTI ON AT ELECTI ONS 105
believesome oftheThirty-NineArticles,'yetcontrivetosign
them all, yet there remain, nevertheless, clauses sufncient to
makethenewParliamentthe mostvirginal assemblythatever
madespeechesandpassedlawsforthethreekingdoms.Andin
iuxtapositionwiththegeneralelectionimmediatelyfollowing,
thislawsecurestotheToriestheglory,thatundertheiradminis-
tration the greatest purity of election has been theoretically
proclaimedandthegreatestamountofelectoralcorruptionhas
beenpracticallycarriedout.
A fresh election is proceeded with, and here a scene of bribery,
corruption, violence, drunkenness and murder ensues, unparal
leled since the times the old Tory monopoly reigned supreme
before. We actually hear of soldiers with loaded guns, and bay
onets fxed, taking Liberal electors by force, dragging them under
the landlord's eyes to vote against their own consciences, and
these soldiers, shooting with deliberate aim the people who dared
to sympathize with the captive electors, and committing whole
sale murder on the unresisting people! [Allusion to the event at
Six Mile Bridge, Limerick, County Clare.] It may be said: That
was in Ireland! Ay, and in England they have employed their
police to break the stalls of those opposed to them; they have
sent their organized gangs of midnight ruffans prowling through
the streets to intercept and intimidate the Liberal electors; they
have opened the cesspools of drunkenness; they have showered
the gold of corruption, as at Derby, and in almost every contested
place they have exercised systematic intimidation.
ThusfarErnest1ones'sPeople's Paper. Now,afterthisChar-
tistweeklypaper,heartheweeklypaperoftheoppositeparty,
themostsober,themostrational,themostmoderateorganof
theindustrialourgeoisie,The London Economist:
We believe we may affrm, at this general election, there has
been more truckling, more corruption, more intimidation, more
fanaticism and more debauchery than on any previous occasion
. . . It is reported that bribery has been more extensively resorted
to at this election than for many previous years . . . Of the amount
106 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 11LT1
of intimidation and undue influence of every sort which has been
practised at the late election, it is probably impossible to form
an exaggerated estimate . . . And when we sum up all these
things-the brutal drunkenness, the low intrigues, the wholesale
corruption, the barbarous intimidation, the integrity of candi
dates warped and stained, the honest electors who are ruined,
the feeble ones who are suborned and dishonored; the lies, the
stratagems, the slanders, which stalk abroad in the daylight,
naked and not ashamed-the desecration of holy words, the
soiling of noble names-we stand aghast at the holocaust of
victims, of destroyed bodies and lost souls, on whose funeral pile
a new Parliament is reared.
The means ofcorruption and intimidation were the usual
ones: directCovernmentinfluence. Thus on anelectioneering
agentatDerby, arrested intheflagrantactofbribing, aletter
wasfoundfromMaioreresford,theSecretaryatWar,where-
inthatsameeresfordopensacreditupona commercial nrm
forelectioneeringmonies.The Poole Herald publishesacircular
from the Admiralty-House to the half-payofncers, signed by
the commander-in-chief of a naval station, requesting their
votesfortheministerialcandidates.Directforceofarmshas
also been employed, as at Cork, elfast, Limerick |at which
latter place eight persons were killed.~Threats ofei ectment
bylandlordsagainsttheirfarmers,unlesstheyvotedwiththem.
The Land Agents of Lord Derby herein gave the example to
their colleagues.~Threats of exclusive dealing against shop-
keepers,ofdismissalagainstworkmen,intoxication,etc.,etc.~
Totheseprofane meansofcorruptionspiritual oneswereadded
bytheTories;theroyalproclamationagainstRomanCatholic
Processionswasissuedinordertoinflamebigotryandreligious
hatred;theNo-Poperycrywasraisedeverywhere. One ofthe
results of this proclamation were the Stockport Riots. The
lrishpriests,ofcourse,retortedwithsimilarweapons.
The election is hardly over, and already a single Queen's
Counsel has received from twenty-nve places instructions to
invalidatethereturnstoParliamentonaccountofbribery and
intimidation.Suchpetitionsagainstelectedmembershavebeen
CORRUPTI ON AT ELECTI ONS 107
signed, and the expenses ofthe proceedings raised at Derby,
Cockermouth, arnstaple, Harwich, Canterbury, Yarmouth,
Wakeneld,oston,Huddersneld,Windsor,andagreatnumber
ofotherplaces. OfeighttotenDerbyitemembersitisproved
that,evenunderthemostfavorablecircumstances,theywillbe
reiectedonpetition.
Theprincipal scenes ofthis bribery,corruptionandintimi-
dationwere,ofcourse,theagriculturalcountiesandthePeers'
oroughs,fortheconservationofthegreatestpossiblenumber
ofwhich latter, theWhigs had expended all their acumen in
theReformilloft ,I . Theconstituenciesoflargetownsand
of densely populated manufacturing counties were, by their
peculiar circumstances, very unfavorable ground for such
manoeuvres.
Days ofgeneralelectionareinritaintraditiona|lythebac-
chanalia of drunken debauchery, conventional stock-iobbing
terms for the discounting ofpolitical consciences, the richest
harvesttimesofthepublicans.AsanEnglishpapersays,'these
recurringsaturnalia neverfailtoleaveenduringtracesoftheir
pestilentialpresence." Quite naturally so. Theyare saturnalia
intheancientRomansenseoftheword.Themasterthenturned
servant,theservantturnedmaster.lftheservantbemasterfor
oneday,onthat day brutalitywillreignsupreme.Themasters
werethe granddignitariesoftheruling classes, or sections of
classes,theservantsformedthe massofthesesameclasses,the
privileged electorsencircledbythe massofthenon-electors,of
those thousands that had no other calling than to be mere
hangers-on, and whose support, vocal or manual, always
appeared desirable, were it only on account of the theatrical
effect.
lfyoufollowupthehistoryofritishelectionsforacentury
past, orlonger,youaretemptedtoask, notwhy ritishParlia-
mentsweresobad,butonthecontrary,howtheymanagedto
beevenasgoodastheywere,andtorepresentasmuchasthey
did,thoughinadimrefraction,theactualmovementofritish
society. 1ust as opponents ofthe representative system must
feel surprised on nnding that legislative bodies in which the
abstractmai ority,theaccidentofthemerenumberis decisive,
108 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
yetdecide and resolveaccordingto the necessitiesofthe situ-
ation~at least during the period oftheir full vitality. lt wil|
always be impossible, even bythe utmost straining oflogical
deductions, to derive from the relations ofmere numbersthe
necessityofavoteinaccordancewiththeactualstateofthings;
butfromagivenstateofthingsthenecessityofcertainrelations
of members will always follow as of itself. The traditional
briberyofritishelections,whatelsewasit,butanotherform,
as brutal as it was popular, inwhich the relative strength of
the contending partiesshoweditself? Theirrespective means
ofinfluence and ofdominion, which on otheroccasions they
usedin a normal way, were here enactedforafewdays in an
abnormalandmoreorlessburlesquemanner.utthepremise
remained,thatthecandidatesoftherivalingpartiesrepresented
theinterestsofthemassofthee|ectors,andthattheprivileged
electorsagainrepresentedtheinterestsofthenon-votingmass,
orrather,thatthisvotelessmasshad,asyet,nospeci6cinterest
ofitsown.TheDelphicpriestesseshadto becomeintoxicated
by vapors to enab|e them to 6nd oracles; the ritish people
mustintoxicateitselfwithginandportertoenab|eitto6ndits
oracle-6nders, the legislators. And where these oracle-6nders
weretobelookedfor,thatwasamatterofcourse.
This relative position of classes and parties underwent a
radicalchangefromthemomenttheindustrialandcommercial
middleclasses,the ourgeoisie,tookupitsstandasanof6cial
partyatthesideoftheWhigsandTories,andespeciallyfrom
the passingoftheReform illin t ,: . Theseourgeoiswere
in no wise fond of costly electioneering manoeuvres, offaux
frais ofgeneralelections.Theyconsidereditcheapertocompete
withthelandedaristocracybygeneral moral,thanbypersonal
pecuniary means. On the other handtheywereconscious of
representing a universal|y predominant interest of modern
society. They were, therefore, in a position to demand that
electors should be ruled by their common national interests,
notbypersonalandlocalmotives,andthemoretheyrecurred
to this postulate, themore the |atter species ofe|ectoral inf|u-
encewas, bytheverycompositionofconstituencies, centered
inthe|andedaristocracy,butwithheldfromthemiddleclasses.
CORRUPTI ON AT ELECTI ONS 109
Thustheourgeoisiecontendedfortheprincipleofmora|e|ec-
tionsandforcedtheenactmentoflawsinthatsense,intended,
each ofthem, as safeguards against the local influence ofthe
landed aristocracy; and indeed, from t , t down, bribery
adoptedamorecivilized,morehiddenform,andgeneralelec-
tionswentoffina more soberwaythanbefore.When atlast
the mass ofthe peop|e ceased to be a mere chorus, taking a
more or |ess impassioned part in the struggle of the of6cial
heroes, drawing the lots among them, rioting, in bacchantic
carouse, at the creation of parliamentary divinities, like the
Cretan Curetes at the birth of 1upiter, and taking pay and
treatfor such participationin theirglory~whenthe Chartists
surroundedinthreateningmassesthewho|ecirclewithinwhich
theof6cialelectionstrugglemustcome off, andwatchedwith
scrutinizingmistrusteverymovementtakingplacewithinit~
thenanelectionlikethatoft s zcou|dnotbutcallforuniversal
indignation, and eliciteven from theconservative Times, for
the 6rst time, some words in favor of general suffrage, and
make the whole mass ofthe ritish Proletariat shout as with
onevoice.ThefoesofReform,theyhavegivenReformersthe
bestarguments;such isanelectionundertheclasssystem;such
isaHouseofCommonswithsuchasystemofelection!
lnordertocomprehendthecharacterofbribery,corruption
and intimidation, such astheyhave been practised inthe late
election,itisnecessarytocallattentiontoafactwhichoperated
inaparalleldirection.
lfyourefertothegenerale|ectionssince t ,:,youwill6nd
that,inthesamemeasureasthepressureofthevotelessmai ority
ofthecountryupontheprivi|egedbodyofelectorswasincreas-
ing,asthedemandwasheardlouder,fromthemiddlec|asses,
foranextensionofthecircleofconstituencies,fromthework-
ing class, to extinguish every trace of a similar privileged
circle~that inthe samemeasurethe number ofelectorswho
actually voted grew less and less, and the constituencies thus
moreandmorecontractedthemselves.Neverwasthisfactmore
strikingthaninthelateelection.
Letustake,forinstance,London.IntheCitytheconstituency
numbers z6,;z; only t o,ooo voted. The Tower Hamlets
1 10 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
numberz,, s,aregisteredelectors; only : z,ooovoted.lnfins-
bury,ofzo,ozs electors,notone-halfvoted.lnLiverpool,the
sceneofoneofthemostanimatedcontests,of: ;,a, , registered
electors,only: ,,ooocametothepolls.
Theseexampleswillsufnce.Whatdotheyprove?Theapathy
oftheprivilegedconstituencies. Andthisapathy,whatproves
it? That they have outlived themselves~that they have lost
every interest in their own political existence. This is in no
wiseapathyagainstpoliticsingeneral,butagainstaspeciesof
politics,theresultofwhich,forthemostpart,canonlyconsist
inhelpingtheToriestoousttheWhigs,ortheWhigstoconquer
theTories.Theconstituenciesfeelinstinctivelythatthedecision
lies no longereitherwith Parliament, or with the making of
Parliament. WhorepealedtheCornLaws?Assuredlynotthe
voters who had elected a Protectionist Parliament, still less
theProtectionistParliamentitself,butonlyandexclusivelythe
pressurefromwithout.lnthispressurefromwithout, inother
meansofinfluencingParliamentthanbyvoting,agreatportion
evenofelectorsnowbelieve.Theyconsiderthehithertolawful
mode of voting as an antiquated formality, but from the
moment Parliament should make front against the pressure
from without, and dictate laws to the nation in the sense of
its narrowconstituencies,they would iointhe general assault
againstthewholeantiquatedsystemofmachinery.
Thebribery andintimidationpractised bytheTorieswere,
then,merelyviolentexperimentsforbringingbacktolifedying
electoral bodies which have become incapable ofproduction,
and which can no longer create decisive electoral results and
reallynationalParliaments.Andtheresult?TheoldParliament
wasdissolved,becauseattheendofitscareerithaddissolved
intosectionswhichbroughteachothertoacompletestandstill.
The new Parliament begins where the old one ended; it is
paralyticfromthehourofitsbirth.
[ CASE OF STARVATI ON]
[Case of Starvation]
Publishedfebruaryz, :s,
I I I
'. . . ] Your readers having accompanied us to such a length,
through allthe testimonialsofthegrowingprosperity ofEng-
land, l request themto stop a moment and to follow a poor
needle-maker,Henry Morgan, who started outfrom London,
onhisiourneytoirmingham,insearchofwork.Lestlshould
bechargedwithexaggeratingthecase,lgivetheliteralaccount
ofThe Northampton Journal.
Death from Destitution CosVroveeAbout nine o'clock on
the morning of Monday, two laboring men, while seeking shelter
from the rain in a lone barn, occupied by Mr. T. Slade, in the
parish of Cosgrove, were attracted by groans, which were found
to come from a poor man, lying in a heap-hole, in a state of
extreme exhaustion. They spoke to him, kindly offering him
some of their breakfast, but without receiving any answer; and
upon touching him, found his body almost cold. Having fetched
Mr. Slade, who was near by, this gentleman, after some time had
elapsed, sent him, by a boy, in a cart, with a bed and covering of
straw, to the Yardley-Gobi on union-house about a mile distant,
where he arrived just before one o'clock, but expired a quarter
of an hour afterward. The famished, flthy, and ill-clad condition
of the poor creature presented a most frightful spectacle. It
appears that this unhappy being, on the evening of Thursday,
the 2d, obtained a vagrant's order for a night's lodging at the
Yardley-house, from the relieving offcer at Stoney-Stratford,
and, having then walked to Yardley, a distance of three miles
and upward, was accordingly admitted: he had food given him,
which he eat heartily, and begged to be allowed to remain the
next day and night, which was granted, and upon leaving on
Saturday morning early, after his breakfast (most likely his last
meal in this world), took the road back to Stratford. It is probable
that, being weak and footsore, for he had a bad place on one
heel, he was soon glad to seek the frst friendly shelter he could
fnd, which was an open shed, forming part of some outfarming-
1 1 2 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NE W YORK TRIB UNE
buildings, a quarter of a mile from the turnpike-road. Here he
was found lying in the straw on Monday, the 6th, at noon, and,
it not being wished that a stranger should remain on the premises,
he was desired to go away. He asked leave to stay a little longer,
and went off about four o'clock, once more to seek at nightfall
the nearest place of rest and shelter, which was this lone barn,
with its thatch partly off, with its door left open, and in the
coldest possible situation, into the heap-hole of which he crept,
there to lie without food for seven days more, till discovered, as
has been described above, on the morning of the 1 3 th. This
ill-fated man had given his name as Henry Morgan, a needle
maker, and appeared between thirry and forty years of age, and
in person, a good-framed man.
lt is hardly possible to conceive a more horrible case. A
stalwart, strong-framed man, in the prime of |ife~his long
pilgrimage ofmartyrdomfromLondontoStoney-Stratford
his wretched appeals for help to the 'civilization around
himhis sevendaysfasthis brutal abandonmentbyhisfel-
low menhis seeking she|ter and being driven from resting-
placetoresting-placethecrowninginhumanityoftheperson
namedSladeandthepatient, miserabledeathoftheworn-out
manareapictureperfectlyastonishingtocontemplate.`'
Nodoubtheinvadedtherightsofproperty,whenhesought
shelterintheshedandinthelonebarn! ! !
Relate this starvation case in midst ofprosperity, to a fat
London City man, and he wil| answer you withthe words of
The London Economist of1an. th: 'Delightful is it thus to
see, underfreeTrade, allclassesfIourishing;theirenergiesare
calledforthbyhopeofreward; a|l improve theirproductions,
andallandeach arebenented.
THE DUCHES S OF S UTHERLAND AND S LAVERY
[Starvation]
PublishedMarch : s, : s ,
1 1 3
'. . . ] Onthe Continent, hanging, shooting and transportation
is the order of the day. ut the executioners are themselves
tangible and hangable beings, andtheir deeds arerecorded in
the conscience ofthe whole civilizedworld. Atthe same time
thereactsinEnglandaninvisible,intangibleandsilentdespot,
condemningindividua|s,inextremecases, tothemostcruelof
deaths, anddrivingin its noiseless,everydavworking, whole
racesandwho|ec|assesofmenfromthesoiloftheirforefathers,
like the angel with the nery sword who drove Adam from
Paradise.lnthelatterformtheworkoftheunseensocialdespot
callsitse|fforced emigration, intheformeritiscalledstarvation.
Some further cases ofstarvation have occurredin London
duringthepresentmonth.l rememberonlythatofMaryAnn
Sandry,ageda,years,whodiedinCoa|-|ane,Shadwell,London.
Mr.ThomasPeene,thesurgeon,assistingtheCoroner'sinquest,
said the deceased died from starvation and exposure to the
cold.Thedeceasedwaslyingonasmallheapofstraw,without
the s|ightest covering. The room was complete|y destitute of
furniture,nringandfood.fiveyoungchildrenweresittingon
the bareflooring, crying from hunger andcold bythesideof
themother'sdeadbody'. . . ]
The Duchess of Sutherland and Slavery
Publishedfebruaryo, t s ,
|. . ] During the present momentary slackness in political
affairs, theaddressoftheStafford HouseAssembly ofLadies
totheirsisters inAmeticauponthe subiectofNegroslavery,
andthe'AffectionateandChristianaddressofmanythousands
ofthewomen oftheUnited StatesofAmericatotheirsisters,
the women of England, upon white slavery, have proved a
godsend to the press. Not one ofthe ritish papers was ever
DI S PATCHES fOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
struck by the circumstancethatthe StaffordHouseAssembly
tookplaceatthepalaceandunderthepresidencyoftheDuchess
of Sutherland, and yetthe names of Stafford and Sutherland
should have been sufncient to class the philanthropy of the
ritish aristocracy~a philanthropy which chooses its obiects
asfardistantfromhomeaspossible, andratheronthatthan
onthissideoftheocean.
Te history of the wealth of the Sutherland family is the
historyoftheruinandoftheexpropriationoftheScotch-Caelic
populationfromitsnativesoil.Asfarbackasthetenthcentury,
the Danes had landed in Scotland, conquered the plains of
Caithness,anddrivenbacktheaboriginesintothemountains.
Mor-fearChattaibh,ashewascalledin Caelic,orthe 'Creat
ManofSutherland,hadalwaysfoundhiscompanionsinarms
ready to defend him at the risk of their lives against all his
enemies, Danes orScots,foreignersornatives.Aftertherevol-
utionwhichdrovetheStuartsfromritain,privatefeudsamong
thepettychieftainsofScotland became less and less frequent,
andtheritishKings,inordertokeepup atleastasemblance
ofdominioninthoseremotedistricts,encouragedthe levying
offamily regiments among the chieftains, a system by which
theselairds wereenabledtocombinemodernmilitaryestablish-
ments with the ancient clan system in such a manner as to
supportonebytheother.
Now, in order to distinctly appreciate the usurpation sub-
sequentlycarriedout,wemustnrstproperlyunderstandwhat
theclan meant.Theclan belongedtoaformofsocialexistence
which, in the scale of historical development, stands a full
degree below the feudal state; viz., the patriarchal state of
society. "Klaen" in Caelic, means children. Every one of the
usages and traditions of the Scottish Cae|s reposes upon the
supposition that the members of the clan belong to one and
thesamefamily.The'greatman,thechieftainoftheclan,ison
theonehandquiteasarbitrary,ontheotherquiteasconnnedin
hispower, by consanguinity, etc., asevery father ofa family.
To the clan, tothefamily, belongedthedistrictwhere ithad
establisheditself,exactly as, in Russia,thelandoccupiedbya
communityofpeasantsbelongs,nottotheindividualpeasants,
THE DUCHES S Of SUTHERLAND AND S LAVERY I I 5
buttothecommunity.Thusthedistrictwasthecommonprop-
ertyofthefamily.Therecouldbenomorequestion,underthis
system, ofprivateproperty, in themodern sense oftheword,
than there could be ofcomparingthe social existence ofthe
membersoftheclantothatofindividuals|ivinginthemidstof
ourmodern society. Thedivisionandsubdivisionofthe land
correspondedtothemilitary functions ofthe single members
ofthe clan. Accordingto their military abilities,thechieftain
entrustedtothemtheseveralallotments,cancelledorenlarged
accordingtohispleasurethetenuresoftheindividualofncers,
andtheseofncersagaindistributedtotheirvassalsandunder-
vassals every separate plot of land. ut the district at large
always remained the property ofthe clan, and, however the
claimsofindividualsmightvary,thetenureremainedthesame;
nor were the contributions for the common defense, or the
tributeforthelaird,whoatoncewasleaderinbattleandchief
magistrateinpeace,everincreased.Uponthewhole,everyplot
oflandwascultivatedbythesame family, fromgenerationto
generation, undernxed imposts.These imposts wereinsignin-
cant,moreatributebywhichthesupremacyofthe"great man"
andofhisofncerswasacknowledgedthanarentoflandinthe
modern sense, or a source of revenue. The ofhcers directly
subordinateto the "great man" were called "Taksmen," and
the district entrusted to their care, "Tak. " Under them were
placedinferiorofhcers,attheheadofeveryhamlet, andunder
thesestoodthepeasantry.
Thusyousee,theclan isnothingbutafamilyorganizedina
military manner, quiteaslittle dehned by laws, i ustas closely
hemmed in by traditions, as any family. ut the land is the
propert of the family, in the midst of which differences of
rank,inspite ofconsanguinity, doprevailaswellasinallthe
ancientAsiaticfamilycommunities.
The hrst usurpation took place, after the expulsion of the
Stuarts,bytheestablishmentofthefamilyregiments.fromthat
moment, pay became the principal source ofrevenue of the
"Great Man," theMor-fear-Chattaibh.Entangledinthedissi-
pation ofthe Court ofLondon, hetried to squeeze as much
moneyaspossibleoutofhisofncers,andtheyappliedthesame
II6 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
systemto theirinferiors. The ancienttributewas transformed
into6xedmoneycontracts.lnonerespectthesecontractscon-
stitutedaprogress,by6xingthetraditionalimposts;inanother
respecttheywere a usurpation, inasmuch asthe 'greatman"
nowtookthepositionof|andlordtowardthe'taksmen"who
again took toward the peasantry that offarmers. And as the
'greatman"nowrequiredmoneynolessthanthe'taksmen,"
a production noton|yfordirectconsumption butforexport
and exchange a|so became necessary; the system ofnationa|
production had to be changed, the hands superseded by this
changehadto begotridof. Popu|ation,therefore, decreased.
ut that it asyet was kept up in a certain manner, and that
man, inthe :thcentury,wasnotyetopen|ysacri6cedtonet
revenue,weseefromapassageinSteuart,'a Scotchpolitica|
economist,whoseworkwas pub|ishedtenyearsbeforeAdam
Smith's where he says [. . . ] : 'The rent ofthese lands is very
triflingcomparedtotheircxtent,butcomparedtothenumber
ofmouthswhich a farmmaintains, itwillperhaps be found
thataplotoflandinthehigh|andsofScotlandfeedstentimes
more peop|e than a farm of the same extent in the richest
provinces."
That even in the beginning of the :oth century the rental
imposts were very sma|l is shown by the work ofMr. Loch
| : zo,'' the steward of the Countess of Sutherland, who
directedtheimprovementsonherestates.Hegivesforinstance
the rental ofthe Kintradawe|| estatefor : : : , fromwhich it
appears that up to then, every family was obliged to pay a
yearly impost of a few shil|ings in money, a few fow|s, and
somedays'work,atthehighest.
ltwason|yafter t : : thattheultimateandrea|usurpation
wasenacted,theforcibletransformationofclan property into
the private property, in the modern sense, of the chief. The
person who stood at the head ofthis economical revolution
was a female Mehemet A|i,'' who had well digested her
Malthus~the Countess of Sutherland, a|ias Marchioness of
Stafford.
Let us 6rst state that the ancestors of the Marchioness of
Stafford were the 'great men" of the most northern part of
THE DUCHES S OF SUTHERLAND AND S LAVERY I I
7
Scotland, ofvery nearthree-quarters ofSutherlandshire. This
countyis moreextensivethanmanyfrenchDepartements or
smallCermanPrincipalities.WhentheCountessofSutherland
inherited these estates, vhich she aherward brought to her
husband, theMarquis ofStafford,afterwardDuke ofSuther-
land, the population ofthem was already reducedto : s,ooo.
MyladyCountessresolveduponaradicaleconomicalreform,
anddetermined upontransformingthewho|etractofcountry
intosheep-walks.from: : ato: zo,these: s,oooinhabitants,
about, ,ooofamilies,weresystematica||yexpe||edandextermi-
nated. All their vi|lages were demolished and burned down,
and all their nelds converted into pasturage. ritish soldiers
were commandedforthisexecution, andcametoblowswith
thenatives.Anoldwomanrefusingtoquitherhutwasburned
in the f|ames of it. Thus my |ady Countess appropriated to
herselfseven hundred and ninety-four thousand acres of land,
whichfrom time immemorialhad be|ongedto theclan. lnthe
exuberanceofhergenerosityshea||ottedtotheexpe|lednatives
about6,oooacres~zacresperfamily.These6,oooacreshad
been lying waste until then, and brought no revenue to the
proprietors.TheCountesswasgenerousenoughtoselltheacre
at zs. 6d., on an average, to theclan-menwho for centuries
past had shed their blood for her family. The who|e of the
unrightful|y appropriated c|an-|and she divided into zo |arge
sheepfarms,eachoftheminhabitedbyonesing|efami|y,mostly
English farm-|aborers; and in : z: the : s,ooo Cae|s had
a|readybeensupersededby: , :,ooosheep.
Aportionoftheaborigineshad beenthrownuponthesea-
shore,andattemptedto|iveby6shing.Theybecameamphibi-
ous,and,asanEng|ishauthorsays,livedha|fon|andandhalf
onwater,andafteralldidnothalf|iveuponboth.
Sismondi,'` in his
E
tudes Sociales, observes withregardto
this expropriation of the Caels from Suther|andshire~an
example, which, bytheby,wasimitated bytheother 'great
uen"ofScotland:
The large extent of seignorial domains is not a circumstance
peculiar to Britain. In the whole Empire of Charlemagne, in the
l I S DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
whole Occident, entire provinces were usurped by the warlike
chiefs, who had them cultivated for their own account by the
vanquished, and sometimes by their own companions in arms.
During the 9th and loth centuries the Counties of Maine, Anjou,
Poitou were for the Counts of these provinces rather three large
estates than principalities. Switzerland, which in so many respects
resembles Scotland, was at that time divided among a small
number of Seigneurs. If the Counts of Kyburg, of Lenzburg, of
Habsburg, of Gruyeres had been protected by British laws, they
would have been in the same position as the Earls of Sutherland;
some of them would perhaps have had the same taste for
improvement as the Marchioness of Stafford, and more than one
republic might have disappeared from the Alps in order to make
room for flocks of sheep. Not the most despotic monarch in
Germany would be allowed to attempt anything of the sort.
Mr. Loch, in his defense of the Countess of Suther|and
| : zo,repliestothe aboveasfollows: 'Whyshou|dtherebe
madeanexceptiontotheruleadoptedineveryothercase,iust
forthisparticularcase?Whyshou|dtheabsoluteauthorityof
theland|ordover his land be sacrincedtothepub|ic interest
andtomotiveswhichconcernthe publiconly?"
Andwhy,then,shou|dthes|ave-holdersintheSouthernStates
ofNorthAmerica sacrincetheirprivateinteresttothe philan-
thropicgrimacesofherCrace,theDuchessofSutherland?
The ritish aristocracy, who have everywhere superseded
man by bullocks andsheep,wi|l,inafuturenotverydistant,
besuperseded,inturn,bytheseusefulanimals.
Theprocess ofclearing estates which, in Scotland,wehave
iust now described, was carried out in Eng|and in the : 6th,
:;th, and : th centuries.Thomas Morus' a|readycomp|ains
ofitinthebeginningofthe : 6thcentury.ltwasperformed in
Scot|andinthebeginningofthe :oth, andinlre|andit isnow
in full progress. The noble Viscount Palmerston, too, some
yearsagoclearedofmenhispropertyinlreland,exact|yinthe
manner describedabove.
lfofanyproperty iteverwastrue thatitwasrobbery, itis
litera||ytrueofthepropertyoftheritisharistocracy.Robbery
[ CAPI TAL PUNI SHMENT) I I
9
ofChurchproperty,robberyofcommons,frauduloustransfor-
mation accompanied by murder, of feudal and patriarchal
propertyinto private property~theseare the titles ofritish
aristocratstotheirpossessions.Andwhatservicesinthislatter
processwereperformedbya servile class of|awyers,youmay
see from an English |awyer of the last century, Dalrymple,
who,inhis'History offeuda|Property",verynaivelyproves
thateverylawordeedconcerningpropertywasinterpretedby
the lawyers,inEngland,whenthe middleclassrose inwealth,
infavorof the middle class-in Scotland, wherethe nobility
enrichedthemselves, in favor ofthe nobility-in eithercase it
was interpretedin asensehostileto thepeople.
The above Turkish reform by the Countess of Suther|and
wasiustinable,atleast,fromaMalthusianpointofview.Other
Scottish nob|emen went further. Having superseded human
beingsbysheep,theysupersededsheepbygame,andthepasture
grounds by forests. At the head of these was the Duke of
Athol|.'Aftertheconquest,theNormanKingsafforestedlarge
portions ofthe soil of England, inmuch the same way asthe
landlordsherearenowdoingwiththeHighlands."|R. Somers,
Letters from the Highlands, : a.
Asforalargenumberofthehumanbeingsexpel|edtomake
roomforthegameoftheDukeofAtholl,andthesheepofthe
CountessofSutherland,where didtheyflyto,wheredidthey
nndahome?
In the United States of North America.
TheenemyofritishWages-Slaveryhasarighttocondemn
Negro-S|avery; a Duchess of Suther|and, a Duke ofAtho|l, a
ManchesterCottonLord~never!
[Capital Punishment]
Pub|ishedfebruary: ;, : s ,
The Times of1an.zs containsthefollowingobservationsunder
theheadof'AmateurHanging": 'lthasoftenbeenremarked
that in this country a public execution is genera|lyfo|lowed
1 20 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
closely by instances of death by hanging, either suicidal or
accidental, in consequence of the powerful effect which the
execution of a noted criminal produces upon a morbid and
unmaturedmind."
OftheseveralcaseswhichareallegedbyThe Times inillus-
trationofthisremark,oneisthatofalunaticatShefneld,who,
after talking with other lunatics respecting the execution of
arbour, put an end to his existence by hanging himself.
Anothercaseisthatofaboyof:ayears,whoalsohunghimself.
The doctrine to which the enumeration ofthese factswas
intendedtogiveits support, isonewhichno reasonableman
wouldbelikelytoguess,itbeingnolessthanadirectapotheosis
ofthe hangman, while capital punishment isextolled as the
ultima ratio ofsociety.Thisisdoneina leadingarticleofthe
'leadingi ournal. "
The Morning Advertiser, i nsome very bitter butiuststric-
tures on the hanging predilections and bloody logic of The
Times, hasthefollowinginterestingdataona,daysoftheyear
t ao.
Executions of:
Millan
Pulley
Smith
Howe
Landick
Sarah Thomas
J. Griffths
J. Rush
March 2O
March 26
March ;?
March ( 1
April n
April 1x
April 18
April 7I
Murders and Suicides:
Hannah San dIes March Z4
M. G. Newton March ZZ
J. G. Gleeson-4 murders
at Liverpool March z?
Murder and suicide at
Leicester April
;
Poisoning at Bath April ?
W. Bailey April 8
J. Ward murders his
mother April :(
Yardley April 14
Doxey, parricide April 14
J. Bailey kills his two
children and himself April 1?
Charles Overton April 1 8
Daniel Holmsden May 7
[ CAPI TAL PUNI SHMENT] 121
Thistable,asThe Times concedes,shows notonlysuicides,
butalsomurdersofthemostatrociouskind,followingclosely
upontheexecutionofcriminals. ltisastonishingthatthearticle
inquestiondoesnotevenproduceasingleargumentorpretext
for indulginginthe savage theory therein propounded;and it
wouldbeverydifncult,ifnotaltogetherimpossible,toestablish
anyprincipleuponwhichthei usticeorexpediency ofcapital
punishmentcouldbefounded,inasocietygloryinginitsciviliz-
ation. Punishment in general has been defended as a means
eitherofamelioratingor ofintimidating.Nowwhatrighthave
youtopunishmefortheameliorationorintimidationofothers?
And besides, there is historythere is such a thing as stat-
istics~whichprovewiththemostcompleteevidencethatsince
Cain the world has neither been intimidated nor ameliorated
bypunishment. Quitethecontrary. fromthepointofviewof
abstract right, there is only one theory ofpunishment which
recognizeshumandignityintheabstract,andthatisthetheory
of Kant, especially in the more rigid formula given to it by
Hegel. Hegel says:'Punishmentis the right ofthecriminal.lt
is an act of his own will. The violation of right has been
proclaimed bythe criminalas his ownright. Hiscrimeisthe
negationofright.Punishmentisthe negationofthisnegation,
andconsequentlyanafnrmationofright, solicited andforced
uponthecriminalbyhimself."
Thereisnodoubtsomethingspeciousinthisformula,inas-
much as Hegel, instead of looking upon the criminal as the
mereobiect,theslaveofiustice,elevateshimtothepositionofa
freeandself-determinedbeing.Looking,however,moreclosely
intothematter,we discoverthatCerman idealism here,asin
mostotherinstances, has butgivenatranscendentalsanction
totherulesofexistingsociety.lsitnotadelusiontosubstitute
fortheindividualwithhisrealmotives,withmultifarioussocial
circumstances pressing upon him, the abstraction of 'free-
will"~oneamongthemanyqualitiesofmanformanhimself!
Thistheory,consideringpunishmentastheresultofthecrimi-
nal'sownwill,isonlyametaphysicalexpressionfortheold'ius
talionis": eyeagainst eye, tooth against tooth, blood against
blood. Plainly speaking, anddispensingwith all paraphrases,
122 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
punishmentis nothing but a means ofsocietyto defend itself
againstthe infraction ofitsvitalconditions,whatever may be
their character. Now, what a state of society is that, which
knows of no better instrument for its own defense than the
hangman, and which proclaims through the 'leading iournal
oftheworld"itsownbrutalityaseternallaw?
Mr.A.Quetelet,inhisexcellentandlearnedwork,I'Homme
et,ses Facultes, says:
There is a budget which we pay with frightful regularity-it is
that of prisons, dungeons and scaffolds . . . We might even predict
how many individuals will stain their hands with the blood of
their fellow men, how many will be forgers, how many will deal
in poison, pretty nearly the same way as we may foretell the
annual births and deaths.
And Mr. Quetelet, in a calculation ofthe probabilities of
crime published in : zo, actually predictedwith astonishing
certainty, not only the amount but all the different kinds of
crimescommittedinfrancein: ,o.Thatitisnotsomuchthe
particularpoliticalinstitutionsofacountryasthefundamental
conditionsofmodernbourgeois societyingeneral,whichpro-
duce an average amount ofcrime ina givennational fraction
ofsociety,maybeseenfromthefollowingtable,communicated
by Quetelet, forthe years : zz~za.Wennd in a number of
onehundredcondemnedcriminalsinAmericaandfrance.
Age Philadelphia France
Under twenty-one years 1 1
Twenty-one to thirty 44 35
Thirty to forty
2
3
2
3
Above forty 14
2
3
Total 1OO :OO
Now, ifcrimesobservedonagreatscale thusshow,intheir
amount and their classincation, the regularity of physical
phenomena~ifasMr.Queteletremarks,'itwouldbedifncult
[ I RI SH TENANT RI GHT) 1 2\
to decidei nrespectto whichofthe two" |thephysical world
andthe social system 'the acting causes producetheir efect
withtheutmostregularity"~istherenotanecessityfordeeply
reflecting upon analteration of the system that breeds these
crimes, instead ofglorifying the hangmanwhoexecutesa lot
ofcriminalstomakeroomonlyforthesupplyofnewones'. . .]
[Irish Tenant Right]
Published1uly : : , t s,
'. . . ]AstheCoalitionMinistrydependsonthesupportofthe
lrishparty,and asalltheotherpartiescomposingtheHouseof
Commons so nicely balance each other that the lrish may at
anymomentturnthescaleswhichwaytheyplease,somecon-
cessionsareatlastabouttobemadetothe lrishtenants.The
'Leasing Powers |lreland ill, which passed the House of
Commons on friday last, contains a provision that for the
improvementsmadeonthesoilandseparablefromthesoil,the
tenantshallhaveattheterminationofhislease,acompensation
inmoney,theincomingtenantbeingatlibertytotakethemat
thevaluation,whilewithrespectto improvementsinthesoil,
compensationforthemshallbearrangedby contractbetween
thelandlord andthetenant.
A tenant having incorporated his capital, in one form or
another,intheland, andhavingthuseffectedanimprovement
ofthe soil, either directly by irrigation, drainage, manure, or
indirectly by construction of buildings for agricultural pur-
poses,instepsthelandlordwithdemandforincreasedrent.lf
thetenantconcede,hehastopaytheinterestforhisownmoney
tothe landlord. lfheresist, he will beveryunceremoniously
eiected, and supplanted by a new tenant, the latter being en-
abledtopayahigherrentbytheveryexpensesincurredbyhis
predecessors,untilhealso,inhisturn,hasbecomeanimprover
ofthe land, andisreplaced inthe sameway, or puton worse
terms. lnthiseasywaya class ofabsentee landlordshas been
enabledtopocket,notmerelythelabor,butalsothecapital,of
1 24 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
wholegenerations,eachgenerationoflrishpeasantssinkinga
grade lower in the social scale, exactly in proportion to the
exertionsand sacrinces madefortheraising oftheircondition
and that oftheir families. lfthe tenant was industrious and
enterprising,hebecametaxedinconsequenceofhisveryindus-
tryandenterprise.lf,onthecontrary,hegrewinertandneg|i-
gent,hewasreproachedwiththe'aboriginalfau|tsoftheCeltic
race. He had, accordingly, no other alternative left but to
become a pauperto pauperise himself by industry, or to
pauperisebynegligence.lnordertoopposethisstateofthings,
'Tenant Right was proclaimed in lreland~a right of the
tenant, not in the soil but in the improvements of the soi|
effectedathiscostandcharges. LetusseeinwhatmannerThe
Times, in its Saturday's leader, attempts to break down this
lrish 'TenantRight:
There are two general systems of farm occupation. Either a tenant
may take a lease of the land for a fxed number of years, or his
holding may be terminable at any time upon certain notice. In
the frst of these events, it would be obviously his course to adjust
and apportion his outlay so that all, or nearly all, the beneft
would fnd its way to him before the expiration of his term. In
the second case it seems equally obvious that he should not run
the risk of the investment without a proper assurance of return.
Wherethe|andlordshavetodea|withac|assof|argecapita|-
istswhomay,astheyp|ease, investtheirstockincommerce,in
manufactures or in farming, there can be no doubt but that
these capita|ist farmers, whether they take |ong |eases or no
time leasesat a||, knowhowto secure the 'proper returnof
theiroutlays.utwithregardtolrelandthesuppositionisquite
nctitious. Ontheonesideyou havetherea sma|| c|assofland
monopolists, on the other, a very large c|ass of tenants with
very petty fortunes, which they have no chance to invest in
different ways, no other ne|dofproductionopening to them,
exceptthesoi|.Theyare, therefore,forcedtobecometenants-
at-wi|l. eing once tenants-at-wi||, they natural|y run the risk
of|osingtheirrevenue,providedtheydonotinvesttheirsmal|
[ I RI S H TENANT RI GHT] 125
capita|.lnvestingit,i norderto securetheirrevenue,theyrun
therisk of|osing theircapital,also.'Perhaps,continues The
Times,
it may be said, that in any case a tenantry could hardly expire
without something being left upon the ground, in some shape or
another, representing the tenant's own property, and that for this
compensation should be forthcoming. There is some truth in the
remark, but the demand thus created . . . ought, under proper
conditions of society, to be easily adjusted between landlord and
tenant, as it might, at any rate, be provided for in the original
contract. We say that the conditions of soiety should regulate
these arrangements, because we believe that no Parliamentary
enactment can be effectually substituted for such an agency.
lndeed, under 'proper conditions of society, we shou|d
want nomorePar|iamentary interference with the lrish |and-
tenant, as we shou|d notwant, under 'proper conditions of
society, theinterferenceofthe so|dier, ofthepo|iceman, and
ofthehangman.Legis|ature,magistracy, andarmedforce,are
a||ofthembuttheoffspringofimproperconditionsofsociety,
preventingthosearrangementsamongmenwhichwouldmake
use|essthecompu|soryinterventionofathirdsupremepower.
Has, perhaps, The Times been converted into a socia| revo|-
utionist? Does it want a social revolution, reorganizing the
'conditions of society, and the 'arrangements emanating
fromthem, instead of 'Par|iamentary enactments ?EngIand
hassubvertedtheconditionsoflrishsociety.Atnrstitconns-
catedtheland,then itsuppressedtheindustryby'Par|iamen-
taryenactments,and|astly,itbroketheactiveenergybyarmed
force.AndthusEnglandcreatedthoseabominab|e'conditions
ofsocietywhichenableasmallcaste ofrapacious|ordlingsto
dictate to the lrish people the terms on which they sha|| be
allowedtoho|dthelandandtoliveuponit.Tooweakyetfor
revo|utionizingthose'socia|conditions,thepeopleappealto
Par|iament,demandingatleasttheirmitigationandregulation.
ut 'No, says The Times; if you don't live under proper
conditions ofsociety,Par|iamentcan'tmendthat. And ifthe
I26 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
lrishpeople, onthe advice of The Times, triedto-morrow to
mend theirconditionsofsociety, The Times wouldbe thenrst
to appeal to bayonets, and to pour out sanguinary denunci-
ationsof'theaboriginalfaultsoftheCelticrace,wantingthe
Anglo-Saxon tasteforpacinc progressandlegal amelioration.
'lf a land|ord, says The Times, 'deliberately iniures one
tenant, he wil| nnd it so much the harder to getanother, and
wheteashisoccupationconsistsin |etting|and,he wi|l nndhis
landallthemoredifnculttolet.
The case stands rather differently in lreland. The more a
landlordiniuresonetenant,theeasierhewillnndittooppress
another.Thetenantwhocomesin,isthemeansofiniuringthe
ei ected one and the ei ected one is the meansofkeepingdown
the newoccupant. That, in due course oftime, the landlord,
besideini uringthetenant,williniurehimselfandruinhimse|f,
isnot onlya probability, butthe very fact, in lre|anda fact
affording,however,averyprecarioussource ofcomforttothe
ruinedtenant. 'The relationsbetweenthelandlordandtenant
arethosebetweentwotraders, saysThe Times.
This is precisely the petitio principii which pervades the
who|e leaderofThe Times. The needylrishtenantbe|ongsto
thesoi|,whi|ethesoi|belongstotheEnglishLord.Aswel|you
might call the relation between the robber who presents his
pistol, and the traveler who presents his purse, a relation
betweentwotraders.'ut, saysThe Times, 'inpointoffact,
the relation between lrishland|ords and tenants wil| soon be
reformedbyanagencymorepotentthanthatof|egis|ation. . .
Thepropertyoflrelandisfastpassingintonewhands,and,if
the present rate of emigration continues, its cu|tivation must
undergothesametransfer.
Here, at|east, The Times hasthetruth. ritishPar|iament
doesnotinterfereatamomentwhentheworked-outo|dsystem
isterminatinginthecommonruin,bothofthethriftylandlord
andtheneedytenant,theformerbeingknockeddownbythe
hammeroftheEncumbered Estates Commission,andthe|atter
expelledbycompulsoryemigration.Thisremindsusoftheo|d
SultanofMorocco.Whenevertherewasacasependingbetween
two parties, heknewofno more 'potent agency forsettling
[ I RI S H TENANT RI GHT] I2
7
theircontroversy,thanbyki|lingbothparties.'Nothingcou|d
tend,conc|udesThe Times withregardtoTenantRight,'to
greater confusion than such a communistic distribution of
ownership + . + The onlypersonwithany rightin the |and, is
theland|ord.
The Times seems to have been the sleeping Epimenides
of the past ha|fcentury, and never to have heard ofthe hot
controversygoing on duringa|| thattime uponthe claims of
thelandlord,notamongsocialreformersandCommunists,but
amongtheverypolitica|economistsoftheritishmidd|e-class.
Ricardo, the creator of modern politica| economy in Creat
ritain, didnotcontrovertthe 'right ofthelandlords, ashe
was quite convinced that their c|aims were based upon fact,
and not on right, and that po|itica| economy in genera| had
nothing to do with questions of right; but he attacked the
land-monopolyinamoreunassuming,yetmorescientinc, and
thereforemoredangerousmanner.Heprovedthatprivatepro-
prietorshipinland, asdistinguishedfromtherespectiveclaims
ofthe|aborer,andofthefarmer,wasare|ationquitesuperu-
ousin, andincoherentwiththewho|eframe-workofmodern
production;thattheeconomicalexpressionofthatrelationship,
therentofland,might,withgreatadvantage,beappropriated
bythe State; and nnal|y thatthe interest ofthe landlordwas
opposedtotheinterestofal|otherclassesofmodernsociety.lt
wou|dbetedioustoenumeratealltheconc|usionsdrawn from
thesepremisesbythe RicardoSchoo|againstthe landedmon-
opoly. for my end, it wil| sufnceto quote three ofthe most
recenteconomicalauthoritiesofCreatritain.
TheLondonEconomist, whosechiefeditor, Mr.1. Wilson,
is notonlya freeTradeoracle, butaWhigone,too, andnot
only a Whig, but also an inevitab|e Treasury-appendage in
everyWhigorcompositeministry,hascontendedindifferent
artic|esthatexactlyspeakingtherecanexistnotitleauthorizing
any individual, or any number of individuals, to claim the
exclusiveproprietorshipinthe soilofanation.
Mr. Newman," in his Lectures on Political Economy,
London, t s t , professedlywrittenforthepurposeofrefuting
Socialism,te||sus:
1 28 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
No man has, or can have, a natural right to land, except so long
as he occupies it in person. His right is to the use, and to the use
only. All other right is the creation of artifcial law (or parliamen
tary enactments as The Times would call it) . . . If, at any time,
land becomes needed to live upon, the right of private possessors
to withhold it comes to an end.
Thisisexact|ythecaseinlreland,andMr.Newmanexpressly
connrmsthe claims ofthelrishtenantry, and in lectureshe|d
beforethemostselectaudiencesoftheritisharistocracy.
lnconc|usionletmequotesomepassagesfromMr. Herbert
Spencer'swork,Social Statics, London, : s : ,a|so,purporting
tobeacompleterefutationofCommunism,andacknowledged
asthemostelaboratedeve|opmentofthefreeTradedoctrines
ofmodernEng|and.
No one . . , may use the earth in such a way as to prevent the rest
from similarly using it . . . Equity, therefore, does not permit
property in land, or the rest would live on the earth by sufferance
only. The landless men might equitably be expelled from the
earth altogether . . . It can never be pretended, that the existing
titles to such property are legitimate. Should any one think so let
him look in the Chronicles . . . The original deeds were written
with the sword, rather than with the pen. Not lawyers but soldiers
were the conveyancers: blows were the current coin given in
payment; and for seals blood was used in preference to wax.
Could valid claims be thus constituted? Hardly. And if not, what
becomes of the pretensions of all subsequent holders of estates
so obtained? Does sale or bequest generate a right where it did
not previously exist? . . . If one act of transfer can give no title,
can many? . . . At what rate per annum do invalid claims become
valid? . . . The right of mankind at large to the earth's surface is
still valid, all deeds, customs and laws notwithstanding . . . It is
impossible to discover any mode in which land can become
private property . . . We daily deny landlordism by our legisla
tion. Is a canal, a railway, or a turnpike road to be made? We do
not scruple to seize just as many acres as may be requisite . . . We
do not wait for consent . . . The change required would simply
[ CHARTI SM) 1 29
be a change of landlords . . . Instead of being in the possession
of individuals, the country would be held by the great corporate
body-society. Instead of leasing his acres from an isolated pro
prietor, the farmer would lease them from the nation. Instead of
paying his rent to the agent of Sir John, or His Grace, he will pay
to an agent, or deputy-agent of the community. Stewards would
be public offcials, instead of private ones, and tenantry the only
land tenure . . . Pushed to its ultimate consequences, a claim to
exclusive possession of the soil involves land-owning despotism.
Thus,fromtheverypointofviewofmodernEng|ishpo|itica|
economists,itisnottheusurpingEng|ish|and|ord,butthelrish
tenantsandlaborers,whohavetheon|yrightinthesoi|oftheir
native country, and The Times, in opposing the demands of
thelrishpeop|e,p|acesitse|fintodirectantagonismto ritish
midd|e-classscience.
[ Chartism]
Pub|ished1uly :a, : s ,
'. . . ] Strikes and combinations of workmen are proceeding
rapidly,andtoanunprecedentedextent.lhavenowbeforeme
reportsonthestrikesofthefactoryhandsofa||descriptionsat
Stockport,ofsmiths, spinners, weavers,etc. ,atManchester,of
carpet-weavers atKidderminster, ofco||iers atthe Ringwood
Col|ieries, nearristol,ofweavers and |oomers at |ackburn,
of|oomersatDarwen,ofthecabinet-makersatoston,ofthe
b|eachers, hnishers, dyers and power-|oomweaversofo|ton
and neighborhood, of the weavers ofarns|ey, ofthe Spita|-
ne|dsbroad-si|kweavers,ofthe|acemakersofNottingham,of
a|| descriptions of workingmen throughout the irmingham
district,and invarious other loca|ities. Each mail brings new
reports of strikes; the turn-outgrows epidemic. Everyone of
thelargerstrikes,|ikethoseatStockport,Liverpoo|,etc.,neces-
sarilygeneratesawholeseries ofminor strikes,throughgreat
numbersofpeoplebeingunabletocarryouttheirresistanceto
1 3 0 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
the masters, unlessthey appealto thesupportoftheir fellow-
workmen in the Kingdom, and the latter, in order to assist
them,askingintheirturnforhigherwages.esidesitbecomes
alike a pointofhonorand ofinterestforeach localitynotto
isolate the efforts oftheir fellow-workmen by submitting to
worse terms, and thus strikes in one locality are echoed by
strikes inthe remotestotherlocalities. ln some instances the
demandsforhigherwagesareonlyasettlementoflong-standing
arrearswiththemasters.SowiththegreatStockportstrike.
ln1anuary,t a, themill-ownersofthetownmadeageneral
reduction of t o per cent. from all descriptions of factory-
workers` wages. This reduction was submitted to upon the
condition that when trade revived the t o per cent. was to
be restored. Accordingly the work-people memorialized their
employers, earlyinMarch, t s , , forthepromisedadvanceof
t oper cent.; and as they would not come to arrangements
withthem,upwardof,o,ooohandsstruck.lnthe maiority of
instances, the factory-workmen af6rmed distinctly their right
toshare intheprosperityofthecountry, andespeciallyinthe
prosperityoftheiremployers.
Thedistinctivefeatureofthepresentstrikesisthis,thatthey
beganinthelowerranksofunskilledlabor|notfactorylabor,
actuallytrainedbythedirectinuenceofemigration,according
tovariousstrataofartizans,tilltheyreachedatlastthefactory
peopleofthegreatindustrialcentersofCreatritain;while at
allformer periods strikes originated regularly from the heads
of the factory-workers, mechanics, spinners, &c., spreading
thence to the lower classes of this great industrial hive, and
reachingonlyinthelastinstance,totheartizans.Thisphenom-
enonistobeascribedsolelytoemigration.
Thereexistsaclassofphilanthropists,andevenofsocialists,
whoconsiderstrikesasverymischievoustotheinterestsofthe
'workingmanhimself,andwhosegreataimconsistsin6nding
out a method of securing permanent average wages. esides,
thefactoftheindustrialcyclus,withitsvariousphases,putting
everysuchaveragewagesoutofthequestion.l am,onthevery
contrary, convinced thatthealternativerise andfallofwages,
andthecontinual conflicts betweenmasters andmenresulting
[ PRI NCE ALBE RT] 1 3 1
therefrom, are, in the present organization of industry, the
indispensable means of holding up the spirit of the laboring
classes, ofcombining theminto onegreatassociation against
theencroachmentsoftherulingclass, andofpreventingthem
lrom becoming apathetic, thoughtless, more or less well-fed
instruments ofproduction.lna stateofsociety founded upon
theantagonismofclasses,ifwewanttopreventSlaveryinfact
as well as in name, we must accept war. ln order to rightly
appreciatethevalueofstrikes andcombinations,we mustnot
a|lowourselvestobe blindedbytheapparentinsigni6canceof
theireconomicalresults,buthold,aboveallthings,inviewtheir
moralandpoliticalconsequences.Withoutthegreatalternative
phasesofdullness,prosperity,over-excitement,crisis anddis-
tress,whichmodernindustrytraversesinperiodicallyrecurring
cycles,withtheupanddownofwagesresultingfromthem,as
with the constant warfare between masters and men closely
correspondingwith those variations inwagesandpro6ts, the
working-classesofCreat ritain, and ofallEurope,wouldbe
aheart-broken,aweak-minded,aworn-out,unresistingmass,
whoseself-emancipationwouldproveasimpossibleasthatof
the slaves of Ancient Creece and Rome. Wemust not forget
that strikes and combinations among the serfs were the hot-
beds of the mediaeval communes, and that those communes
have been in their turn, the source oflife of the now ruling
bourgeoisie'. n .]
[Prince Albert]
Publishedfebruary:: , t sa
[ . . .] Public opinion is half-inclined to sacrifce Prince Albert at
the shrine of rumor. A whisper, which was frst insinuated for
party uses, has grown into a roar, and a constructive hint has
swelled into a positive and monstrous fction. That those who
seek the presence of the Queen should fnd Prince Albert with
her Majesty, is a fact which rather won the sympathy and esteem
of the English public; but then it was said that he attended
13
2 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK 11LT1
meetings of the Queen with her Ministers; next, that Ministers
were made aware of his presence-that, however reluctant to
proceed with business before a third party, they found it necessary
to do so-that it even became necessary to defend their opinions
before the Prince-that the Prince, in fact, interfered with their
counsel to their Sovereign-that he not only influenced the Royal
mind, but possessing the power of free communication with
foreign Courts, he constituted an unlicensed channel for infor
mation between the confdential council of the Queen and the
Cabinets of foreign potentates, perhaps of the enemies of Eng
land-that in short, Prince Albert was a traitor to his Queen,
that he had been impeached for high treason, and fnally, that on
a charge of high treason he had been arrested and committed to
the Tower. This was the story not only told in all parts of England
a day or two back, but by some believed.
l quote the above passage fromThe Spectator, in orderto
showyourreadershowpub|icrumorhas beeninduced bythe
Palmerstonian press to make a poor stupid young man the
scapegoatoftheresponsibleMinisters. PrinceAlbertisaCer-
manPrince,connectedwithmostoftheabso|uteanddespotic
Covernmentsofthe Continent. Raised to the rankofPrince-
Consort in Creat ritain, he has devoted his time part|y to
fattening pigs, to inventing ridicu|ous hats for the army, to
p|anningmode|lodginghousesofapecu|iarlytransparentand
uncomfortablekind,totheHydeParkExhibition,andtoama-
teurso|diery.Hehasbeenconsideredamiableandharmless,in
pointofinte||ectbe|owthegeneralaverageofhumanbeings,a
prolinc father and an obsequious husband. Oflate, however,
hehasbeende|iberate|ymagninedintothemostinuentia|man
andthemostdangerouscharacteroftheUnitedKingdom,said
todisposeofthewholeStatemachineryatthesecretdictation
ofRussia. Nowtherecanexistbutlittle doubtthatthePrince
exercisesa directinf|uenceinCourtaffairs, and,ofcourse,in
theinterestofdespotism.ThePrincecannotbutactaPrince`s
part,andwhowaseversi||yenoughtosupposehewouldnot?
utl neednotinform yourreaders oftheutterimpotency to
which ritish Roya|ty itself has been reduced by the ritish
[ PRI NCE ALBERT] 1
3 3
oligarchy,s othat,forinstance,KingWilliamlV,adecidedfoe
toRussia,was forcedbyhisForeignMinister'~amemberof
theWhigo|igarchytoactasafoetoTurkey.Howpreposter-
ous, then, to suppose Prince A|bert to be able to carry one
sing|epointin denance oftheMinistry,exceptsofaraslittle
Courtaffairs,adirtyriband,oratinselstar,areconcerned!Use
ismadeofhisabsolutistpenchants toblindthepeople`seyesas
tothep|otsandtreacheriesofthe responsibleMinisters.lfthe
outcryandattackmeansanythingitmeansanattackonroya|ist
institutions.lftherewerenoQueentherewouldbenoPrince~
ifthere were no throne there would be no Court influences.
Princes would lose their power if thrones were not there to
back them, and for them to |ean upon. ut, now mark! the
paperswhichgothefarthestintheir'fearfu|boldness,which
crytheloudestandtrytomakeasortofpo|iticalcapitaloutof
Prince Albert, arethe mosteagerintheir assertions of|oya|ty
tothethroneandinfu|someadulationoftheQueen. Astothe
Tory papers this proposition isse|f-evident. As to the radical
Morning Advertiser, itisthesameiournalwhichhai|edona-
parte`s coup d`etat, and recently attacked an lrish paper for
havingdaredtonndfau|twiththeQueen,ontheoccasionofher
presenceatDub|in,whichreproachestheFrenchRevolutionists
with professing Repub|icanism, and continues to designate
Lord Pa|merston as the savior of England. The who|e is a
Pa|merstoniantrick.Palmerston,bythereve|ationsofhisRus-
sianismandhisoppositiontothenewReformi||,hasbecome
unpopu|ar. The |atteracthas takenthe liberalgi|ding offhis
mustygingerbread.Neverthe|ess,hewantspopu|arityinorder
tobecomePremier,orat|eastForeignMinister.Whatanadmir-
ab|eopportunitytostamphimse|faLiberalagainandtoplay
thepartofrutus,persecutedbysecretCourtinfIuences.Attack
aPrince-Consorthowtakingforthepeop|e.He`||bethemost
popularstatesmanoftheage.Whatan admirab|eopportunity
ofcasting ob|oquy on his resent col|eagues, of stigmatizing
themasthetoolsofPrinceAlbert, andofconvincingthe Court
thatPalmerstonmustbeacceptedonhisownterms.TheTories,
ofcourse,ioininthecry,forchurchandcrownare|itt|etothem
comparedwithpoundsandacres,andthesethecotton-lordsare
1 34
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
winning from them fast. And if the Tories, in the name of
'constitutionand'libertytalkdaggersagainstaPrince,what
enlightened Liberal would not throw himself worshipping at
theirfeet'. . . ]
The War Debate in Parliament
PublishedApril : ;, : sa
AsingularityofEnglishtragedy,sorepulsivetofrenchfeelings
thatVoltaireusedto call Shakespearea drunken savage, isits
peculiarmixtureofthesublimeandthe base,the terrible and
theridiculous,theheroicandtheburlesque.utnowheredoes
ShakespearedevolveupontheClownthetaskofspeakingthe
prologue of a heroic drama. This invention was reserved for
theCoalitionMinistry.MylordAberdeenhasperformed,ifnot
the English Clown, at least the ltalian Pantaloon. All great
historicalmovementsappear,tothesuperncialobserver,nnally
tosubsideintothefarce,oratleastthecommon-place.utto
commencewith thisisa featurepeculiaralone to the tragedy
entitled, War with Russia, the prologue ofwhichwas recited
on friday evening in both Houses of Parliament, where the
Ministry`s address in answer to Her Maiesty`s message was
simultaneously discussed and unanimously adopted, to be
handedovertotheQueenyesterdayafternoon,sittinguponher
throneinuckinghamPalace.TheproceedingsintheHouseof
Lords may be very briefly delineated. Lord Clarendon made
the Ministerial, and LordDerby the Opposition statement of
the case. The one spoke as the man in ofnce, and the other
likethe manoutofit.
LordAberdeen,thenobleEarlattheheadoftheCovernment,
the'acrimoniousconndantoftheCzar,the 'dear,good,and
excellent Aberdeen ofLouis Philippe, the 'estimablegentle-
manofPiuslXalthoughconcludinghissermonwithhisusual
whinings for peace, caused, during the principal part of his
performance,theirlordshipstobeconvulsedwithlaughter,by
declaringwarnotonRussia,butonThe Press, aLondonweekly
THE WAR DEBATE I N PARLI AMENT 1
3 5
periodical. LordMalmesburyretortedonthenobleEarl;Lord
rougham, that 'old, foolish woman, as he was styled by
William Cobbett, discovered that the contest on which they
wereengagedwasno'easyone; Earl Crey, who,inhisChris-
tianspirit,hadcontrivedtomaketheritishColoniesthemost
miserab|eabodesoftheworld,remindedtheritishpeoplethat
the tone and temper in which the war was referred to, the
feelingofanimosityevincedagainsttheCzarandhisCossacks,
wasnotthe spiritin whicha Christiannationoughtto enter
uponwar.TheEarlofHardwickewasofopinionthatEngland
was weak in the means she possessed for dealing with the
Russian navy; thatthey ought not to have a less force in the
altic than 20 sail ofthe line, well armed and well manned,
withdisciplinedcrews,andnotbegin,astheyhaddone,with
a mob of newly raised men, a mob in a line of battle-ship
duringanactionbeingtheworstofallmobs. TheMarquisof
LansdownevindicatedtheCovernment, andexpressedahope
as to the shortness and ultimate success ofthe war, because
|andthisisa characteristicmarkofthenoblelord`spowersof
conception 'itwasnodynasticwar, suchawar involvingthe
largestconsequences,andwhichitwasthemostdifnculttoput
anendto.
Afterthisagreeable conversazione inwhicheverybody had
given his sentiment, the address was agreed to nemine con
tradicente.92
All thenew information to begatheredfromthisconversa
zione islimitedtosomeofncialdeclarationsonthepartofLord
Clarendon,andthehistoryofthesecretmemorandumof: aa.
Lord Clarendon statedthat'atpresenttheagreement with
France consists simply of an exchange of notes containing
arrangementswithrespecttomilitaryoperations.
Consequentlythereexists,atthismoment,no treat between
England and france. ln reference to Austria and Prussia he
statedthattheformerwouldmaintainanarmedneutrality,and
the othera neutral neutrality; butthat 'with sucha war as is
nowabouttobewageduponthefrontiersofbothcountries,it
wouldbeimpossibleforeitherpowertopreserveaneutrality.
Iinallyhe declaredthatthepeaceto be broughtaboutby the
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK 1J1LT1
impending war, wou|d on|y be a g|orious peace 'ifthey did
secureequa|rightsandimmunitiesfortheChristiansubiectsof
Turkey.
Now we know that the Sheik-u|-ls|am has already been
deposed for havingrefused to sanction by a fetva the treaty
grantingthisequalizationofrights;thatthegreatestexcitement
exists onthepartofthe o|dTurkishpopu|ationatConstanti-
nople;and bya te|egraphic dispatchreceivedto-daywe learn
that the Czar has dec|ared to Prussia that he is wi||ing to
withdraw his troops from the Principalities if the Western
Powers shou|d succeed in imposing such a treaty upon the
Porte.A|lhewantsistobreaktheOsmanru|e.`lftheWestern
Powers proposeto doitin his stead, he, ofcourse,snotthe
madmantowagewarwiththem.
Now to the history of the secret memorandum, which l
col|ectfromthespeechesofDerby,Aberdeen,Ma|mesburyand
Cranvil|e.Thememorandumwas'intendedtobeaprovisiona|,
conditional and secret arrangement between Russia, Austria
and Eng|and, to make certain arrangements with respect to
Turkey,whichfrance,withoutanyconsentonherpart,wasto
be ob|igedtoconcurin.
This memorandum, thus described in the words of Lord
Ma|mesbury,wastheresu|tofprivateconferencesbetweenthe
Czar, the Earl ofAberdeen, the Duke ofWe||ington and Sir
Robert Peel. ltwas by the advice of Aberdeen that the Czar
addressedhimse|ftotheDukeandtoSirRobertPeel.ltremains
amatterofcontroversybetweenLordAberdeenandhisoppon-
ents,whetherthememorandumwasdrawnupbyCountNesse|-
rode,onthereturnoftheCzartoSt.Petersburgsubsequent|y
to hisvisittoEnglandin: aa,orwhetheritwasdrawnupby
theEnglishMinistersthemselves as a record ofthe communi-
cationsmadebytheEmperor.
TheconnectionoftheEarlofAberdeenwiththisdocument
wasdistinguishedfromthatofamereMinisterwithanomcia|
document as proved, according to the statement ofMa|mes-
bury, by another paper not laid before the House. Thedocu-
mentwas considered ofthegreatestimportance, andsuch as
mightnotbecommunicatedtotheotherpowers,notwithstand-
THE WAR DEBATE I N PARLI AMENT 1
3 7
ingAberdeen'sassurancethathehadcommunicatedthe'sub-
stance to france. The Czar, ata|levents, wasnotaware of
sucha communicationhavingbeenmade.Thedocumentwas
sanctioned and approved by the Duke ofWellington and Sir
Robert Pee|. lt was not brought under the cognizance and
considerationofthePeelCabinet,ofwhichLordDerbywasat
thattimeamember.ltremainednotwiththeordinarypapersof
theforeignOfnce,butintheprivatecustodyofeachsuccessive
SecretaryofState,withnocopyof itwhateverin theforeign
Ofnce.When Lord Derby accededto ofnce, heknew nothing
ofit, a|thoughhimse|fa member ofthePeel Cabinet in : aa.
WhentheEarlofAberdeen|eftofnce, hehandeditoverina
boxtoLordPa|merston,whohandedtheboxofPandoraover
tohissuccessor,EarlCranvil|e,who,ashestateshimse|f,atthe
requestofaronrunnow,theRussianEmbassador,handedit
overtotheEarlofMa|mesburyonhisaccessiontotheforeign
Ofnce. ut, in the meantime, there appears to have been an
alteration, orrathera falsincationinthe originalindorsement
ofthedocument,sincetheEar|ofCranvi||esentittotheEar|
ofMa|mesburywithanotestatingthatitwasamemorandum
drawnup byBaron Brunnow, astheresu|toftheconferences
betweentheEmperorofRussia,SirRobertPee|andLordAber-
deen,thenameoftheDukeofWel|ingtonnotbeingmentioned
ata|l.Noothermotivecanbesupposedforthisfalsea||egation
buttheanxietytoconcealtheimportanceofthememorandum
bydescribingitasamereannotationoftheEmbassador,instead
of an ofncia| document issued from the Chancel|ory at
St.Petersburg.
Suchwas the importance Russia attachedtothisdocument
thatahoursafterLordMa|mesburyhadbeeninomce,aron
runnow came and asked him whether he had read it; but
Ma|mesburyhadnotthen doneso,itbeingnotforwardedto
him till a few days after. aron runnow urged on him the
necessityofreadingthisdocument,whichhestatedconstituted
the key of all conferences with Russia. from that moment,
however, he never mentioned the document again to the
Derbyites, apparently iudging the Tory Administration too
power|essortootransitoryforcarryingouttheRussianpolicy.
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
ln December, t sz, the Derby Covernment went out, and
shortly aftertheinte|ligenceoftheformationoftheCoalition
reachingSt.Petersburg,on1an. :: , theCzaragainopenedthis
questionasuf6cientevidencethisthathethoughtthecabinet
ofa||thetalentsreadytoactonthebasisofthismemorandum.
Here,then,wehavethemostcompromisingreve|ationsmade
intheHouseofLordsbythemostirreversiblewitnesses,allof
themhavingbeenPrimeorforeignMinistersofCreatritain.
An'eventua|engagementtheexpressionusedinthememor-
andumis secret|y entered into with Russia by an English
foreignMinister,notonlywithoutthesanctionofParliament,
butbehindthe backsofhisownco||eagues,twoofthemonly
having been initiated into the mystery. The paper isfor ten
yearswithhe|dfromtheforeignOf6ceandkeptinc|andestine
custodybyeachsuccessiveforeignMinister.Wheneveraminis-
trydisappearsfromthescene,theRussianEmbassadorappears
inDowning-st. andintimatestothenew-comerthathehadto
look closely at the bond, the secret bond, entered into not
between the nation as lega||y represented, but between some
Cabinet-MinisterandtheCzar,andtoactaccordingtotheline
ofconductprescribedinaRussianmemorandumdrawnup in
theChancelloryofSt.Petersburg.
lfthisbenotanopeninfractionoftheConstitution,ifnota
conspiracyandhightreason,ifnotcol|usionwith Russia,we
areatalosstounderstandthemeaningoftheseterms.
Atthesametimeweunderstandfromtheserevelationswhy
the criminals, perfectly secure, are a||owed to remain at the
he|m ofthe State, atthevery epoch ofanostensib|ewarwith
Russia, with whom they are convicted to have permanent|y
conspired, and why the Parliamentary opposition is a mere
sham,intendedtoannoybutnottoimpeachthem.Al|foreign
Ministers, andconsequently al|the successiveAdministrations
since t aa are accomplices, each ofthem becoming so from
themomentheneglectedtoaccusehispredecessorandquiet|y
acceptedthemysteriousbox.ythemereaffectationofsecrecy
each ofthem became guilty. Each ofthem became a partyto
the conspiracy by concea|ing it from Parliament. y law the
concea|er ofstolen goodsis ascrimina|asthethief.Anylega|
[ CLEARI NG OF ESTATES I N S COTLAND] 13 9
proceeding, therefore, wouldruin not onlythe Coalition, but
their rivals also, andnotonlytheseMinisters, buttheParlia-
mentarypartiestheyrepresent,andnoton|ythoseparties,but
thegoverningclassesofEngland.
[Clearing of Estates in Scotland]
Published1unez, t sa
'. . . ]Yourreaderswil|remembermydescriptionoftheprocess
ofc|earing estates in lreland and Scotland, which within the
6rst half of this century swept away so many thousands of
humanbeings fromthesoiloftheirfathers. Theprocessstill
continues, andwithavigorquiteworthy ofthatvirtuous, re-
6ned,religious,philanthropicaristocracyofthismodelcountry.
Housesareeither6red or knockedtopiecesoverthe headsof
the helpless inmates. At Neagaat in Knoydart, the house of
Dona|dMacdonald,arespectable,honest,hard-workingman,
wasattackedlastautumnbythelandlord'sorder.Hiswifewas
con6ned to bed un6t to be removed, yetthe factor and his
ruf6ans turned cut Macdonald's family of six chi|dren, a||
under t s years of age, and demo|ished the house with the
exceptionofone sma||bitoftheroofoverhiswife'sbed.
The man was so affected that his brain gave way. He has
beendeclaredinsanebymedicalmen,andheisnowwandering
aboutlookingforhischildrenamongtheruinsoftheburntand
broken cottages. Hisstarving children arecrying around him,
butheknowsthemnot,andheis|eftroamingatlargeunaided
anduncaredfor,becausehisinsanityisharmless.
Twomarriedfemalesinanadvancedstageofpregnancyhad
theirhousespul|eddownabouttheirears.Theyhadtosleepin
theopen air for many nights, andtheconsequencewasthat,
amidexcruciating sufferings,they hadpremature births, their
reason became affected, and they are wandering about with
large families, he|pless and hopeless imbeci|es, dreadful wit-
nessesagainstthatc|assofpersonsca||edtheritisharistocracy.
Evenchi|drenaredrivenmad byterrorandpersecution. At
140 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Doune,inKnoydart,thecottagerswereevictedandtookrefuge
in an o|d storehouse. The agents ofthe |and|ord surrounded
thatstorehouseinthedeadofnightandsetnretoitasthepoor
outcastswerecoweringbeneathitsshe|ter.frantic,theyrushed
from the f|ames, and some were driven mad by terror. The
Northern Ensign newspapersays:
That one boy is deranged; that he will require to be placed in
confnement; he jumps out of bed crying, "Fire! fre! " and assures
those near him that there are men and children in the burning
storehouse. Whenever night approaches, he is terrifed at the
sight of fre. The awful sight at Doune, when the storehouse
was in flames, illuminating the district-when men, women, and
children ran about half frantic with fear, gave such a shock to
his reason.
Suchistheconductofthearistocracytotheable-bodiedpoor
whomakethemrich'. . . ]
uttherufnanism endsnothere. A s|aughter has beenper-
petratedatStrathcarron.Excitedtofrenzybythecrueltyofthe
evictionsand thefurtheronesthatwereexpected,anumberof
women gathered in the streets on hearingthat a number of
sheriff's ofncers werecomingto c|ear out the tenantry. The
latter, however,wereExcisemen,andnotsheriff'sofncers; but
on hearing that their rea| character was mistaken, these men
insteadofcorrectingthemistake,enioyedit~gavethemse|ves
outforsheriff'sofncers,andsaidtheycametoturnthepeop|e
out and were determined to do so. On the group of women
becomingexcited,theofncerspresenteda|oadedpisto|atthem.
Whatfo||owedweextractfromthe|etterofMr.Dona|dRoss,
whowentoverfromClasgowto Strathcarron,andspenttwo
daysin the district, co||ectinginformation and examiningthe
wounded.HisletterisdatedRoyalHotel,Tain,April :5, t 54,
andstatesasfo|lows:
My information goes to show a shameful course of conduct on
the part of the sheriff. He did not warn the people of the intention
on his part to let the police loose on them. He read no Riot Act.
[ CLEARI NG OF ESTATES I N S COTLAND]
He did not give them time to disperse; but, on the contrary, the
moment he approached with his force, stick in hand, cried out:
"Clear the way," and in the next breath said: "Knock them
down," and immediately a scene ensued which baffles descrip
tion. The policemen laid their heavy batons on the heads of the
unfortunate females and leveled them to the ground, jumped and
trampled upon them after they were down, and kicked them in
every part of their bodies with savage brutality. The feld was
soon covered with blood. The cries of the women and of the boys
and girls, lying weltering in their blood, was rending the very
heavens. Some of the females, pursued by the policemen, jumped
into the deep and rapid-rolling Carron, trusting to its mercies
more than to that of the policeman or the sherif. There were
females who had parcels of their hair torn out by the batons of
the policemen, and one girl had a piece of the fesh, about seven
inches long by one and a quarter broad, and more than a quarter
of an inch thick, torn off her shoulder by a violent blow with a
baton. A young girl, who was only a mere spectator, was run
after by three policemen. They struck her on the forehead, cut
open her skull, and after she fell down they kicked her. The
doctor abstracted from the wound a portion of the cap sunk into
it by the baton of the savage police. The marks of their hobnails
are still visible in her back shoulders. There are still in Strath
carron thirteen females in a state of great distress, owing to the
brutal beating they received at the hands of the police. Three of
these are so ill that their medical attendant has no hopes whatever
of their recovery. It is my own frm conviction, from the appear
ance of these females and the dangerous nature of their wounds,
coupled with medical reports which I have procured, that not
one-half of these injured persons will recover; and all of them,
should they linger on for a time, will bear about on their persons
sad proofs of the horrid brutality to which they had been sub
jected. Among the number seriously wounded is a woman ad
vanced in pregnancy. She was not among the crowd who met the
sheriff, but at a considerable distance, just looking on; but she
was violently struck and kicked by the policemen, and she is in
a very dangerous condition.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
We may further add that the women who were assailed
numberedonlyeighteen.ThenameofthesheriffisTaylor.
Such is a picture of the ritish aristocracy in the year
: sa '. . . ]
The English Middle Class
PublishedAugust : , t sa
And as regards the iourneyman ofall descriptions, in what
relation does he stand to his employer? All knowwith what
oppositiontheemployersmetthe'TenHoursbill.TheTories,
out ofspiteforthe recent loss ofthe CornLaws, helpedthe
working class to get it; butwhen passed, the reports of the
district supervisors show with what shameless cunning and
pettyunder-handtreacheries itwasevaded.Everysubsequent
attemptinParliamentto subiect Laborto more humanecon-
ditions has been met by the middle class representatives with
the catch-cry of Communism! Mr. Cobden has acted thus a
scoreoftimes.Withintheworkshopsforyearsthe aim ofthe
employers has been to prolong the hours of labor beyond
humanendurance,andbyanunprincipleduseofthecontract
system, bypitting one man against another, to cut downthe
earning ofthe skilled to that of the unskilled laborer. lt was
this system that at last drove the Amalgamated Engineers to
revolt,and the brutalityofthe expressionsthatpassedcurrent
amongthemastersatthattimeshowedhowlittleofre6nedor
humanefeelingwastobelookedforfromthem.Theirboorish
ignorance was further displayed in the employment by the
Masters' Association ofa certainthird-ratelitterateur,Sidney
Smith, to undertake their defense in the publicpress and to
carry onthewarofwordswiththeirrevoltedhands.Thestyle
oftheirhiredwriterwell6ttedthetaskhehadtoperform,and
whenthebattlewasover,theMasters,havingnomoreneedof
literatureorthepress,gavetheirhirelinghisconge.Although
the middle classdonotaim atthelearningofthe old school,
theydonotforthatcultivateeithermodernscienceorliterature.
THE ENGLI S H MI DDLE CLASS 143
Theledger,thedesk,business,thati seducationsuf6cient.Their
daughters, when expensively educated, are super6cially en-
dowedwith afew'accomplishments; buttherealeducation
of the mind and the storing it with knowledge is not even
dreamedof.
Thepresentsplendidbrotherhoodof6ction-writers inEng-
land, whose graphic and eloquent pages have issued to the
worldmorepolitical and socialtruthsthanhave beenuttered
by all theprofessionalpoliticians,publicistsandmoralistsput
together,havedescribedeverysectionofthemiddleclassfrom
the'highlygenteelannuitantandfundholderwholooksupon
all sorts of business as vulgar, to the little shopkeeper and
lawyer's clerk. And how have Dickens and Thackeray, Miss
ronteandMrs.Caskellpaintedthem?1sfullofpresumption,
affectation, petty tyranny and ignorance; and the civilized
worldhas con6rmed their verdictwith the damningepigram
that it has 6xed to this class that 'they are servile to those
above, andtyrannicaltothose beneaththem.
Thecrampedandnarrowsphere inwhichtheymoveisto a
certain degree dueto the social system ofwhich they form a
part. Asthe Russiannobility live uneasilybetwixttheoppres-
sion ofthe Czar above them and the dread of the enslaved
massesbelowthem,sotheEnglishmiddleclassarehemmedin
bythearistocracyontheonehandandtheworkingclasseson
theother. Sincethepeaceof : : s , wheneverthe middleclass
havewishedtotakeactionagainstthe aristocracy,theyhave
toldtheworkingclassesthattheirgrievanceswereattributable
tosomearistocraticprivilegeandmonopoly.ythismeansthe
middleclassrousedtheworkingclassesto help them in : , z
whentheywanted the Reform ill, and, havinggota Reform
illfor themselves, haveeversincerefusedonetotheworking
classesnay, in t a, actually stood arrayed against them
armedwithspecialconstablestaves. Next, itwastherepealof
the Corn Laws that would be the panacea for the working
classes.Well,thiswaswonfromthearistocracy,butthe'good
timewasnotyetcome, and lastyear, asifto takeawaythe
lastpossibilityofasimilarpolicyforthefuture,thearistocracy
were compelled to accede to a tax on the succession to real
144 DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
estateataxwhichthesamearistocracyhadsel6shlyexempted
themselves from in 1 793, while they imposed it on the suc-
cessiontopersonalestate.Withthisragofagrievancevanished
the last chance of gulling the working classes into the belief
thattheirhardlotwasduesolelytoaristocraticlegislation.The
eyesoftheworkingclassesarenowfullyopened:theybeginto
cry: 'Our St. Petersburgis at Preston! lndeed, the lasteight
monthshaveseenastrangespectacleinthetownastanding
armyof14,000 menandwomensubsidizedbythetradesunions
andworkshopsofallpartsoftheUnitedKingdom,tonghtout
a grand social battleformasterywiththecapitalists, andthe
capitalistsofPreston,ontheirside,heldupbythecapitalistsof
Lancashire.
Whatever other shapes this social struggle may hereafter
assume,wehaveseenonlythebeginningofit.ltseemsdestined
to nationalize itself and present phases never before seen in
history;forit must be borne in mind that though temporary
defeatmayawaittheworkingclasses,greatsocialandeconomi-
cal laws are in operationwhich must eventually insure their
triumph.Thesameindustrialwavewhichhasbornethemiddle
classupagainstthearistocracy,isnowassistedasitisandwill
be by emigration bearing the working classes up againstthe
middle classes. 1ustasthe middle class inictblows uponthe
aristocracy,sowilltheyreceivethemfromtheworkingclasses.
ltistheinstinctiveperceptionofthisfactthatalreadyfettersthe
actionofthatclassagainstthearistocracy.Therecentpolitical
agitationsoftheworkingclasses havetaughtthemiddleclass
to hate and fear overt political movements. ln their cant,
'respectable men don't ioin them, Sir. The higher middle
classesapethearistocracyintheirmodesoflife,andendeavor
to connect themselves with it. The consequence is that the
feudalismofEnglandwillnotperishbeneaththescarcelyper-
ceptible dissolving processes ofthe middleclass; the honor of
such a victory is reserved for the working classes. When the
time shall beripefortheir recognized entry uponthestage of
political action, there will be within the lists three powerful
classesconfrontingeachotherthe6rstrepresentingtheland;
thesecond,money; thethird,labor.And asthesecondistri-
FALL OF THE ABERDEEN MI NI STRY 14
5
umphing over the 6rst, so, in its turn, it mustyield before its
successorintheneld ofpoliticalandsocialconict.
Fall of the Aberdeen Ministr
Publishedfebruary 17, : s s
Neverinthewholeannalsofrepresentativegovernmenthasan
administration been turned out half as ignominiously as the
celebratedCabinetof'alltheTalents''''in England.To bein
aminorityisa thingwhichmayhappentoanybody, buttobe
defeatedby 305 against :a, bymorethantwoto one,inan
assemblyliketheCommons'HouseofCreatritain,thatwas
adistinctionreservedforthegalaxyofgeniuscommandedby
ce cher Aberdeen.
There is no doubt the Cabinetconsideredits days as num-
beredassoonasParliamentmet. The scandalous proceedings
intheCrimea,theutterruinofthearmy,thehelplessnessofall
and every one connected with the administration ofthe war,
the outcry in the country, fed by the diatribes of The Times,
theevidentdeterminationof1ohn ull toknowforonce who
wastoblame,oratleasttowreakhiswrathuponsomeoneor
another~allthismusthaveprovedtotheCabinetthatthetime
hadarrivedwhentheymustputtheirhouseinorder.
Noticesofthreatening questions andmotionsweregiven in
abundanceandatonce;aboveall,thenoticeofMr.Roebuck's
threateningmotion,'`fora committeetoinquireintothecon-
ductofthewar,andofallpartieswhohadanyresponsibility
in itsadministration.Thisbroughtmattersto an issueatonce.
Lord1ohnRussell'spoliticalscentmadeitatoncecleartohim
thatthismotionwouldbeadoptedinspiteofminorities;anda
statesman like him,who boasts ofmoreminoritiesthanyears,
couldnotwellaffordtobeagainoutvoted.Accordingly,Lord
1ohn Russell,withthatspiritofpusillanimityandpettifogging
meanness, which isvisible during his entire career, through a
cloakofimportanttalkativityandconstitutionalprecedentism,
thoughtdiscretionthebetterpartofvalor,anddecampedfrom
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
of6ce without giving his colleagues even a moment`s notice.
Now,althoughheisamanwhocanhardlyexpecttobemissed
anywhere, yet it appears that 'all the talents were entirely
upsetbyhis suddenretreat.ThepressofCreatritain unani-
mouslycondemned the little statesman, butwhatofthat? All
thepressandallitscondemnationscouldnotsettheministerial
'higgledypiggledyup again; andin thisstateofdisorganiz-
ation, withthe Duke ofNewcastle resigningtheWar Of6ce,
and Lord Palmerston not having taken possession of it, the
CabinethadtomeetMr. Roebuck'sformidablemotion.
Mr. Roebuckisalittlelawyer,whowould be iustasfunny
alittleWhigasLord1ohnRussell,andquiteasinoffensive,had
he only been more successful inhis parliamentary career. ut
the ci-devant briefless barrister, and present parliamentary
spouter,hasfailed,withallhissharpnessandactivity,toamass
anypoliticalcapitalworthspeakingof.Thoughgenerallyasort
ofsecretandcon6dentialunderstrappertoanyWhigMinistry,
he never succeeded in reaching that position which insures
Place,thegreatgoalofallritishLiberals.OurfriendRoebuck,
blightedinhisblandesthopes,underestimatedbyhisownparty,
ridiculed byhis opponents, gradually felt the milk ofhuman
kindnessturning sourwithinhis bosom, and became, byand
by,asinvidious,unsociable,unpleasant,provokingalittlecur
aseverbarked onthe oorofa HouseofParliament. lnthis
capacity he has served, in turns, all men who knew how to
handlehim,withoutevergainingclaimsuponthegratitudeor
considerationofanyparty;andnobodyknewhowto make a
betteruseofhimthanouroldfriendPalmerston,whosegame
he againwasmadetoplayonthez6thult.
Mr.Roebuck'smotion,asitactuallystood,couldhardlyhave
anysense inanassemblyliketheritishHouseofCommons.
Everybody knows what clumsy, lazy, time-killing things the
CommitteesoftheCommonsare;aninvestigationofthecon-
ductofthiswarbysuchacommitteewouldbeofnopractical
usewhatever,foritsresultswouldcomemanyamonthtoolate
todoanygoodevenifanygooddidresultfromtheinquiry.
ltisonlyinarevolutionary,dictatorialassemblylikethefrench
National Convention of : ;o,thatsuch committees mightdo
FALL OF THE ABERDEEN MI NI STRY I
47
anygood.uttherethe Covernmentitselfisnothing butsuch
acommittee~itsagentsarethecommissionersoftheassembly
itself,and,therefore,insuchanassemblysimilarmotionswould
besuperfluous.Yet,Mr.SidneyHerbertwasnotentirelywrong
inpointingoutthatthe motion| surelyquiteunintentionallyon
Mr. Roebuck`sparthadasomewhatunconstitutionalcharac-
ter,andinasking,withhisusualhistoricalaccuracy,whether
the House of Commons intended sending Commissioners to
the Crimea, the same as the Directory | sic did to Ceneral
Dumouriez.'Wemayaswellobserve herethatthissamepre-
ciouschronologywhichmakestheDirectory| instituted: ;os
send Commissaries to Dumouriez, whom this latter Ceneral
had arrested and delivered up to the Austrians as early as
: ;o,~thatthischronology isquite ofa piecewith the con-
fusionoftime andspacereigninginalltheoperationsofMr.
Sidney Herbert and colleagues. To return to Mr. Roebuck's
motion,theinformalityalludedtoservedasapretexttoagreat
many candidates for place, not to vote for it, and thus to
remain free toenterintoany possible combination. And yet,
themai orityagainstMinisterswassocrushing!
Thedebateitselfwascharacterizedparticularlybythediffer-
ent departments ofthe Covernment quarreling among them-
selves. Each ofthem threw the blame upon the other. Sidney
Herbert,SecretaryatWar,saiditwasallthefaultofthetrans-
portservice; ernalOsborne, SecretaryoftheAdmiralty, said
itwastheviciouslyrottensystem at the HorseCuardswhich
wasatthebottomofallthemischief;Admiralerkeley,oneof
theLordsoftheAdmiralty,prettydistinctlyadvisedMr.Herbert
topullhisownnose,&c. SimilaramenitiespassedintheHouse
olLords, at the same time, between the Duke ofNewcastle,
WarMinister, andViscountHardinge, Commander-in-Chief.
Mr.Herbert`sposition,itistrue,wasrenderedextremelydif6-
cu|tbyLord1ohnRussell,who,inexplanationsrespectinghis
resignation, confessed that all that the press had said on the
state oftheCrimeanarmywassubstantiallycorrect, andthat
the condition of the troops was 'horrid and heart-rending.
Afterthis,SidneyHerbertcoulddonobetterthantogiveinto
thefactswithoutamurmur, andtomakea seriesofextremely
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 11LT1

lame andpartly unfounded excuses. He hadto confess, even


morepointedly,thecompleteincapacityanddisorganizationof
theWarAdministration.Wehavesucceededwithcomparative
easeinbringingzao,oootunsofstoresofalldescriptions,and
a numerous army, after a , ,ooo miles' iourney,to alaklava;
and now follows a glowingaccount of all the clothing, the
housing,theprovisions,theluxurieseven,sentinprofusionto
thearmy. ut,alas!ltwasnotatalaklavatheywerewanted,
butsixmileshigher up the country. Three thousand mileswe
cancarry all thestores; but three thusand and six~imposs-
ible! Thefactthattheyhadtogo sixmilesfurtherhasruined
everything!
for all that, his deprecating attitude might have aroused
somepityforhim,haditnotbeenforthespeechesofLayard,
Stafford, and his own colleague, Cladstone. The two former
membershad butlatelyreturned fromtheEast; they had been
eye-witnesses to what they recounted. And far from merely
repeating what the papers had already published, they gave
instances of neglect, mismanagement and incapacity; they
describedscenesofhorrorfarsurpassingwhathadbeenknown
before. Horses, shipped on sailing transports from Varna to
alaklavawithoutanyprovendertofeedthem;knapsacksmade
toi ourneynveorsixtimesfromtheCrimeatotheosphorus,
while the men were starving, and cold and wetforwant of
their clothes contained in them; 'reconvalescents sent back
foractivedutytotheCrimeawhiletooweaktostandontheir
legs;thenthedisgracefulstateofneglect,ofexposure,ofnlth,
towhichthesickandwoundedwereexposedinScutari,aswell
asinalaklavaandonboardthetransports~allthisformeda
picture, compared to which the descriptions of 'Our Own
Correspondent, orofprivatelettersfromtheEast,werepale
intheextreme.
To counteract the terrible effect of these descriptions, the
sapientself-complacencyofMr.Cladstonehadtotakeitsstand
onthebreach;and,unfortunatelyforSidneyHerbert,heretrac-
tedalltheconfessionsmadebyhiscolleaguesonthenrstnight
ofthedebate.Herberthadbeenaskedpoint-blankbyRoebuck:
You sent sa,ooo men from this country; there are now only
FALL OF THE ABERDEEN MI NI S TRY 149
:a,ooounderarms;whathasbecomeoftheremainingao,ooo?
Herbert merely replied by reminding Roebuck that some of
themhaddiedalreadyatCallipoliandVarna; heneverques-
tionedthegeneralcorrectnessofthenumbersquotedaslostor
disabled. ut Cladstone now turns out to be better informed
thantheSecretaryatWar,andactuallymakesthearmynumber,
not :a,ooo, but z, zoo men, besides from ,,ooo to a,ooo
marinesandsailorsservingonshore, 'atthedatesofthelast
returns which have reached us! Ofcourse, Cladstone takes
good care not to say what these 'dates of the last returns
are. ut in view of the exemplary idleness displayed in all
departments, and most particularly inthe rigade, Divisional
andCeneralStaffs,asevincedbytheslowreturnsofcasualties,
wemaybeallowedtosupposethatMr.Cladstone'swonderful
returns bear a date somewhere about the nrst of December,
:sa, and include a great many men who were dennitively
knockedupbythesixweeksbadweatherandoverworkfollow-
ing that date. Cladstone appears actually to have that blind
faith in of6cial documents which he on former occasions
expectedthepublictohaveinhis6nancialstatements.
lwillnotenterintoamorelengthenedanalysisofthedebate.
eside a host ofdii minorum gentium/7 Disraeli spoke, also
Walpole,thelateToryHomeSecretary,and6nallyPalmerston,
who 'nobly stood up forhis calumniated colleagues. Not a
word had he said in the whole course ofthe debate, until he
had ascertained its drift clearly. Then, and then only, he got
up. The rumors brought up to the Treasury ench by their
understrappers, the general disposition ofthe House, made a
defeatcertain~adefeatwhichruinedhiscolleagues,butcould
notiniure him. Thoughostensiblyturned outalongwiththe
remainder, he was so safe of his position, he was so sure to
pro6tbytheirretirement,thatitdevolveduponhim,almostas
a duty ofcourtesy, to bow them out. And ofthis he acquitted
himselfbyhisspeechiustbeforethedivision.
lalmerston, indeed,hasmanagedhis resourceswell. Voted
to be,onthe laci6coquestion,`the 'truly EnglishMinister,
hehasheldthatcharactereversince,tosuchanextentthatin
spite of all astounding revelations, 1ohn ull always thought
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
himse|fsold to someforeignpowerassoonasPa|merstonleft
the foreign Of6ce. Eiected out of this of6ce by Lord 1ohn
Russell in a very unceremoniousway, he frightened that|ittle
man into si|ence respecting the causes of this eiection, and
fromthatmomentthe'tru|yEng|ishMinisterexcitedafresh
interestasthe innocentvictimofambitiousandincapablecol-
leagues, asthemanwhomtheWhigshad betrayed.After the
downfa|l of the Derby Ministry, he was put into the Home
Of6ce, a position which again made him appear the victim.
Theycouldnotdowithoutthegreatmanwhomtheyallhated,
and as they wou|d not put him into that position which
belongedtohim,theyputhimoffwithaplacefartoolowfor
sucha genius. Sothought1ohn u|l,andwasprouder still of
his Pa|merston, when he sawhow the tru|y English Minister
bustledaboutinhissubordinateplace,medd|ingwith1ustices
ofthePeace,interferingwithcabmen,reprimandingoardsof
Sewerage, trying his powers of eloquence upon the licensing
system,grapplingwiththegreatSmoke Question, attempting
po|icecentralization,andputtinga barrierinthewayofintra-
muralinterments.ThetrulyEnglishMinister! Hisruleofcon-
duct, hissourceofinformation,histreasuryofnewmeasures
andreforms,werethe interminable letters of'Paterfamilias
+a 1eT11 es. Ofcourse,nobodywasbetterp|easedthanPater-
alI

ke form the mai ority of the voting midd|e


and Palmerston became their idol. 'See
whatagreatmancanmakeofa|itt|eplace!whatformerHome
Secretary ever thought ofremoving such nuisances! for al|
that, neitherwere cabs reformed, nor smoke suppressed, nor
intramural churchyards done away with, nor the police cen-
tra|ized,noranyofthesegreatreformscarried~butthatwas
thefaultofPalmerston'senviousandthick-headedco|leagues!
yandby,this bust|ing,meddlingpropensitywasconsidered
astheproofofgreatenergyandactivity;andthis unsteadiest
ofa|lEnglishstatesmen,whonevercouldbringeitheranegoti-
ationorabi|linParliamenttoasatisfactoryissue,thispolitician
whostirs aboutforthefunofthething,andwhosemeasures
a|l end in being al|owed to go quietly to sleepthis same
Pa|merstonwaspuffedupastheon|ymanwhomhiscountry
[ THE I NCREAS E OF LUNACY I N GREAT BRI TAI N]
cou|dcountuponingreatemergencies.Thetruthis,hecontrib-
utedagreatdea|tothispuf6nghimself.Notcontentwithbeing
co-proprietor ofThe Morning Post, where he was advertised
everyday asthefuturesaviorofhiscountry, he hired fellows
liketheCheva|ierWykofftospreadhispraise infranceand
America; he bribed, a few months ago, The Daily News, by
communicationoftelegraphicdispatchesandotherusefulhints;
he had a hand in the management of almost every paper in
London.Themismanagementofthewarbroughtonthatemer-
gency in which he intended to rise great, unattained and
unattainab|e, uponthe ruins ofthe Coalition. lnthis decisive
moment he procured the unreserved support of The Times.
Howhemanagedtobringthisabout,whatcontracthemade
with Mr. Delane,"" of coursewe cannot tell. Thus,the day
after thevote, the whole dailypress ofLondon, The Herald
only excepted, with one voice cried out for Pa|merston as
Premier;andwesupposehethoughthehadobtainedtheobiect
ofhiswishes.Unfortunately,theQueenhasseentoomuchof
the tru|y English Minister, and wi|l notsubmitto him, ifshe
canhelpit.
[The Increase of Lunacy in Great Britain]
PublishedAugustzo, t s
There is, perhaps, no better established fact in ritish society
thanthatofthecorrespondinggrowthofmodernwealthand
pauperism.Curiouslyenough,thesamelawseemstoholdgood
withrespectto|unacy.TheincreaseoflunacyinCreatritain
haskeptpacewiththeincreaseofexports,andhasoutstripped
the increase of population. lts rapid progress in England and
Walesduringtheperiodextendingfromt s ztot s;,aperiod
ofunprecedented commercial prosperity, will become evident
lromthefo|lowingtabular comparison ofthe annual returns
ofpaupers, lunatics and idiots for the years t sz, t sa and
t s;:
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Patients
inCounty In In With Total of Proportion
or Borough licensed Work friends or Lunatics to
Date. Population. Asylums. houses. houses. elsewhere. and Idiots. population.
Jan. :,
t8r t,r,6o ,at i r,8a
o a,to z, t8 :in 8a
Jan. :,
8 t 8,6a,8a : :,6 t,88 ,t a,ao za,a8 : in 6r
Jan. :,
t8 t.a8.a6a t,a88 t,o8 6,8oo ,a z,6 : in ot
The proportion of acute and curab|e cases to those of a
chronicandapparent|yincurab|ekindwas, onthe |ast dayof
: s 6, estimatedto besomewhatless than : in s, accordingto
thefol|owingsummaryofofncialreturns:
Patients of all Deemed
classes in Asylums. curable.
In County and Borough Asylums 14,393 2,070
In Hospitals 1,742 340
In Metropolitan licensed Houses 2,578 390
In Provincial licensed Houses 2, 598 527
Total :n,3 I I 3
.
327
Deemed curable 3,327
Deemed incurable 1 7,984
ThereexistinEng|andandWa|es,fortheaccommodationof
|unatics and idiots of all sorts and of all c|asses, , ; pub|ic
asylums, ofwhich , , are county and 4 boroughasylums; : s
hospita|s; : : 6privatelicensedhouses,ofwhich, ;aremetro-
politan and ;o provincial; and last|y, the workhouses. The
pub|icasylums,or|unaticasylumsproperlysoca||ed,were,by
law,exclusivelydestinedforthereceptionofthelunaticpoor,
to be usedas hospita|sfor the medicaltreatment, not assafe
p|aces forthe mere custody ofthe insane. On the whole, i
the counties at |east, they may be considered well regulated
establishments, a|though of too extensive a construction to
[ THE I NCREASE OF LUNACY I N GREAT BRI TAI N] 1
53
beproper|y superintended, overcrowded, |acking the carefu|
separation of the different classes o patients, and yet inad-
equatetotheaccommodationofsomewhatmorethanone-half
ofthe lunatic poor. After all, the space afforded by these , ;
estab|ishments, spreadingoverthewhole country, suf6cesfor
the housing ofover : s, 6ooinmates. Thepressure upon these
cost|y asylums on the part ofthe lunatic population maybe
illustratedbyonecase.When,in: ,:,Hanwe|l|inMiddlesex
wasbuiltforsoopatients,itwassupposedtobelargeenough
tomeetallthewantsofthecounty.ut,twoyearslater,itwas
fu||; after another two years, it had to be en|arged for , oo
more; and atthistime|Co|neyHatch having beenmeanwhi|e
constructedforthereceptionof:, zoolunaticpaupersbelong-
ing to the same county Hanwell contains upward of : ,ooo
patients. Co|ney Hatch was opened in : s : ; within a period
of less than 6ve years, it became necessary to appeal to the
rate-payersforfurther accommodation; andthe|atestreturns
show that at the close of : s 6there were more than :, :oo
pauper|unaticsbelongingtothecountyunprovidedforineither
ofits asylums.Whi|e the existing asylums are too large to be
properly conducted, their number is too sma|l to meet rapid
spreadofmenta|disorders.Aboveall,theasylumsoughttobe
separated into two distinct categories: asylums for the incur-
able, hospitals for the curab|e. y huddling both c|asses to-
gether,neitherreceivesitspropertreatmentandcure.
Theprivatelicensedhouses are, onthewhole,reservedfor
the more affluent portion of the insane. Against these 'snug
etreats,asthey|iketocallthemselves,pub|icindignationhas
beenlatelyraisedbythekidnappingofLadyu|werintoWyke
House, andthe atrocious outragescommitted on Mrs. Turner
in Acomb House, York.'"' A Parliamentary inquiry into the
secrets ofthe trade inritishlunacy being imminent, we may
refertothatpartofthesubiecthereafter. Forthe present letus
call attentiononlyto the treatmentofthe z,ooolunaticpoor,
whom,bywayofcontract,theoardsofCuardiansandother
localauthoritiesletouttomanagersofprivatelicensedhouses.
Theweeklyconsiderationperheadformaintenance,treatment
andclothing, allottedtotheseprivate contractors, varies from
DI SPATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
6ve totwelveshil|ings, but the averageal|owancemay beesti-
matedfrom 5S. to s. ad. Thewholestudyofthecontractors
consists, of course, in the one single point of making large
pro6tsoutofthesesmal| receipts,and consequentlyofkeeping
thepatientatthelowestpossible expense.lntheirlatestreport
theCommissionersofLunacystatethatevenwherethemeans
ofaccommodationinthese|icensedhousesarelargeandample,
the actual accommodation afforded is a mere sham, and the
treatmentoftheinmatesadisgrace.
lt istrue that a power is vested in the Lord Chancellor of
revokinga license or preventing its renewa|, onthe advice of
the Commissioners in Lunacy; but,in many instances, where
thereexistsnopublicasy|umintheneighborhood,orwherethe
existingasylumisalreadyovercrowded,noa|ternativewasleft
the Commissioners but to prevent the license to continue, or
to throw large masses of the insane poor into their several
workhouses. Yet, the same Commissioners add that great as
are the evils of the licensed houses, they are not so great as
thedangerandevil combinedofleavingthosepaupersalmost
uncaredforinworkhouses. lnthelatter about ;,ooo |unatics
areatpresentcon6ned.At6rstthelunaticwardsinworkhouses
were restricted to the reception of such pauper |unatics as
required little morethan ordinaryaccommodation, and were
capableofassociating with the other inmates. Whatwith the
dif6culty of obtaining admission for their insane poor into
properlyregulated asylums, whatwithmotivesofparsimony,
theparochialboardsaremoreandmoretransformingthework-
houses into lunatic asy|ums, but into asylums wanting in the
attendance, the treatmentandthe supervisionwhich formthe
principal safeguard of patients detained in asylums regularly
constituted.Manyofthelargerworkhouseshavelunaticwards
containing from ao to : zo inmates. The wards are gloomy
and unprovided with any means for occupation, exercise or
amusement. The attendants for the most part are pauper
inmatestotal|yun6ttedforthechargeimposeduponthem.The
diet, essential aboveeverythingelseto the unhappy obi ects of
mentaldisease,rarely exceeds inany casethatallowedforthe
healthy andable-bodiedinmates. Hence, it is a natural result
[ THE I NCREASE OF LUNACY I N GREAT BRI TAI N] 1 5 5
thatdetentioninworkhousesnotonlydeterioratesthecasesof
harmless imbecility for which it was originally intended, but
hasthe tendency to render chronic and permanent cases that
mighthave yieldedtoearlycare.The decisiveprincipleforthe
oardsofCuardiansiseconomy.
According to law, the insane pauper should come at 6rst
underthecare ofthedistrictparish surgeon,who isboundto
givenoticeto the relieving of6cers, bywhom communication
is to be made to the magistrate, upon whose order they are
to be conveyed to the asylum. ln fact, these provisions are
disregarded a|together. The pauper lunatics are in the 6rst
instancehurriedintotheworkhouses,thereto bepermanently
detained, iffoundto be manageable.Therecommendation of
the CommissionersinLunacy, during theirvisitstothework-
houses, ofremoving to the asylums a|l inmates considered to
becurable,ortobeexposedtotreatmentunsuitedtotheirstate,
isgenerally outweighedbythereportofthemedicalof6cerof
the Union, to the effectthatthe patient is 'harmless. What
theworkhouseaccommodationis,maybeunderstoodfromthe
lollowing illustrations described in the last Lunacy Reportas
'faithfu|lyexhibitingthegeneralcharacteristicsofworkhouse
accommodation.'
lntheln6rmaryAsylumofNorwichthebedsofeventhesick
andfeeb|epatientswereofstraw.Thef|oorsofthirteensma|l
roomswereofstone.Therewerenowater-closets.Thenight-
watchonthemalesidehadbeendiscontinued.Therewasagreat
de6ciencyofblankets,oftowe|ing,offlannels,ofwaistcoats,of
washing basins, ofchairs, ofplates, ofspoons and ofdining
accommodation.Theventilationwasbad.Wequote:
Neither was there any faith to be put in what, to outward appear
ance, might have been taken for improvement. It was discovered,
for example, that in reference to a considerable number of beds
occupied by dirty patients, the practice exists of removing them
in the morning and of substituting, merely for show during the
day, clean beds of a better appearance, by means of sheets and
blankets placed on the bedsteads, which were regularly taken
away at night and the inferior beds replaced.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Take,asanotherexample,thelackburnWorkhouse:
The day rooms on the ground floor, occupied by the men, are
small, low, gloomy and dirty, and the space containing II
patients i s much taken up by several heavy chairs, i n which the
patients are confned by means of straps, and a large, projecting
fre-guard. Those of the women, on the upper floor, are also
much crowded, and one, which is used also as a bedroom has a
large portion boarded off as a privy; and the beds are placed
close together, without any space between them. A bedroom
containing 1 6 male patients was close and offensive. The room
is 29 feet long, 1 7 feet 1 0 inches wide, and 7 feet S inches
high, thus allowing 2. 39 cubic feet for each patient. The beds
throughout are of straw, and no other description is provided
for sick or bed-ridden patients. The cases were generally much
soiled and marked by the rusty iron laths of the bedsteads. The
care of the beds seems to be chiefly left to the patients. A large
number of the patients are dirty in their habits, which is mainly
to be attributed to the want of proper care and attention. Very
few chamber utensils are provided, and a tub is stated to be
placed in the center of the large dormitory for the use of the male
patients. The graveled yard in which the patients walk are two
for each sex, surrounded by high walls, and without seats. The
largest of these is 74 feet long, by 30 feet 7 inches wide, and the
smallest 3 2 feet by 1 7 feet 6 inches. A cell in one of the yards is
occasionally used for secluding excited patients. It is entirely built
of stone, and has a small, square opening for the admission of
light, with iron bars let in to prevent the escape of the patient,
but without either shutter or casement. A large straw bed was on
the floor, and a heavy chair in one corner of the room. Complete
control of the department is in the hands of an attendant and the
nurse: the master seldom interferes with them, nor does he inspect
this as closely as he does the other parts of the workhouse.
lt would be too loathsome even to give extracts from the
Commissioners` report on the St. Pancras Workhouse at
London,asortoflowPandemonium.Cenerallyspeaking,there
are few English stableswhich,atthe side ofthelunaticwards
[ THE I NCREASE OF LUNACY I N GREAT BRI TAI N) 1
57
i n the workhouses, would not appear boudoirs, and where
the treatment received by the quadrupeds may not be called
sentimentalwhencomparedtothatofthepoorinsane.
ECONOMI CS AND FI NANCE
One oftheioysofreadingMarx'siournalisticwritings isthat
theyencompassaremarkablywiderangeoftopicsandwriting
styles.Depending on his subiectmatter, hewasequally adept
atemployingthe rhetoricaltoolsofan economics professor, a
politicalpamphleteerorevenatabloidsensationalist|howelse
can one characterize his description of factory operators as
'vampyres fattening on the life-b|ood oftheyoung working
generation . Yet each ofthese approaches seemed necessary
to describethe : s os,a periodinwhicheconomicrealitywas
changingfasterthananyonecou|dwhollyperceive.Thisperiod
sawtheemergence, forthe6rsttimeinhumanhistory,oftruly
globaltrade,a|beitrestrictedtoafewestablishedchannelsand
monopolies. The total value of internationa| trade between
: ooandt ,o,forexample,grewfromabout,oomillionto
aoo million; in the period from : aoto t ;oitgrew more
than6vefold,tomorethanz,ooomillion.'
Such 'globalization led many optimistic merchants and
statesmen to believe that the secret of permanent economic
growthhadbeendiscovered.Marx,bycontrast,feltcompe||ed
to document all the ways in which this global trade spurt
broughtgrowingpainswithit;hewasconvinced,forexamp|e,
thatinritainpauperismrosewiththeinstitutionoffreetrade,
instead of shrinking as its advocates predicted. And he also
sawthatincreased exports required longer workinghoursin
England`sfactories, even if that fell afoulofthe fewlawsthat
existedtoprotecttheirworkers|manyofwhomwerechildren.
utperhapsthemostprofound,dynamiceconomicphenom-
enonemerginginthisperiodwasthegrowinginterdependence
160 DI SPATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
betweenthestateandthetoo|sofprivatennance.Afull-fledged
recessionstrucktheg|obaleconomyin t s;;Marx had been
diviningitstrai|forsevera|years.Hiswritingoneconomicsin
thisperiodcaptured,perhapsforthenrsttime,thefactthatthe
crisisintheworkingofthecapitalistsystemwasnotsimplya
downturninthe economic cyc|e, or a breakdown intheoper-
ations of factories. Rather, it had to be seen as a systematic
breakdown ofthe entire structure of European governments.
Why? ecause the lndustria| Revolution had broughtwith it
entirelynewformsofgovernment-sponsoredcreditandmassive
private|y nnanced infrastructure proiects which depended on
government backing. Picking apart such schemes became a
particular expertise of Marx`s newspaper writing, sometimes
withdueearnestness~aswiththethree-partseriesonfrance`s
CreditMobi|ier bank~and sometimeswith a Swiftian sense
of the absurdas with his critique of the 'Proiect for the
Regu|ation ofthe Price ofread in france. Some |atter-day
Marxist scholars, such as Rosdolsky and o|ogna, see these
forays into theworkings of pub|ic nnancial systems as a key
transition point between Marx`s earlier philosophica| works
andthemoredeve|opedeconomictheoriesofCapital. Regard-
|ess of their place in the Marxist universe, they are unique
i ourna|isticcontributions tothe understanding ofear|y state-
supportedcapita|ism.
!O1
1. These fgures are cited in Eric Hobsbawm's classic Industr and
Empire, rev edn. (London: Penguin Books, 1999) , p. I I7.
PAUPERI SM AND FREE TRADE
Pauperism and Free Trade. -The Approaching
Commercial Crisis
PublishedNovember:, : s z
lnamalt-houseinanbury,Mr.Henley,Presidentof theoard
ofTrade,|ate|yexp|ainedtohisassembledfarmingfriendsthat
Pauperismhaddecreasedbutbycircumstanceswhichhadnoth-
ingtodowithfreetrade;andabovea|l,bythefamine of Ireland,
thediscoveryofgo|d abroad, theexodusoflreland, thegreat
demandconsequentthereonforritishshipping, &c., &c. We
must confess that 'the famine is quite asradical a remedy
againstPauperismasarsenicisagainstrats.'At|east,observes
The London Economist, 'the Tories mustadmitthe existing
prosperityanditsnatura|resu|t,theemptiedworkhouses.
The Economist then attempts to prove to this incredulous
PresidentoftheoardofTrade,thatworkhouseshaveemptied
themse|vesinconsequenceoffreetrade,andthatiffreetradeis
a|lowedtotakeitsfu||deve|opment,theyare|ike|ytodisappear
a|togetherfromtheritishsoil.ltisapitythatThe Economist's
statisticsdonotprovewhattheyareintendedtoprove.
Modern industry and commerce, it is well known, pass
throughperiodica|cyc|esoffrom s to ; years, inwhichthey,
inregu|ar succession,gothroughthedifferent states ofquies-
cence~next improvement~growing conndence~activity~
prosperity~excitementover-trading~convu|sionpressure
stagnation~distress~endingagaininquiescence.
Reco||ectingthisfact,wewi|lrevertto thestatisticsof The
Economist.
from: ,a,whenthesumexpendedforthereliefofthepoor
amountedto 6,, :;, zss, itfe||to a minimumofa,oaa,;a:
in :,;. from that date it rose again every year until t a,,
wheni treacheds,zo,oz;.ln: aa,` asand `a6,i tagainfe||
toa,osa, zoa,androseagainin : a;and`a,inwhichlatter
year itamountedto6,: o,;6a,~almostas highas in t,a,
beforethe introduction ofthenewPoorLaw.'"ln :ao, 'so,
' s t and ` szitfellagaintoa, ;za,6to. uttheperiodoft ,a
,;was a period ofprosperity; that of: , -az, a period of
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
crisis and stagnation; 1 843-46, a period ofprosperity; 1 847
and '48, a period ofcrisis and stagnation, and 1 849-1 8 5 2
againaperiodofprosperity.
What, then, prove these statistics? lnthe best ofcases, the
common-placetautologythatritishpauperismrisesandfalls
with the alternate periods ofstagnationandprosperity, inde-
pendently ofeither free trade or protection. Nay, inthe free
tradeyear of 1 8 5 2 we 6nd the Poor Law expenditureshigher
by 679, 878 than inthe year ofprotection, 1 837, in spite of
thelrishfamine,'"`the'nuggetsofAustralia,'"andthesteady
streamofemigration.
Another ritish free Trade paper attempts to prove that
exports risewithfreetrade, and prosperity with exports, and
thatwith prosperity pauperism mustdecreaseand 6nally dis-
appear;andthefollowing6guresaretoprovethis.Thenumber
of able-bodied human beings doomed to subsist by parish
supportwas:
Jan. 1. 1 849, in 590 Unions, 201,644
Jan. 1. 1850, in 606 Unions, 181, 159
Jan. 1 1851, in 606 Unions, 154,525
Comparingherewiththe exportlists,we6nd,forexportsof
ritishandlrishmanufacture:
48,946,395
58,910, 833
65,756,03 5
And what proves this table? An increase of exports of
9,964,438 redeemed above 20,000 persons from pauperism
in 1 849; a further increase of 6,845,202 redeemed 26,634
more in 1 8 50. Now, even supposing freetrade to doentirely
awaywiththeindustrialcyclesandtheirvicissitudes,thenthe
redemptionofthetotalnumberofable-bodiedpauperswould,
underthepresentsystem,requireanadditionalincreaseofthe
foreign trade of 50,000,000 annually, that is to say, an
increase ofvery near 100 per cent. And these sober-minded
THE LABOR QUESTI ON
ourgeois statisticians have the courage tospeak of'Utop-
ists.Verily, there are nogreaterUtopists inexistence than
theseourgeoisoptimists.
lhaveiustgotholdofthedocumentspublishedbythePoor
Law oard. They prove indeed that we are experiencing a
numericaldecreaseofpaupers against 1 848 and ' 5 1 . utfrom
thesepaperstherefollowsatthesametime:from1 841-'44 the
averageofpauperswas1 ,43 1, 571-1 845-'48 itwas1 , 600, 257.
ln 1 8 50 there were 1, 809, 308 paupers receivingin-door and
out-door relief, and in 1 8 5 1 they numbered 1 , 600, 3 29, or
rathermorethantheaverageof1 845-'48. Now,ifwecompare
thesenumberswiththepopulationasveri6edbythecensus,we
6ndthattherewerein1 841 -'48, 89 pauperstoevery1 ,000 of
thepopulation,and90 in 1 8 5 1 . Thusinrealitypauperismhas
increasedabovetheaverage of1 841-'48, andthatinspiteof
free trade,famine,prosperity, inspiteofthenuggets ofAus-
traliaandthestreamofemigration'. . . ]
Either side ofthe ourgeois commercial policy, free Trade
or Protection, is, ofcourse, equally incapable ofdoing away
with facts that are the mere necessary and natural results of
the economical baseof ourgeois society. And a matter of a
millionofpaupers inthe ritish workhouses isasinseparable
from ritishprosperity, astheexistence ofeighteento twenty
millionsingold inthe ank ofEngland'. . +]
The Labor Question
PublishedNovember28, 1 853
Golden opportunities, and the use made of them, i sthetitleof
oneofthemosttragi-comical effusions ofthe grave andpro-
foundEconomist. The 'goldenopportunitieswere,ofcourse,
affordedbyfreetrade,andthe 'use orrather'abusemade
ofthemreferstotheworkingclasses.
The working classes, for the frst time, had their future in their
own hands! The population of the United Kingdom began actu-
DI SPATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
ally to diminish, the emigration carrying of more than its natural
increase. How have the workingmen used their opportunity?
What have they done? Just what they used to do formerly, on
every recurrence of temporary sunshine, married and multiplied
as fast as possible . . . At this rate of increase it will not be long
before emigration is effectually counterbalanced, and the golden
opportunity thrown away.
Thego|denopportunityofnot marryingandnot mu|tip|ying,
exceptatthe orthodox rate allowed by Malthus and his dis-
cip|es! Co|den mora|ity this! ut, ti|| now, according to The
Economist itse|f, popu|ation has diminished, and has notyet
counterba|anced emigration. Overpopu|ation, then, wil| not
accountforthedisastersofthetimes.'Thenextusethe|aboring
classes shou|dhavemadeoftheirrareoccasionoughttohave
been to accumulate savings and become capita|ists . . . ln
scarce|yoneinstancedotheyseemtohave. . . risen,orbegun
torise,intotherankofcapita|ists. . . Theyhavethrownaway
theiropportunity.
The opportunity ofbecoming capita|ists! Atthe sametime
The Economist te||stheworkingmenthat,aftertheyhadatlast
obtainedtenpercent.ontheirformerearnings,theywereab|e
topocket: 6s.6d.aweekinsteadof: ss.Now,themeanwages
are too high|y ca|cu|ated at : ss. per week. ut never mind.
Howtobecomeacapitalistoutof: s shi||ingsaweek!Thatis
aprob|emworthyofstudy.Theworkingmenhadthefa|seidea
that in order to ame|iorate their situation they must try to
ame|ioratetheirincomes. 'Theyhavestruck, saysThe Econ
omist, 'for more than wou|d have done them any service.
With : s shi||ings a week they had the very opportunity of
becomingcapitalists, butwith : 6s.6d. thisopportunitywould
begone.Ontheonehandworkingmenmustkeephandsscarce
andcapitalabundant,inordertobeabletoforceonthecapital-
istsariseofwages.utifcapitalturnsouttobeabundantand
laborto bescarce,theymustbyno meansavailthemse|vesof
that power for the acquisition of which they were to stop
marryingandmultip|ying.'Theyhavelivedmore|uxurious|y.
UndertheCornLaws,wearetoldbythesameEconomist, they
THE LABOR QUESTI ON
werebuthalf-fed,half-clothed,andmoreorlessstarved.lfthey
were then to live at a||, how cou|d they contrive to |ive |ess
|uxuriouslythanbefore?The tab|esofimportationwereagain
and again unfo|ded by The Economist, toprove the growing
prosperityofthepeopleandthesoundnessofthebusinessdone.
Whatwasthusproclaimedasatestoftheunspeakab|eb|essings
offreetrade,isnowdenouncedasaproofofthefoo|ishextrava-
gance ofthe working classes.We remain, however, at a loss
to understand how importation can go on increasing with a
decreasing population and a declining consumption: how
exportationcancontinuetorisewithdiminishingimportation,
andhowindustryandcommercecanexpandthemse|veswith
importsandexportscontracted.
The third use made of the golden opportunity should have been
to procure the best possible education for themselves and their
children, so as to ft themselves for the improvement in their
circumstances, and to learn how to turn it to the best account.
Unhappily, we are obliged to state that . . . schools have seldom
been so ill attended, or school fees so ill paid.
ls there anything marve||ous in this fact? risk trade was
synonymouswithen|argedfactories,withincreasedapplication
of machinery, with more adult |aborers being replaced by
womenandchi|dren,withpro|ongedhoursofwork.Themore
the mi|| was attended by the mother and the child, the less
cou|dtheschoolbefrequented.And,aftera||, ofwhatsortof
educationwouldyouhavegiventheopportunitytotheparents
and theirchildren? The opportunity oflearning howto keep
populationatthepacedescribedbyMalthus,saysThe Econom
ist. Education,saysMr.Cobden,wouldshowthementhat6lthy,
badly ventilated, overstockedlodgings, arenotthebestmeans
ofconservinghealthandvigor.Aswellmightyousaveaman
fromstarvingbytellinghimthatthelawsofNaturedemanda
perpetualsupplyoffoodforthehuman body. Education, says
The Daily News, wouldhaveinformedourworkingclasseshow
to extractnutritive substance outofdry boneshowto make
teacakesofstarch,andhowtoboilsoupwithdevil`sdust.
1 66 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
lfwe sumupthenthego|den opportunitieswhich havethus
been thrown awaybytheworkingc|asses,theyconsistofthe
go|denopportunityofnot marrying,oftheopportunityofliving
less luxurious|y, ofnot asking for higherwages, of becoming
capita|istsat: s shillingsaweek, andof|earninghowtokeep
the bodytogetherwithcoarserfood, andhowto degrade the
soulwith thepestiferousdoctrinesofMa|thus'. 4 .]
The Commercial Crisis in Britain
Pub|ished1anuaryz6, : s s
The Englishcommercialcrisis,whosepremonitorysymptoms
werelongagochronicledinourco|umns, isafactnow|oudly
proc|aimed by the highest authorities in this matter~the
annual circu|ars issued from the ritish Chambers of Com-
merce,andtheleadingcommercia|6rmsofthekingdom,along
with extensive bankruptcies, mi||s running short-time, and
stintedexporttables,whichspeaktothesameeffect.According
tothe|atestomcia|'accountsre|atingtotradeandnavigation,"
thedec|aredva|ueofenumeratedartic|esofexportinthemonth
endingDec. s, was:
Ur0tr8sr tn 1854
1852
6,033,030
261,258
7,628,760
1, 856,988
Onecannotb astonishedattheendeavoroftheprofessional
free-traders of Creat ritain to show that the present crisis,
instead of f|owing from the natura| working of the modern
Englishsystem,andbeingaltogetherakintothecrisesexperi-
enced at periodica| interva|s a|most sincethe end ofthe : th
century, must, on the contrary, proceed from accidenta| and
exceptional circumstances. According to the tenets of their
school, commercial crises were out ofthe question after the
cornlawswereabrogated,andfree-tradeprincip|esadoptedby
THE COMMERCI AL CRI S I S I N BRI TAI N
the ritish legislature. Nowthey noton|y havehigh prices of
cornwithanabundantharvest, buta|so a commercia|crisis.
CaliforniaandAustraliaaddedtothemarketsoftheworldand
pouring forth their golden streams, with electric telegraphs
transformingthewho|eofEuropeinonesingleStockExchange,
and with railways and steamers centuplicating the means of
communication and of exchange. lftheirpanacea had to be
put to the test, they could not haveexpectedto do it under
circumstancesmore favorab|e than those which signa|ize the
periodfrom: aoto: sainthehistoryoftradeandcommerce.
They have fai|ed to rea|ize their promises, and natura||y
enoughthewar'"`isnowtobemadethescapegoatoffree-trade,
iustastherevo|utionin: awas.Theycannotdeny,however,
thattoacertainextent,theOriental comp|icationhasde|ayed
the revulsion, by acting as a check on the spirit of reckless
enterprise, andturningpartofthesurpluscapitaltotheloans
recent|ycontractedbymostoftheEuropeanpowers;thatsome
trades, like the iron trade, the leather trade and wool trade,
havereceivedsomesupportfromtheextraordinarydemandthe
war has created for these products; and, lastly, that in other
trades,liketheshipping, thewoad trade,etc.,where exagger-
ated notions as to the effects of the war fostered over-
speculationonboth sides oftheAtlantic, on|ya partial outlet
hasbeenfurnishedtothealreadyrulinganduniversaltendency
toover-trading.However,theirprincipalargumentamountsto
this,thatthewarhasproducedhighpricesforal|sortsofgrain,
whichhighpriceshaveengenderedthecrisis.
Now, it wi|| be recol|ected that the average prices ofcorn
ru|edhigherin : s , than in : sa. lf, then,thesehighprices
are notto accountforthe unprecedented prosperity of : s , ,
they can aslittle accountfor the revulsion of : sa. Theyear
: , 6wasmarkedbycommercia|revu|sion,notwithstandingits
lowcornprices;: zaaswel|as: s , wereyearsofexceptional
prosperity, notwithstanding the high prices that ruled in a|l
sortsofprovisions.Thetruthis,thatalthoughhighcornprices
may cripple industrial and commercial prosperity by con-
tractingthe home market, the home marketina country like
Creat ritain wil| never turn the balance, unless al| foreign
168 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 1J1LT1
markets be a|ready hope|ess|y overstocked. High corn prices
must,therefore,insuchacountry,aggravateandprolongthe
revulsion; which,however, they areunab|eto create. esides,
itmustnotbeforgottenthat,conformingtothetruedoctrine
oftheManchesterSchool, highcornprices,ifproducedbythe
regu|arcourse ofnature, instead ofbytheworkingofprotec-
tion, prohibitive |aws and s|iding sca|es, a|together lose their
fatalinIluence,andmayevenworkadvantageouslybybene6t-
ing the farmers. As the two very de6cient harvests of : s z
and : s , cannot be denied to have been natura| events, the
free-tradersturnaround upon the year : sa, and af6rm that
theOrientalwar,workinglikeaprotectiveduty,hasproduced
highpricesnotwithstanding a p|entifulharvest. Puttingaside,
then, the general inIluence of the prices of breadstuns upon
industry,thequestionarisesastotheinIluenceexertedbythe
presentwarupontheseprices.
The Russian importation of wheat and Ilour constitutes
about : o per cent. of the entire importation of the United
Kingdom,anditswho|eimportationsformingbutaboutzoper
cent. of its aggregate consumption, Russia affords but |itt|e
more than z percent. ofthe whole. Accordingto the latest
of6cia|returnswhichdonotextendoverthe6rstninemonths
of : s , , the entire imports ofwheat into Creat ritainwere
, ,;;o,oz: qrs., of which ;;,, so; were from Russia, and
zoo,ooo from Wa||achia and Mo|davia. Of I|our, the entire
imports amountedto ,, oo,;a6cwts., ofwhich 6a were sup-
p|iedfromRussia,andnoneata||fromthePrincipalities.Such
wasthecasebeforethewarbrokeout.Duringthecorrespond-
ingmonths of : sa, the importation ofwheatfromRussian
ports directwas sos,ooo qrs.,against;;,, so; in : s , , and
from the Danubian Principa|ities : : ,ooo against zoo,ooo;
being a de6ciencyof , so, so; qrs. lfit beconsideredthatthe
harvestof: sawasasuperior,andthatof: s , averybadone,
nobodywi||af6rmthatsuchade6ciencycouldhaveexertedany
perceptible inI|uenceonprices.Wesee, onthecontrary, from
theof6cialreturnsoftheweeklysalesintheEnglishmarketof
home-grown wheat~these returns representing but a small
portionoftheentiresalesofthecountry~thatinthemonths
THE COMMERCI AL CRI S I S I N BRI TAI N
ofOctober and November, : sa, : , :oo, :a qrs. were sold,
against;s ,o6: qrs. inthecorrespondingmonthsof : s , ~
morethanmakingupforthede6ciencysaidtohavebeencaused
bytheRussianwar.Wemayremark,a|so,thathadtheEng|ish
Cabinet not caused large stores of Turkish wheat to rot in
thegranariesofthePrincipa|itiesby stupidlyortreacherously
b|ockadingtheSu|ina, mouthoftheDanube,andthuscutting
off their own supplies, the war with Russia wou|d not have
stinted the importation ofwheat evento the smal| amount it
has done. Near|ytwo-thirdsofthe London importsofforeign
I|ourbeingderivedfromtheUnitedStates,itmustbeadmitted
thatthe fai|ure oftheAmerican supp|y in the |ast quarter of
: s awasamuchmoreimportanteventfortheprovisiontrade
thantheRussianwar.
lfwe are asked how to exp|ain the high prices ofcorn in
Creatritaininthefaceofanabundantharvest,weshal|state
thatmore than once during the course of : s , , the factwas
pointed at in The Tribune, that the free-trade delusions had
caused the greatest possible irregu|arities and errors to take
p|aceintheoperationsoftheritishcorn-trade,bydepressing
prices inthe summermonths be|owtheir natural |evel, when
theiradvancea|oneshou|dhavesecuredthenecessarysupp|ies
and suf6cient orders for future purchases. Thus it happened
thattheimportsinthemonthsof1u|y,August,Septemberand
October, : sa, reached but ;so,ooo qrs. against z, : , z,ooo
qrs.inthecorrespondingmonthsof: s , . esides,itcanhardly
bedoubtedthatconsequentupontherepea| ofthecorn |aws
suchlargetractsofarable|andweretransformedintopasture
inritain,astomakeevenanabundantharvest,underthenew
regime,relativelydefective.'Consequently,toquoteacircu|ar
oftheHul|ChamberofCommerce,'theUnitedKingdomcom-
mencestheyear : s s withverysmallstocksofforeignwheat,
and with prices almost as high as in the beginning of : sa,
whi|e depending almostentirely onits own farmers' supplies
untilspring.
The reason of the English commercial revulsion of : sa,
which is not likely to assume its true dimensions before the
spring ofthe present year, is contained in the following few
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
arithmetica| characters: The exports of ritish produce and
manufactures having amounted, in : a6, to s ;,;6,ooo,
reached,in: s , , theenormousva|ueofo,ooo,ooo.Ofthose
o,ooo,oooof: s ,, Austra|ia,which,in: az,hadtakenoff
|ess than one mi||ion, and in : so, about three mi||ions,
absorbednear6fteenmil|ions;whiletheUnitedStates,which,
in : az, hadonlyconsumed, , sz,ooo,and,in: so,some-
what! essthan: s,ooo,ooo,nowtooktheenormousamount
ofza,ooo,ooo.ThenecessaryreactionupontheEng|ishtrade
ofthe American crisis, and the hope|ess|y glutted Austra|ian
markets, need no further explanation. ln : , ;theAmerican
crisisfo||owedatthehee|softheEnglishcrisisof: , 6,whi|e
now theEng|ish crisis follows inthetracks ofthe American
one; but, in both instances, the crisis may be traced to the
samesourcethefatalworkingoftheEnglishindustrialsystem
which |eadsto over-production in Creat ritain, andtoover-
specu|ationina||othercountries.TheAustralianandtheUnited
States markets, so far fromformingexceptions, are on|y the
highestexpressionsofthegenera|conditionofthemarkets of
theworld, bothbeing aboutequa||ydependentuponEngland.
'We have the facts staring us in the face of glutted foreign
markets and unpro6tab|e returns, with few exceptions, ex-
c|aims a Manchester circu|ar, re|ating to the cotton trade.
'Mostofthe foreignmarkets,saysanothercircular,relating
to the si|k trade, 'usua| vents for our surp|us manufactures,
have been groaning under the effects of overtrading. 'Pro-
ductionwasenormous|yincreased,wearetoldbyanaccount
of the radford Worsted trade, 'and the goods, for a time,
found an out|et in foreign markets. Much irregu|ar business
hasbeendonein reck|essconsignmentsofgoodsabroad,and
weneed scarce|yremarkthattheresu|tsgenera|lyhavebeenof
themostunsatisfactorycharacter.
Andsowemightquotefromascoreofleadingcommercial
circularsthatreachedusbythePacifc.
The Spanish Revolution and the consequent activity of
smuggling in thatquarter, has created an exceptional market
for ritish produce.The Levant market, consequent uponthe
apprehensions arising fromthe Orienta| war, seems to bethe
THE FRENCH CREDI T MOBI LI ER [ I ]
on|yonewhichhadnotbeenoverdone,butsomethreemonths
since, as we |earn, Lancashire set about retrieving what had
beenneg|ectedinthatquarter,andatthisverymomentweare
toldthatConstantinop|eisa|sogroaningundertheoverwhe|m-
ingmassesofcottons,woo|ens,hardware,cutlery,anda||sorts
ofritishmerchandise.Chinaistheon|ycountrywhereitcanbe
pretendedthatpolitica|eventshaveexertedaperceptibleinflu-
enceonthedevelopmentofthecommercialrevu|sion.'Thehopes
entertainedaboutthegradua|increaseinourexporttradewith
China, says aManchesterhouse, 'have been almostentire|y
dispe||ed,andtherebe||ionspreadingatpresent,inthatcountry,
at6rstconsideredasfavorab|etoforeignintercourse,seemsnow
tobeorganizedforthedepredationofthecountryandthetotal
ruin oftrade. The export trade with China, which once was
expectedtoincreasegreat|y,hasalmostentirelyceased.
Ourreaderswillperhapsremember'"'thatwhentheChinese
revolution6rstassumed anything like serious dimensions, we
predictedthe disastrous consequences now complained of by
theEnglishexportinghouses.
Whiledenyingallconnectionbetweenthewarandthecom-
mercia| crisis, the symptoms of which had become apparent
beforethewarwaseverthoughtof,weareofcourseawarethat
the |atter may dangerously aggravatethe severe ordeal Creat
ritainwil|nowhavetopassthrough.Thecontinuanceofthe
war is tantamount to an increase of taxation, and increased
taxesarecertain|ynocurefordiminishedincomes.
The French Credit Mobilier [ l ]
Published1une;, : s 6
TheLondonTimes ofthe ,othofMayismuchsurprisedatthe
discoverythatSocialismin Francehadneverdisappeared, but
had rather been forgotten for some years. Whereof it takes
occasionto congratulate Eng|and fornotbeingpesteredwith
thatp|ague butfreefromthatantagonismofclassesonwhich
soilthe poisonous p|ant is produced. Arather bo|d assertion
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
this, coming from the principal iournal of a country whose
leading economist, Mr. Ricardo," commences his celebrated
workontheprinciplesofpoliticaleconomywiththeprinciple
that the threefundamental classes ofsociety, i. e. , ofEnglish
society, viz.: the owners ofthe land, the capitalists, and the
wages labourers, are forming a deadly and fatal antagonism;
rents rising and falling ininverse ratio to the rise and fall of
industrialpronts,andwagesrisingandfallingininverseratio
topronts.lf,accordingtoEnglish lawyers,thecounterpoiseof
thethreecontestingpowersisthekeystoneoftheconstitution
ofEngland,thateighthmarveloftheworld;accordingtoMr.
Ricardo,whomaybepresumedtoknowsomethingmoreabout
itthanThe Times, the deadlyantagonismofthethree classes
representing the principalagents ofproduction is the frame-
workofEnglishsociety.
While The Times contemptuously sneers at revolutionary
Socialisminfrance,itcannothelpcastingacovetousglanceat
imperialSocialisminfrance,andwouldfainholditup asan
example for imitation to 1ohn ull, the chief agents of that
Socialism, the 'Credit Mobilier",havingiustsent The Times
inanadvertisementofaboutthree closecolumns; the Report
oftheoardofAdministrationattheordinarygeneralmeeting
ofshareholdersonApril z,rd,t s6,Mr.Pereireinthechair.
The following is the account that has enlisted the envious
admiration ofthe Times shareholders, and dazzled the iudg-
mentoftheTimes editor:
Liabilities.
On 31 St December, 1 855.
Capital of the Society
The balance of accounts current in December 3 1St, 1854,
from a total of 64,924,379 to that of
Amount of bills payable of the creditors and for sundries
Total of reserve
Total of profts realised in 1855, after the deduction of
the sum to be carried in the reserve
francs. centimes.
60,000,000
13, 179,38 64
864,414 81
1, 696,083 59
26,827,901 32
192,567,78 36
THE FRENCH CR
E
DI T MOBI LI ER [Il
Assets.
In hand.
1. Rents
2. Debentures
3. Railway other shares
From which is to be deducted for calls not made up
3 1st Dec. last
Balance asset
Investments for a fxed period in treasury bonds,
continuations, advances on shares etc.
Value of premises and furniture
Disposable balance in hand and at the bank, and the
amount of dividends to be received 3 1st of December
last
Total assets
The total amount of rents, shares, and debentures in
hand on December 31 , 1854
Has been augmented by subscriptions and purchases
made in 1855
Total
Amount of realisation being
To which must be added the amount of securities
remaining in hand
These results show a proft of
f.
4,069,264
32,844,600
59,43 1,593
84,325,39
1,082,219
57,460,92
265,820,97
3 23,280,999
217,002,43 1
132,345,458
349,347,889
26,066,889
173
c.
20
66
9
37
94
-
3
97
34
26
60
63
Aprontofz6millionsona capital of6omillions~apront
attherateof4 , % these are indeed fascinating ngures. And
whathasnotthisstirringmobiliereffectedwithitsgrandcapital
ofsomething liketwoanda halfmillions ofpounds sterling?
174
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
With sixty million francs inhandthey have subscribedtothe
french loans 6rst 250 millions, and afterwards 3 75 millions
more;theyhaveacquiredaninterest intheprincipalrailways
offrancetheyhaveundertakentheissueoftheloancontrac-
tedbytheAustrianAssociationfortheRailwaysoftheState~
they have participated in the Western and Central railways
ofSwitzerland~theyhavetakenaninterestin a considerable
operation,professingforitsobiectthecanalizationoftheEbro
from Saragossa tothe Mediterraneanthey had their hands
in the amalgamation of the omnibuses at Paris, and in the
constitution of the Ceneral Maritime Company~they have
brought about by their intervention the amalgamation of all
theoldgascompaniesofParisintooneenterprisetheyhave,
astheysay,madeapresentof3 00,000 francstothepeopleby
sellingthem cornbelowthemarketpricetheyhavedecided
onpeace andwarbytheirloans,erectednewandproppedup
old lines ofrailways~illuminated cities, given an impulse to
thecreationsofmanufactureandthespeculationsofcommerce,
and lastly extended their swindling propaganda over france
and scattered the fruitful seeds of their institution over the
wholecontinentofEurope.
The 'Credit Mobilier thus presents itself as one of the
mosteconomicalphenomenaofourepochwantingathorough
sifting.Withoutsucha research itisimpossibleeithertocom-
pute the chances ofthe french Empire or to understand the
symptoms of the general convulsion of society manifesting
themselves throughout Europe. We shall investigate 6rst into
whatthe boardcallsitstheoreticprinciples andthentesttheir
practical execution which, possibly, asthe report informs us,
have been until now but partially realized, and attend as
immenselygreaterdevelopmentinthe future.
Theprinciplesofthesocietyaresetforthinitsstatutes,and
inthedifferentreportsmadetothe shareholders.Accordingto
thepreambleofthestatutes,and ' . e]
considering the important services which might be rendered by
the establishment of a society having for its aim to favour the de
velopment of the industry of the public works, and to realise the
THE FRENCH CREDI T MOBI LI ER [ I ] 1
75
conversion of the different titles of various enterprises through the
means of consolidating them in one common fund, the founders
of the "Credit Mobilier" have resolved to carry into effect so
useful a work, and consequently they have combined to lay down
the basis of an anonymous society, under the denomination of
the General Society of the "Credit Mobilier".
Our readers will understand by the word 'anonymous
society, a ioint-stock companywith limitedresponsibility of
the shareholders, and that the formation of such a society
dependsonaprivilege arbitrarily grantedbytheCovernment.
The 'Credit Mobilier then proposes to itself 6rstly to
'favourthedevelopmentoftheindustry ofthepublicworks,
which means to make industry of public works in general
dependenton thefavourofthe 'CreditMobilier,andthere-
fore onthe individual favour ofonaparte, onwhose breath
the existence ofthe society is suspended. The oard doesnot
failtoindicatebywhatmeansitintendstobringaboutthisits
patronage, and that of its imperial patron, over the whole
french industry. The various industrial enterprisescarried on
by ioint stock companies, are represented by different titles,
shares, obligations, bonds, debentures, etc. Those different
titlesareofcourseratedatdifferentpricesinthemoneymarket,
accordingtothecapitaltheytradeupon,thepro6tstheyyield,
the different bearing of demand and offer upon them, and
other economicalconditions. Now what intendsthe 'Credit
Mobilier?
Tosubstituteforallthesedifferenttitlescarriedonbydiffer-
ent ioint stock companies, one common title issued by the
'CreditMobilieritself. ut how can iteffectthis? y buying
up with its own titles the titles ofthe various industrial con-
cerns. uyingupallthebonds,shares, debentures, etc.;inone
word the titles of a concern, is buying up the concern itself.
Hence the 'CreditMobilier avows the intention ofmaking
itselfthe proprietor, and Napoleon the Little'` the supreme
director ofthe whole great french industry. This is whatwe
calllmperialSocialism.
lnordertorealisethisprogramme,thereareneededofcourse,
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
some6nancialoperations,andM. lsaacPereireintracingtheir
operationsofthe'CreditMobilier,naturallyfeelshimse|fon
delicateground,isobligedtoputlimitstothesocietyconsidered
pure|yaccidentalandintendedtodisappearinitsdevelopment,
and rather throws out a feeler than to divulge at once his
ultimateschemetothewor|d.
Thesocia|fundofthesocietyhasbeen6xedat 6o,ooo,ooo
francsdividedinto: zo,ooosharesofsoofrancseach,payab|e
tothebearer.
Theoperationsofthesociety,suchastheyarede6nedinthe
statutes, may be ranged under three heads. first|y, operations
for the support ofthe great industry, secondly, creation of a
va|ueissuedbythesocietyforreplacing,orama|gamatingthe
titles ofdifferent industrial enterprises, third|y, the ordinary
operations ofbanking,bearinguponpublicfunds,commercial
bills,etc.
The operations ofthe 6rstcategory,intendedto obtainfor
thesocietythepatronageofindustry,areenumeratedin art.V
ofthestatutes,whichsays:
To subscribe for, or acquire public funds, shares, or obligations
in the diferent industrial or credit enterprises, constituted as
anonymous societies, and especially those of railways, canals,
mines, and other public works already established, or about to
be established. To undertake all loans, to transfer and realise
them, as well as all enterprises of public works.
Weseehowthisartic|ea|readygoesbeyondthepretensions
ofthepreamble, byproposingtomakethe'CreditMobilier
noton|ytheproprietor ofthegreatindustry, buttheslave of
theTreasury,andthedespotofcommercialcredit.
Theoperationsofthesecondcategory,relatingtothesubsti-
tutionofthetitlesofthe'CreditMobilierforthetitlesofall
otherindustria|enterprises,embracesthefol|owing: 'oissue
inequal amounts for thesumsemployedfor subscriptions of
loans and acquisitions of industrial tit|es the society`s own
obligations.
Articles 7 and indicate the limits and the nature of the
THE FRENCH CREDIT MOBI LI ER [ I I ] 1 77
ob|igations the societyhaspower toissue. These ob|igations,
orbonds
are allowed to reach a sum equal to ten times the amount of the
capital. They must always be represented for their total amount
by public funds, shares, and obligations in the society's hands.
They cannot be made payable at less than 45 days notice. The
total amount of the sums received in account-current and of the
obligations created at less than a year's run shall not exceed twice
the capital realised.
The thirdcategory, last|y, embracestheoperationsnecessi-
tated by the exchange of commercia| va|ues. The society
'receives money at cal|. lt is authorised 'to sel| or give in
paymentforloansallsortsoffunds,papers,shares,andob|iga-
tions he|d by it, and to exchange them for other values. lt
lendson'pub|icfunds,depositsofsharesandob|igations,and
it opens account-currents on their different values. lt offers
to anonymoussocieties 'alltheordinary services rendered by
privatebankers, such as receiving a|| payments on accountof
the societies, paying their dividends, interest, etc. lt keeps a
deposit ofa|ltit|es ofthoseenterprises, butin the operations
relatingtothetradeincommercialvalues, bi||s,warrants,etc.,
'it is express|y understood that the society sha|l not make
c|andestinesa|esnorpurchasesforthesakeofpremium.
The French Credit Mobilier [ I I ]
Pub|ished1uneza,: s 6
l t shouldberecollectedthatonapartemadehiscoup d'etat on
two diametrica||y opposite pretenses: on the one hand pro-
claiming it was his mission to save the bourgeoisie and
'materialorderfromtheRedanarchytobeletlooseinMay,
: sz;andontheotherhand,to savetheworkingpeoplefrom
the midd|e-c|ass despotism concentrated in the Nationa|
Assembly. esides, therewasthe personal necessity ofpaying
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
hisown debts and thoseofthe respectablemobofthe Society
oftheDix Decembre, 109 andofenrichinghimselfandthemat
theiointexpenseofbourgeoisieandworkmen.Themissionof
theman,itmustbeavowed,wasbesetbyconflictingdifnculties;
forced as he wasto appear simultaneously as the robber and
asthe patriarchalbenefactorofall classes. Hecouldnotgive
to the one class withouttakingfromthe other, andhecould
not satisfy his ownwants and those ofhis followerswithout
robbing both. ln the time of the fronde' '" the Duc de Cuise
was said to be the most obliging man of france, because he
had transformed all his estates into obligations held by his
partisans. Thus onaparte alsoproposedtobecomethemost
obliging man offrance, by converting all the property and
all the industry of france into a personal obligation toward
Louis onaparte. To steal france in order to buy france~
thatwas thegreat problem the manhadto solve, and inthis
transactionoftakingfromfrancewhatwas to be given back
tofrance,nottheleastimportantsidetohimwasthepercentage
to be skimmed off by himself and the Society of December
Tenth. How were these contradictory pretenses to be recon-
ciled? how was this nice economical problem to be solved?
how this knotty point to be untwined? All the varied past
experience of onaparte pointed to the one great resource
that had carried him over the most dif6cult economical situ-
ations~Credit.Andtherehappenedtobeinfrancetheschool
of St. Simon,which inits beginning and in its decay deluded
itselfwith the dream that all the antagonism of classes must
disappear before the creation of universal wealth by some
new-fangled scheme of public credit. And St. Simonism in
thisformhadnotyetdiedoutattheepochofthecoup d'etat.
There was Michel Chevalier,the economist oftheJournal des
Debats; there was Proudhon, who tried to disguise the worst
portion of the St. Simonist doctrine under the appearance of
eccentricoriginality;andthereweretwoPortuguese1ews,prac-
tically connectedwith stocki obbing and Rothschild, who had
satatthefeetofthePereEnfantin,andwhowiththeirpractical
experience had the boldness to suspect stockiobbing behind
Socialism,LawbehindSt. Simon.ThesemenEmileandlsaac
THE FRENCH CREDI T MOBI LI ER [ I I ] 179
Pereireare the founders of the Credit Mobilier, and the
initiatorsofonapartistSocialism.
ltisanoldproverb,"Habent sua fata libel/i." Doctrineshave
alsotheirfate aswellasbooks.St.Simontobecometheguardian
angeloftheParisourse,theprophetofswindling,theMessiah
ofgeneralbriberyandcorruption!Historyexhibitsnoexample
of a more cruel irony, save, perhaps, St. 1ustrealized by the
juste milieu1 1 1 ofCuizot, andNapoleonbyLouisonaparte.
Eventsmarch swifter than man`s consideration. While we,
from an investigation of its principles and economical con-
ditions,arepointingattheunavoidablecrashforebodedbythe
very constitution ofthe Credit Mobilier, history is already at
work realizingour predictions. On the lastofMay,oneofthe
Directors ofthe Credit Mobilier, M. Place, failedfor the sum
often millions offrancs, having only a few days before been
'presented to the Emperor by M. de Morny as one of the
dieux de la fnance. Les dieux s'en vont! Almoston the same
day the Moniteur published the new law on the Societes en
commandite,112 which, on pretense ofputtinga check on the
speculative fever, places those societies at the mercy of the
Credit Mobilier by making their formation dependent on
the will ofthe government or ofthe Credit Mobilier. And the
English press, ignorant of even the existence of a difference,
between Societes en commandite and Societes anonymes, to
which latter the former are thus sacri6ced, goesinto ecstacies
atthisgreat'prudentialactofonapartistwisdom,imagining
thatfrenchspeculatorswillsoonbespeedilybroughtroundto
the solidity oftheEnglishSadleirs, SpadersandPalmers. ' ' 'At
the same time the law of drainage iust passed by the famous
Cors Legislatif, 1 14 andwhichisadirectinfractionofallformer
legislationandtheCodeNapoleon,sanctionstheexpropriation
ofthemortgagorsofthe land, infavorofthegovernmentof
onaarte, who by this machinery proposes to seize on the
land, as by the Credit Mobilier he is seizing on the industry,
andbytheankoffranceonthecommerceoffrance;andall
thistosavepropertyfromthedangersofSocialism!
Meanwhilewe do notthink it superfIuous to continue our
examination ofthe Credit Mobilier, an institutionwhich, we
1 80 DI S PATC HES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
think,isdestinedyettoenactachievementsofwhichtheabove
arebutsmallbeginnings.
Wehave seenthatthe 6rst function ofthe Credit Mobilier
consistsinaffording capitalto such industrialconcernsas are
carriedon by anonymoussocieties.We quote from the report
ofM.lsaacPereire:
The Credit Mobilier acts, with regard to the values representing
industrial capital, a part analogous to the functions discharged by
discount banks with regard to the values representing commercial
capital. The frst duty of this society is to support the development
of national industry, to facilitate the formation of great enter
prises which, abandoned to themselves, meet with great obstacles.
Its mission in this respect will be more easily fulflled, as it dis
poses of various means of information and research that escape
the grasp of private individual for soundly appreciating the
real value or prospects of undertakings appealing to its aid. In
prosperous times our society will be a guide for capital anxious
to fnd proftable employment; in diffcult movements it is des
tined to offer precious resources for the maintenance of labor,
and the moderation of the crises which result from a rash con
traction of capitals. The pains which our society will take to
invest its capital in all affairs only in such proportions and for
such limited terms as will permit of a safe withdrawal, will enable
it to multiply its action, to fructify in a small space of time a
great number of enterprises, and to diminish the risks of its
concurrence by the multiplicity of partial commandites (invest
ments in shares) .
Having seen in what manner lsaac develops the ideas of
onaparte, it becomes important also to see the manner in
whichonapartecommentsupontheideasoflsaac,acomment
which may be found in the Report addressed to him by the
Minister of the lnterior' ' ` on 1une zt , t sa, with respect to
the principles and the administration of the Credit Mobilier:
'Among all the establishments ofcreditexisting in the world,
theBanque de France isiustlyconsideredthatwhichboastsof
themostsolid constitution; sosolidthattheslightstorm of
THE FRENCH CREDI T MOBI LI ER [ I I ] 181
february, t a, had bornei tdowni na day, butfortheprop
affordeditbyLedru-RollinandCo.;fornotonlydidthePro-
visionalCovernmentsuspendtheobligationofthe Banque de
France to pay its notes incash,and thusroll backthe tide of
noteandbondholdersblockingupitsavenues,butempowered
ittoissuenotesofsofrancs,whileithadneverbeenpermitted
underLouisPhilippetoissue lessthan soofrancnotes;andnot
only didtheythus coverthe insolvent anque by their credit,
butinadditiontheypledgedtheStateforeststotheanquefor
the privilege ofobtainingcreditfor the State. 'The Banque de
France is at the same time a support and a guide for our
commerce, and its material and moral influence gives to our
marketaverypreciousstability.
Thisstabilityissuchthatthefrenchhavearegularindustrial
crisis eachtimewhenAmerica and England condescend only
toa|ittlesmashintheircommerce.
By the reserve and prudence which direct all its operations, this
admirable institution fulflls, therefore, the part of a regulator;
but the commercial genius, to generate all the wonders it carries in
its womb, wants, above all things, to be stimulated; and precisely
because speculation is restrained in France in the strictest limits,
there existed no inconvenience, but on the contrary a great advan
tage, in putting alongside of the Banque de France an establish
ment conceived in quite a different order of ideas, and which
should represent in the sphere of industry and commerce the
spirit of initiative.
The model for this establishment happily existed already; it is
derived from a country celebrated by its severe loyalty, the pru
dence and solidity presiding over all its commercial operations.
By placing at the disposition of all sound ideas and useful enter
prises its capital, its credit, and its moral authority, the General
Society of the Netherlands has multiplied in Holland canals,
drainage, and a thousand other improvements which have raised
the value of property a hundred fold. Why should not France
likewise proft by an institution the advantages of which have
been demonstrated by so dazzling an experience? This is the
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
thought which determined the creation of the Credit Mobilier,
authorized by the decree of 1 8th Nov., 1 852.
According to the terms of its statutes this Society can, among
other operations, buy and sell public effects or industrial shares,
lend and borrow on them as securities, contract for public loans,
and in a word, issue its paper at long dates, to the account of the
values thus acquired.
It has thus the means in hand of summoning and combining
at any moment, under advantageous conditions considerable
wealth. In the good use it may make of these capitals the fertility
of the institution resides. Indeed, the Society may arbitrarily
invest in (commanditer) industry, take an interest in enterprises,
participate in operations of a long term, which the constitution
of the Banque de France and of the Discount Offce forbids these
establishments to do; in one word, it is free in its movements, and
may change its action just as the wants of commercial credit require
it. If it knows how, among the enterprises constantly brought
forth, to distinguish the fruitful; if by the timely intervention of
the immense funds which it has the disposition of, it enables works
to be carried out highly productive in themselves, but absorbing
an unusual duration, and otherise languishing, if its concurrence
be the sure index of a useful idea or a well-conceived project, the
Society of the Credit Mobilier will deserve and win the public
approbation; floating capital will seek its channels and direct itself
in mass whithersoever the patronage of the Society indicates a gua
rantied employ. Thus, by the power of example, and by authority
which will become attached to its support, more even than by any
material aid, this Society will be the cooperator of all ideas of
general utility. Thus it will powerfully encourage the efforts of
industry, and stimulate everywhere the spirit of invention.
We shall takeanearlyoccasionto showhowallthesehigh-
flowingphrasesconcealbutfeeblytheplainschemeofdragging
alltheindustryofFranceintothewhirlpooloftheParisourse,
and to make itthe tennis-ball ofthegentlemenofthe Credit
Mobilier, and oftheirpatrononaparte.
THE FRENCH CRDI T MOB I LI ER [ I I I ]
The French Credit Mobilier [ ! ! ! ]
Published1ulyI I , : s 6
The approaching crash in onapartist 6nance continues to
announceitselfinavarietyofways.OnMay 3 I CountMonta-
lembert,inopposingaproiectoflawtoraisethepostageonall
printedpapers,books,andthelike,soundedthenoteofalarm
inthefollowingstrain:
The suppression of all political life, by what has it been replaced?
By the whirl of speculation. The great French nation could not
resign itself to slumber, to inactivity. Political life was replaced
by the fever of speculation, by the thirst for lucre, by the infatu
ation of gambling. On all sides, even in our small towns, even in
our villages, men are carried away by the mania of making those
rapid fortunes of which there are so many examples-those
fortunes achieved without trouble, without labor, and often with
out honor. I seek for no other proof than the bill which has just
been laid before you, against the societes en commandite. Copies
have just been distributed to us; I have not had time to examine
it; I feel, however, inclined to support it, despite the somewhat
Draconian regulations which I fancy I discovered there. If the
remedy is so urgent and so considerable, the evil must be so
likewise. The real source of that evil is the sleep of all political
spirit in France . . . And the evil which I point to is not the only
one resulting from the same source. While the higher and middle
classes-those ancient political classes-give themselves up to
speculation, another labor presents itself among the lower classes
of society, whence nearly all the revolutions emanated which
France has suffered. At the sight of this fearful mania of gambling
which has made a vast gambling booth of nearly all France,
a portion of the masses, invaded by Socialists, has been more
corrupted than ever, by the avidity of gain. Hence an unquestion
able progress of secret societies, a greater and deeper development
of those savage passions which almost calumniate Socialism by
adopting its name, and which have been recently well shown up,
in all their intensity, in the trials at Paris, Angers and elsewhere.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Thus speaks Montalembert~himself one of the original
shareholders in the onapartist enterprise for saving order,
religion,propertyand family!
Wehaveheard,fromlsaacPereire,thatoneofthemysteries
oftheCredit Mobilier wastheprincipleofmultiplyingitsaction
anddiminishingitsrisksbyembarkinginthegreatestpossible
varietyofenterprises,andwithdrawingfromthemintheshort-
estpossibletime. Now,whatdoesthismeanwhen divestedof
theflowery language of St. Simonism? Subscribingfor shares
to the greatestextent,inthegreatestnumberofspecu|ations,
realizingthepremiums,andgettingridofthemasfastasitcan
bedone.Stocki obbing,then,istobethebaseoftheindustrial
development,orratherallinJustrialenterpriseistobecomethe
mere pretextofstocki obbing. .nd, by the aid ofwhat instru-
mentisthisobiectoftheCredit Mobilier to beattained?What
arethemeansproposedtoenab|eit thusto'multilyirsaction
and 'diminish its risks ?Jb very means employed by Law.
The Credit Mobilier being a ptivileged company, backed by
Covernment inf|uence, and disposing of a large capita| and
credit,comparatively speaking, it iscertainthatthe shares of
anynewenterprisestartedbvItwill,onhc6rstemission,fetch
apremiuminthemarket.ltIas |eatnedthus
9
uch fromLaw,
to a||otto itsownshareholdersthe new shares

t oar, inpro-
portiontothenumberofsharestheytoldin the motbersociety.
Thepro6tthusinsuredto them acts, inhe Frstp|ace, on the
va|ueofthesharesoftheCredit Milieitslf whiheirhigh
range, in the second place, insurcs a high \ tIe new
sharestobeemitted.lnthismannertheCritMoli
j
ir obtains
commandovera|argeportionoftheloanablecapital:ntended
forinvestmentinindustrialenterprises.
Now,apartfrom thefactthatthepremiumisthusthereal
pivot on which the activity of the Credit Mobilier turns, its
obiectis apparentlyto affect capital ina mannerwhichisthe
veryreverse ofthe actionofcommercial banks.Acommercial
bank, byits discounts, |oans, and emission ofnotes, sets free
temporarily6xedcapital,whilethe Credit Mobilier 6xes actu-
allyfloatingcapita|. Railway shares, forinstance,maybevery
floating,butthecapitaltheyrepresent,i.e.,thecapitalemp|oyed
THE FRENCH CREDI T MOBI LI ER [ I I I )
inthe construction ofthe railway,i s 6xed. Amill-ownerwho
wouldsinkinbuildingsandmachineryapartofhiscapitalout
ofproportionwiththepartreservedforthepaymentofwages
andthepurchaseofrawmaterial,wouldverysoon6ndhismill
stopped. The same holds goodwith a nation. Almost every
commercialcrisis in modern times has been connected with a
derangementinthedueproportion betweenoatingand6xed
capital. What, then, must be the result ofthe working of an
institutionliketheCredit Mobilier, thedirectpurposeofwhich
is to 6x as much as possible of the loanable capital of the
country in railways, canals, mines, docks, steamships, forges,
and other industrial undertakings, without any regard to the
productivecapacitiesofthecountry?
According to itsstatutes,the Credit Mobilier canpatronize
onlysuchindustrialconcernsasare carried on by anonymous
societies, ori oint-stockcompanieswith |imitedresponsibility.
Consequently there must arise a tendency to start as many
suchsocietiesaspossible, and, further, to bring all industrial
undertakingsundertheform ofthesesocieties.Now,itcannot
be denied that the application of ioint-stock companies to
industry marks anewepochinthe economicallifeofmodern
nations.Ontheonehandithasrevealedtheproductivepowers
ofassociation,notsuspectedbefore,andcalledinto lifeindus-
trial creations, on a scale unattainable by the efforts of indi-
vidualcapitalists;ontheotherhand,itmustnotbeforgotten,
that in ioint-stockcompanies itisnotthe individualsthat are
associated, but the capitals. y this contrivance, proprietors
have been converted into shareholders, i.e., speculators. The
concentrationofcapitalhasbeenaccelerated,and,asitsnatural
corollary,the downfallofthesmall middle class.Asortofin-
dustrialkingshavebeencreated,whosepowerstandsininverse
ratiototheirresponsibi|itytheybeingresponsibleonlytothe
amountoftheirshares,whiledisposingofthewholecapitalof
the society~forming a more or less permanent body, while
the mass of shareholders is undergoing a constantprocess of
decompositionandrenewal,andenab|ed, bytheverydisposal
ofthe ioint inuence and wealth ofthe society, to bribe its
single rebellious members. eneath this oligarchic oard of
1 86 DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Directors is placed a bureaucratic body ofthe practical man-
agersandagentsofthesociety,andbeneaththem,withoutany
transition,anenormousanddailyswellingmassofmerewages
laborerswhose dependence and helplessness increase with
the dimensions of the capital that employs them, but who
also becomemoredangerous indirectratio to the decreasing
number of its representatives. lt is the immoral merit of
Fourier'''tohavepredictedthisformofmodernindustry,under
thenameofIndustrial Feudalism. CertainlyneitherMr. lsaac,
nor Mr.

mile Pereire, nor Mr. Morny, nor Mr. onaparte


couldhaveinventedthis.Thereexisted,also,beforetheirepoch,
banks lendingtheircreditto industrial ioint-stockcompanies.
Whattheyinventedwasaioint-stockbankaimingatthemon-
opoly of the formerly divided and multiform action of the
privatemoney-lenders,andwhoseleadingprinciple should be
thecreationofavastnumberofindustrialcompanies,notwith
the view ofproductive investments, but simply for the obiect
ofstockiobbing pronts. The new ideatheyhavestartedis to
rendertheindustrialfeudalismtributaryto stocki obbing.
Accordingtothestatutes,thecapitalofthe Credit Mobilier
isnxed at 6o,ooo,ooooffrancs.The samestatutes allowit to
receive deposits in accounts-current for twice that sum, i.e.,
for t zo,ooo,ooo.Thesumatthe disposal ofthe society thus
amountsaltogetherto t o,ooo,ooooffrancs.Measuredbythe
bold schemeofobtainingthepatronage ofthewholeindustry
ofFrance, thisiscertainly avery small sum. uttwo-thirdsof
this sum can hardly be applied to the purchase ofindustrial
shares, or such values as do not command the certainty of
immediaterealization, precisely because they are received on
call. Forthisreasonthe statutesopenanotherresourcetothe
Credit Mobilier. lt is authorized to issue debenturesamount-
ing to ten times its original capital, i. e. , to the amount of
6oo,ooo,ooofrancs;or,inotherwords,theinstitutionintended
for theaccommodationofalltheworldisauthorizedtocome
intothemarketasaborrowerfor a sumtentimeslargerthan
itsowncapital.'Our debentures, saysM.Pereire,'will beof
twokinds.Thenrst,issuedforashortperiod,mustcorrespond
withourvarioustemporaryinvestments.
THE FRENCH CREDI T MOBI LI ER [ I I I ]
Withthissortofdebentureswehavenothingtodohere,as,
byarticleVlllofthestatutes,theyaretobeissuedonlytomake
upthesupposedbalanceshortofthe: zo,ooo,oootobereceived
in current account, which have been entirely received in that
way.Withrespecttotheotherclassofdebentures,
they are issued with remote dates of payment, reimbursable by
redemption, and will correspond with the investments of like
nature, which we shall have made either in public funds or in
shares and debentures of manufacturing companies. According
to the economy of the system which serves as the basis of our
Association, these securities will not only be secured by a corre
sponding amount of funds purchased under the control of
Government, and the united total of which will afford, by the
application of the principle of mutuality, the advantages of a
compensation and division of the risks, but they will have,
besides, the guarantee of a capital which, for that object, we have
increased to a considerable amount.
Now, these debentures of the Credit Mobilier are simply
imitationsofrailwaybondsobligationsredeemableatcertain
epochsandundercertainconditions,andbearinganxedinter-
est. ut there is a difference. While railway bonds are often
secured byamortgageoftherailwayitself,whatisthesecurity
fortheCredit Mobilier debentures?Therentes, 1 1 7 shares,deben-
tures andthe like, ofindustrial companies, which the Credit
Mobilier buys with its own debentures. Then, what is gained
bytheiremission?Thedifferencebetweentheinterestpayable
onthedebenturesoftheCredit Mobilier andtheinterestreceiv-
able on the shares and the like, in which it has invested its
loan.Tomakethis operationsufncientlyprontable,the Credit
Mobilier is obligedtoplacethecapitalrealizedbythe issueof
itsdebenturesinsuchinvestmentsaspromisethemostremuner-
ative returns, i.e., in shares subiect to great fluctuations and
alterationsofprice.Themainsecurityforitsdebentures,there-
fore,will consistofthesharesoftheveryindustrialcompanies
startedbytheAssociationitself.
Thus,whilerailway bonds are secured by a capital at least
188 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 11LT1
twiceinamount these Credit Mobilier debenturesaresecured
by a capital onlnominally ofthe same amount, but which
mustfallbelow witheverydownwardmovementofthestock-
market.Thehoidersofthesedebentures,accordingly,sharein
alltherisksofthe shareholders,withoutparticipatingintheir
pro6ts.'ut,saysthelastAnnualReport,'theholdersofthe
debentures have not only the guaranty ofthe investments in
whichit'theCredit Mobilier] hasplaceditsloans,butalsothat
ofitsoriginalcapital.
The original capital, 6o,ooo,ooo, responsible for the
t zo,ooo,ooo of deposits, offers to serve as guaranty to
6oo,ooo,ooo of debentures, beside the guaranties it may be
required to furnish for the unlimited number of enterprises
whichtheCredit Mobilier isauthorizedto start.lftheAssoci-
ationweretosucceedinexchangingthesharesofallindustrial
companiesagainstitsowndebentures,itwouldindeedbecome
the supreme director andproprietor of the whole industryof
france,whilethemassofancientproprietorswould6ndthem-
selves pensioned with a 6xed revenue equal tothe interest on
the debentures. ut, on the road to this consummation, the
bankruptcywhichfollows fromtheeconomicalconditionswe
haveaboveillustrated,willstoptheboldadventurers.Thislittle
accident, however, has notbeenoverlooked; onthecontrary,
therealfoundersoftheCredit Mobilier haveincludeditintheir
calculations. When that crash comes, after an immensity of
french interestshas been involved, theCovernmentofona-
partewillseemi usti6edininterferingwiththe Credit Mobilier,
as the EnglishCovernmentdid in :;o;with the ank ofEng-
land.TheRegentoffrance,thatworthy sireofLouisPhilippe,
triedtogetrid ofthepublicdebtbyconvertingtheStateobli-
gations into obligations of Law's ank; Louis onaparte,
the imperial Socialist, will try to seize upon french industry
by converting the debentures of the Credit Mobilier into
State obligations.Will he prove more solventthanthe Credit
Mobilier? Thatisthe question.
CONDI TI ON OF FACTORY LABORERS
Condition of Factory Laborers .
PublishedApril zz, : s;
The reports of the lnspectors of factories, which have been
recently issued for the half year ending , : st October, : s 6,
form a valuable contribution to the social anatomy of the
United Kingdom. They will not a little help to explain the
reactionary attitude taken bythemi||-lordsduringthepresent
generalelection.
During the Session of t s 6, a factory Act was smuggled
through Parliament by which the 'radical mill-lords 6rst
altered the law in regard to the fencing of mill-gearing and
machinery,andsecondlyintroducedtheprincipleofarbitration
inthedisputesbetweenmastersandmen.Theonelawpurported
toprovideforthebetterprotectionofthelimbsandlivesofthe
factorylaborers;theothertoplacethatprotectionundercheap
courts of equity. ln fact, the latter law intended to cheat the
factory laboreroutoflaw, andtheformertocheathimoutof
hislimbs.lquotefromtheiointreportoftheinspectors:
Under the new statute, persons whose ordinary occupation brings
them near to mill-gearing, and who are consequently well
acquainted with the dangers to which their employment exposes
them, and with the necessity of caution, are protected by the law;
while protection has been withdrawn from those who may be
obliged, in the execution of special orders, to suspend their ordi
nary occupation and to place themselves in positions of danger,
of the existence of which they are not conscious, and from which,
by reason of their ignorance, they are unable to protect them
selves, but who, on that very account, would appear to require
the special protection of the Legislature.
The arbitration clause, in its turn, prescribes thatthearbi-
tratorsshallbechosenfrompersons'skilledintheconstruction
olthekindofmachinery bywhichbodilyharmisinflicted.ln
oneword,engineersandmachine-makersareentrustedwiththe
uonopolyofarbitration.'ltappearstous,saythelnspectors,
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRlBUNE
'thatengineersandmachine-makersoughttobeconsideredas
disqualifed to act as factory arbitrators, by reason of their
connectionintradewith the factory occupiers, who are their
customers.
Undersuchprovisions,itisnottobewondered atthat the
number of accidents arising from machinery, such as death,
amputationsofhands, arms,legsorfeet,fractureoflimbsand
bones,ofheadandface,lacerations,contusions,&c.,amount,
duringthesixmonthsendingonthe, : stOctober,: s 6,tothe
appallingnumberof:,o: o. Twentycasesofdeath,inflictedby
machinery, are registered in the industrial bulletin for half a
yearabout ten times the number lost by the ritish Navy
duringitsgloriousCantonmassacre.Sincethemill-lords,sofar
from endeavoringtoprotectthe livesand limbsoftheirlabor-
ers,arethusonlybentonescapingpaymentfor armsandlegs
lostintheir service,andshiftingthecostofthewearandtear
oftheir animated machinesfromtheirown shoulders, itneed
not surprise us that, according to the of6cial reports, 'over-
working,inviolationofthefactoryact,isontheincrease."
Overworkinginthetermsofthatactmeansemployingyoung
persons foralongertime perdaythanis legally allowed.This
isdone in variousways:y beginningworkbefore six inthe
morning,bynotstoppingitatsixintheevening,andbyabridg-
ingthetermsthelawhas6xedforthemealsoftheworkpeople.
Therearethreeperiodsofthedaywhenthesteam-enginestarts,
viz., when the work begins in the morning, and when it is
resumedafterthetwo mealsofbreakfastanddinner;andthere
arethree periodswhen itstops,viz., at the beginning ofeach
mea|-timeandwhentheworkceasesintheevening.Thusthere
are six opportunitieswhen 6ve minutes may be stolen,or half
anhoureachday.Fiveminutesaday'sincreasedwork,multi
pliedby weeks,isequal totwoandone-halfdaysofproduce
in the year; butthe fraudulent overworking goes far beyond
that amount. l quote Mr. Leonard Horner, ' ' ` the Factory
lnspectorforLancashire:
The proft to be gained by such illegal overworking appears to
be a greater temptation than the manufacturers can resist. They
CONDI TI ON OF FACTORY LABORERS
calculate upon the chance of not being found out, and when they
see the small amount of penalty and costs which those who have
been convicted have had to pay, they fnd that if they should be
detected there will still be a considerable balance of gain.
esidethetrifling6nesimposedbythefactoryact,themil|-
ownerstookgoodcareto haveitsoframed,thatthegreatest
facilitiesareafforded forpassingbyitsenactments,andasthe
inspectors unanimously declare, 'almost insuperable dif6-
cultiespreventthemfromputtinganeffectivestoptotheillegal
working. They also concur in stigmatizing thewillful com-
missionoffraudbypersonsoflargeproperty;themeancontriv-
ancesto whichtheyhaverecoursein ordertoelude detection;
andthe base intriguesthey set on foot against the inspectors
andsub-inspectorsentrustedwiththeprotectionofthefactory
slave.lnbringingforwardachargeofoverworking,theinspec-
tors, sub-inspectors, ortheir constables, must be prepared to
swearthatthemenhave beenemployedatillegalhours. Now,
supposetheyappearafter 6o'clockintheevening.Themanu-
facturing machineryisimmediatelystopped,andalthoughthe
peoplecouldbetherefornootherpurposethanattendingupon
it,thechargecannotbesustained, byreasonofthewordingof
theact.Theworkmenarethensentoutofthemil|ingreathaste,
often more doors than one facilitating their rapid dispersion.
ln some instances the gas was extinguished, when the sub-
inspectorsenteredtheroom,|eavingthemsudden|yindarkness
among complicated machinery. ln those places which have
acquired a notoriety for overworking, there is an organized
planforgivingnoticeatthemi|lsoftheapproachofaninspec-
tor,servantsatrailwaystationsandatinnsbeingemployedfor
thispurpose.
These vampyres, fattening on the life-b|ood of the young
workinggenerationoftheirowncountry, aretheynotthe ht
companions ofthe ritish opium smugglers, and the natural
supportersofthe'trulyritishMinisters?
The reports ofthe factory inspectors prove beyond doubt
that the infamies of the ritish factory system are growing
with its growth; thatthe laws enacted for checking the cruel
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
greedinessofthemill-lordsareashamandadelusion,beingso
worded as to baffle their own ostensible end and to disarm
the men entrusted with their execution; that the antagonism
betweenthemill-lordsandthe operativesisrapidlyapproach-
ingthepointofactualsocialwar;thatthenumberofchildren
under : , years,absorbed bythatsystem,isincreasinginsome
branches, and that of females in all; that, although the same
number of hands are employed in proportion to the horse-
powerasatformerperiods,therearefewerhandsemployedin
proportiontothemachinery;thatthesteam-engineisenabled
todriveagreaterweightofmachinerythantenyearsbeforeby
economy offorce; thatan increased quantityofworkisnow
turned off by increase of speed of the machinery and other
contrivances; and that the mill-lords are rapidly 6lling their
pockets.
TheinterestingstatisticalfactsillustratedintheReportsmay
properly claim further notice. Thusmuch will beunderstood
at once, that the industrial slaveholders of Lancashire are in
want of a foreign policy able to distract attentionfrom home
questions.
[The Bank Act of I844 and the Monetary Crisis
in England]
PublishedNovemberz:, : s ;
On the sth 'of November] the ank of England raised its
minimumrateofdiscountfrompercent,atwhichitwas6xed
onOctober:o, toopercent.Thisenhancement,unprecedented
as itis in the history ofthe ank sincethe resumption ofits
cash payments, has, we presume, not yet reached its highest
point. lt is brought about by a drain of bullion, and by a
decrease in what is called the reserve of notes. The drain of
bullionactsinoppositedirectionsgoldbeing shippedtothis
' '

f country H consequenceO ourbankruptcy, andsilvertothe


East,inconsequenceofthedeclineoftheexporttradetoChina
and lndia, and the direct Covernment remittances made for
[THE BANK ACT OF 1 844 AND THE MONETARY CRISIS I N ENGLAND] 1
93
accountoftheEastlndia Company.lnexchangeforthesilver
thuswanted,goldmustbesenttothecontinentofEurope.
Astothereserveofnotesandtheinfluentialpartitplaysin
theLondonmoney market, it is necessary to refer briey to
Sir Robert Peel's ank actof : aa,'

which affects not only


England, but also theUnited States, andthe whole marketof
the world. Sir Robert Peel, backed by the banker Lloyd, now
LordOverstone,and a number ofinuentialmenbeside,pro-
posedbyhisacttoputintopracticea self-actingprinciplefor
the circulation of paper money, according to which the latter
would exactly conform in its movements of expansion and
contractiontothelawsofapurelymetalliccirculation;andall
monetarycrises, ashe andhispartisansaf6rmed,wouldthus
be warded off for alltime to come. The ank of England is
dividedintotwodepartments~theissuingdepartmentandthe
bankingdepartment:theformerbeingasimplemanufactoryof
notesandthelattertherealbank.Theissuingdepartmentisby
law empoweredto issue notes tothe amountoffourteen mil-
lions sterling, a sum supposed to indicate the lowest point,
beneathwhichtheactualcirculationwillneverfall,thesecurity
forwhich isfoundinthe debtdue bythe ritish Covernment
to the ank. eyond these fourteen millions, no note can be
issued which is not represented in the vaults of the issuing
departmentbybulliontothesameamount.Theaggregatemass
ofnotesthus limitedismadeovertothebankingdepartment,
which throwsthem into circulation. Consequently, ifthe bul-
lionreserveinthevaultsoftheissuingdepartmentamountsto
1en millions, it can issue notestotheamount oftwenty-four
millions, which are made over to the banking department. lf
theactualcirculationamountstotwentymillionsonly,thefour
millionsremaininginthetillofthebankingdepartmentforms
itsreserveofnotes, which, infact,constitutesthe onlysecurity
for the deposits con6ded by private individuals, and by the
Statetothebanking department.
Supposenowthatadrainofbullionsetsin,andsuccessively
abstractsvariousquantitiesofbullionfromtheissuingdepart-
ment,withdrawing,forinstance, the amount offourmillions
ofgold.lnthiscasefourmillionsofnoteswillbecancelled;the
194 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
amount of notes issued by the issuing department will then
exactlyequaltheamountofnotesincirculation,andthereserve
ofdisposablenotes inthe till ofthe banking departmentwill
have altogetherdisappeared. The banking department, there-
fore, will nothave a single farthingleftto meettheclaims of
its depositors, and consequently will becompelled to declare
itselfinsolvent;anactaffectingitspublicaswellasitsprivate
deposits,andthereforeinvolvingthesuspensionofthepayment
ofthe quarterly dividends due totheholdersofpublic funds.
The bankingdepartmentmightthus become bankrupt, while
six millionsofbullionwerestillheaped upinthevaultsofthe
issuingdepartment.Thisisnotameresupposition.OnOctober
,o, :a;,thereserve ofthebanking department had sunkto
:, 6oo,ooowhilethedepositsamountedto: ,,ooo,ooo.With
afewmoredaysoftheprevailingalarm,whichwasonlyallayed
by a 6nancial coup d'etat on the part of the Covernment,
the ankreservewouldhave been exhaustedandthe banking
department would have been compelled to stop payments,
whilemorethansixmillionsofbullionlaystillinthevaultsof
theissuingdepartment.
lt is self-evident then that the drain of bullion and the
decrease of the reserve of notes act mutually on each other.
Whilethewithdrawal ofbullionfrom thevaultsoftheissuing
department directly produces a decreaseinthe reserve of the
banking department, the directors of the ank, apprehensive
lestthebankingdepartmentshouldbedriventoinsolvency,put
onthescrewandraisetherate ofdiscount. uttheriseinthe
rate of discount induces part of the depositors to withdraw
theirdepositsfromthebankingdepartment,andlendthemout
atthecurrenthighrateofinterest,whilethesteadydecreaseof
the reserve intimidates other depositors, and inducesthem to
withdrawtheirnotesfromthesamedepartment. Thusthevery
measurestakentokeepupthereserve,tendtoexhaustit.from
this explanation the reader will understand the anxiety with
whichthe decreaseoftheank reserveiswatchedinEngland,
and the gross fallacy propounded in the money article of a
recentnumberofThe London Times. ltsays:'Theoldoppon-
ents ofthe ank Charter Act are beginning to bustle in the
[THE BANK ACT OF 18 44
AND THE MONETARY CRI SI S IN ENGLAND] 1
95
storm,anditisimpossibletofeelcertainonanypoint.Oneof
their great modes ofcreatingfright is by pointing to the low
state of the reserve of unemployed notes, as ifwhen that is
exhausted the ank would be obliged to cease discounting
altogether.
As a bankrupt, underthe existing lawit would be, in fact,
obligedtodoso.
But the fact is that the Bank could, under such circumstances,
still continue the discounts on as great a scale as ever, since their
bills receivable each day of course, on the average, bring in as
large a total as they are ordinarily asked to let out. They could
not increase the scale, but no one will suppose that, with a
contraction of business in all quarters, any increase can be
required. There is, consequently, not the shadow of a pretext for
government palliatives.
Thesleight-of-handonwhichthisargumentrestsisthis:that
the depositors are deliberately kept out of view. lt needs no
peculiarexertionofthoughttounderstandthatifthebanking
department had once declared itselfbankruptinregardtoits
lenders,itcouldnotgoonmakingadvancesbywayofdiscounts
or loans to its borrowers. Taken all-in-all, Sir Robert Peel's
muchvauntedanklawdoesnotactat allincommontimes;
addsindif6culttimesa monetarypaniccreatedbylawtothe
monetarypanicresultingfromthecommercialcrisis;andatthe
very moment when, according to its principles, its bene6cial
effects should set in, it must be suspended by Covernment
interference. ln ordinary times, the maximum ofnotes which
the ank may legally issue is never absorbed by the actual
circulationa factsuf6cientlyproved by the continued exist-
ence in such periods of a reserve of notes in the till of the
banking department. You may prove thistruth by comparing
thereportsoftheankofEnglandfrom: a;to : s;,oreven
by comparing the amount of notes which actually circulated
from t t o till : a;, with that which might have circulated
accordingtothemaximumlegally6xed.lndif6culttimes,asin
: a;, and at present by the arbitrary and absolute division
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
betweenthe two departments ofthe sameconcern, the effects
of a drain of bullion are arti6cially aggravated, the rise of
interest isarti6ciallyaccelerated, the prospectofinsolvency is
heldoutnotinconsequenceoftherealinso|vencyofthe ank,
butofthe6ctitiousinsolvencyofoneofitsdepartments.
Whentherealmonetarydistresshasthusbeenaggravatedby
an arti6cial panic, and in its wake the suf6cient number of
victimshasbeenimmolated, publicpressuregrowstoostrong
forthe Covernment, and the law is suspended exactly atthe
period fortheweatheringofwhich itwas created, andduring
the course ofwhich it is alone ableto produce any effect at
all.Thus, on Oct. z,, : a;,the principal bankers ofLondon
resortedtoDowningstreet,theretoaskreliefbya suspension
ofPeel'sAct. Lord1ohnRussellandSirCharlesWoodconse-
quentlydirectedalettertotheCovernorandDeputyCovernor
ofthe ank of England, recommending them to enlarge their
issueofnotes,andthustoexceedthelegal maximumofcircu-
lation, whilethey took upon themselvesthe responsibilityfor
theviolationofthe lawof: aa,and declared themselvespre-
paredtoproposetoParliament,onitsmeeting,abillofindem-
nity. The same farce will be againenactedthistime,afterthe
stateofthingshascomeuptothestandardoftheweek ending
onOct. z, , :a;,whenatotalsuspensionofallbusinessand
ofall payments seemed imminent. The only advantage, then,
derived fromthePee|Actisthis:thatthewhole communityis
placed in a thorough dependence on an aristocratic Covern-
ment~onthepleasureofarecklessindividuallikePalmerston,
forinstance.HencetheMinisterial predilectionsfortheactof
: aa;investingthemwithaninf|uenceonprivatefortunesthey
wereneverbeforepossessedof.
Wehavethusdwelton thePeelAct, because ofits present
influenceonthiscountry,aswellasitsprobablesuspensionin
England;butiftheritishCovernmenthasthepoweroftaking
offthe shoulders ofthe ritish publicthe dif6culties fastened
uponthembythatCovernment itself, nothing could befalser
than to suppose thatthe phenomena we shall witness on the
Londonmoneymarkettheriseandthesubsidingofthemon-
etarypanic~willconstitute atruethermometerfortheinten-
[THE BANK ACT OF 1 8
44
AND THE MONETARY CRISIS IN ENGLAND] 1
97
sityofthecrisistheritishcommercialcommunityhavetopass
through.ThatcrisisisbeyondCovernmentcontrol.
Whenthe6rstnewsoftheAmericancrisisreachedtheshores
ofEngland,therewassetupbyhereconomistsatheorywhich
maylayclaim,ifnottoingenuity,tooriginalityatleast.ltwas
saidthatEnglishtradewassound,butthat,alas!itscustomers,
and,above all,theYankees,were unsound.Thesoundstateof
atrade,thehealthinessofwhichexistsononesideonly, isan
ideaquiteworthyofa ritisheconomist. Casta glanceatthe
|asthalf-yearlyreturnissuedbytheEnglishoardofTradefor
: s;,and youwill 6ndthatofthe aggregate exportofritish
produce and manufactures, ,o per cent went to the United
States, : : percenttoEastlndia, and :opercenttoAustralia.
Now, while the American market is c|osed for a long time to
come,thelndianone,gluttedfor two yearspast, istoa great
extentcutoffbythe insurrectionaryconvulsions,andtheAus-
tralian one is so overstocked that ritish merchandise of a||
sortsisnowsoldcheaperatAdelaide, SydneyandMelbourne,
than atLondon,Manchesteror Clasgow.Thegeneralsound-
ness ofthe ritish industrialists, declared bankrupt in conse-
quenceofthesuddenfai|ureoftheircustomers,maybeinferred
fromtwoinstances.AtameetingofthecreditorsofaClasgow
calico printer,the list of debts exhibited a total of: : 6,ooo,
whi|e the assets did notreachthemodestamountof;,ooo.
So,too,a Clasgow shipper, with |iabilities of: : ,oo, could
only show assetsto meet them of;o. utthese aremere|y
individual cases; the important point is that ritish manufac-
tures have been stretched to a point which must result in a
generalcrash under contractedforeign markets, with aconse-
quentrevu|sioninthesocialandpoliticalstateofCreatritain.
TheAmerican crisis of : , ;and : ,oproduced a decline in
r|t|shexportsfrom: z,azs, 6o:, atwhichtheystoodin: , 6,
down to a,6o s, zzs in : , ;, to ;, ss,;6o in : ,, and
,, s6z,oooin : az. Asimilarpara|ysisisalreadysettinginin
England. lt cannot fail to produce the most importanteffects
beforeitisover.
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
[The Crisis in Europe]
Published1anuary 5, 1 85 8
The mails ofthe Niagara reached us yesterday, anda careful
examination of our 6les ofritish iournals only con6rms the
viewswehavelatelyhadtoexpresswithregardtotheprobable
courseofthecrisisinEngland.TheLondonmoneymarket is
decidedlyimproving;thatistosay,goldisaccumulatinginthe
vaults of the ank of England; the demand for discount at
theankis decreasing; 6rst-class paper may bediscounted in
Lombard street'' atoxto o per cent; the public funds are
6rm, andthe share marketparticipates to somedegree inthis
movement. This agreeable aspectofthings is,however, badly
impaired bygreatfailures, recurringeverytwo or three days
in London; bydaily dispatches, sad messengers of provincial
disasters;andbythethunderofThe London Times, inveighing
morethaneveragainstthe generaland helpless corruptionof
theritishmercantileclasses.lnfact,thecomparativeeasiness
withwhich unexceptionablepaperisdiscounted, seemsto be
morethanbalancedbythegrowingdif6cultyof6ndingpaper
whichcanpassasunexceptionable.Consequently,wearetold
intheLondonmoneyarticlesofthelatestdate,thatatThread-
needle street'the applications are extremely 'limited, and
thatatLombardstreetbutlittlebusinessisdoing. Still, asthe
supply on the part of the ank and the discount houses is
increasingwhilethepressureuponthem,thedemandonthe
partoftheircustomers,isdecreasingthemoneymarketmust
be said to be comparatively easy. Nevertheless the ank of
England Directors have not yet dared to lower the rate of
discount, convincedasitwouldappearthattherenewalofthe
monetarycrisisisnotaquestionoftime,butofpercentage,and
that,consequently,astherateofdiscountsinks,themonetary
crisisissuretoriseagain.
WhiletheLondonmoneymarket,onewayortheother,has
thus got more easy, the stringency of the English produce
marketisincreasinginintensity,acontinuousfallinpricesnot
beingabletoovercomethegrowingdisinclinationtopurchase.
[ THE CRI S I S I N EUROPE) 199
Evensucharticlesastallow,forinstance,whichhadpreviously
formed anexceptiontothegeneralrule,havenow, bydintof
forcedsales,beenobligedtogiveway.Oncomparingtheprice
currentoftheweekendingDecember1 8 withtheweeklyprice
currentofNovember,itappearsthattheextremedepressionin
prices which prevailed in the latter month has again been
reached;this time,however,not inthe shape ofa panic, but
themethodicformofa sliding scale. Astothemanufacturing
markets, an earnestoftheindustrialcrisis whichwe predicted
has now been given in half a dozen failures of spinners and
weavers in Lancashire, ofthree leading houses inthewoolen
tradeintheWestRiding, andanimportant6rminthecarpet
tradeofWorcester.
Since the phenomena of this double crisis, in the produce
marketand amongthe manufacturing classes, will by and by
becomemorepalpable,weshallcontentourselves,forthepre-
sent,withquotingthefollowingpassageofaprivateletterfrom
Manchester,whichhasbeencommunicatedforourcolumns:
Of the continuous pressure on the market and its disastrous
effects you can hardly form any notion. No one can sell. Every
day you hear of lower quotations. Things are come to that pass
that respectable people prefer not to offer their commodities at
all. Spinners and weavers are weighed down by utter despon
dency. No yarn commissioners sell yarn to the weavers except
on cash or double securities. It is impossible for this state of
things to go on without ending in a frightful collapse.
TheHamburgcrisishasscarcelyabated.ltisthemostregular
and classical example of a monetary crisis that ever existed.
Everythingexceptsilverandgoldhadbecomeworthless.firms
ofoldstandinghavebrokendown,becausetheyareunableto
pay in cash some single bill that had fallen due, although in
their tills there lay bills to a hundred times its value, which,
however,forthemomentwerevalueless,notbecausetheywere
dishonored, but because they could not bediscounted. Thus,
we are informed that the old and wealthy 6rm of Ch. M.
Schroder,beforeitsbankruptcy,hadofferedtoittwomillionsin
200
DI SPATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
silver, on the part ofL. H. Schrder, the brother, ofLondon,
butrepliedbytelegraph:'Threemillionsornothing.Thethree
mi|lions did notcome forward, and Ch. M. Schrder wentto
the wall. A different instance isthatofUllberg & Co., a 6rm
much spoken ofintheEuropean press,which, withliabilities
amountingto: z,ooo,ooomarksbanco,including;,ooo,oooof
billsofexchange,had,asnowappears,acapitalofonly,oo,ooo
marksbancoasthebasisofsuchenormoustransactions.
lnSweden, andespeciallyin Denmark,thecrisishasrather
increasedinviolence. The revival oftheevilafteritappeared
tohavepassedaway isto be explainedbythe dateson which
thegreatdemands on Hamburg, Stockholm and Copenhagen
falldue. DuringDecember, forinstance, ninemillions ofbills
drawnon Hamburg by Rio de1aneiro houses for coffee fell
due,wereallprotested,andthismassofprotestscreatedanew
panic. ln|anuary the draftsfor the cargoes of sugar shipped
fromahiaandPernambucowillprobablymeetwithasimilar
fate,andcauseasimilarreviva|ofthecrisis.
British Commerce and Finance
PublishedOctobera, : s
lnreviewingtheReportonthe Crisisof: s;~softhe Com-
mittee appointed by the House of Commons, we have, 6rst,
shown the ruinous tendencies of Sir Robert Peel's ank act,
and, secondly, doneawaywiththe falsenotion, attributing U
banks of issue the power of affecting general prices by an
arbitrary expansion or contraction ofthe paper currency. We
arrive, then, atthequestion,Whatwere thereal causesofthe
crisis?TheCommitteestatethattheyhaveestablished'totheir
satisfaction, that the recent commercial crisis in this country,
aswellasinAmerica andintheNorthofEurope,wasmainly
owingtoexcessivespeculationandabuseofcredit.Thevalue
of this solution is certainly not in the least impaired by the
circumstance that, to 6nd it out, the world have not waited
upon the Parliamentary Committee, and that all the probr
BRI TI SH COMMERCE AND FI NANCE 201
society may possibly derive from the revelation must at this
timebefullydiscounted.Crantedthetruthoftheproposition~
and we are far from contesting it~does it solve the social
problem, or doesit butchangetheterms ofthequestion? for
asystemof6ctitiouscredittospringup,twopartiesarealways
requisiteborrowers and lenders. That the former party
shouldatall timesbeeagerattradingupontheotherpeople's
capital, and endeavor to enrich themselves at other people's
risk,seemssoexceedingly simpleatendencythattheopposite
onewouldbewilderourunderstanding. Thequestionisrather
how it happens that, among all modern industrial nations,
peoplearecaught,asitwere,byaperiodical6tofpartingwith
theirpropertyuponthemosttransparentdelusions,andinspite
oftremendouswarningsrepeatedindecennialintervals.What
are the social circumstances reproducing, almost regularly,
theseseasonsofgeneralself-delusion, ofover-speculationand
6ctitiouscredit?lftheywereoncetracedout,weshouldarrive
at a very plain alternative. Either they may be controlled by
society,ortheyareinherentinthepresentsystemofproduction.
lnthe6rstcase,societymayavertcrises;inthesecond,solong
asthe system lasts, they must be borne with, like the natural
changesoftheseasons.
We considerthis to be the essential defect not only ofthe
recentParliamentary Report, butofthe'ReportontheCom-
mercial Distress of : a;, ` and all the other similar reports
which preceded them~that they treat every new crisis as an
insulatedphenomenon,appearingforthe6rsttimeonthesocial
horizon,and,therefore,tobeaccountedforbyincidents,move-
mentsandagenciesaltogetherpeculiar,orpresumedtobepecu-
|iar,totheoneperiodiustelapsedbetweenthepenultimateand
the ultimaterevulsion. Ifnaturalphilosophers had proceeded
by the same puerile method, the world would be taken by
surpriseonthereappearanceevenofacomet.lntheattemptat
|ayingbarethelawsbywhichcrisesofthemarketoftheworld
aregoverned,notonlytheirperiodicalcharacter,buttheexact
datesofthatperiodicitymustbeaccountedfor.Thedistinctive
features, moreover, peculiar to every new commercial crisis,
mustnotbeallowedtoovershadowtheaspectscommontoall
202
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
ofthemWe shouldoverstepthelimitsand thepurposeofour
presenttask, were we eventogivethe faintest outline ofsuch
an inquiry. This much seems undisputed, thatthe Commons'
Committee,sofar from solvingthequestion,hasnotevenput
itinitsadequateterms.
The facts dwelt upon by the Committee,
with a view to
illustrate the system of 6ctitious credit, lack, of course, the
interestofnovelty.ThesystemitselfwasinEnglandcarriedon
by a very simple machinery. The 6ctitious creditwas created
through the means of accommodation bills. The latter were
discounted principally by i oint-stock country banks, which
rediscountedthem withthe London bill brok
ers. The London
bill brokers, lookingonlyto the indorsement
ofthe ank, not
tothe billsthemselves, intheir turn reliednotupon their own
reserves, but upon the facilitiesaffordedto them by the ank
ofEngland. Theprinciplesofthe London bil|brokersmay be
understoodfromthefollowinganecdote, relatedtothe Com-
mitteebyMr. Dixon,thelateManagerDirector oftheLiver-
pooloroughank:
In incidental conversation about the whole affair, one of the bill
brokers made the remark that if it had not been for Sir Robert
Peel's act the Borough Bank need not have suspended. In reply
to that, I said that whatever might be the merits of Sir Robert
Peel's act, for my own part I would not have been willing to lift
a fnger to assist the Borough Bank through its
diffculties, if the
so doing had involved the continuance of such a wretched system
of business as had been practiced, and I said if I had only known
half as much of the proceedings of the Borough Bank before I
became a Managing Director, as you must have known, by seeing
a great many of the bills of the Borough Bank discounted, you
would never have caught me being a stockholder. The rejoinder
to which was: "Nor would you have caught me being a stock
holder; it was very well for me to discount the bills, but I would
not have been a shareholder either."
TheoroughankinLiverpool,theWesternankofScot-
land, in Clasgow, the Northumberland and 0urhamDistrict
BRI TI SH COMMERCE AND FI NANCE
203
ank,intotheoperationsofwhichthreebankstheCommittee
institutedthestrictestinquiry,seemtohavecarriedthepalmin
the race of mismanagement. The Westetn ank in Clasgow,
whichhadt ot branchesthroughoutScotlandandconnections
inAmerica,allowedto draw uponitforthe mere sakeofthe
commission, raiseditsdividendin t safrom7 to percent,
in t s 6from too percent,anddeclaredadividendofoper
cent,stillin1une,t s;,whenthegreaterpartofitscapitalwas
gone.ltsdiscountswhichin t s , wereta, o;,ooohadbeen
increasedint s;tozo,6ot ,ooo.Therediscountsofthebank
inLondon,amountingint s ztoao;,ooo,hadrisenint s 6
to s,ao;,ooo. The whole capital of the bank being but
t, soo,ooo,thesumoft ,6o,,oooappeared onits failure, in
Nov. t s ;, to be owed to it by the four installment houses
alone of McDonald, Monteith,Wallace and Pattison. One of
the principal operations of the bank consisted in making
advancesupon'nterests, thatisto say,manufacturerswere
providedwith capital, thesecurityforwhich consisted in the
eventual saleofthe produce to be created through the means
of the loan advanced. The levity with which the discount
business was managed, appears from the circumstance that
McDonald`sbillswereaccepted by t z; differentparties; only
, ; being inquired about, the report on zt of which turned
out unsatisfactory or positively bad. Still McDonald's credit
continued undiminished. Since t a, a substitutionwas made
in the books of the bank, by which debts were turned into
credits,andlossesintoassets.
'Themodes,saystheReport,
in which this kind of disguise can be accomplished, will perhaps
be best understood by stating the manner in which a debt called
Scarth's debt, comprised in a different branch of the assets, was
disposed of. That debt amounted to 1 20,000, and it ought to
have appeared among the protested bills. It was, however, divided
into four or fve open credit accounts, bearing the names of the
acceptors of Scarth's bill. These accounts were debited with the
amount of their respective acceptances, and insurances were
effected on the lives of the debtors to the extent of 75,000. On
204
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
these insurances, 33,000 have been paid as premiums by the
bank itself. These all now stand as assets in the books.
Lastly,onexaminationitwasfoundthato,oooweredue
tothebankfromitsownshareholders.
ThewholecapitaloftheNorthumberlandandDurhamDis-
trict ank amounting to 6oo,ooo only, nearly t,ooo,ooo
wereloanedbyittotheinsolventDerwentlronCompany.Mr.
1onathanRichardson,whowasthemovingspringoftheank,
in fact the person who managed everything, was, although
no directpartner in the Derwent lron Company, verylargely
interestedinthatunpromisingconcern,asholdingtheroyalties
uponthemineralswhichtheyworked.Thiscasepresents,there-
fore,the peculiarfeature ofthewhole capital ofa ioint-stock
bank being eaten up with the single view to improving the
privatespeculationsofoneofitsmanagingdirectors.
ThesetwosamplesoftherevelationscontainedintheCom-
mittee`sreportreflectaratherdismallightonthemoralityand
general conduct of ioint-stock trading concerns. lt is evident
that those establishments, the rapidly growing influence of
whichontheeconomyofnationscanhardlybeovervalued,are
still far from having worked out their proper constitution.
Powerful engines in developing the productive powers of
modernsociety,theyhavenot,likethe medievalcorporations,
asyetcreated acorporateconscience in lieu ofthe individual
responsibilitywhich, by dint of theirveryorganization, they
havecontrivedtogetridof.
[Project for the Regulation of the Price of Bread
in France]
PublishedDecembert s, t s
TheEmperorofthefrenchhasiustundertakentheexecutionof
afavoriteproiectofhis, namely,theregulationofthepriceof
breadthroughouthisempire.Thisideahedennitelyannounced
as long ago as t sa, in hisspeechto the Legislativeody on
[ PROJECT FOR THE REGULATION OF THE PRICE OF BREAD IN FRANCE] 20
5
occasionofthedeclarationofwaragainstRussia.Hisstatement
ofthecaseatthattimeisworthquoting,andwegiveitasfollows:
Above all, I recommend to your attention the system now
adopted by the City of Paris; for if it extend, as I trust it will, to
the whole of France, it will for the future prevent those extreme
variations in the price of corn which, in times of abundance,
cause agriculture to languish because of the low price of wheat,
and, in years of scarcity, the poorer classes to suffer so greatly
because of its dearness. That system consists in the establishment
in all great centers of population of a credit institution called
Baker's Bank ( Caisse de fa Boulangerie), which, during years of
dearth, can give bread at a price infnitely lower than the offcial
market quotation, on the condition of its price ranging a little
higher in years of plenty. The good harvests being in general
more numerous than the bad ones, it is easy to understand that
the compensation between both may be effected with ease. In
addition, the immense advantage would be gained of fnding
credit-companies which, instead of gaining from a rise in the
price of bread, would, like every one else, be interested in its
cheapness; for, contrary to what has existed to the present time,
such companies would make money in seasons of fertility, and
lose money in seasons of dearth.
The principle here set forth is that bread should be sold
'in6nitely belowitsmarketpricein bad,andonly'alittle
above thatsame price ingood seasons~the compensationto
resultfromthehopethatthegoodyearswillbyfaroverbalance
thescarceones.AnlmperialdecreehavinginDecember, t s , ,
establishedthe aker'sankat Paris, the maximum pricefor
thefour-poundloafwas6xedataocentimes;the bakersbeing
empoweredtoclaimcompensationfortheirlossfromtheank,
which, in itsturn,raised its fundsby the issueofobligations
guaranteed bytheMunicipality,which,on itspart,raisedthe
guaranty funds by contracting new debts, and enhancingthe
excisedutiesonarticlesofconsumptionatthegatesofParis.A
certain sum was, besides, directly contributed bythe Covern-
uentfromthepublicexchequer.Attheendoft sathedebts
206 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
thus contractedbytheMunicipalityofParis, togetherwiththe
Covernment money, had already reached the sum of eighty
millionsoffrancs.TheCovernmentwasthenforcedtorescind
its steps, and to successively raisethe maximum price ofthe
loafto asandsocentimes.Thus,theParispeople hadpartly
to payintheformofincreasedexciseswhattheysavedinthe
price of bread, and the rest of france had to pay a general
paupertaxforthemetropolis,intheformofthedirectCovern-
ment subventionaccordedtotheMunicipality ofParis. How-
ever,theexperimentprovedacompletefailure;theParisprice
of bread rising above the of6cial maximum during the bad
seasons, from : s s to : s;, and sinking below it during the
richharvestsof: s;and: s.
Nothingdauntedbythefailureofthisexperimentonarela-
tivelysmallscale,LouisNapoleonhasnowtakentoorganizing,
byhisownukase,thebakers`tradeandthecommerceingrain
throughouttheEmpire.Someweeksago,oneofhisnewspapers
in Paris attempted to convince the public that 'a reserve of
grainwasanecessityinallconsiderabletowns.Theargument
was,thatintheworstyearsofscarcitythemaximumde6citof
grain had been equal to z days` consumption ofthe whole
population, and that the average number of consecutive bad
yearswasthree.fromthesepremisesitwascalculatedthat'an
effectivereserveforthreemonthswillbeallthatcanbeenacted
fromhumanforesight.lfextendedonlytotownswithamini-
mum population of : o,ooo inhabitants, the aggregate popu-
lation ofsuchtowns infrance |Paris excluded amountingto
,,;;6,ooosouls,eachaveragesoulconsumingas kilogrammes
ofwheatforthreemonths,andthepresentpriceofwheatbeing
about: af.thehectolitre-suchareserve,accordingtothisview
ofthecase,wouldcostbetween,t ,ooo,oooand,z,ooo,ooof.!
Now, onthe: th ofNov.theMoniteur publisheda decreein
thefollowingterms:
Art. I. The reserve of the bakers in all the towns in which the
baking trade is regulated by decrees and ordinances is fxed at
the quantity of grain or four necessary for supplying the daily
make of each baking establishment during three months.
[ PROJECT FOR THE REGULATION OF THE PRICE OF BREAD IN FRANCE] 207
Art. 2. Within a month from this date, the Prefects of Depart
ments, after having consulted the municipalities, shall decide
whether the reserves shall be established in grain or four, and
shall fx the period within which they shall be provided; also, the
portion of them which may be deposited in public store-houses.
Annexed to this decree is a list ofthe towns 'inwhichthe
baking trade is regulated, and which, consequently, haveto
lay in reserves. The list comprises allthe towns and cities of
france of a certain degree of importance, except Paris and
Lyons,inwhichreservesalreadyexist,andwhichconsequently
do not fall within the operation of the decree. ln all, there
are not fewerthan : 6: towns or cities, and among themare
Marseilles, St. Quentin, Moulins, Caen, Angoulme, Diion,
ourges,esanon,Evreux,Chartres,rest,Nmes,Toulouse,
ordeaux,Montpellier,Rennes,Tours, Crenoble, St.

tienne,
Nantes,Orleans,Angers,Rheims,Chalns,Metz,Lille,Douai,
Valenciennes,eauvais,Arras,St.Omer,Calais,oulogne-sur-
Mer,Strasbourg,Mulhouse,Rouen,Havre,Mcon,LeMans,
Amiens, Abbeville, andToulon. Accordingto thelastcensus,
the populations ofthe : 6: towns and cities may now beset
downatabout,ooo,ooo!Thisgivesusthens, soo,ooohecto-
|itres,atacostofbetween ;o,ooo,oooand o,ooo,ooofrancs
for the reserves. ln transmitting by circular the decree to the
PrefectsofDepartments,theMinisterofAgricultureandCom-
merce tells them that, though they 'must not constrain the
bakersto ful6ll precipitatelythe obligationsimposedonthem
by the decree, they must '6x within reasonable limits the
period allowedforsodoing.He leavesthePrefectstodecide,
fromlocalconsiderations,whetherthereservesshallbelaid in
in grain or flour. He then tells themthatthe presentmeasure,
vastasitis,maybeconsideredcapableofextension.
The Government does not exaggerate, Monsieur Ie Prefect, the
importance of the measure I have described. It is aware that
the decree only concerns a small part of the population, and
accordingly it has occupied itself with the possibility of extending
its means of action. The inhabitants of hamlets and of villages
208 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
bake their own bread, and take from their crops the quantity of
wheat necessary for their families during the year. The inte
venti on of the Government with regard to them would be useles
s
and impossible. But in a certain number of chief towns of depart
ments, and in a greater number of the chief places of arrondisse
ments and of cantons, and even in populous villages, bakers ma
k
e
an important part of the bread consumed, and yet they are nOt
the obj ect of any regulations, and are not obliged to make any
reserves. Is it not possible to place the bakers of such places as
these under the same regime, and to impose on them the same
salutary law of prudence? The Government is disposed to think
that its prescriptions in this respect would not meet with any
serious objections.
efore, however, subi ecting to the above decree a|| the rest
ol France, except the sma|| vi||ages, the Minister directs the
Prefects to consu|t the Municipa|ities of the p|aces which do
notnowfa||withinitsoperation.Hethente||sthePrefectshow
the reservesaretobe stored up:
Bakers must, as far as possible, utilise the dependencies of their
shops, as the surveillance of them will be easy. But you must
invite the Municipalities to organize, and to place at the disposal
of bakers, public store-houses calculated to receive, on payment
of a rent to be fxed by tariff, the reserve they cannot receive
themselves. I do not doubt that the enlightened cooperation of
the municipal authorities will render these operations easy.
The Minister next arrives atthe vita| pointwhere to get
themoneyforcarryingoutthedecree:
As to the realization of the capital necessary, I am convinced that
bakers will employ the most serious efforts to procure the sums
they will need. Such an employment of capital presents commer
cial advantages so great, and promises to realize such legitimate
profts that they can hardly fail to obtain credit, especially at a
moment at which the interest on money is so low. Is it presuming
too much on the good will of the capitalists in each commune to
[ PROJECT FOR THE REGULATION OF THE PRICE OF BREAD IN FRANCE] 209
hope for their cooperation in favor of the bakers? Would they
not fnd in the reserves constituted a safe pledge of their
advances-and a pledge which is rather destined to increase in
value than to decline? I shall be happy if the efforts you may
make in this matter may be crowned with success. I ask myself
if the Municipalities could not, if necessary, in imitation of the
Caisse de Paris, create resources and employ them in advances
to bakers. In order to encourage and facilitate such advances,
and to multiply them by circulation, the granaries destined to
receive the reserves might have the character of bonded ware
houses (magasins generaux), conferred on them, and might
deliver warrants which would safely be accepted with favor by
our fnancial establishment, and especially by the Bank of France.
TheMinisterconc|udes hiscircu|arbydirectingthatwithin
twentydaysthePrefectssha||informhimwhattheyproposein
regardtothe executionofthesecondartic|e ofthedecree,and
withinamonth sha|| reportonwhatthe Municipa|itiesofthe
townsandvi||agesnotinc|udedinthedecreerecommend.
Now, we do notpurpose toenter atthis moment into the
question ofpub|ic granaries, but the immense importance of
this economica| coup d'etat needs no |ong commentary. lt is
we|| known that the present price of grain is ruinous|y |ow
in France, and that, consequent|y, signs of dissatisfaction are
perceptib|eamongthepeasantry.ythearti6cia|demandtobe
createdthroughthemeansofthreemonths'reserve,Napo|eon
triesto enhanceprices arti6ca||y, andthus stopthe mouthto
agricu|tura|France.Ontheotherhand, heproc|aimshimse|fa
sort of socia|ist providence to the pro|etarians of the towns,
a|thoughinaratherawkwardway,sincethe6rstpa|pab|eeffect
ofhisdecreemustbetomakethempaymorefortheir|oafthan
before.The 'savior ofpropertyshowsthe midd|e c|ass that
noteventheforma|interventionofhisownmockLegis|atures,
butasimp|epersona|ukaseonhispart,isa||thatiswantedto
make free with their purses, dispose of municipa| property,
troub|e the course of trade, and subiect their monetary dea|-
ings to hisprivatecrochets. Last|y, the question is sti|| to be
consideredfromthepureonapartistpointofview. lmmense
210 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
buildings for public granaries will become necessary over the
wholeoffrance;andwhatafresh6eldtheywillopenforiobs
andplunder. Anunexpectedturnisalsogiventothe trade in
breadstuffs.Whatpro6tstobepocketedbytheCreditMobilier
andtheother gambling companions ofhislmperial Maiesty!
Atall events, we may be surethatthelmperialSocialistwill
provemoresuccessfulinraisingthepriceofbreadthanhehas
beeninattemptstoreduceit.
I NDI A AND I MPERI ALI SM
lndiarepresentedafascinatinglaboratoryforMarx'stheories.
lnthe mid-nineteenth century there existed no more pure an
example of a society dominated by imperialism. Theritish
Eastlndia Company's almosttotalmonopolyonritishtrade
with the colony, which existed for nearly two centuries until
: : , , had, in his view, completely transformed not only the
lndian economy but its very structure. The company's ships
andfactories~tosaynothingofitsarmy,navyandciviladmin-
istratorsdestroyed traditional methods of production and
distribution, turning the vastmai ority of lndiancitizens into
virtual slaves. WhentheCompanybeganto suffer 6nancially
inthelateeighteenthcentury,itsprincipallifelinederivedfrom
forcing lndian farmers to grow opium for Chinese consump-
tion,apracticeforwhichMarxreservedthekindofscornthat
manyfeelfortheLatinAmericancocainetradetoday.
Yet Marx's analysis oflndia was neither rigidly economic
norwithouthope.Asdeeplyashedenouncedtheritishcolon-
ization of lndia, he did not hold a romantic notion that a
nation's ColdenAge hadbeen destroyed. Onthecontrary,he
believedthatHinduismhadproducedan'undigni6ed,stagna-
tory, and vegetative life . . . 'that] rendered murder itself a
religious rite. Marx's beliefin dialectical progress predicted
that the lndians would eventually use the productive forces
theritishintroducedincludingrailroadsandirrigationto
emancipate themselves. Thus the 6ssures in ritain's lndian
rulethatpresentedthemselvesthroughoutthemid-nineteenth
century were for Marx harbingers of lndian independence.
lndeed, the distinguished Asian historian Dilip Hiro believes
21 2 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
thatMarxaloneamongcontemporarycommentatorsperceived
the implications oftheuprisingthatbeganinthe lndianarmy
inmid- : s ;. ' Theoriginsoftherebellion,heunderstood,were
humble to the point of being obscure~a rumor to the effect
that the ritish wanted to convert alllndians to Christianity.
uttheuprisingshowedbothadeeperdiscontentandasystem
of oppression that would be dif6cult and expensive for the
ritshto sustain.Hence,Marxsawintherevolt'theprologue
ofamostterribletragedythatwillhavetobeenacted.
PO1
I. Personal conversation.
The British Rule in India
Published1une zs, : s ,
'. . . ]Lastnightthedebateonlndiawascontinuedi ntheHouse
ofCommons,intheusualdullmanner.Mr. lackettcharged
thestatementsofSirCharlesWoodandSir1.Hoggwithbearing
thestampofoptimistfalsehood.AlotofMinisterialandDirec-
torial advocates rebukedthechargeaswell astheycould,and
theinevitableMr. HumesummedupbycallingonMinistersto
withdrawtheirbill.Debateadiourned.
Hindostanisanltaly ofAsiatic dimensions,theHimalayas
for theAlps,thePlainsofengalforthePlainsofLombardy,
the Deccanfor theApennines,andthelsle of Ceylonforthe
lslandofSicily.Thesamerichvarietyintheproductsofthesoil,
and the same dismemberment in the political con6guration.
1ust as ltaly has, from time to time, been compressed bythe
conqueror'sswordintodifferentnationalmasses,sodowe6nd
Hindostan,whennotunderthepressureoftheMohammedan,
ortheMogul,ortheriton,dissolvedintoasmanyindependent
andconflictingStates asit numbered towns, orevenvillages.
Yet,in a social pointofview,Hindostanisnottheltaly, but
THE BRI TI SH RULE IN I NDI A 213
the lrelandofthe East. Andthis strange combinationofltaly
andoflreland,ofaworldofvoluptuousnessandofaworldof
woes, is anticipated in the ancient traditions of the religion
of Hindostan.Thatreligionis atoncea religionofsensualist
exuberance,andareligionofself-torturingasceticism;areligion
oftheLingamandofthe1uggernaut;thereligionoftheMonk,
andoftheayadere.
l share not the opinion of those who believe in a golden
ageofHindostan,withoutrecurring,however,likeSirCharles
Wood'` for the con6rmationofmy view, totheauthority of
Khuli-Khan.uttake,forexample,thetimesofAurangzeb;'
orthe epoch,whentheMogulappearedintheNorth, andthe
PortugueseintheSouth;ortheageofMohammedaninvasion,
andoftheHeptarchyinSouthernlndia;or,ifyouwill,gostill
more back to antiquity,take the mythological chronology of
therahmanhimself,whoplacesthecommencementoflndian
miseryin an epoch evenmoreremote thantheChristiancre-
ationoftheworld.
Therecannot,however,remainanydoubtbutthatthemisery
inflictedbytheritishonHindostanisofanessentiallydifferent
and in6nitely more intensive kind than all Hindostan had to
suffer before. l do notallude to Europeandespotism, planted
upon Asiatic despotism, by the ritish East lndia Company,
formingamoremonstrouscombinationthananyofthedivine
monsters startling us in the Temple of Salsette. This is no
distinctivefeatureofritishColonialrule,butonlyanimitation
oftheDutch,andso muchsothatinordertocharacterizethe
working oftheritish Eastlndia Company, it issuf6cientto
literallyrepeatwhatSirStamfordRafes,theEnglish Covernor
of1ava, saidoftheoldDutchEastlndia Company:
The Dutch Company, actuated solely by the spirit of gain, and
viewing their Uavan] subjects, with less regard or consideration
than a West India planter formerly viewed a gang upon his estate,
because the latter had paid the purchase money of human prop
erty, which the other had not, employed all the existing machinery
of despotism to squeeze from the people their utmost mite of
contribution, the last dregs of their labor, and thus aggravated
214 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 111LT1
the evils of a capricious and semi-barbarous Government, by
working it with all the practised ingenuity of politicians, and all
the monopolizing selfshness of traders.
Allthecivilwars,invasions,revolutions,conquests,famines,
strangely complex, rapid, and destructive as the successive
action in Hindostan may appear, did not go deeper than its
surface. England has broken down the entire framework of
lndian society, without any symptoms of reconstitution yet
appearing. This loss of his old world, with no gain ofa new
one, imparts a particular kind of melancholy to the present
misery of the Hindoo, and separates Hindostan, ruled by
ritain, from all its ancienttraditions, and from the whole of
itspasthistory.
TherehavebeeninAsia,generally,fromimmemorialtimes,
butthree departmentsofCovernment;thatofFinance,or the
plunder of the interior; that of War, or the plunder of the
exterior;and,6nally,thedepartmentofPublicWorks.Climate
and territorial conditions, especially the vast tracts of desert,
extendingfromtheSahara,throughArabia,Persia, lndia, and
Tartary, to the most elevated Asiatic highlands, constituted
arti6cial irrigation by canals and water-works the basis of
Oriental agriculture. As in Egypt and lndia, inundations are
usedforfertilizingthesoilinMesopotamia,Persia,&c.;advan-
tageistaken ofa highlevelforfeedingirrigativecanals. This
prime necessity of aneconomical and commonuse ofwater,
which, inthe Occident, drove private enterprise to voluntary
association,asinFlandersandltaly,necessitated,intheOrient,
where civilization was too low and the territorial extent too
vastto call into life voluntaryassociation, the interferenceof
the centralizingpower of Covernment. Hence an economical
function devolveduponallAsiaticCovernments,thefunction
of providing public works. This arti6cial fertilization of the
soil, dependent on a Central Covernment, and immediately
decayingwiththeneglectofirrigation and drainage, explains
the otherwise strangefactthatwe now 6nd whole territories
barrenanddesertthatwereonce brilliantlycultivated,asPal-
myra,Petra,theruinsinYemen,andlargeprovincesofEgypt,
THE BRI TI S H RULE I N I NDI A 21
5
Persia, and Hindostan; it also explains how a single war of
devastationhasbeenabletodepopulateacountryforcenturies,
andtostripitofallitscivilization.
Now, the ritish in East lndia accepted from their prede-
cessors the department of6nance and ofwar, but theyhave
neglectedentirelythatofpublicworks.Hencethedeterioration
ofan agriculture which is not capable ofbeingconducted on
the ritish principle of free competition, of laissez-faire and
laissez-aller. utinAsiaticempireswearequiteaccustomedto
seeagriculture deterioratingunder one governmentandreviv-
ing again under some other government. There the harvests
correspond to good or bad government, as they change in
Europe withgood or bad seasons. Thusthe oppression and
neglectofagriculture,badasitis,couldnotbelookeduponas
the 6nal blow dealtto lndian society bythe ritish intruder,
had itnot been attended by a circumstance ofquite different
importance,anoveltyintheannalsofthewholeAsiaticworld.
However changing the political aspect of lndia`s past must
appear, its social condition has remained unaltered since its
remotestantiquity,untilthe6rstdecenniumofthe:othcentury.
Thehand-loomandthespinning-wheel,producingtheirregular
myriads ofspinners andweavers,werethepivotsofthe struc-
ture ofthat society. Fromimmemorialtimes, Europe received
the admirable textures of lndian labor, sending in return for
them her preciousmetals, andfurnishing thereby his material
tothegoldsmith,that indispensable memberoflndiansociety,
whoseloveof6neryissogreatthateventhelowestclass,those
who go about nearly naked, havecommonly a pair ofgolden
ear-ringsandagoldornamentofsomekindhungroundtheir
necks. Ringsonthe6ngersand toeshave also beencommon.
Womenaswell aschildrenfrequentlyworemassive bracelets
andankletsofgoldorsilver,andstatuettesofdivinitiesingold
and silverweremetwith inthehouseholds. lt wasthe ritish
intruder who broke up the lndian hand-loom and destroyed
the spinning-wheel. England began with driving the lndian
cottons from the Europeanmarket; it then introduced twist
into Hindostan, and in the end inundated the very mother
countryofcottonwithcottons.From : Ito : , 6theexport

21 6 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE


oftwistfrom Creatritaintolndiaroseintheproportionof:
to s, zoo.ln :zatheexportofritishmuslinstolndiahardly
amounted to : ,ooo,ooo yards, while in : ,; it surpassed
6a,ooo,ooo of yards. ut at the same timethe population of
Dacca decreased from : so,ooo inhabitants to zo,ooo. This
decline of lndian towns celebrated for their fabrics was by
no means the worst consequence. ritish steam and science
uprooted, over the whole surface of Hindostan, the umon
betweenagricultureandmanufacturingindustry.
These two circumstancesthe Hindoo, on the one hand
leaving, like all Oriental peoples, to the Central Covernmen
thecareofthe great public works, theprimeconditionofhis
agriculture andcommerce, dispersed,onthe other hand, over
the surface ofthe country, andagglomerated in small centers
bythe domestic unionofagricultural andmanufacturingpur-
suitsthese two circumstances had brought about since the
remotest times, a social systemofparticularfeatures~the so-
called village system, whichgavetoeachofthesesmallunions
theirindependentorganization and distinct life. The peculiar
chara

ct

r of this

system may be iudged from the following


descnptron,contamedinanoldof6cial report'`oftheritish
HouseofCommonsonlndianaffairs:
A village, geographically considered, is a tract of country com
prising some hundred or thousand acres of arable and waste
lands; politically viewed it resembles a corporation or township.
Its proper establishment of offcers and servants consists of the
following descriptions: The potaii, or head inhabitant, who has
generally the superintendence of the affairs of the village, settles
the disputes of the inhabitants, attends to the police, and performs
the duty of collecting the revenue within his village, a duty which
his personal influence and minute acquaintance with the situation
and concerns of the people render him the best qualifed for
this charge. The kurnum keeps the accounts of cultivation and
registers everything connected with it. The tallier and the otie
the duty of the former of which consists . . . in gaining infor
mation of crimes and offenses, and in escorting and protecting
persons traveling from one village to another; the province of the
THE BRI TI S H RULE I N I NDI A 217
latter appearing to be more immediately confned to the village,
consisting, among other duties, in guarding the crops and assist
ing in measuring them. The boundary-man, who preserves the
limits of the village, or gives evidence respecting them in cases of
dispute. The Superintendent of Tanks and Watercourses distrib
utes the water . . . for the purposes of agriculture. The Brahmin,
who performs the village worship. The schoolmaster, who is seen
teaching the children in a village to read and write in the sand. The
calendar-brahmin, or astrologer, &c. These offcers and servants
generally constitute the establishment of a village; but in some
parts of the country it is of less extent, some of the duties and
functions above described being united in the same person; in
others it exceeds the above-named number of individuals . . .
Under this simple form of municipal government, the inhabitants
of the country have lived from time immemorial. The boundaries
of the villages . . . have been but seldom altered; and though
the villages themselves have been sometimes injured, and even
desolated by war, famine or disease, the same name, the same
limits, the same interests, and even the same families have con
tinued for ages. The inhabitants gave themselves no trouble about
the breaking up and divisions of kingdoms; while the village
remains entire, they care not to what power it is transferred,
or to what sovereign it devolves; its internal economy remains
unchanged. The potail is still the head inhabitant, and still acts
as the petty judge or magistrate, and collector or renter of the
village.
These small stereotypeforms ofsocial organism have been
tothegreaterpartdissolved,andaredisappearing,notsomuch
throughthebrutalinterference oftheritishtax-gathererand
the ritish soldier, as to the working of English steam and
English free trade. Those family-communities were based on
domestic industry, in that peculiar combination of hand-
weaving,hand-spinningandhand-tillingagriculturewhichgave
themself-supportingpower.Englishinterferencehavingplaced
thespinnerinLancashireandtheweaverinengal,orsweep-
ing away both Hindoo spinner and weaver, dissolved these
small semi-barbarian, semi-civilized communities, by blowing
218 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
up their economical basis, and thus produced the greatest,
andto speakthetruth,theonlysocial revolutioneverheardof
inAsia.
Now, sickening as it must beto human feeling to witness
thosemyriadsofindustriouspatriarchalandinoffensivesocial
organizations disorganized and dissolved into their units,
thrownintoaseaofwoes,andtheirindividualmemberslosing
atthesame time their ancient form ofcivilization, and their
hereditarymeansofsubsistence,wemustnotforgetthatthese
idyllic village communities, inoffensive though they may
appear, hadalways beenthesolid foundation ofOrientaldes-
potism,thattheyrestrainedthehumanmindwithinthesmallest
possiblecompass,makingittheunresistingtoolofsuperstition,
enslaving itbeneath traditional rules, depriving itofallgran-
deurandhistoricalenergies.We mustnotforgetthebarbarian
egotismwhich,concentratingonsomemiserablepatchofland,
hadquietlywitnessedtheruinofempires,theperpetrationof
unspeakablecruelties,themassacreofthepopulationoflarge
towns,with no otherconsiderationbestoweduponthemthan
onnaturalevents,itselfthehelplesspreyofanyaggressorwho
deigned tonotice itatall.Wemustnotforgetthatthisundig-
ni6ed,stagnatory,andvegetative life,thatthis passive sortof
existenceevokedonthe otherpart,incontradistinction,wild,
aimless,unboundedforcesofdestructionandrenderedmurder
itself a religious rite in Hindostan. We must not forget that
these little communities were contaminated by distinctions of
caste and by slavery, that they subi ugated man to external
circumstancesinsteadofelevatingmanthesovereignofcircum-
stances, that they transformed a self-developing social state
intoneverchanging natural destiny, andthusbroughtabouta
brutalizingworshipofnature,exhibitingitsdegradationinthe
factthatman, the sovereign ofnature, fell down onhisknees
inadorationofKanuman,themonkey,andSabbala,thecow.
England,itistrue,incausingasocialrevolutioninHindos-
tan,wasactuatedonlybythevilestinterests,andwasstupidin
hermannerofenforcingthem.utthatisnotthequestion.The
questionis,canmankindful6l itsdestinywithoutafundamen-
talrevolutioninthe social stateofAsia?lfnot,whatevermay
THE FUTURE RES ULTS OF BRI TI S H RULE I N I NDI A 219
havebeenthecrimesofEnglandshewastheunconscioustool
ofhistoryinbringingaboutthatrevolution.
Then, whatever bitternessthe spectacle ofthe crumblingof
anancientworldmayhaveforourpersonalfeelings,wehave
theright,inpointofhistory,toexclaimwithCoethe:
SoUte diese Qual uns qualen
Da sie unsre Lust vermehrt,
Hat nicht myriaden Seelen
Timur's Herrschaft aufgezehrt?1
2
6
The Future Results of British Rule in India
PublishedAugust, : s ,
'. . . ] How came itthat English supremacy was established in
lndia?TheparamountpoweroftheCreatMogulwasbroken
bytheMogulViceroys.ThepoweroftheViceroyswasbroken
bytheMahrattas.ThepoweroftheMahrattas'wasbrokenby
theAfghans,andwhileallwerestrugglingagainstall,theriton
rushed in andwas enabledto subdue them all.Acountry not
onlydividedbetweenMahommedanandHindoo,butbetween
tribeandtribe, betweencasteandcaste;asocietywhoseframe-
work was based on a sort of equilibrium, resulting from a
general repulsionand constitutionalexclusivenessbetweenall
itsmembers. Suchacountryandsuchasociety,weretheynot
the predestined prey ofconquest? lfwe knew nothing ofthe
past history of Hindostan, would there not be the one great
and incontestable fact,thatevenat thismoment lndia isheld
inEnglishthraldom byanlndianarmymaintainedatthecost
oflndia? lndia, then, could not escape the fateofbeing con-
quered,andthewholeofherpasthistory,ifitbeanything,isthe
historyofthe successive conquests she has undergone. lndian
societyhasnohistoryatall, at leastnoknownhistory.What
wecallitshistory,isbutthehistoryofthesuccessiveintruders
who founded their empires on the passive basis ofthat unre-
sistingandunchanging society.Thequestion,therefore, isnot
220 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
whethertheEnglishhad arighttoconquerlndia, butwhether
we aretopreferlndia conquered bythe Turk, bythe Persian,
bytheRussian,tolndiaconqueredbytheriton.
Englandhastoful6lladoublemissioninlndia:onedestruc-
tive, the other regeneratingthe annihilation of old Asiatic
society, and the laying the material foundations ofWestern
societyinAsia.
Arabs,Turks,Tartars,Moguls,whohadsuccessivelyoverrun
lndia, soon became Hindooized, the barbarian conquerors
being, by aneternal law ofhistory, conquered themselves by
the superiorcivilizationoftheirsubiects. Theritishwerethe
6rstconquerorssuperior,andtherefore,inaccessibletoHindoo
civilization. Theydestroyed itbybreakingupthenativecom-
munities,byuprootingthenativeindustry,andbylevellingall
thatwasgreat andelevatedinthenativesociety.Thehistoric
pages of their rule in lndia report hardly anything beyond
that destruction. The work of regeneration hardly transpires
throughaheapofruins.Neverthelessithasbegun.
The political unity of lndia, more consolidated, and ex-
tendingfartherthan itever did underthe Creat Moguls, was
the6rst condition ofits regeneration. Thatunity, imposed by
the ritish sword, will now be strengthened and perpetuated
by the electric telegraph. The native army, organized and
trained by the ritish drill-sergeant, was the sine qua non of
lndianself-emancipation,andoflndiaceasingtobethepreyof
the 6rst foreign intruder. The free press, introduced for the
6rst time into Asiaticsociety,and managedprincipally by the
common offspring ofHindoos and Europeans, is a new and
powerfulagentofreconstruction.TheZemindariandR yotwar
themselves,abominableastheyare, involvetwodistinctforms
ofprivate property in land~the great desideratum ofAsiatic
society.fromthelndiannatives,reluctantlyandsparinglyedu-
catedatCalcutta,underEnglishsuperintendence,afreshclass
isspringingup,endowedwiththerequirementsforgovernment
and imbued with European science. Steam has brought lndia
into regularand rapid communicationwithEurope,hascon-
nected its chief ports with those of the whole south-eastern
ocean,andhasrevindicateditfromtheisolatedpositionwhich
THE FUTURE RES ULTS OF BRI TI SH RULE I N I NDI A 221
wastheprimelawofitsstagnation.Thedayisnotfar distant
when, by a combination of railways and steam-vessels, the
distancebetweenEnglandandlndia,measuredbytime,willbe
shortenedtoeightdays, andwhenthatoncefabulouscountry
willthusbeactuallyannexedtotheWesternworld.
TherulingclassesofCreatritainhavehad,tillnow,butan
accidental, transitory andexceptionalinterest in theprogress
oflndia.Thearistocracywantedtoconquerit,themoneyocracy
to plunder it, andthe millocracyto undersell it. ut nowthe
tablesareturned.Themillocracyhavediscoveredthatthetrans-
formationoflndia intoa reproductivecountryhasbecomeof
vital importancetothem,andthat,tothatend, itisnecessary,
above all, to gift her with means ofirrigation andofinternal
communication. Theyintend now drawing a net ofrailroads
over lndia. And they will do it. The results must be inap-
preciable.
ltisnotoriousthatthe productivepowersoflndiaarepara-
lyzedbytheutterwantofmeansforconveyingandexchanging
itsvariousproduce. Nowhere,morethaninlndia, dowe meet
with social destitutioninthemidstofnatural plenty,forwant
ofthe means of exchange. ltwas proved before a Committee
of the ritish House of Commons, which sat in : a, that
'whengrainwassellingfrom6ltolaquarteratKhandesh, it
wassoldat6alto;olatPoona,wherethepeopleweredyingin
thestreetsoffamine,withoutthepossibilityofgainingsupplies
fromKhandesh,becausetheclay-roadswereimpracticable.
Theintroductionofrailroadsmaybeeasilymadetosubserve
agriculturalpurposesbytheformationoftanks,whereground
is required for embankment, and by the conveyance ofwater
along the different lines. Thus irrigation, the sine qua non of
farming in the East, might be greatly extended, and the fre-
quentlyrecurringlocal fam|nes,arisingfromthewantofwater,
wouldbeaverted.Thegeneralimportance ofrailways, viewed
underthishead,mustbecomeevident,whenwerememberthat
irrigated lands, even in the districts near Chauts, pay three
times as much in taxes, afford ten or twelve times as much
employment, and yield twelve or6fteentimesasmuch pro6t,
asthesameareawithoutirrigation.
222 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Railways will afford the means ofdiminishing the amount
andthecostofthemilitaryestablishments. Col.Warren,Town
MaioroftheFortSt.William,statedbeforeaSelectCommittee
oftheHouseofCommons:
The practicability of receiving intelligence from distant parts of
the country, in as many hours as at present it requires days and
'
even weeks, and of sending instructions, with troops and stores,
in the more brief period, are considerations which cannot be too
highly estimated. Troops could be kept at more distant and
healthier stations than at present, and much loss of life from
sickness would by this means be spared. Stores could not to the
same extent be required at the various depots, and the loss by
decay, and the destruction incidental to the climate, would also
be avoided. The number of troops might be diminished in direct
proportion to their effectiveness.
Weknowthatthemunicipalorganizationandtheeconomical
basis ofthevillagecommunitieshasbeenbrokenup,buttheir
worst feature, the dissolution of society into stereotype and
disconnectedatoms,hassurvivedtheirvitality.Thevillageiso-
lationproducedtheabsenceofroadsinlndia,andtheabsence
ofroadsperpetuatedthevillage isolation. Onthisplanacom-
munityexistedwithagivenscaleoflowconveniences, almost
without intercourse with other villages, without the desires
andeffortsindispensableto socialadvance.Theritishhaving
broken up this self-suf6cient inertia of the villages, railways
will providethenewwantofcommunicationandintercourse.
esides, 'one of the effects of the railway system will be to
bring into every village affected by it such knowledge of the
contrivancesandappliancesofothercountries,andsuchmeans
ofobtainingthem,aswill6rstputthehereditaryandstipendi-
aryvillageartisanship of lndia tofullproofofitscapabilities,
andthensupplyitsdefects '. . . ]
l know that the English millocracy intend to endow lndia
withrailwayswiththe exclusive view ofextracting at dimin-
ished expenses the cotton and other raw materials for their
manufactures. utwhenyouhaveonce introduced machinery
THE FUTURE RES ULTS OF BRI TI SH RULE I N I NDI A 22
3
into the locomotion of a country, which possesses iron and
coals, you areunableto withhold itfromitsfabrication. You
cannot maintain a net of railways over an immense country
withoutintroducingall those industrialprocessesnecessaryto
meetthe immediate and currentwants ofrailwaylocomotion,
andoutofwhichtheremustgrowtheapplicationofmachinery
tothose branchesofindustrynotimmediatelyconnectedwith
railways. Therailway-system will therefore become, in lndia,
trulytheforerunnerofmodernindustry.Thisisthemorecertain
astheHindoosareallowedbyritishauthoritiesthemselvesto
possess particular aptitude for accommodating themselves to
entirely new labor, and acquiring the requisite knowledge of
machinery.Ampleproofofthisfactisaffordedbythecapacities
and expertness ofthe native engineers inthe Calcutta mint,
wheretheyhavebeenforyearsemployedinworkingthesteam
machinery,bythenativesattachedtotheseveralsteamengines
in the urdwan coal districts, and by other instances. Mr.
Campbell'`himself,greatlyinfluencedasheisbythepreiudices
oftheEastlndiaCompany,isobligedto avow'thatthegreat
massofthelndianpeoplepossessesagreatindustrial energ, is
wellnttedto accumulatecapital, andremarkable for a math-
ematical clearness of head, and talent for 6gures and exact
sciences. 'Theirintellects,he says,'areexcellent.
Modern industry, resulting from the railway system, will
dissolvethehereditary divisionsoflabor, uponwhichrestthe
lndian castes, those decisive impediments to lndian progress
andlndianpower.
AlltheEnglish bourgeoisie maybeforcedtodowillneither
emancipate nor materially mend the social condition of the
massofthepeople, dependingnotonlyonthedevelopmentof
the productive powers, but on their appropriation by the
people. ut what they will not fail to do is to lay down the
material premises for both. Has the bourgeoisie ever done
more? Has it ever effected a progress without dragging indi-
vidualsandpeoplethroughbloodanddirt,throughmiseryand
degradation?
The lndians will notreapthe fruits ofthe new elements of
society scattered among them by the ritish bourgeoisie, till
22
4
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
in Creat ritain itselfthe now ruling classes shall have been
supplanted by the industrial proletariat, or till the Hindoos
themselves shall have grown strong enough to throwoffthe
Englishyokealtogether.At all events, wemaysafelyexpectto
see, at a more orless remote period, the regeneration of that
greatand interesting country, whose gentlenativesare, to use
theexpressionofPrince Soltykov,' even in themostinferior
classes, "plus fns et plus adroits que les Italiens, " whosesub-
mission even is counterbalanced by a certain calm nobility,
who, notwithstanding their natural langor, have astonished
theritishof6cersbytheirbravery,whosecountryhasbeenthe
source of our languages, our religions, and who represent
thetypeofthe ancientCermanin the1at, andthetype ofthe
ancientCreekintherahmin. ' `
lcannotpartwiththesubiectoflndiawithoutsomeconclud-
ingremarks.
Theprofoundhypocrisyandinherentbarbarismofbourgeois
civilizationliesunveiledbeforeoureyes,tuningfromitshome,
whereit assumesrespectable forms, to the colonies, where it
goes naked. They are the defenders ofproperty, butdid any
revolutionary party ever originate agrarian revolutions like
those in engal, inMadras, andinombay? Did theynot,in
lndia,toborrowanexpressionofthatgreatrobber,LordClive
himself,resorttoatrociousextortion,whensimplecorruption
couldnotkeeppacewiththeir rapacity? Whiletheypratedin
Europeabout theinviolablesanctityofthe national debt, did
they not con6scate in lndia the dividends ofthe raiahs, who
hadinvestedtheirprivatesavingsintheCompany'sownfunds?
Whiletheycombattedthe Frenchrevolutionunderthepretext
of defending 'our holy religion, did they not forbid, at the
sametime,Christianitytobepropagatedinlndia,anddidthey
not, in order to make money outofthepilgrimsstreamingU
the temples of Orissa and engal, take up the trade in the
murder and prostitution perpetrated in the temple of1ugger-
naut? These are the men of 'Property, Order, Family, and
Religion.
The devastating effects of English industry, when contem-
plated with regard toIndia, a countryas vast asEurope, and
THE REVOLT I N THE I NDI AN ARMY
225
containing:somillionsofacres,arepalpableandconfounding.
utwemustnotforgetthattheyareonlytheorganicresultsof
thewholesystem ofproductionasitisnowconstituted. That
production rests onthe supreme ruleofcapital. Thecentraliz-
ation of capital is essential to the existence of capital as an
independentpower.Thedestructiveinuenceofthatcentraliz-
ation upon the markets of the world does but reveal, in the
mostgiganticdimensions,theinherentorganiclawsofpolitical
economynowatwork ineverycivilizedtown. Thebourgeois
period ofhistory has to create the material basis ofthe new
worldon the one hand universal intercourse founded upon
the mutual dependency of mankind, and the means of that
intercourse: on the other hand the development of the pro-
ductive powers of man and the transformation of material
production into a scienti6c domination of natural agencies.
ourgeois industry and commerce create these material con-
ditionsofanewworldinthesamewayasgeologicalrevolutions
have created the surface of the earth. When a great social
revolution shall have mastered the results of the bourgeois
epoch, the market of the world and the modern powers of
production, andsubi ectedthemtothecommoncontrolofthe
mostadvancedpeoples,thenonlywillhumanprogressceaseto
resemble that hideous, pagan idol, who would not drink the
nectarbutfromtheskullsoftheslain.
The Revolt in the Indian Army
Published1uly : s, : s;
The Roman Divide et imperal3l was the great rule by which
Creatritain,foraboutonehundredand6ftyyears,contrived
toretainthetenureofherlndianempire.Theantagonismofthe
variousraces,tribes,castes,creedsandsovereignties,theaggre-
gate ofwhich forms the geographical unity ofwhat is called
lndia,continuedtobethevitalprincipleofritishsupremacy.
lnlatertimes,however,theconditionsofthatsupremacyhave
undergone a change. With the conquest of Scinde and the
226 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 1U^1
Puniaub,theAnglo-lndianempirehadnotonlyreacheditsnatu-
ral limits, butithadtrampledoutthelastvestigesofindepen-
dentlndian States.Allwarlikenativetribesweresubdued, all
seriousinternalconflictswereatanend,andthelateincorpor-
ationofOude'`provedsatisfactorilythattheremnantsofthe
so-called independent lndianprincipalities exist on sufferance
only. Hence a greatchange in the position ofthe East lndian
Company.ltnolongerattackedonepartoflndia bythehelp
of another part, but found itself placed at the head, and the
wholeoflndiaatitsfeet.Nolongerconquering,ithadbecome
the conqueror.The armies at its dispositionnolongerhadto
extend its dominion, but only to maintain it. From soldiers
theywereconvertedintopolicemen;zoo,ooo,ooonativesbeing
curbedbyanativearmyofzoo,ooomen,of6ceredbyEnglish-
men,andthatnativearmy, initsturn,being keptincheck by
an English army numbering ao,ooo only. On 6rst view, it is
evident that the allegiance of the lndian people rests on the
6delity ofthe native army, in creating which the ritish rule
simultaneously organizedthe 6rst general center ofresistance
whichthe lndian people was everpossessed of. How far that
native army mayberelied uponis clearly shown by its recent
mutinies, breaking out as soon as the war with Persia had
almost denuded the Presidency of engal of its European
soldiers. efore this there had been mutinies in the lndian
army, butthepresentrevoltisdistinguished by characteristic
andfatalfeatures.ltisthe6rsttimethatsepoyregimentshave
murdered their European of6cers; that Mussulmans and
Hindoos, renouncingtheirmutualantipathies,havecombined
against their common masters; that 'disturbances beginning
withtheHindoos,haveactuallyendedinplacingonthethrone
of Delhi a MohammedanEmperor; thatthe mutiny has not
been con6ned to a few localities; and lastly,that the revolt in
theAnglo-lndianarmyhascoincidedwithageneraldisaffection
exhibited against English supremacy on the part ofthe great
Asiatic nations, the revolt of the engal army being, beyond
doubt, intimately connected with the Persian and Chinese
wars. '``
Theallegedcauseofthedissatisfactionwhichbegantospread
THE REVOLT IN THE I NDI AN ARMY
22
7
fourmonths agointheengal armywasthe apprehension on
the part of the natives lest the Covernment should interfere
withtheirreligion. Theservingoutofcartridges,the paper of
which was saidto have been greasedwiththe fat of bullocks
and pigs, andthecompulsory bitingofwhichwas, therefore,
consideredby the natives as an infringementoftheirreligious
prescriptions, gave the signal for local disturbances. On the
zzndof1anuaryanincendiary6rebrokeoutincantonmentsa
shortdistancefromCalcutta.OnthezsthofFebruarythe: oth
native regimentmutiniedaterhampore the men obi ectingto
thecartridges served outto them. Onthe , : stofMarchthat
regimentwas disbanded, at the endofMarchthe ,athsepoy
regiment, stationed at arrackpore, allowed one ofitsmento
advancewithaloadedmusketupontheparade-groundinfront
oftheline, and, afterhavingcalledhiscomradestomutiny,he
waspermittedtoattackandwoundtheAdi utantandSergeant-
Maior ofhisregiment. Duringthe hand-to-handconflict, that
ensued, hundreds ofsepoys looked passively on, while others
participatedinthe struggle, andattacked the of6cerswith the
buttendsoftheirmuskets. Subsequentlythatregimentwasalso
disbanded. The month ofApril was signalized by incendiary
hresinseveralcantonmentsofthe engalarmyat Allahabad,
Agra,Umballah,byamutinyofthe,dregimentoflightcavalry
at Meerut, and by similar appearances ofdisaffection in the
Madras and ombay armies. At the beginning of May an
emeute'` was preparing at Lucknow, the capital of Oude,
whichwas, however, prevented bythepromptitude ofSir H.
Lawrence. On the oth of May the mutineers ofthe , dlight
cavalry of Meerut were marched off to i ail, to undergo the
variousterms ofimprisonmentto whichtheyweresentenced.
On the evening ofthe following day the troopers of the , d
cavalry,together with thetwo native regiments,the : :thand
zoth, assembled upon the parade-ground, killed the of6cers
endeavoring to pacify them, set 6re to the cantonments, and
slew all the Englishmen they were able to lay hands on.
Although the ritish part ofthe brigade mustered a regiment
of infantry, another of cavalry, and an overwhelming force
of horse and foot artillery, they were not ableto move until
228 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
nightfall.Havinginf|ictedbutlittleharmonthemutineers,they
al|owed them to betake themselves to the open 6eld and to
throw themse|ves into Delhi, some forty miles distant from
Meerut. There they were ioined by the native garrison, con-
sistingofthe, th, sath and;athregimentsofinfantry, anda
companyofnative artillery. Theritishof6cerswereattacked,
al| Englishmen withinreach oftherebelswere murdered, and
theheirofthelateMogul'`ofDelhiproclaimedKingoflndia.
Ofthetroops sentto the rescue ofMeerut,whereorderhad
beenre-established,sixcompaniesofnativesappersandminers,
whoarrivedonthe: sthofMay,murderedtheircommanding
of6cer,MaiorFrazer, andmadeatoncefortheopencountry,
pursued by troops of horse artil|ery and several of the 6th
dragoonguards.Fifty orsixtyofthe mutineerswere shot, |t
the rest contrived to escape to Delhi. At Ferozepore, in the
Puni aub,thes;thandasthnativeinfantryregimentsmutinied,
butwereputdownbyforce.Privatelettersfrom Lahorestate
the whole ofthe native troops to beinan undisguisedstate of
mutiny. Onthe : oth ofMay, unsuccessful effortswere made
by the sepoys stationed at Ca|cutta to get possession ofFort
St.William.Threeregimentsarrived fromushireatombay
wereatoncedispatchedtoCalcutta.
ln reviewing these events, one is startled by the conduct
of the ritish commander at Meerut his late appearance on
the 6eld of battle being still less incomprehensible than the
weak mannerin which hepursued themutineers. As Delhi is
situated on the right and Meerut on the left bank of the
1umnathe two banks being ioined at De|hi by one bridge
onlynothingcou|dhavebeeneasierthantocutofftheretreat
ofthefugitives.
Meanwhile,martia|lawhasbeenproclaimedina||thedisaf-
fecteddistricts;forces,consistingofnativesmainly,areconcen-
tratingagainstDe|hifromthenorth,theeastandthesouth;the
neighboringprincesaresaid tohavepronounced for the Eng-
lish; letters have been sent to Ceylon to stop Lord Elgin and
Cen.Ashburnham'sforces, ontheirwaytoChina;and6nal|y,
:a,ooo ritish troopswereto be dispatchedfromEnglandto
lndia in about a fortnight. Whatever obstacles the climate of
THE I NDI AN QUESTI ON
229
lndia at the present season, and the tota| want of means of
transportation, may oppose to the movements of the ritish
forces, the rebelsatDe|hiareverylike|yto succumbwithout
any pro|ongedresistance.Yeteventhen,itisonlytheprologue
ofamostterribletragedythatwil|haveto beenacted.
The Indian Question
PublishedAugust:a, : s;
The three hours' speech delivered last night i n 'The Dead
House,' `'byMr.Disraeli,'`willgainratherthanlosebybeing
readinstead ofbeinglistenedto. For sometime,Mr. Disraeli
affectsanawful solemnityofspeech,anelaborateslownessof
utteranceandapassion|essmethod offormality,which,how-
ever consistent they may be with his peculiar notions of the
dignitybecomingaMinisterinexpectance,arereallydistressing
to his tortured audience. Once he succeeded in giving even
commonplaces the pointed appearance of epigrams. Now he
contrives to bury evenepigrams intheconventiona| dullness
ofrespectabi|ity. An orator who, like Mr. Disraeli, excels in
handlingthedaggerratherthaninwieldingthesword,should
havebeenthelasttoforgetVoltaire`swarning,that'Tousles
b
1 ,,
138
genressont onsexcepte egenreennuyeux.
eside these technical pecularities which characterize Mr.
Disraeli'spresentmannerofeloquence,he,sincePalmerston`s
accessiontopower,hastakengoodcaretodeprivehispar|ia-
mentaryexhibitionsofeverypossibleinterestofactuality. His
speechesarenotintendedtocarryhismotions,buthismotions
areintendedtoprepareforhisspeeches.Theymightbecalled
self-denyingmotions, sincetheyareso constructed as neither
toharmtheadversary,ifcarried,nortodamagetheproposer,
iflost. They mean, infact,to beneither carriednor lost, but
simplyto bedropped.They belongneitherto the acidsnorto
thealkalis,butarebornneutrals.Thespeechisnotthevehicle
ofaction, butthe hypocrisyofactionaffordsthe opportunity
foraspeech. Such,indeed,maybetheclassicaland6nalform
230 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
ofparliamentary eloquence; but then, at all events, the nnal
form ofparliamentary eloquence mustnot demurto sharing
the fate ofall nnal forms ofparliamentarismthat of being
ranged under the category of nuisances. Action, as Aristotle
said,istherulinglawofthedrama. Soitisofpoliticaloratory.
Mr. Disraeli`sspeechonthe lndianrevoltmightbepublished
inthetractsoftheSocietyforthePropagationofUsefulKnow-
ledge, or it might be delivered to a mechanics` institution, or
tenderedasaprizeessaytotheAcademyoferlin.Thiscurious
impartialityofhisspeechastotheplace where, and the time
when,andthe occasiononwhichitwas delivered,goesfarto
provethatitnttedneitherplace, time,noroccasion.Achapter
onthedeclineoftheRomanEmpirewhichmightreadexceed-
inglywellinMontesquieuorCibbonwouldproveanenormous
blunderifputinthemouthofaRomanSenator,whosepeculiar
business itwas to stopthatverydecline. ltistruethatinour
modernparliaments,apartlackingneitherdignitynorinterest
might be imagined of an independent orator who, while
despairing of influencingthe actual course of events, should
contenthimselftoassumeapositionofironicalneutrality.Such
a part was more or less successfully played by the late M.
CarnierPagesnotthe CarnierPages ofProvisional Covern-
ment memory in Louis Philippe`s Chamber of Deputies; but
Mr. Disraeli,theavowedleaderofanobsoletefaction,would
consider even success in this line as a supreme failure. The
revolt of the lndian army afforded certainly a magnincent
opportunityfororatoricaldisplay. ut, apartfromhisdreary
manneroftreatingthesubi ect,whatwasthegistofthemotion
whichhemadethepretextforhisspeech? ltwasnomotionat
all. He feigned to be anxious for becoming acquainted with
twoofncialpapers, theoneofwhich hewas notquitesureto
exist, andthe other ofwhich he was surenot immediately to
bear on the subiect in question. Consequently his speech and
hismotionlackedanypointofcontactsavethis,thatthemotion
heraldeda speechwithoutanobiect, andthatthe obiectcon-
fesseditselfnotwortha speech. Still, asthehighlyelaborated
opinion of the most distinguished out-of-ofnce statesman of
England, Mr. Disraeli's speechought to attract the attention
THE I NDIAN QUES TI ON
231
of foreign countries. l shall content myselfwith giving in his
ipsissima verba139 ashortanalysisofhis'considerationsonthe
declineoftheAnglo-lndianEmpire.
'Doesthedisturbanceinlndiaindicateamilitarymutiny,or
is it a nationalrevolt? lsthe conduct ofthe troopsthe conse-
quenceofasuddenimpulse,or isittheresultofanorganized
conspiracy?UponthesepointsMr.Disraeliassertsthewhole
question to hinge. Until the last ten years, he afnrmed, the
ritish empire in lndia was founded on the old principle of
divide et imp erabut that principle was put into action by
respectingthe different nationalities ofwhich lndia consisted,
by avoiding to tamper with their religion, and by protecting
theirlandedproperty.TheSepoyarmyservedasasafety-valve
to absorbtheturbulentspiritsofthecountry.utoflateyears
anewprinciplehasbeenadoptedinthegovernmentoflndia
theprincipleofdestroying nationality.Theprinciplehasbeen
realized by the forcible destruction ofnativeprinces,thedis-
turbanceofthesettlementofproperty,andthetamperingwith
the religion ofthe people. ln : athe nnancial difnculties of
theEastlndiaCompanyhadreachedthatpointthatitbecame
necessaryto augmentits revenues onewayorthe other.Then
aminuteinCouncilwaspublished,inwhichwaslaiddownthe
principle,almostwithoutdisguise,thattheonlymodebywhich
an increased revenue could be obtained was by enlarging the
ritishterritories attheexpenseofthenativeprinces. Accord-
ingly, on the death ofthe Raiahof Sattara, his adoptive hei
wasnotacknowledgedbytheEastlndia Company,buttheRaj
absorbedinitsowndominions.Fromthatmomentthesystem
ofannexationwas acted upon whenever a native prince died
without natural heirs. The principle of adoptionthe very
corner-stoneoflndiansocietywassystematicallysetasideby
the Covernment. Thus were forcibly annexed to the ritish
EmpiretheRaisofmorethanadozenindependentprincesfrom
t a~sa. ln t satbe Rai oferar, which comprised o,ooo
square miles of land, a population from a,ooo,ooo to
s,ooo,ooo, and enormous treasures, was forcibly seized. Mr.
DisraeliendsthelistofforcibleannexationswithOude,which
broughttheEast lndia Covernmentin collisionnotonlywith
232 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
the Hindoos, but also with the Mohammedans. Mr. Disraeli
thengoesonshowinghowthesettlementofpropertyinlndia
wasdisturbedbythenewsystemofgovernmentduringthelast
ten years. 'The principleofthe lawofadoption,hesays, 'is
not the prerogative of princes and principalities in lndia,

it
applies toeveryman in Hindostanwhohas landed r
andwhoprofessestheHindooreligion.

l quote apassage:
The great feudatory, or j aguedar, who holds his lands by public
service to his lord; and the enamdar, who holds his land free of
all land-tax, who corresponds, if not precisely, in a popular sense,
at least with our freeholder-both of these classes-classes most
numerous in India-always, on the failure of their natural heirs
fnd in this principle the means of obtaining successors to thei
estates. These classes were all touched by the annexation of
Sattara, they were touched by the annexation of the territories of
the ten inferior but independent princes to whom I have already
alluded, and they were more than touched, they were terrifed to
the last degree, when the annexation of the Raj of Berar took
place. What man was safe? What feudatory, what freeholder who
had not a child of his own loins was safe throughout India?
[Hear, hear]. These were not idle fears; they were extensively
acted upon and reduced to practice. The resumption of j agheers
and of inams commenced for the frst time in India. There have
been, no doubt, impolitic moments when attempts have been
made to inquire into titles but no one had ever dreamt of abol
ishing the law of adoption; therefore no authority, no Govern
ment had ever been in a position to resume jagheers and inams
the holders of which had left no natural heirs. Here was a new
source of revenue; but while all these things were acting upon
the minds of these classes of Hindoos, the Government took
another step to disturb the settlement of property, to which I
must now call the attention of the House. The House is aware,
no doubt, from reading the evidence taken before the Committee
of 1 8 5 3
,
that there are great portions of the land of India which
are exempt from the land-tax. Being free from land-tax in India
is far more than equivalent to freedom from the land-tax in this
THE I NDI AN QUESTI ON
233
country, for, speaking generally and popularly, the land-tax in
India is the whole taxation of the State.
The origin of these grants is diffcult to penetrate, but they are
undoubtedly of great antiquity. They are of different kinds.
Beside the private freeholds, which are very extensive, there are
large grants of land free from the land-tax with which mosques
and temples have been endowed.
Onthepretextoffraudulentclaimsofexemption,theritish
GovernorGeneraI"tookuponhimselftoexaminethetitlesof
thelndian landed estates. Underthenew system, established
in 1 848,
That plan of investigating titles was at once embraced, as a proof
of a powerful Government, vigorous Executive, and most fruitful
source of public revenue. Therefore commissions were issued to
inquire into titles to landed estates in the Presidency of Bengal
and adjoining country. They were also issued in the Presidency
of Bombay, and surveys were ordered to be made in the newly
settled provinces, in order that these commissions might be con
ducted, when the surveys were completed, with due effciency.
Now there is no doubt that, during the last nine years, the action
of these commissions of Inquiry into the freehold property of
landed estates in India has been going on at an enormous rate,
and immense results have been obtained.
Mr. Disraeli computes thattheresumption ofestates from
their proprietorsisnot less than soo,oooayearinthe Presi-
dency of engal; ,;o,ooo in the Presidency of ombay;
zoo,ooointhePuniaub,&c.Notcontentwiththisonemethod
ofseizinguponthepropertyofthenatives,theritishGovern-
mentdiscontinuedthe pensionstothenativegrandees,to pay
which it was bound by treaty. 'This, says Mr. Disraeli, 'is
con6scationbyanewmeans,butuponamostextensive,start-
lingandshockingscale.
Mr. Disraelithen treats thetamperingwiththe religion of
the natives, a point upon whichweneed not dwell. From all
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
hispremiseshearrivesattheconclusionthatthepresentlndian
disturbanceis nota militarymutiny, buta national revolt, of
whichtheSepoysaretheactinginstrumentsonly.Heendshis
harangue byadvisingtheCovernmenttoturntheirattention
to the internal improvement of lndia, instead of pursuing its
presentcourseofaggression.
The Indian Revolt
PublishedSeptember: 6, t s;
The outrages committed by the revolted Sepoys i nlndia are
indeedappalling,hideous, ineffablesuchasoneisprepared
tomeetonlyinwars ofinsurrection, ofnationalities,ofraces,
and above all of religion; in one word, such as respectable
EnglandusedtoapplaudwhenperpetratedbytheVendeans''
onthe'lues,bytheSpanishguerrillasonthein6delFrench-
men, by Servians on their Cerman and Hungarian neighbors,
byCroatsonVienneserebels,byCavaignac`sCardeMobile'
oronaparte'sDecembristsonthesonsanddaughtersofprolet-
arian France. HoweverinfamoustheconductoftheSepoys,it
is only the reex, in a concentrated form, of England`s own
conductinlndia, notonlyduringtheepochofthefoundation
ofherEastern Empire, butevenduringthe lasttenyears of a
long-settledrule.Tocharacterizethatrule,itsuf6cestosaythat
torture formed an organic institution of its 6nancial policy.
Thereissomethinginhumanhistorylikeretribution;anditis
aruleofhistoricalretributionthatitsinstrumentbeforgednot
bytheoffended,butbytheoffenderhimself.
The6rstblowdealttotheFrenchmonarchyproceededfrom
thenobility,notfromthepeasants.Thelndianrevoltdoesnot
commence with the Ryots, tortured, dishonored and stripped
naked by the ritish, but with the Sepoys, clad, fed, petted,
fatted and pampered by them. To 6nd parallelsto the Sepoy
atrocities, we need not, as some London papers pretend, fall
backonthemiddleages,norevenwanderbeyondthehistoryof
contemporaryEngland.Allwewantistostudythe6rstChinese
THE I NDIAN REVOLT 2
35
war'` anevent,soto say,ofyesterday.The English soldiery
thecommitted abominations for the mere fun of it; their
passions being neither sancti6ed by re|igi
'
us fanaticism

or
exacerbatedby hatred against an overbeanng andconquenng
race, norprovoked bythe sternresistanceofa heroic ene

y.
Theviolationsofwomen,thespittingsofchildren,theroastmgs
ofwholevillages,werethenmerewantonsports,notrecorded
byMandarins, butbyritishof6cersthemselves.
Evenatthe presentcatastrophe itwouldbe anunmitigated
mistake to suppose that all the cruelty is on the side of the
Sepoys, and allthemilk ofhumankindness flows ontheside
oftheEnglish.Thelettersoftheritishof6cersareredolentof
malignity.Anof6cerwritingfromPeshawurgivesadescripton
ofthedisarmingofthe othirregularcavalryfornotchargmg
the s sth native infantry when ordered to do so.

He exults i

thefactthattheywerenotonlydisarmed,butstnppedoftherr
coatsand boots,andafterhavingreceived t zd.perman,were
marched downtothe river side, andthere embarkedin boats
andsentdownthelndus,wherethewriterisdelightedtoexpect
every mother`ssonwillhaveachanceofbeingd

rown

dinthe
rapids. Anotherwriter informs us that, some

nhabrtant

of
Peshawurhavingcausedanightalarmbyexplodmglittlemmes
ofgunpowderinhonorofawedding|a nationalcustom , the
persons concerned were tied up next morning, and 'received
suchaoggingastheywillnoteasilyforget.
NewsarrivedfromPindeethatthreenativechiefswereplot-
ting. Sir1ohnLawrencerepliedbyamessageoreringaspyto
attend to the meeting. On the spy`s report, Srr 1ohn sent a
second message, 'Hang them. The chiefs were hanged. An
of6cer in the civilservice, from Allahabad, writes: 'We have
power oflife and death in our hands, andwe assure you we
sparenot.
Another from the same place: 'Not a day passes but we
stringupfomtento 6fteenofthem|non-comatants .
Oneexultingof6cerwrites:'Holmesi shangmgthembythe
score, likea 'brick. ' ' '
Another,inallusiontothesummaryhangingofalargebody
ofthenatives:'Thenourfuncommenced.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
A third: 'We hold court-martials on horseback, and every
niggerwemeetwithweeitherstringuporshoot.
Fromenaresweare informed thatthirtyZemindarswere
hanged onthemeresuspicionofsympathizingwiththeir own
countrymen,andwholevillageswereburneddownonthesame
plea. An ofncer from enares, whose letter isprintedin The
London Times, says:'TheEuropeantroopshavebecomenends
whenopposedtonatives.
Andthen itshouldnotbeforgottenthat, whilethecruelties
oftheEnglishare relatedasactsofmartialvigor,toldsimply,
rapidly,withoutdwellingondisgustingdetails,theoutragesof
thenatives,shockingastheyare,arestilldeliberatelyexagger-
ated.Forinstance,thecircumstantialaccountnrstappearingin
The Times, andthengoingtheroundofthe Londonpress,of
theatrocitiesperpetratedatDelhiandMeerut,fromwhomdid
it proceed? From a cowardly parson residing at angalore,
Mysore, more thana thousandmiles, asthe birdlies,distant
fromthe scene ofaction. Actual accounts ofDelhi evincethe
imagination of an English parson to be capable of breeding
greaterhorrorsthaneventhewildfancyofaHindoomutineer.
The cutting of noses, breasts, &c., in one word, the horrid
mutilationscommittedbytheSepoys,areofcoursemorerevolt-
ingto European feeling than thethrowing ofred-hot shell on
Canton dwellings by a Secretary of the Manchester Peace
Society,ortheroastingofArabspentupinacavebyaFrench
Marshal, or the flaying aliveofritish soldiers by the cat-o'-
nine-tailsunderdrum-headcourt-martial,or anyother ofthe
philanthropicalappliancesusedinritishpenitentiarycolonies.
Cruelty,likeeveryotherthing,hasitsfashion,changingaccord-
ing to timeand place. Caesar,the accomplished scholar, can-
didlynarrateshowheorderedmanythousand Callicwarriors
to have their right hands cut off. Napoleonwould have been
ashamed to do this. Hepreferred dispatching his own French
regiments, suspected of republicanism, to St. Domingo, there
to dieoftheblacksandtheplague.
Theinfamousmutilationscommitted bytheSepoysremind
oneofthepracticesoftheChristianyzantineEmpire,orthe
prescriptions of Emperor Charles V.`s criminal law, or the
[ I NVESTI GATI ON OF TORTURES I N I NDI A)
237
Englishpunishmentsforhightreason,asstillrecordedby1uge
lackstone.WithHindoos,whomtheirreligionhasmadev:rt-
uosi in the artofself-torturing, thesetorturesinflicted on the
enemiesoftheirrace andcreedappearquitenatural, and must
appear still more so to the English, who, only some vears
since stillusedtodrawrevenuesfromthe1uggernautfestrvals,
prot-ctingandassistingthebloodyritesofareligionofcruelty.
Thefranticroarsofthe'bloodyoldTimes," asCobbettused
to call it~itsplayingthepartofa furiouscharacterinoneof
Mozart's operas, who indulges in most melodious srains in
the idea of 6rst hanging his enemy, then roastmg hrm, then
quartering him,thenspittinghim, andthenflayinghimalive

itstearingthepassionofrevengetotattersandtoragsallthrs
wouldappearbutsillyifunderthepathosoftragedytherewere
not distinctly perceptible the tricks of comedy. The London
Times overdoesitspart,notonlyfrompanic.ltsuppliescomedy
withasubiectevenmissedbyMoliere,theTartuffeofRevenge.
Whatitsimplywantsistowriteupthefundsandtoscreenthe
Covernment.As Delhi hasnot,likethewallsof1ericho,fallen
beforemere puffsofwind,1ohn ull is to be steeped in cris
for revenge up to his very ears, to make him forgetthat his
Covernment |s responsible for the mischief hatched and the
colossaldimensions ithasbeenallowedtoassume.
[Investigation of Tortures in India]
PublishedSeptember :;, : s;
Our London correspondent, whose letter with regard to the
lndianrevoltwepublishedyesterday,veryproperlyreferredto
someotheantecedentswhichpreparedthewayforthisviolent
outbreak.Weproposeto-daytodevoteamomenttocontinuing
thatlineofreflections,andtoshowingthattheritishrulersof
lndia are by no means such mild and spotless benefctors of
the lndian people asthey would have the world believe. For
thispurpose,we shallresortto the ofnciallue ooks on the
subiectofEast-lndiantorture,whichwerelaidbeforetheHouse
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
ofCommons during the sessions of t s 6and : s;. The evi-
denceitwillbeseen,isofasortwhichcannotbegainsayed.
We have 6rst the report of the Torture Commission at
Madras, which states its 'belief in the general existence of
tortureforrevenuepurposes.ltdoubtswhether'anythinglike
anequalnumberofpersonsisannuallysubi ectedtoviolenceon
criminalcharges,asforthefaultofnon-paymentofrevenue.
ltdeclares that there was 'onething which hadimpressed
the Commissionevenmorepainfullythantheconvictionthat
torture exists; it is the dif6culty of obtaining redress which
confrontstheiniuredparties.
Thereasonsforthis dif6cultygivenby the Commissioners
are.: . Thedistanceswhichthosewhowishtomakecomplaints
personally to the Collector have to travel, involving expense
and loss oftime inattending upon hisof6ce; z. The fear that
applications by letter 'will be returned with the ordinary
indorsement of a reference to the Tahsildarthe district
policeandrevenueof6certhatis,totheverymanwho,either
in his person or through his petty police subordinates, has
wrongedhim;, . Theinef6cientmeansofprocedureandpunish-
mentprovided bylawforof6cersofCovernment,evenwhen
formally accusedorconvicted ofthese practices.lt seems that
if a charge of this nature were proved before a magistrate,
he could only punish by a 6ne of 6fty rupees, or a month`s
imprisonment. The alternative consisted of handing over the
accused 'to the criminal 1udge to be punished by him, or
committedfortrialbeforetheCourtoftheCircuit.
Thereportaddsthat'theseseemto betediousproceedings,
applicable onlyto one class of offenses, abuse ofauthority
namely,inpolicecharges,andtotallyinadequatetothenecessi-
tiesofthecase.
A police or revenue of6cer, whoisthe sameperson,asthe
revenue iscollectedbythepolice,whenchargedwithextorting
money, is 6rst tried by the Assistant Collector; he then can
appealtotheCollector;thentotheRevenueoard.Thisoard
may refer him to the Covernment or tothe civil courts. 'ln
suchastateofthelaw,nopoverty-strickenryotcouldcontend
against any wealthy revenue of6cer; and we arenotaware of
[ I NVE STI GATI ON OF TORTURES IN I NDI A] 2
39
anycomplaints havingbeenbrought forwardunderthese two
regulations|of: zzand : z bythe people.
Further, thisextorting ofmoneyappliesonlytotakingthe
publicmoney, orforcing a furthercontributionfrom the ryot
fortheof6certo putinto his own pocket. There is, therefore,
nolegal meansofpunishmentwhateverfortheemploymentof
forceincollectingthepublicrevenue.
The report from which these quotations are made applies
onlytothePresidencyofMadras;butLordDalhousiehimself,
writing, in September, : s s, to the Directors, saysthat'he
haslong ceasedtodoubtthattorture inone shape orotheris
practicedbythelowersubordinatesineveryritishprovince.
Theuniversalexistenceoftortureasa6nancialinstitutionof
ritish lndia is thus of6cially admitted, but the admission is
made in such a manner as to shield the ritish Covernment
itself. ln fact, the conclusion arrived at by the Madras com-
missionisthatthepracticeoftortureisentirelythefaultofthe
lower Hindoo of6cials, while the European servants of the
Covernment had always, however unsuccessfully, done their
best to prevent it. ln answer to this assertion, the Madras
NativeAssociationpresented, in1anuary, i s 6, apetitionto
Parliament, complaining of the torture investigation on the
followinggrounds:: . Thattherewasscarcelyanyinvestigation
at all,the Commissionsittingonly intheCityofMadras, and
forbut three months, while it was impossible, except in very
fewcases,forthenativeswho hadcomplaintstomaketoleave
their homes; z. Thatthe Commissioners did notendeavor to
tracetheeviltoitssource;hadtheydoneso,itwouldhavebeen
discoveredtobeintheverysystemofcollectingtherevenue; , .
Thatno inquirywasmadeofthe accusednative of6cialsasto
whatextent theirsuperiorswere acquainted withthepractice.
'The originofthis coercion, saythepetitioners, 'is notwith
thephysical perpetrators ofit, but descends to them fromthe
of6cials immediately their superiors, which latter again are
answerablefortheestimatedamountofthe collection totheir
European superiors, these also beingresponsible on the same
headtothehighestauthorityoftheCovernment.
lndeed,afewextractsfromtheevidenceonwhichtheMadras
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
Report professes to be founded, will sufnce to refute its
assertion that 'no blame is due to Englishmen. Thus, Mr.
D.Kohloff,amerchant,says:'Themodesoftortureprac-
trcedarevanous,andsuitabletothefancyofthetahsildarorhis
subord

ate

, ut whether anyredressisreceived fromhigher


authorrties, rt rs difncultforme to tell, as all complaints are
gen

rally referred to the tahsildars forinvestigationandinfor-


mation.
Among the cases of complaint from natives, we 6nd the
following:
Last year, as our peasanum (principal paddy or rice crops) failed
for want of rain, we were unable to pay as usual. When the
jamabundy
1
4
5
was made, we claimed a remission on account of
the losses, according to the terms of the agreement entered into in
.1 837, by us, when Mr. Eden was our collector. As this remission
was not allowed, we refused to take our puttahs.
1
46 The tahsildar
then commenced to compel us to pay with great severity, from
the month of June to August. I and others were placed in charge
of persons who used to take us in the sun. There we were made
to stoop
.
and stones were put on our backs, and we were kept in
the burmng sand. After 8 o'clock, we were let to go to our rice.
Suc
.
hlike ill treatment was continued during three months, during
whIch we sometimes went to give our petitions to the collector,
who refused to take them. We took these petitions and appealed
to the Sessions Court, who transmitted them to the collector. Still
we got no justice. In the month of September, a notice was served
upon us, and twenty-fve days after, our property was distrained,
and afterward sold. Beside what I have mentioned, our women
were also ill treated; the kittee
1
4
7 was put upon their breasts.
A n

ti

e Christian states in reply to questions put by the


Commissioners: 'Whena European ornative regimentpasses
through,

alltheryotsarepressed to bringinprovisions, &c.,


for nothzng, and should anyofthem askfortheprice ofthe
articles,theyareseverelytortured.
Terefollowsthecaseofarahmin,inwhichhe,withothers
ofhts own village and ofthe neighboringvillages, was called
[ I NVESTI GATI ON OF TORTURES IN I NDI A]
onbytheTahsildarstofurnishplanks,charcoal,nrewood,&c.,
gratis, that he might carry on the Coleroon bridge work; on
refusing, heisseizedbytwelvemenandmaltreatedinvarious
ways.He adds: 'lpresentedacomplainttotheSub-Collector,
Mr.W.Cadell,buthemadenoinquiry,andtoremycomplaint.
As he is desirous ofcompletingcheaply the Coleroon bridge
workattheexpenseofthepoorandofacquiringagoodname
fromtheCovernment,whatevermaybethenatureofthemurder
committedbytheTahsildar, hetakesnocognizanceofit.
Thelightinwhichillegalpractices,carriedtothelastdegree
of extortion and violence, were looked upon by the highest
authority,isbestshownbythecaseofMr.rereton,theCom-
missionerinchargeoftheLoodhianaDistrictinthePuniaubin
: s s . AccordingtotheReportofthe ChiefCommissionerfor
the Puniaub,itwasprovedthat
in matters under the immediate cognizance or direction of the
Deputy-Commissioner, Mr. Brereton himself, the houses of
wealthy citizens had been causelessly searched; that property
seized on such occasions was detained for lengthened periods;
that many parties were thrown into prison, and lay there for
weeks, without charges being exhibited against them; and that
the laws relating to security for bad character had been applied
with sweeping and indiscriminating severity. That the Deputy
Commissioner had been followed about from district to district
by certain police offcers and informers, whom he employed
wherever he went, and that these men had been the main authors
of mischief.
lnhisminuteonthecase,LordDalhousiesays:
We have irrefragable proof-proof, indeed, undisputed by Mr.
Brereton himself-that that offcer has been guilty of each item
in the heavy catalogue of irregularities and illegalities with which
the chief Commissioner has charged him, and which have
. brought disgrace on one portion of the British administration,
and have subjected a large number of British subjects to gross
injustice, to arbitrary imprisonment and cruel torture.
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
LordDalhousieproposes'to make agreatpublicexample,
and,consequently,isofopinionthat'Mr.reretoncannot,for
the present, be 6tly intrusted with the authority ofa Deputy
Commissioner,butoughttoberemovedfromthatgradetothe
gradeofa6rstclassAssistant.
Theseextractsfromthe lueooksmaybeconcludedwith
thepetition fromthe inhabitantsofT alookin Canara onthe ,
Malabarcoast,who,afterstatingthattheyhadpresentedsev-
eralpetitionstotheCovernmentto no purpose,thuscontrast
theirformerandpresentcondition:
While we were cultivating wet and dry lands, hill tracts, low
tracts and forests, paying the light assessment fxed upon us, and
thereby enjoying tranquillity and happiness under the adminis
tration of "Ranee,
,,
148 Bhadur and Tippoo, the then Circar ser
vants,14
9
levied an additional assessment, but we never paid it.
We were not subjected to privations, oppressions or ill-usages in
collecting the revenue. On the surrender of this country to the
Honorable Company, they devised all sorts of plans to squeeze
out money from us. With this pernicious obj ect in view, they
invented rules and framed regulations, and directed their collec
tors and civil judges to put them in execution. But the then
collectors and their subordinate native offcials paid for some
time due attention to our grievances, and acted in consonance
with our wishes. On the contrary, the present collectors and their
subordinate offcials, desirous of obtaining promotion on any
account whatever, neglect the welfare and interests of the people
in general, tur a deaf ear to our grievances, and subject us to all
sorts of oppressions.
We have here given but a briefand mildly-colored chapter
fromthereal history ofritish rule in lndia. ln view ofsuch
facts,dispassionateandthoughtfulmenmayperhapsbeledto
ask whether a people are noti usti6ed in attempting to expel
theforeignconquerorswhohavesoabusedtheirsubiects.And
iftheEnglishcoulddothesethingsincoldblood,isitsurprising
thattheinsurgentHindoosshouldbeguilty,inthefuryofrevolt
andconflict,ofthecrimesandcrueltiesa|legedagainstthem?
THE APPROACHI NG I NDI AN LOAN
The Approaching Indian Loan
PublishedFebruary9, : s
243
Thebuoyancyi ntheLondonmoneymarket,resultingfromthe
withdrawalofanenormousmassofcapitalfromtheordinary
productive investments, and its consequent transfer to the
security markets, has, in the last fortnight, been somewhat
lessened by the prospects ofanimpending Indian loan to the
amountofeightortenmillionpoundssterling.Thisloan,tobe
raisedinEngland,andtobeauthorizedbyParliamentimmedi-
ately on its assembling in February, is required to meet the
claimsupontheEastlndiaCompanybyitshomecreditors,as
wellastheextraexpenditureforwarmaterials,stores,transport
of troops, &c., necessitated by the lndian revolt. ln August
: s;,the ritish Covernmenthad, before the prorogation of
Parliament, solemnly declared in theHouse ofCommons that
nosuchloanwasintended, the6nancial resourcesoftheCom-
panybeingmorethansuf6cienttomeetthecrisis.Theagreeable
delusionthuspalmedon1ohnullwas,however,soondispelled
whenitoozedoutthatby aproceedingofaveryquestionable
character, the East lndia Company had laid hold on a sum
of about ,, soo,ooo sterling, intrusted to them by different
companies, for the construction oflndian railways; and had,
moreover, secretly borrowed :,ooo,ooo sterling from the
ank ofEngland, and another millionfrom the London1oint
Stockbanks.Thepublicbeingthuspreparedfortheworst,the
Covernment did no longerhesitate to drop themask, and by
semi-of6cial articles in The Times, Globe, and other govern-
mentalorgans,avowthenecessityoftheloan.
Itmaybeaskedwhyaspecialactonthepartofthelegislative
power is required for launching such a loan, and then, why
suchan eventdoescreatethe leastapprehension,since,onthe
contrary,everyventforritishcapital,seekingnowinvainfor
pro6tableinvestment,should,underpresentcircumstances,be
consideredawindfall,andamostsalutarycheckupontherapid
depreciationofcapital.
Itis genera||y known that the commercial existence ofthe
244
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
EastlndiaCompanywasterminatedin: ,a,'`whenitsprinci-
pal remaining source ofcommercial pro6ts,the monopoly of
theChinatrade,wascutoff. Consequently,theholdersofEast
lndiastockhavingderivedtheirdividends,nominally,atleast,
fromthetrade-prontsoftheCompany,anew6nancialarrange-
mentwithregardtothemhadbecomenecessary.Thepayment
of the dividends, till then chargeable upon the commercial
renue of the Company, was transferred to its political rev-
enue. The proprietors of East lndia stocks were to be paid
outoftherevenuesenioyedbytheEastlndia Companyinits
governmental capacity, and, by act ofParliament, thelndian
stock,amountingto6,ooo,ooostetling, bearingtenpercent
interest,wasconvertedintoacapitalnottobeliquidatedexcept
attherateofzooforevery:ooofstock.lnotherwords,the
original Eastlndia stockof6,ooo,ooosterlingwasconverted
into a capital of : z,ooo,ooo sterling, bearing 6ve per cent
interest, and chargeable upon the revenue derived from the
taxesofthelndianpeople.ThedebtoftheEastlndiaCompany
was thus, by a Parliamentary sleight ofhand, changedinto a
debtofthelndianpeople.Thereexists,besides,adebtexceeding
so,ooo,ooo sterling, contracted by the East lndia Company
inlndia,andexclusivelychargeable upontheStaterevenuesof
thatcountry;suchloanscontracted bytheCompanyinlndia
itselfhavingalwaysbeenconsideredtolaybeyondthe district
ofParliamentary legislation, and regarded no more than the
debts contracted by the Colonial Governments in Canada or
Australiaforinstance.
Ontheotherhand,theEastlndia Companywasprohibited
fromcontractinginterest-bearingdebtsinGreatritainherself,
without the especial sanction ofParliament. Some years ago,
whentheCompanysetaboutestablishingrailwaysandelectric
telegraphs inIndia, it applied for the authorization oflndian
ondsin theLondonmarket,a requestwhichwasgranted to
theamountof;,ooo,ooosterlingtobeissuedinondsbearing
a percentinterest, and securedonly onthe lndian Staterev-
enues. At the commencement of the outbreak in lndia, this
bond-debtstoodat,, oa,aoosterling,andtheverynecessity
ofagainapplyingtoParliamentshowstheEastlndiaCompany
THE APPROACHI NG I NDI AN LOAN
245
tohave,duringthecourseofthelndianinsurrection,exhausted
itslegalpowersofborrowingathome.
Nowitisnosecretthatbeforerecurringtothisstep,theEast
lndiaCompanyhadopenedaloanatCalcutta,which,however,
turned outa complete failure. This proves, on the one hand,
thatlndiancapitalistsarefarfromconsideringtheprospectsof
ritish supremacy in lndia in the same sanguine spirit which
distinguishestheLondonpress;and,ontheotherhand,exacer-
batesthefeelingsof1ohnulltoanuncommonpitch,sincehe
isawareoftheimmensehoardingsofcapitalhavinggoneonfor
the lastsevenyearsinlndia,whither,accordingtoastatement
recently published by Messrs. Haggard & Paxley, there has
beenshippedin: s6and: s;,fromtheportofLondonalone,
bulliontotheamountofz:,ooo,ooo. The London Times, in
amostpersuasivestrain, hastaughtits readersthat
of all the incentives to the loyalty of the natives, that of making
them our creditors was the least doubtful; while, on the other
hand among an impulsive secretive and avaricious people no
temptation to discontent or treachery could be stronger than
that created by the idea that they were annually taxed to send
dividends to wealthy claimants in other countries.
Thelndians,however,appearnotto understandthe beauty
ofa plan whichwouldnotonlyrestore Englishsupremacy at
the expense of lnd|an capital, but at the same time, in a cir-
cuitous way, open the native hoards to ritish commerce. lf,
indeed, the lndian capitalists were as fond of ritish rule as
everytrueEnglishmanthinksitanarticleoffaithtoassert,no
betteropportunitycouldhave beenaffordedthemofexhibiting
theirloyaltyandgettingridoftheirsilver.Thelndiancapitalists
shuttinguptheirhoards,1ohnullmustopenhismindtothe
dire necessityofdefrayinghimselfinthe 6rstinstance,atleast,
the expenses ofthe lndian insurrection, without any support
on the part of the natives. The impending loan const|tutes,
moreover, a precedent only, and looks like the hrst leaf in a
book,bearingthetitleAnglo-lndianHomeDebt.ltisnosecret
thatwhattheEastlndiaCompanywantsarenoteightmillions,
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
ortenmi||ions, but twenty-6ve tothirty mi||ionspounds,and
even these as a 6rst insta||ment on|y, notfor expenses to be
incurred,butfordebtsa|readydue.Thede6cientrevenueforthe
|astthreeyearsamountedtos,ooo,ooo;thetreasurep|undered
bytheinsurgentsuptothet sthOctober|ast,to t o,ooo,ooo,
accordingtothe statement ofthePhoenix, an lndiangovern-
menta|paper;the|ossofrevenueintheNortheasternprovinces,
consequent upon the rebe||ion, to s,ooo,ooo, and the war
expensestoat|eastto,ooo,ooo.
ltistruethatsuccessive|oansbythelndianCompany,inthe
London Money Market, wou|d raise the va|ue of money and
preventtheincreasingdepreciationofcapita|;thatistosay,the
further fa|| in the rate of interest; but such a fa|| is exact|y
requiredforthereviva|ofritishindustryandcommerce.Any
arti6cia|check putuponthedownwardmovementoftherate
of discount is equiva|ent to an enhancement in the cost of
productionandtheterms ofcredit,which,initspresentweak
state,Eng|ishtradefee|sitse|funab|etobear.Hencethegenera|
cryofdistressattheannouncementofthelndian|oan.Though
the Par|iamentarv sanction adds no imperia| guarantee to the
|oanofthe Company,that guarantee, too,mustbeconceded,
ifmoneyisnottobeobtainedonotherterms;anddespitea||6ne
distinctions,assoonastheEastlndiaCompanyissupp|antedby
theritishCovernmentits debtwi|| bemergedintothe ritish
debt.Afurtherincreaseofthe|argenationa|debtseems,there-
fore,oneofthe6rst6nancia|consequencesofthelndianRevo|t.
The Indian Bill
Pub|ished1u|yza, t s
The|atestlndiabi||haspassedthroughitsthirdreadinginthe
House of Commons, and since the Lords swayed by Derby`s
inuence, arenot|ike|yto show6ght,the doom of the East
lndia Company appears to be sea|ed. They do not die |ike
heroes,itmustbeconfessed;buttheyhavebarteredawaytheir
power,astheycreptintoit, bitby bit, in a business-|ikeway.
THE I NDI AN BI LL 247
lnfact, theirwho|ehistory isone ofbuyingandse||ing. They
commenced by buying sovereignty, and they have ended by
se||ing it. They have fallen, notin a pitched batt|e, butunder
the hammer ofthe auctioneer, into the hands ofthe highest
bidder. ln t 6o, they procured fromthe Crown a charter for
twentv-one years by paying |arge sums to the Duke of Leeds
andotherpub|icof6cers.ln t;6;theypro|ongedtheirtenure
of power for two years by the promise of annua||y paying
aoo,ooo into the lmperia| exchequer. ln t ;6o they struck a
simi|ar bargain for 6ve years; but soon after, in return for
the Exchequer's foregoing the stipu|atedannua|paymentand
|ending them t,aoo,ooo at a per cent, they a|ienated some
parce|sofsovereigntv,|eavingtoPar|iamentinthe6rstinstance
thenominationoftheCovernor-Cenera|andfourCounci|ors,
a|together surrenderingtotheCrownthe appointment ofthe
Lord Chief1ustice and his three1udges, and agreeing to the
conversionoftheCourtofProprietorsfromademocraticinto
an o|igarchic body. ln t s, after having so|emn|y p|edged
themse|ves to the Court ofProprietorsto resist by a|| consti-
tutiona| 'means" the transfer totheCrown ofthe governing
powers ofthe East lndia Company, they have accepted that
princip|e, andagreed to a bi|| pena|asregardsthe Company,
butsecuringemo|umentandp|acetoitsprincipa|Directors. lf
thedeathofahero,asSchi||ersays,resemb|esthesettingofthe
sun,theexitoftheEastlndiaCompanybearsmore|ikenessto
thecompromiseeffectedbya bankruptwithhiscreditors.
y this bi|| the principa| functions of administration are
intrustedtoaSecretaryofStateinCounci|, iustasatCa|cutta
the Covernor-Cenera| in Counci| manages affairs. ut both
thesefunctionaries~theSecretaryofStateinEng|andandthe
Covernor-Cenera| inlndiaare a|ikeauthorizedto disregard
the advice oftheir assessors andto act upontheir own iudg-
ment. Thenew bi|| a|so investsthe Secretary ofStatewith a||
thepowersatpresentexercised bythe Presidentofthe oard
ofContro|,throughtheagencyoftheSecretCommitteethe
power, thatis, in urgent cases, ofdispatching orders to lndia
withoutstoppingtoasktheadviceofhisCounci|.lnconstitut-
ingthatCounci|ithasbeenfoundnecessary,aftera||,toresort
DI SPATCHES LW THE NEW LW 1J1LT1
to the East lndia Company as the only practicable source of
appointmentstoitotherthannominationsbytheCrown.The
electivemembersoftheCouncilaretobeelectedbytheDirec-
torsoftheEastlndiaCompanyfromamongtheirownnumber.
Thus, after all, the name of the Eastlndia Companyis to
outlive its substance. Atthe last hour itwasconfessed bythe
Derby Cabinetthattheirbillcontainsnoclauseabolishingthe
EstlndiaCompany,asrepresentedbyaCourtofDirectors,but
thatitbecomesreducedtoitsancientcharacterofacompanyof
stockholders,distributingthedividendsguaranteedbydifferent
acts of legislation. Pitt's bill of : ;a virtually subi ected their
government to the sway of the Cabinet under the name of
the oard ofControl. The act of : : , stripped them oftheir
monopolyofcommerce,savethetradewith China.The actof
: ,adestroyedtheircommercial characteraltogether,andthe
actof: saannihilatedtheirlastremnantofpower,stillleaving
theminpossessionofthelndianadministration.ytherotation
ofhistorythe East lndia Company, converted in : 6: zinto a
ioint-stockcompany,isagainclothedinitsprimitivegarb,only
thatitrepresentsnowatradingpartnershipwithouttrade,and
ai oint-stock companywhich has nofunds to administer, but
only6xeddividendstodraw.
Thehistoryofthelndianbill ismarkedbygreaterdramatic
changesthananyotheractofmodernParliamentarylegislation.
WhentheSepoyinsurrectionbrokeout,thecryoflndianreform
rangthroughallclassesofritishsociety.Popularimagination
washeatedbythetorturereports;theCovernmentinterference
withthenativereligionwasloudlydenouncedbylndiangeneral
of6cersandciviliansofhighstanding;therapaciousannexation
policy of Lord Dalhousie, the mere tool of Downing street;
the fermentationrecklesslycreated intheAsiaticmind bythe
piraticalwarsinPersiaandChina~warscommencedandpur-
sued on Palmerston's private dictation~the weak measures
with.whichhemettheoutbreak,sailingshipsbeingchosenfor
transport in preference to steam vessels, and the circuitous
navigationaroundthecapeofCoodHopeinsteadoftranspor-
tationoverthelsthmusof Suezall theseaccumulatedgriev-
ances burst into the cry for lndian Reformreform of the
THE I NDI AN BI LL 249
Company'slndianadministration,reformoftheCovernment's
lndian policy. Palmerston caught at the popular cry, but
resolved uponturningitto his exclusive pro6t. ecause both
theCovernmentandtheCompanyhadmiserablybrokendown,
theCompanyvastobekilledinsacri6ce,andtheCovernment
toberer:deredomnipotent.ThepoweroftheCompanywasto
esimplytrau|erredtothedictatorofthe day, pretendingto
representth oasagainsttheParliament,andtorepresent
Parliamentas

gainstheCrown,thusabsorbingtheprivileges
ofthecueand the o
-
herin his single person. Withthelndian
armyathisback,thelndiantreasuryathiscommand,andthe
lndian patronage iu his pocket, Palmerston's position would
havebecomeimpregnable.
His billpassedtriumphantly through the6rst reading, but
his career vas cut short by the famous Conspiracy bill,`'
followedbytheadventoftheToriestopower.
On the very 6rst day of their of6cial reappearance on the
Treasury benches,theydeclaredthat, outo deferenceforthe
decisivewill ofthe Commons,theywould forsaketheiroppo-
sitiontothetransfer from the Company totheCrownofthe
lndian Covernment. Lord Ellenborough's legislative abortion
seemed to hasten Palmerston's restoration, when Lord 1ohn
Russell in order to force the dictator into a compromise,
. ^
steppedin,andsavedtheCovernmentbyproposingtoproceed
withthelndianbillbywayofParliamentaryresolution,instead
of by a governmental bill. Then Lord Ellenborough's Oude
dispatch, his sudden resignation, and the consequent dis-
organizationintheMinisterialcamp,wereeagerlyseizedupon
byPalmerston.TheTorieswereagaintobeplantedinthecold
shadeofopposition,aftertheyhademployedtheirshortlease
ofpowerinbreakingdowntheoppositionoftheirown party
againstthe con6scation ofthe Eastlndia Company. Yet it is
suf6ciently known how these 6ne calculations were bafled.
lnstead of rising on the ruins of the East lndia Company,
Palmerstonhasbeenburiedbeneaththem.Duringthewholeof
thelndiandebates,theHouse seemedtoindulgethepeculiar
satisfactionofhumiliatingtheCivis Romanus.152 Allhisamend-
ments,greatand small, were ignominiously lost; allusions of
250
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
themostunsavorykind,relatingtotheAfghanwar,thePersian
war,andtheChinesewar,werecontinuallyungathishead;
andMr.Cladstone'sclause,withdrawingfromthelndianMin-
isterthepoweroforiginatingwars beyondthe boundaries of
lndia, intended as a general vote ofcensure on Palmerston's
pastforeignpolicy,waspassedbyacrushingmaiority,despite
hisfuriousresistance. utalthoughthemanhas beenthrown
overboard, his principle, upon the whole, has been accepted.
Although somewhat checked by the obstructive attributes of
theoardofCouncil,which,infact,isbutthewell-paidspecter
ofthe old CourtofDirectors,thepoweroftheexecutive has,
bytheformalannexationoflndia,beenraisedtosuchadegree
that,tocounterpoiseit,democraticweightmustbethrowninto
theParliamentaryscale.
Great Trouble in Indian Finances
PublishedApril and : z, : s o
The lndian6nancial crisis, which at this momentshares with
thewarrumorsandtheelectioneeringagitationintheprivilege
ofabsorbingpublicinterestinEngland,mustbeconsideredin
adoublepointofview.ltinvolvesbothatemporarynecessity
andapermanentdif6culty.
OnthetathofFebruaryLordStanleybroughtinabillinthe
House of Commons authorizing the Covernment to raise a
loan of ;,ooo,ooo in England, in order to adiust the extra
expenditureofthelndianadministrationforthe currentyear.
Aboutsixweekslater,1ohnull'sself-congratulationsastothe
smallcostofthelndianrebellionwereroughlyinterruptedby
thearrival ofthe OverlandMail,conveyingacryof6nancial
distressfromtheCovernmentatCalcutta.OnMarchzs, Lord
Derbyroseinthe HouseofLordsto statethata further loan
for lndia of s, ooo,ooo, in addition to the ;,ooo,ooo loan
GREAT TROUBLE IN I NDIAN FI NANCES
nowbeforeParliament,wouldberequiredtomeetthedemands
of the present year, and that even then, certain claims for
compensation and prize money, amounting to z,ooo,ooo at
least,wouldremaintobepaidfromsomesourcenotyetappar-
ent.Tomakethingspleasant,LordStanleyhad,inhis6rststate-
ment, only provided for the wants ofthe lndian Treasury at
London, leaving the ritish Covernment in lndia to its own
resources,which,fromthedispatchesreceived,hecouldnotbut
knowtobefarfromsuf6cient.Quiteapartfromtheexpensesof
theHomeCovernment,orthelndianadministrationatLondon,
Lord Canning'`` estimated the de6cit of the Covernment at
Calcuttaforthecurrentyearoft so6oat:z,ooo,ooo,after
allowing an increase in the ordinary revenue of oo,ooo,
and a decrease on military charges ofz,ooo,ooo. Suchwas
his penurythathehad stopped payingpartofhiscivilservice;
suchwashiscreditthattheCovernmentspercentswerequoted
at: zpercentdiscount;andsuchwashisdistressthathecould
onlybesavedfrombankruptcybytheshipmentfromEngland
to lndia of,, ooo,ooo of silverwithin a fewmonths. Three
pointsthusbecomeevident.First:LordStanley'soriginalstate-
mentwasa'dodge, and,sofarfromembracingallthelndian
liabilities,didnoteventouchtheimmediatewantsofthelndian
Covernmentinlndia.Secondly:Duringthewholeperiodofthe
insurrection, if we except the sending from London in t s;
of t,ooo,ooo of silver to lndia, the Calcutta Covernment
was leftto shift foritself, to provide outofits ownresources
forthe mainpart oftheextraordinarywarchargeswhich, of
course,hadtobedisbursedinlndia,forthebarrackaccommo-
dation of some 6o,ooo additional Europeans, for the restor-
ationofthetreasuresplundered,andforthereplacingofallthe
revenues of the local Administrations which had been swept
away. Thirdly: There is, apart from the wants of the Home
Covernment,ade6citoft z,ooo,ooo,tobemetinthepresent
year. y operations, thequestionablenatureofwhichwe for-
bearto dwll upon, this sum is to bereducedto o,ooo,ooo,
of which sum s,ooo,ooo are to be borrowed in lndia and
a,ooo,ooo in England. Of the latter, t ,ooo,ooo in silver
bullionhasalreadybeenshippedtoCalcuttafromLondon,and
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
z,ooo,ooo more is to be dispatched in the shortest possible
period.

lt will be seen from this succinct statement thatthe lndian


CovernmentwasveryunfairlydealtwithbyitsEnglishmasters,
wholeftitin the lurch, in order to throw dust in the eyes ol
1ohnull;butitmust,ontheotherhand,beadmittedthatthe
6nancial operationsofLord Canning surpass in awkwardness

evenhismilitaryandpoliticalexploits.Uptotheend
,
fanu
ary, t so, he had contrived to raise the necessarymeans by
loans in lndia, issued partly in Covernment stocks, panly in
Treasury bills; but, strange to say, while his efforts had
answeredduringtheepochoftherevolution,theyfailedentirelv
from the moment Englishauthoritywas restored bytheforce
ofarms. And not only did they fail, butthere was a panic in
regard to Covernment securities; there was an unprecedented
depreciationinall funds,withprotests fromthe Chambers of
Commerce at ombay and Calcutta, and, in the latter

own
public meetings composed of English and native t

on
,
y
mongers, denouncingthe vacillation, the arbitrarynatureand
thehelplessimbecilityoftheCovernmentmeasures.Now,the
loanablecapitaloflndiawhichupto1anuary, t so, hadsup
pliedtheCovernmentwithfunds,begantofailafterthatperiod,
whenthepowerofborrowingseemstohavebeenexceeded.In
point offact the aggregate loans which from t aJ to t s ;
amountedto zt,ooo,ooo,absorbedinthetwoyearsoft s;
andt s aloneabouto,ooo,ooo,equaltoalmostone-haIfof
the money borrowed during the previous sixteen years. Such
a failure of resources, while accounting for the necessity of
successively screwing up the rate of interest on Covernment
loans from a to 6 percent, is, ofcourse, far from explaining
the commercial panic in the lndian security market, and the
utterinabilityoftheCovernor-Ceneraltomeetthemosturgent
requirements.Theriddleissolvedbythefactthatithasbecome
aregularmaneuverwithLordCanningtobringoutnewloans
at higher rates of interest than those given on existing open
loans, without any previous notice to the public, and with
the utmost uncertainty prevailing as to the further 6nancial
operations contemplated. The depreciation of the funds, in
GREAT TROUBLE IN I NDI AN FI NANCES 2
5 3
consequenceofthesemaneuvers,hasbeencalculatedatnotless
thant t,ooo,ooo. Pinched bythepoverty oftheExchequer,
frightenedbythepanicinthestockmarket,androusedbythe
protests on the part of the Chambers of Commerce and the
Calcutta meetings, Lord Canning thought best to be a good
boy andtotryto come uptothedesiderataofthemonetary
mind;buthisnoti6cationoftheztstoffebruary,t so, shows
againthatthehumanunderstandingdoesnotdependonhuman
will.Whatwasherequiredtodo?Nottoopensimultaneously
two loans on different conditions, and to tell the monetary
publicatoncethesumrequiredforthecurrentyear, insteadof
deceiving them by successive announcements, one contradic-
tory ofthe other. Andwhatdoes he doin hisnoti6cation? ln
the6rstinstancehesaysthatthereistoberaisedbyloaninthe
lndian market for the year t so6o, s,ooo,ooo, at sper
cent, andthat 'when this amountshallhave beenrealized,the
loan of t so~6o shall be closed, andno further loanwillbe
openedinlndiaduringthatyear.
ln the very same proclamation, sweeping away the entire
valueoftheassurancesiustgiven,heproceeds:"No loan carry
ing a higher rate of interest willbeopenedinlndiainthecourse
oftheyeart so6o,unless under instructions from the Home
Government. "
ut that is not all. He opens, in fact, a double loan on
differentterms. While announcingthat 'the issue ofTreasury
billson thetermsnoti6edon1an. z6, tso, will be closed on
April, o,heproclaims'thatanewissueofTreasurybillswill
be noti6ed from the t st of May, bearing interest of nearly
spercent,andredeemableattheexpirationofoneyearfrom
thedate ofissue.oth loansare keptopen together, while, at
the same time, the loan opened in 1anuary has not yet been
concluded. The only 6nancial matter which Lord Canning
seemsabletocomprehendisthathisannualsalaryamountsto
zo,oooinname,andtoaboutao,oooinfact.Hence,despite
thesneersoftheDerbyCabinet,andhisnotoriousincapacity,
hestickstohispostfrom'afeelingofduty.
Theeffectsofthelndian6nancialcrisisontheEnglishhome
markethavealreadybecome apparent.lnthe6rstinstance,the
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
silver remittances on accountof Covernmentcoming to swell
thelarge remittances onmercantileaccount,andfallingatan
epochwhenthe ordinarysilversuppliesfromMexicoareheld
backinconsequenceofthedistractedconditionofthatcountry,
have,ofcourse, sent upthepriceofbarsilver. OnMarch zs,
ithadrisentothefactitiouspriceof6zd. perouncestandard,
causingsuchaninfluxofsilverfromeverypartofEuropethat
the price in London again fell to 6z d.; while the rate of
discount atHamburg rosefrom zx to , percent. Consequent
upontheseheavyimportationsofsilver,exchangeshaveturned
against England,anda drainofgold bullionhassetin,which,
forthe present,onlyrelieves theLondonmoneymarketofits
plethora, butinthe longrunmay seriouslyaffectit,coupled,
as it will be, with large Continental loans. The depreciation,
however,ontheLondonmoneymarket,ofthelndianCovern-
mentstocksandguaranteedrailwaysecurities,preiudicialasit
must prove to the Covernment and railway loans still to be
brought forward in the course of this season, is certainly the
most seriouseffectonthe home marketas yet, resultingfrom
thelndian6nancialcrisis.The shares ofmanylndianrailways,
although s per cent interest upon them isguaranteed by the
Covernment,are nowat zor , percentdiscount.
Taking all in all, however,l regard the momentarylndian
6nancial panic as a matter ofsecondaryimportance, ifcom-
paredwiththegeneralcrisisofthelndianExchequer,whichl
mayperhaps consideronanotheroccasion.
II
The latestoverlandmail,sofar from showingany abatement
ofthe 6nancial crisis inlndia, reveals a state ofderangement
hardlyanticipated.TheshiftstowhichthelndianCovernment
isdriven in order to meetits mosturgentwants, may be best
illustrated by a recent measure of the Covernor of ombay.
ombay isthemarketwhere theopiumofMalwa, averaging
,o,ooochestsannually,6ndsitsoutletbymonthlyinstalments
of z,ooo or , ,ooo chests, for which bills are drawn upon
GREAT TROUBLE I N I NDI AN FI NANCES 2
5 5
ombay. y charging aoo rupees upon every chest imported
into ombay, the Covernmentraisesarevenue oft, zoo,ooo
annually on Malwa opium. Now,to replenish his exhausted
Exchequer, andward offimmediate bankruptcy, the ombay
Covernor has issued a noti6cation, which raises the duty on
eachchestofMalwaopiumfromaootosoorupees,but,atthe
sametime,hedeclaresthatthisincreaseddutywillnotbelevied
tillafterthe tstof1uly,sothattheholdersofopiuminMalwa
havetheprivilegeofbringingin thedrugundertheoldduties
forfourmonths longer. etween the middle ofMarch, when
thenoti6cationwasissued,andthe tstof1uly,thereare only
two months anda halfduringwhichopiumcanbeimported,
the monsoon setting in on the t sth of1une. The holders of
opiuminMalwawill,ofcourse,availthemselvesoftheinterval
allowedthemforsendinginopiumattheoldduty;and,conse-
quently,duringthetwomonthsandahalfpouralltheirstock
inhandintothePresidency.Sincethe balanceofopium,ofthe
old and new crops, remaining at Malwa amounts to z6,ooo
chests,andthepriceofMalwaopiumreachest ,zsorupeesper
chest,theMalwamerchantswillhavetodrawupontheombay
merchantsfor noless a sumthan ,,ooo,ooo, ofwhichmore
than t,ooo,ooo must come into the ombay Treasury. The
aimofthis6nancialdodgeistransparent.Withaviewtoantici-
patetheannualrevenuefromtheopiumduty,andinducethe
dealers in thearticleto payitatonce, anenhancementofthe
dutyisheldoutprospectivelyin terrorem. 154 Whileitwouldbe
quitesuperfluoustoexpatiateupontheempiricalcharacterof
this contrivance, which6lls theExchequer for thepresent by
creating a corresponding void a few months hence, no more
strikinginstancecould begivenoftheexhaustionofways and
means,onthepartofthegreatMogul`ssuccessors.
Letusnowturnto thegeneralstateoflndian6nances,asit
hasgrown out ofthe late insurrection. According to the last
of6cial accounts, the netrevenue derived by the ritish from
their lndianfarm amounts to z,,zo,ooo, say za,ooo,ooo.
This annual revenue has never suf6ced to defray the annual
expenses. From , 6 to so the net de6cit amounted to
,, t;t,oo6,or, on aroughaverage,to,ooo,oooannually.
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
Evenintheyear : s 6,whenthe Exchequerwasexceptionally
6lled by thewholesale annexations, robberies and extortions
of Lord Dalhousie, the income and expense did not exactly
square, but, on the contrary, a de6cit of about a quarter of
a million was added to the usual crop of de6cits. ln : s;
the de6ciency was o,ooo,ooo, in : s it amounted to
: ,,ooo,ooo,andin: soitisestimatedbythelndianCovern-
ment itselfat: z,ooo,ooo.The 6rst conclusion, then, which
wearriveatisthatevenunderordinarycircumstances,de6cits
were accumulating, and that under extraordinary circum-
stancestheymustassumesuchdimensionsastoreachone-half
andmoreoftheannualincome.
Thequestionwhichnextpresentsitselfis,To what degree
has this already existing gap between the expenses and the
income of the lndian Covernment been widened by recent
events? The new permanent debt of lndia accruing from the
suppression ofthe mutiny is calculated by the most sanguine
English 6nanciers at betweenforty and 6fty millions sterling,
whileMr.Wilsonestimatesthepermanent defcit, ortheannual
interest for this new debt to be defrayed out of the annual
revenue,atnotlessthanthreemillions.However,itwouldbe
a great mistake to think that this permanent de6cit of three
millions is the only legacy left by the insurgents to their van-
quishers.Thecostsoftheinsurrectionarenotonlyinthepast
tense,butareinahighdegreeprospective.Eveninquiettimes,
beforethe outbreak ofthe mutiny, the military charges swal-
lowed sixty percent at least ofthe aggregate regular income,
sincetheyexceeded: z,ooo,ooo;butthestateofaffairsisnow
changed.AtthebeginningofthemutinytheEuropeanforcein
lndiaamountedto, ,oooeffectivemen,whilethenativearmy
musteredz6o,ooomen.Themilitaryforcesatpresentemployed
in lndia amount to : : z,ooo Europeans and , zo,ooo native
troops, including the native police. lt may be iustly said that
theseextraordinarynumberswillbereducedtoamoremoder-
ate standard with the disappearance ofthe extraordinary cir-
cumstances which swelled them to their present size. Yet the
militarycommissionappointedbytheritishCovernmenthas
arrivedattheconclusionthattherewill be requiredinlndia a
GREAT TROUBLE I N I NDI AN FI NANCES 2
57
permanentEuropeanforceofo,ooomen,withanativeforce
of zoo,ooo menthe military charges being thus raised to
almost double their originalhight. Duringthe debates onthe
lndian6nances,in the HouseofLords,onApril;,twopoints
were admitted by all speakers of authority: on the one hand
that an annual expenditure upon the revenue of lndia little
shortoftwentymillionsforthearmy alonewasincompatible
with a net revenue of twenty-four millions only; and, on the
other hand, that itwas dif6cult to imagine a state of things
whichforan inde6nite series ofyears would render itsafefor
theEnglishto leavelndiawithoutaEuropeanforcedoubleits
amountbeforetheoutbreak ofthe mutiny. ut suppose even
that it would do to add permanently to the European forces
notmore thanone-thirdoftheir original strength, and weget
at a new annual permanent de6cit offour millions sterling at
least. The new permanent de6cit, then, derived on one hand
fromtheconsolidateddebtcontractedduringthemutiny,and
ontheotherhandfromthepermanentincreaseoftheritish
forcesinlndia,cannot,onthemostmoderatecalculation,fall
belowsevenmillionssterling.
To this must be addedtwo otheritemsthe one accruing
froman increase ofliabilities,the otherfroma diminution of
income. ya recent statement ofthe Railway Department of
the lndian of6ce at London, itresults thatthewhole length
ofrailways sanctionedfor lndia isa, : ;miles,ofwhich s so
milesonlyareyetopened.Thewholeamountofcapitalinvested
by the differentrailway companies amounts to ao,ooo,ooo
sterling,ofwhich:o,ooo,ooo are paid andz: ,ooo,ooo are
stillto be called ino6 percent oftheaggregatesumhaving
beensubscribedinEnglandandapercentonlyinlndia.Upon
thisamountofao,ooo,ooo,theCovernmenthasguaranteed
s percentinterest,sothattheannualinterestchargeduponthe
revenues of lndia reaches z,ooo,ooo, to be paid before the
railways are inworking order, and beforetheycan yield any
return.TheEarlofEllenboroughestimatesthelossaccruingto
thelndian 6nancesfromthissource,forthenextthreeyearsto
come,at6,ooo,ooosterling,andtheultimatepermanentde6-
citupontheserailwaysathalfamillionannually.Lastly,ofthe
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
za,ooo,ooo of lndian net revenue, a sum of ,, 6:o,ooo is
derivedfromthe saleofopiumto foreigncountries~a source
ofrevenue which, itisnowgenerallyadmitted,musttoacon-
siderab|e extent be impaired by the late treaty with China. lt
becomes, then, evident, thatapart fromtheextra expenditure
stil|necessitatedtocompletethesuppressionofthemutiny,an
annual permanentdencitof,ooo,ooo atleast, will have to
be defrayed out of a net revenue of za,ooo,ooo, which the
Covernment may, perhaps, by the imposition of new taxes,
contriveto raise to z6,ooo,ooo.The necessary result ofthis
stateofthingswil| betosaddlethe Englishtaxpayerwiththe
liabilityforthelndiandebtand,asSirC.C.Lewisdeclaredin
theHouseofCommons,'tovotefourornvemi||ionsannually
asasubsidyforwhatwascalledavaluabledependencyofthe
ritishcrown.
ltwillbeconfessedthatthesennancialfruitsofthe'glorious
reconquestoflndiahavenotacharmingappearance;andthat
1ohnullpaysexceedinglyhighprotective dutiesforsecuring
the monopoly of the lndian market to the Manchester free-
traders.
AMERI CA AND S LAVERY
lt is, asChristopher Hitchens has suggested, one ofthe great
historic ironies ofmoderntimesthat Marx's name becameso
venerated in SovietRussia and soreviledintheUnited States
because, while he was alive, he felt Russia a very backward
placeandheldAmericainrelativeesteem |heneverpersonally
visitedeitherplace . ' PartoftheattractionoftheUnitedStates
for Marx was that it had no monarchy and no hereditary
aristocraticclass,andinthatsenseitrepresentedahistorically
progressive state of social affairs to which other Western
nations could only hope to aspire. Of course, the continued
existenceoflegalslaveryinAmericawasforMarxaconsider-
ablestainonthesociety;oneofthereasonsthathewaswil|ing
towritefortheTribune aslongashediddespiteconsiderab|e
political differenceswithitseditorswas thatthe Tribune was
theforemostanti-s|averyorganofitsday.
lndeed,Marxveryrare|ywroteaboutthesubi ectofAmerica
withoutreferencetothes|avetrade.ltisclearfromthewritings
reprintedherethatheadmiredAbrahamLincolnandtheorigi-
nal Repub|ican Party for its anti-slavery stancein fact he
wroteandsignedaletterfromthelnternationalWorkingmen's
AssociationcongratulatingLincolnonhisre-electionin :6a.
utiti salsothecasethatmuchofMarx'santi-slaverypo|emics
were aimed as square|y at the ritish ruling class as at the
slave-holdingSouthernplantationowners.He hadno use for
theargumentsofstates'rightsorsovereigntyusedtoiustifyslave-
holding; instead, he sawthecontinuance oftheinstitutionin
largelyeconomicterms,anddivinedtherebythatritishmill-
owners,despiteofnciallyobi ectingtothecontinuedexistenceof
260 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
s|avery,wouldnonethe|esshave aninterestinitsperpetuation,
asithelpedthefreef|owofcheapcotton.
AstheNorth~Southsp|itdeterioratedintooutrightconflict,
Marxseemedespeciallyconcernedthatritainwouldenterthe
war on the side of the s|ave-holding South. Thatscenario, at
leastintheveryearlydaysoftheCivilWar,wasnotcompletely
out ofthe question. ln addition to the economic motivation,
thereweremanyintheritish Establishmentwho wereeager
to avenge the rebel|ious colony, and who saw the possibility
forritishgainifAmericawereto beweakenedviaasuccessfu|
Southernsecession.Hence,Marxdevotedagooddealofspace
to shatteringthearguments inmainstream ritishperiodicals
that tacit|y or overt|y supported the Secessionist movement.
The Confederate states, for their part, actively sought ritish
support, andeventsseemedtocometoa headtowardthe end
of:6:, whentheysenttwodiplomats,1amesMasonand1ohn
Slidell, across the Atlantic via a ritish mail steamer, RMS
Trent. The shipwasinterceptedbytheUnionnava| b|ockade;
Captain Charles Wilkes ofthe USS San Jacinto boarded the
ritish vessel and he|d both men at Fort Warren in oston
harbor. As canbe seenfromMarx'swritings,this diplomatic
6ap created considerable anxiety that ritain would in fact
enterthe war. However, the incident was reso|ved in1anuary
: 6zwithanapologyfromtheUSSecretaryofState.
WhileMarxwouldcontinuetowriteforotherpapers|includ-
ingDie Presse ofVienna,inwhichtheessay'TheNorthAmeri-
canCivilWar"wasnrstpublishedabouttheAmericanconf|ict,
the Tribune itself was so consumed with the war that, after
March : 6z,ithadnomoreusefortheservices ofitsLondon
correspondent.
I .
NOTE
Interview with Hitchens in The Common Review, 4/I (Summer
2005), p. I I .
THE BRI TI S H GOVERNMENT AND THE S LAVE-TRADE
The British Government and the Slave- Trade
Published1ulyz, : s
lnthesittingoftheHouseofLordson1une:;,thequestionof
thes|ave-tradewasintroducedbytheishopofOxford,who
presented a petition against that trade from the Parish of
St. Mary in1amaica.The impression these debates are sure to
produce upon every mind not strongly preiudiced is that of
greatmoderationonthepartofthepresentritishCovernment,
anditsnrmpurposeofavoidinganypretextofquarrelwiththe
UnitedStates.LordMalmesburydroppedaltogetherthe'right
ofvisit,asfarasshipsundertheAmericanflagareconcerned,
bythefollowingdeclaration:
The United States say that on no account, for no purpose, and
upon no suspicion shall a ship carrying the American flag be
boarded except by an American ship, unless at the risk of the
offcer boarding or detaining her. I have not admitted the inter
national law as laid down by the American Minister for Foreign
Affairs, until that statement had been approved and fortifed by
the law offcers of the Crown. But having admitted that, I have
put it as strong as possible to the American Government that if
it is known that the American flag covers every iniquity, every
pirate and slaver on earth will carry it and no other; that this
must bring disgrace on that honored banner, and that instead of
vindicating the honor of the country by an obstinate adherence
to their present declaration the contrary result will follow; that
the American flag will be prostituted to the worst of purposes. I
shall continue to urge that it is necessary in these civilized times,
with countless vessels navigating the ocean, that there should be
a police on the ocean; that there should be, if not a right by
international law, an agreement among nations how far they
would go to verify the nationality of vessels, and ascertain their
right to bear a particular flag. From the language I have used,
from the conversations which I had with the American Minister
resident in this country, and from the observations contained in
a very able paper drawn up by Gen. Cass on this subject, I am
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
not without strong hope that some arrangement of this kind may
be made with the United States, which, with the orders given to
the offcers of both countries, may enable us to verify the flags of
all countries, without running the risk of offense to the country
to which a ship belongs.
OntheOppositionbenchestherewasalsonoattemptmade
at vindicating the right of visit on the part of Great ritain
againsttheUnitedStates,but,asEarlGreyremarked,
The English had treaties with Spain and other powers for the
prevention of the slave-trade, and if they had reasonable grounds
for suspecting that a vessel was engaged in this abominable trafc,
and that she had for the time made use of the United States flag,
that she was not really an American ship at all, they had a right
to overhaul her and to search her. If, however, she produced the
American papers, even though she be full of slaves, it was their
duty to discharge her, and to leave to the United States the
disgrace of that iniquitous traffc. He hoped and trusted that the
orders to their cruisers were strict in this respect, and that any
excess of that discretion which was allowed their offcers under
the circumstances would meet with proper punishment.
Thequestionthenturnsexclusivelyuponthepoint,andeven
thispointseemsabandonedbyLordMalmesbury,whetheror
notvesselssuspectedofusurpingtheAmericanf|agmaynotbe
called upon to produce their papers. Lord Aberdeen directly
deniedthatanycontroversycouldariseoutofsuchapractice,
sincethe instructionsunderwhichthe ritishof6cerswereto
proceedonsuchanoccurrenceinstructionsdrawnupbyDr.
LushingtonandSirG. Cockburn~hadbeencommunicatedat
thetimetotheAmericanGovernmentandacquiescedinbyMr.
Webster, onthepartofthat Government. lf,therefore, there
hadbeennochangeintheseinstructions,andiftheof6cershad
acted within their limits, 'the American Government could
havenogroundofcomplaint.Thereseemed,indeed,astrong
suspicionhoveringinthemindsofthe hereditarywisdom,that
Palmerstonhadplayedoneofhisusualtricksbyeffectingsome
THE BRI TI S H GOVERNMENT AND THE S LAVE-TRADE
arbitrarychangeinthe ordersissuedto the ritishcruisers. lt
is known that Pa|merston, while boasting of his zeal in the
suppressionoftheslave-trade, had, duringthee|evenyears of
his administration offoreign affairs, ending in : a:, broken
upalltheexistingslave-tradetreaties,hadorderedactswhich
the ritish law authorities pronounced criminal, and which
actually subiected one of his instruments to legal procedure
and placed a slave-dealer under the protection ofthe law of
EnglandagainstitsownGovernment.Hechosetheslave-trade
ashis6eldofbattle,andconverteditintoamereinstrumentof
provokingquarrelsbetweenEnglandand other States.efore
leavingof6cein: a: hehadgiveninstructionswhich,accord-
ingto thewordsofSir Robert Peel, 'must haveled, hadthey
notbeencountermanded,toacollisionwiththeUnitedStates.
lnhis own words, hehadenioinedthenavalof6cers 'tohave
noveryniceregardtothelawofnations.LordMalmesbury,
althoughinveryreservedlanguage,intimatedthat'bysending
the ritish squadrons to the Cuban waters, instead ofleaving
them onthecoastofAfrica, Palmerstonremovedthemfrom
a stationwhere, before

the outbreakofthe Russianwar, they


had almost succeeded in extinguishing the slave-trade, to a
placewheretheycouldbegoodforlittleelsethanpickingupa
quarrelwiththeUnited States.LordWoodhouse,Palmerston`s
ownlateEmbassadortotheCourtofSt.Petersburg,concurring
in this view of the case, remarked that, 'No matter what
instructionshadbeengiven,ifthe Governmentgaveauthority
totheritishvesselsto goinsuchnumbers intothe American
waters,adifferencewouldsoonerorlaterarisebetweenusand
theUnitedStates.
Yet,whatevermayhavebeenPalmerston`ssecretintentions,
it isevidentthat they are baffled by theTory Governmentin
:s,astheyhadbeenin: az,andthatthewarcrysolustily
raisedinthe Congressandinthepressisdoomedto resultin
'muchadoaboutnothing.
As to the question of the slave-trade itself, Spain was
denouncedbytheishopofOxford,aswellasLordrougham,
asthe mainstay ofthatnefarioustraf6c. oth ofthemcalled
upon the ritish Governmentto force, by every means in its
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK J1LT1
power,thatcountryintoacourseofpolicyconsonanttoexist-
ingtreaties.Asearlyas: :aageneraltreatywasenteredinto
betweenGreatritainandSpain,bywhichthelatterpassedan
unequivocalcondemnationoftheslave-trade.ln: :;aspeci6c
treatywasconcluded,bywhichSpain6xedtheabolitionofthe
slave-trade,onthepartofherownsubi ects,fortheyear: zo,
and,bywayofcompensationforthelosseshersubi ectsmight
suffer by carrying outthecontract, received an indemnity of
aoo,ooo. The money was pocketed, but no equivalent was
teneredforit.lnt , s anewtreatywasenteredinto,bywhich
Spam boundherselfformallytobringinasuf6cientlystringent
penallawtomakeitimpossibleforhersubi ectstocontinuethe
traf6c. The procrastinating Spanish proverb, "A la manana,"
was againstrictlyadheredto. ltwas onlytenyears laterthat
the penal law was carried; but, by a singular mischance the
principalclausecontendedforbyEnglandwasleftout,naely,
thatofmakingtheslave-tradepiracy.lnoneword,nothingwas
done, savethatthe Captain-GeneralofCuba, the Minister at
home,theCamarilla,and,ifrumorspeakstruth,royalperson-
ages

themselves, raised a privatetax uponthe slavers, selling


the lrcense of dealing in human flesh and blood at so many
doubloonsperhead. 'Spain," saidtheishopofOxford,
had not the excuse that this traffc was a system which her
Government was not strong enough to put down, because Gen.
Valdez had shown that such a plea could not be urged with any
show of truth. On his arrival in the island he called together
the principal contractors, and, giving them six months' time to
close all their transactions in the slave-trade, told them that he was
determined to put it down at the end of that period. What was the
result? In 1 840, the year previous to the administration of Gen.
Valdez, the number of ships which came to Cuba from the coast of
Africa with slaves was 5 6. In 1 842, while Gen. Valdez was Captain
General, the number was only 3 . In 1 840 no less than 14,470 slaves
were landed at the island; in 1842 the number was 3, 100.
N

wwhat

hallEnglanddowithSpain?Repeatherprotests,
multrplyherdrspatches,renewhernegotiations?LordMalmes-
THE BRI TI S H GOVERNMENT AND THE S LAVE- TRADE
bury himselfstates that they could cover all the waters from
theSpanishcoasttoCubawiththedocumentsvainlyexchanged
between the two Governments. Or shall England enforce her
claims,sanctionedbysomanytreaties?Hereitisthattheshoe
pinches. ln stepsthe sinister6gureofthe 'augustally,"now
theacknowledgedguardianangeloftheslave-trade.Thethird
onaparte,thepatronofSlaveryin all itsforms,forbidsEng-
landtoactuptoherconvictionsandhertreaties.LordMalmes-
bury, itis known, isstrongly suspectedofanundueintimacy
with the hero of Satory. Nevertheless, he denounced him in
plain termsasthe general slave-dealerofEurope~astheman
whohadrevivedtheinfamoustraf6cinitsworstfeaturesunder
the pretext of 'free emigration" of the blacks to the French
colonies.EarlGreycompletedthisdenunciationbystatingthat
'warshadbeenundertakeninAfricaforthepurposeofmaking
captives, who were to be sold to the agents of the French
Government." TheEarlofClarendon addedthat'both Spain
andFrancewererivalsintheAfricanmarket,offeringacertain
sum per man; and there was not the least difference in the
treatment of these negroes, whether they were conveyed to
Cubaorto aFrenchcolony."
Such,then, is the gloriousposition England6ndsherselfin
byhavinglentherhelptothatmaninoverthrowingtheRepub-
lic.ThesecondRepublic,likethe6rstone,hadabolishedSlav-
ery. onaparte,who acquired hispower solelybytrucklingto
the meanestpassions of men, is unable to prolong it save by
buying day by day new accomplices. Thus he has not only
restored Slavery, but has bought the planters by the renewal
ofthe slave-trade. Everything degradingtheconscienceofthe
nation, is a new lease of power granted to him. To convert
France intoa slave-trading nation would bethe surest means
of enslaving France, who, when herself, had the boldness of
proclaiming in the face ofthe world: Let the colonies perish,
butletprincipleslive!Onethingatleasthasbeenaccomplished
byonaparte.Theslave-tradehasbecomeabattle-crybetween
thelmperialistandtheRepublicancamps.lftheFrenchRepub-
lic be restored to-day, to-morrow Spain will be forced to
abandonthe infamoustraf6c.
266 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
The American Question in England
Pub|ishedOctober : : , : 6:
Mrs. eecher Stowe's |etter toLord Shaftesbury,'`` whatever
its intrinsic merit may be, has done a great dea| of good, by
forcingtheanti-NorthernorgansoftheLondonpresstospeak
outand|aybeforethegeneralpublictheostensiblereasonsfor
their hostile tone against the North, and their i||-concealed
sympathieswith theSouth,whichlooksratherstrange onthe
part ofpeople affecting an utter horrorofSlavery. Their6rst
and main grievance isthatthe present American war is 'not
onefortheabo|itionofSlavery,andthat,therefore,thehigh-
mindedritisher,usedtoundertakewarsofhisown,andinter-
est himselfinotherpeople'swarsonlyonthe basis of'broad
humanitarianprincip|es,cannotbeexpectedtofee|anysym-
pathywith hisNortherncousins. 'ln the 6rstplace. . . , says
The Economist, 'theassumptionthatthequarrelbetweenthe
North and South is a quarre| between Negro freedom on the
onesideandNegroSlaveryontheother,isasimpudentasitis
untrue. 'The North, says The Saturday Review, 'does not
proclaim abolition, and never pretended to 6ght for Anti-
S|avery.TheNorthhasnothoistedforitsorifamme thesacred
symbol ofi ustice to the Negro; its cri de guerre isnotuncon-
ditional abolition. 'lf, says The Examiner, 'we have been
deceivedaboutthereal signi6canceofthesub|imemovement,
who but the Federalists themselves have to answer for the
deception?
Now,i nthe6rstinstance,thepremissmustbeconceded.The
warhasnotbeenundertakenwithaviewtoputdownSlavery,
and the United States authorities themselves have taken the
greatest pains to protest against any such idea. ut then, it
ought to be remembered that it was not the North, but the
South,whichundertookthiswar;theformeractingonlyonthe
defense. lf it be true that the North, after |ong hesitations,
and an exhibition of forbearance unknown in the anna|s of
European history, drew at last the sword, not for crushing
Slavery,butforsavingtheUnion,theSouth,onitspart,inaug-
THE AMERI CAN QUESTI ON IN ENGLAND
uratedthewarbyloud|yproclaiming'thepeculiarinstitution
astheonlyandmainendoftherebellion.ltconfessedto6ght
forthelibertyofens|avingotherpeople,alibertywhich,despite
the Northern protests, it asserted to be putin danger by the
victoryoftheRepublicanpartyandtheelectionofMr.Lincoln
to the Presidentia| chair. The Confederate Congress boasted
that its new-fangled constitution, as distinguished from the
ConstitutionoftheWashingtons,1effersons,andAdams's,had
recognizedforthe6rsttimeSlaveryasathinggoodinitself,a
bulwark ofcivilization, and a divine institution. lfthe North
professed to 6ght but for the Union, the South g|oried in
rebellion for the supremacy of Slavery. lf Anti-S|avery and
idealistic England fe|t not attracted by the profession ofthe
North, how came itto passthat it was notviolentlyrepulsed
bythecynica|confessionsoftheSouth?
The Saturday Review helpsitselfoutofthisuglydi|emmaby
disbe|ievingthedeclarationsofthesecedersthemselves.ltsees
deeperthanthis,anddiscovers "that Slavery had very little to
do with Secession;" thedeclarationsof1eff.Davisandcompany
tothecontrarybeingmere'conventiona|ismswith'aboutas
much meaning as the conventionalisms about violated altars
and desecrated hearths, which always occur in such procla-
mations.
The staple of argument on the part of the anti-Northern
papers is very scanty, and throughout all of them we 6nd
almost the same sentences recurring, like the formulas of a
mathematical series, at certain intervals,withvery little artof
variationorcombination. 'Why,exclaimsThe Economist,
it is only yesterday, when the Secession movement frst gained
serious head, on the frst announcement of Mr. Lincoln's election,
that the Northerners offered to the South, if they would remain
in the Union, every conceivable security for the performance and
inviolability of the obnoxious institution-that they disavowed
in the most solemn manner all intention of interfering with it
that their leaders proposed compromise after compromise in
Congress, all based upon the concession that Slavery should not
be meddled with.
268 DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
"How happens it," says The Examiner, "that the North was
ready to compromise matters by the largest concessions to the
South as to Slavery? How was it that a certain geographical
line was proposed in Congress within which Slavery was to be
recognized as an essential institution? The Southern States were
not content with this.
WhatThe Economist andThe Examiner hadtoaskwasnot
only why the Crittenden and othercompromise measures'`'
were proposed in Congress, but why they were not passed?
Theyaffecttoconsiderthosecompromiseproposalsasaccepted
bytheNorthandreiectedbytheSouth, while,inpointoffact,
theywere baffled bythe Northern party, thathad carried the
LincolnelectionProposalsnevermaturedintoresolutions,but
always remaining in the embryo state ofpia desideria,157 the
Southhad ofcourse never any occasion either ofreiecting or
acquiescing in.Wecomenearertothepith ofthequestionby
thefollowingremarkofThe Examiner:
Mrs. Stowe says: "The Slave party, fnding they could no longer
use the Union for their purposes, resolved to destroy it." There
is here an admission that up to that time the Slave party had used
the Union for their purposes, and it would have been well if Mrs.
Stowe could have distinctly shown where it was that the North
began to make its stand against Slavery.
OnemightsupposethatThe Examiner andtheotheroracles
ofpublicopinioninEng|andhadmadethemselvessuf6ciently
fami|iar with the contemporaneous history to not need Mrs.
Stowe' s information on such all-important points. The pro-
gressive abuse of the Union by the slave power, working
throughitsalliancewiththeNorthernDemocraticparty,is,so
tosay,thegeneralformulaoftheUnitedStateshistorysincethe
beginningofthiscentury.Thesuccessivecompromisemeasures
markthesuccessivedegreesoftheencroachmentbywhichthe
Union became more and more transformed into the s|ave of
the slave-owner. Each of these compromises denotes a new
encroachmentoftheSouth,anewconcessionoftheNorth.At
THE AMERI CAN QUESTI ON IN ENGLAND
thesametimenoneofthesuccessivevictoriesoftheSouthwas
carriedbutafterahotcontestwithanantagonisticforceinthe
North, appearing under different party names with different
watchwordsandunderdifferentcolors.lfthepositiveand6nal
result of each single contest to|d in favor ofthe South, the
attentive observerofhistorycouldnot but see that every new
advance ofthe slave power was a step forward to its ultimate
defeat. Even at the times ofthe Missouri Compromise'`` the
contendingforcesweresoevenlybalancedthat1efferson,aswe
seefromhis memoirs, apprehendedtheUnionto be indanger
ofsplittingonthat deadly antagonism.The encroachments of
the slaveholding power reached their maximum point, when,
bytheKansas-Nebraska bill,`forthe 6rsttimeinthehistory
oftheUnited States, asMr.Douglas himse|f confessed, every
legalbarriertothediffusionofSlaverywithintheUnitedStates
territorieswasbrokendown,when,afterward,aNortherncan-
didate bought his Presidential nomination by pledging the
UniontoconquerorpurchaseinCubaanew6eldofdominion
for the slaveholder; when, later on, by the Dred Scott de-
cision,''

diffusion of Slavery by the Federal powerwas pro-


claimed asthe law oftheAmerican Constitution, and lastly,
whentheAfricanslave-tradewasdefactoreopenedonalarger
scalethanduringthetimes ofits legalexistence. ut,concur-
rentlywiththisclimaxofSouthern encroachments,carriedby
theconnivance oftheNorthernDemocraticparty,therewere
unmistakable signs of Northern antagonistic agencies having
gatheredsuchstrengthasmustsoonturnthebalanceofpower.
TheKansaswar,'''theformationoftheRepublicanparty,and
thelarge vote cast for Mr. Fremont'duringthe Presidential
electionof: s6,weresomanypalpableproofsthattheNorth
had accumulated suf6cient energies to rectify the aberrations
whichUnitedStateshistory, underthe slaveowners' pressure,
hadundergone,forhalfacentury,andtomakeitreturntothe
true principles ofits development. Apartfromthose political
phenomena, there was one broad statistical and economical
factindicatingthatthe abuseoftheFederalUnionbytheslave
interesthadapproachedthepointfromwhichitwouldhaveto
recedeforcibly,or de bonne graceY3 Thatfactwasthegrowth
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
oftheNorth-West,theimmensestridesitspopulationhadmade
from : soto : 6o,andthenewandreinvigorating influence
itcould notbutbearonthedestiniesoftheUnited States.
Now, was all this a secret chapter of history? Was 'the
admission" of Mrs. eecher Stowe wanted to reveal to The
Examiner andtheotherpoliticalilluminatioftheLondonpress
thecarefullyhiddentruththat'uptothattimetheSlaveparty
hadused the Union for their purposes? ls itthe fault ofthe
American North that the English pressmen were taken quite
unawares by the violent clash ofthe antagonistic forces, the
friction ofwhich wasthe moving power ofits historyforhalf
acentury?lsitthefaultoftheAmericansthattheEnglishpress
mistakefor thefancifulcrotchethatchedin a singledaywhat
wasinrealitythematuredresultoflongyearsofstruggle?The
veryfactthattheformationandtheprogressoftheRepublican
partyinAmericahavehardlybeennoticedbytheLondonpress,
speaksvolumesastothehollownessofitsAnti-Slaverytirades.
Take,forinstance,thetwoantipodesoftheLondonpress,The
London Times andReynolds's Weekly Newspaper, theonethe
great organ ofthe respectable classes, and the other the only
remaining organ ofthe working class. The former, not long
beforeMr.uchanan'scareer''drewto anend, publishedan
elaborate apology for his Administration and a defamatory
libel againsttheRepublicanmovement. Reynolds, onhispart,
was,duringMr.uchanan'sstayatLondon,oneofhisminions,
andsincethattimenevermissedanoccasiontowritehim up

and to write his adversaries down. How did it come to pass


thattheRepublican party, whose platform wasdrawn up on
the avowed antagonism to the encroachments of the Slave-
ocracyandtheabuseoftheUnionbytheslaveinterest,carried
thedayintheNorth?How,inthesecondinstance,diditcome
topassthatthegreat bulkoftheNorthernDemocraticparty,
flingingasideitsoldconnexionswiththeleadersofSlaveocracy,
settingatnaughtitstraditionsofhalfacentury,sacri6cinggreat
commercial interests and greater political preiudices, rushed
to the support ofthe present Republican Administration and
offereditmenandmoneywithanunsparinghand?
lnsteadofansweringthesequestionsThe Economist exclaims:
THE AMERI CAN QUESTI ON IN ENGLAND
Can we forget . . . that Abolitionists have habitually been as
ferociously persecuted and maltreated in the North and West
as in the South? Can it be denied that the testiness and half
heartedness, not to say insincerity, of the Government at Wash
ington, have for years supplied the chief impediment which has
thwarted our efforts for the effectual suppression of the slave
trade on the coast of Africa; while a vast proportion of the
clippers actually engaged in that trade have been built with
Northern capital, owned by Northern merchants and manned by
Northern seamen?
Thisis,infact,amasterlypieceoflogic.Anti-SlaveryEngland
cannotsympathizewiththeNorthbreakingdownthewithering
influence of slaveocracy, because she cannot forget that the
North, while bound by that influence, supported the slave-
trade,mobbedtheAbolitionists, andhaditsDemocraticinsti-
tutions tainted by the slavedriver's preiudices. She cannot
sympathizewithMr.Lincoln'sAdministration,becauseshehad
to 6nd fault with Mr. uchanan`s Administration. She must
needs sullenlycavil atthe presentmovementofthe Northern
resurrection, cheer up the Northern sympathizers with the
slave-trade, branded in the Republican platform, and coquet
withtheSouthernslaveocracy, settingupanempireofitsown,
because she cannotforgetthattheNorthofyesterdaywasnot
the Northofto-day. The necessity ofiustifying itsattitude by
such pettifogging Oldaileypleasproves more thananything
elsethattheanti-NorthernpartoftheEnglishpressisinstigated

by hidden motives, too mean and dastardly to be openly


avowed.
AsitisoneofitspetmaneuverstotauntthepresentRepubli-
can Administration withthe doings of its Pro-Slavery prede-
cessors, so it tries hard to persuade the English people that
The N. Y. Herald ought to beconsidered the only authentic
expositor of Northern opinion. The London Times having
given outthe cue inthis direction, the servum pecus165 ofthe
other anti-Northernorgans,greatandsmall,persistin beating
thesamebush. So saysThe Economist:
272 DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
In the height of the strife, New-York papers and New-York
politicians were not wanting who exhorted the combatants, now
that they had large armies in the feld, to employ them, not
against each other, but against Great Britain-to compromise
the internal quarrel, the slave question included, and invade the
British territory without notice and with overwhelming force.
" The Economist knowsperfect|ywe||thatThe N. Y. Herald's
efforts,whichwereeager|ysupported byThe London Times,
atembroi|ingtheUnited Statesintoawarwith Eng|and, on|y
intended securing the success of Secession and thwarting the
movementofNorthernregeneration.
Sti||thereisoneconcessionmadebytheanti-NorthernEng-
|ish press. The Saturday snob te||s us: 'What was at issue in
Linco|n's e|ection, and what has precipitated the convu|sion,
wasmerely the limitation of the institution of Slavery to States
where that institution already exists. "
And The Economist remarks:
It is true enough that it was the aim of the Republican party
which elected Mr. Lincoln to prevent Slavery from spreading into
the unsettled Territories . . . It may be true that the success of the
North, if complete and unconditional, would enable them to
confne Slavery within the ffteen States which have already
adopted it, and might thus lead to its eventual extinction
though this is rather probable than certain.
In : so, on the occasion of1ohn rown's Harper's Ferry
expedition,''' the very same Economist pub|ished a series of
e|aborate artic|es with a view to prove that, by dint of an
economical law, American S|avery was doomed to gradua|
extinctionfromthemomentitshouldbedeprivedofitspower
ofexpansion.That'economica||awwasperfect|yunderstood
bytheS|aveocracy.'lnt s yearsmore,saidToombs,'without
a great increase in S|ave territory, either the s|aves must be
permittedtof|eefromthewhites, orthewhitesmustf|eefrom
thes|aves.
The|imitationofS|avery toitsconstitutiona| area, aspro-
THE AMERI CAN QUESTI ON I N ENGLAND 273
c|aimed by the Repub|icans, was the distinct ground upon
whichthemenaceofSecessionwasnrstutteredintheHouseof
RepresentativesonDecember:o, t so. Mr.Sing|eton|Missis-
sippihavingaskedMr.Curtis| Iowa,'iftheRepub|icanparty
wou|d never|etthe South haveanotherfootofs|aveterritory
whi|e it remained in the Union, and Mr. Curtis having
responded in the afnrmative, Mr. Sing|eton said this would
dissolve the Union. His advicetoMississippiwasthesoonerit
gotoutofthe Unionthe better~'gent|emenshou|dreco||ect
that. . . 1effersonDavis|edourforcesin Mexico,and. . . sti||
he|ives,perhapsto|eadtheSouthernarmy. Quiteapartfrom
theeconomical law whichmakesthediffusionofS|averyavita|
condition for its maintenance within its constitutiona| areas,
the|eadersoftheSouthhadneverdeceivedthemse|vesastoits
necessity for keeping up their political sway over the United
States.John Calhoun, inthe defenseofhispropositionstothe
Senate,stateddistinct|yonFeb.to, t a;,'thattheSenatewas
theon|yba|anceofpower|efttotheSouthintheCovernment,
andthatthecreationofnewS|aveStateshadbecomenecessary

'for the retention ofthe equipoise ofpower in the Senate.


Moreover, the O|igarchy ofthe 300,000 s|ave-owners cou|d
notevenmaintaintheirswayathomesavebyconstant|ythrow-
ingouttotheirwhitep|ebeiansthebaitofprospectiveconquests
withinandwithoutthefrontiersoftheUnitedStates.If,then,
according to the orac|es ofthe Eng|ish press, the North had
arrivedatthenxedreso|utionofcircumscribingS|averywithin
itspresent|imits,andofthusextinguishingitinaconstitutiona|
way, was this not sufncient to en|ist the sympathies of Anti-
S|averyEng|and?
uttheEng|ishPuritansseemindeednottobecontentedsave
by an exp|icit Abo|itionistwar. 'This, says The Economist
'therefore, notbeingawar fortheemancipationoftheNegro
race. . . onwhatothergroundcanwebe fair|yca||ed uponto
sympathizeso warm|ywith the Federa|cause?'There was a
time,saysThe Examiner, 'whenoursympathieswerewiththe
North,thinkingthatitwasrea||y inearnestinmakingastand
againsttheencroachmentsoftheS|aveStates,andinadopting
'emancipationasameasureofi usticetotheb|ackrace.
274 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
However, in the very same numbers in which these papers
tellusthattheycannotsympathizewiththeNorthbecauseits
warisnoAbolitionistwar,weareinformedthat'thedesperate
expedientofproclaimingNegroemancipationandsummoning
theslavesto ageneral insurrection, isathing'themerecon-
ception ofwhich . . . is repulsive and dreadful, and that 'a
compromisewouldbe'farpreferabletosuccesspurchasedat
such3 costandstained by such a crime."
Thus the English eagerness forthe Abolitionist war is all
cant. The cloven foot peeps out in the following sentences:
'Lastly. . . says The Economist, 'istheMorril Tariff, atitle
toourgratitudeand to our sympathy, or is thecertaintythat
in case ofNorthern triumph, thatTariffshould be extende
overthewholeRepublic,areasonwhyweoughttobeclamor-
ouslyanxiousfortheirsuccess?'TheNorthAmericans,says
The Examiner, 'are in earnest about nothing but a sel6sh
protective Tariff. The Southern States were tired of being
robbedofthefruitsoftheirslave-laborbytheprotectivetariff
oftheNorth.
The Examiner andThe Economist commenteachother.The
latter is honestenoughtoconfessatlastthatwithhim and his
followerssympathyisamerequestionoftariff,whiletheformer
reduces thewarbetweenNorthandSouthtoa tariffwar,toa
warbetweenProtection andFree-Trade. The Examiner isper-
haps not aware that even the South Carolina Nulli6ers of
t , z,' as Cen. 1ackson testi6es, used Protection only as a
pretext for secession; but even The Examiner oughtto know
thatthepresentrebelliondidnotwaituponthepassingofthe
Morrilltariffforbreakingout.lnpointoffact,theSoutherners
couldnothavebeentiredofbeingrobbedofthefruitsoftheir
slave labor by the Protective tarihofthe North, considering
thatfrom: a6~: 6:aFree-Tradetarihhadobtained.
The Spectator characterizes in its last number the secret
thoughtofsomeoftheAnti-Northernorgansinthefollowing
strikingmanner:
What, then, do the Anti-Northern organs really profess to think
desirable under the justifcation of this plea of deferring to the
THE AMERI CAN QUES T/ ON I N ENGLAND 2
75
inexorable logic of facts? They argue that disunion is desirable,
just because, as we have said, it is the only possible step to a
conclusion of this "causeless and fratricidal strife;" and next, of
course, only as an afterthought, and as an humble apology for
Providence and "justifcation of the ways of God to man," now
that the inevitable necessity stands revealed-for further reasons
discovered as beautiful adaptations to the moral exigencies of
the country, when once the issue is discerned. It is discovered
that it will be very much for the advantage of the States to be
dissolved into rival groups. They will mutually check each other's
ambition; they will neutralize each other's power, and if ever
England should get into a dispute with one or more of them,
more jealousy will bring the antagonistic groups to our aid. This
will be, it is urged, a very wholesome state of things, for it will
relieve us from anxiety and it will encourage political "compe
tition," that great safeguard of honesty and purity, among the
States themselves.
Such is the case-very gravely urged-of the numerous class
of Southern sympathizers now springing up among us. Translated
into English-and we grieve that an English argument on such a
subject should be of a nature that requires translating-it means
that we deplore the present great scale of this "fratricidal" war,
because it may concentrate in one fearful spasm a series of chronic
petty wars and passions and jealousies among groups of rival
States in times to come. The real truth is, and this very un-English
feeling distinctly discerns this truth, though it cloaks it in decent
phrases, that rival groups of American States could not live
together in peace or harmony. The chronic condition would be
one of malignant hostility rising out of the very causes which
have produced the present contest. It is asserted that the different
groups of States have different tariff interests. These different
tariff interests would be the sources of constant petty wars if the
States were once dissolved, and Slavery, the root of all the strife,
would be the spring of innumerable animosities, discords and
campaigns. No stable equilibrium could ever again be established
among the rival States. And yet it is maintained that this long
future of incessant strife is the providential solution of the great
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
question now at issue-the only real reason why it is looked
upon favorably being this, that whereas the present great-scale
conflict may issue in a restored and stronger political unity, the
alternative of infnitely multiplied small-scale quarrels will issue
in a weak and divided continent, that England cannot fear.
Now we do not deny that the Americans themselves sowed
- 'the seeds of this petty and contemptible state of feeling by the
unfriendly and bullying attitude they have so often manifested to
England, but we do say that the state of feeling on our part is
petty and contemptible. We see that in a deferred issue there is
no hope of a deep and enduring tranquillity for America, that it
means a decline and fall of the American nation into quarrelsome
clans and tribes, and yet we hold up our hands in horror at the
present "fratricidal" strife because it holds out hopes of fnality.
We exhort them to look favorably on the indefnite future of small
strifes, equally fratricidal and probably far more demoralizing,
because the latter would draw out of our side the thorn of Ameri
can rivalry.
The British Cotton Trade
PublishedOctober:a, : 6:
Thecontinualriseinthepricesofrawcottonbeginsatlastto
seriouslyreactupon thecottonfactories,theirconsumptionof
cotton beingnow zs per cent less than the full consumption.
Thisresulthasbeenbroughtaboutbya dailylesseningrateof
production, many mills working only four or three days per
week,partofthemachinerybeingstopped,bothinthoseestab-
lishmentswhereshorttime hasbeencommencedandinthose
whicharestillrunningfulltime,and somemillsbeingtempor-
arily altogether closed. ln some places, as at lackburn, for
instance,shorttimehasbeencoupledwithareductionofwages.
However,theshort-timemovementisonlyinitsincipientstate,
andwemaypredictwithperfectsecuritythatsomeweekslater
thetradewillhavegenerallyresortedtothreedaysworkingper
THE BRITI S H COTTON TRADE 2
77
week,concurrentlywithalargestoppageofmachineryinmost
establishments.Onthewhole,Englishmanufacturersandmer-
chantswereextremelyslowandreluctantinacknowledgingthe
awkward positionoftheircotton supplies. 'Thewhole ofthe
lastAmericancrop,"theysaid,
has long since been forwarded to Europe. The picking of the new
crop has barely commenced. Not a bale of cotton could have
reached us more than has reached us, even if the war and the
blockade16
8
had never been heard of. The shipping season does
not commence till far in November, and it is usually the end of
December before any large exportations take place. Till then, it
is of little consequence whether the cotton is retained on the
plantations or is forwarded to the ports as fast as it is bagged. If
the blockade ceases any time before the end of this year, the
probability is that by March or April we shall have received just
as full a supply of cotton as if the blockade had never been
declared.
lnthe innermostrecessesofthe mercantile mindthe notion
was cherished that the whole American crisis, and, conse-
quently,theblockade,wouldhaveceasedbeforetheendofthe
year, or that Lord Palmerston would forcibly break through
the blockade. The latter idea has been altogether abandoned,
since,besideallothercircumstances,Manchesterbecameaware
that two vast interests, the monetary interesthaving sunk an
immense capital in the industrial enterprises of Northern
America, and the corn trade, relying onNorthernAmerica as
its principal source of supply, would combine to check any
unprovoked aggressiononthepartoftheritish Covernment.
The hopes of the blockade being raised in due time, for the
requirementsofLiverpoolorManchester,ortheAmericanwar
beingwoundupby acompromisewiththeSecessionists, have
given way before a feature hitherto unknown in the English
cotton market, viz., American operations in cotton at Liver-
pool, partlyonspeculation,partlyforreshipmenttoAmerica.
Consequently, for the last two weeks the Liverpool cotton
markethasbeenfeverishlyexcited,thespeculativeinvestments
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
incottononthepartoftheLiverpoolmerchantsbeingbacked
by speculativeinvestments onthepartoftheManchester and
other manufacturers eager to provide themselves with stocks
of raw material for the Winter. The extent of the latter
transactionsissuf6cientlyshownbythefactthataconsiderable
portionofthesparewarehouseroominManchesterisalready
occupied by such stocks, and that throughout the week be-
ginnng with Sept. :S and ending with Sept. zz, Middling
Americanshadincreased ,ld.per|b,andfaironessld.
FromtheoutbreakoftheAmericanwarthepricesofcotton
weresteadilyrising,buttheruinousdisproportionbetweenthe
pricesoftherawmaterialandthepricesofyarnsandclothwas
not declared until the last weeks of August. Till then, any
serious decline in the prices of cotton manufactures, which
mighthavebeenanticipatedfromtheconsiderabledecreaseof
theAmericandemand,hadbeenbalancedbyan accumulation
of stocks in 6rst hands, and by speculative consignments to
China andlndia. Those Asiatic markets, however, were soon
overdone. 'Stocks, says The Calcutta Price Current ofAug.
;,: 6:, 'areaccumulating,thearrivalssinceourlastbeingno
less than za,ooo,ooo yards of plain cottons. Home advices
showacontinuationofshipmentsinexcessofourrequirements,
and solongasthisisthecase,improvementcannotbelooked
for . . The ombay market, also, has been greatly over-
supplied.
Someothercircumstancescontributedtocontractthelndian
market. The late famine in the north-western provinces has
beensucceededbytheravagesofthecholera,whilethroughout
Lowerengalanexcessivefallofrain, layingthecountryunder
water, seriously damaged the rice crops. ln letters from Cal-
cutta, whichreached England lastweek, saleswere reported
giving a netreturn of od. per pound for aos twist, which
cannot be bought at Manchester for less than : :d. , while
salesofao-inchshirtings, comparedwithpresentratesatMan-
chester, yield losses at ;zd., od. , and : zd. per piece. ln the
China market,priceswerealsoforceddown bytheaccumula-
tion of the stocks imported. Under these circumstances, the
demand for the ritish cotton manufactures decreasing, their
THE BRI TI SH COTTON TRADE
279
pricescan,ofcourse,notkeeppacewiththeprogressiverisein
thepriceoftherawmaterial;but,onthecontrary,thespinning,
weaving,andprintingofcottonmust,inmanyinstances,cease
topaythecostsofproduction.Take,asanexample,thefollow-
ing case, stated by one ofthe greatest Manchester manufac-
turers,inreferencetocoarsespinning:
cl. 17, 1860.
Cost of cotton
Per lb.
6vd.
16s warp sold for 10vd.
Proft, 1d. per lb.
cl. 17, 1861.
Cost of cotton
16s warp sold for J 1
Loss, 1 y,d. per lb.
Margin.
Cost of
spinning
per lb
The consumption oflndian cotton is rapidly growing, and
withafurtherriseinprices,thelndiansupplywillcomeforward
atincreasingratios;butstillitremainsimpossibletochange,at
afewmonths'notice,alltheconditionsofproductionandturn
thecurrentofcommerce.Englandpaysnow,infact,thepenalty
forherprotractedmisrule ofthatvast lndianempire.Thetwo
main obstacles shehasnowtograpplewithinherattemptsat
supplantingAmericancotton by lndian cotton,isthewantof
meansofcommunicationandtransportthroughoutlndia,and
the miserable stateofthe lndianpeasant, disabling him from
improvingfavorablecircumstances. oththese difnculties the
Englishhavethemselvestothankfor.Englishmodernindustry,
ingeneral,reliedupontwopivotsequally monstrous.Theone
wasthepotato astheonlymeansoffeedinglrelandandagreat
partofthe Englishworkingclass. Thispivotwassweptaway
bythe potato diseaseandthe subsequent lrish catastrophe. ' '
A larger basis for the reproduction and maintenance of the
toiling millionshad then to be adopted. The second pivot of
280
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
English industry was the slave-grown cotton of the United
States.ThepresentAmericancrisisforcesthemtoenlargetheir
6eldofsupplyandemancipatecottonfromslave-breedingand
slave-consuming oligarchies. As long as the English cotton
manufactures depended on s|ave-grown cotton, it cou|d be
ruhfully asserted that they rested on a twofold slavery, the
mdrrect slavery of the white man in Eng|and and the direct
slavcryoftheblackmenontheothersideoftheAtlantic.
The North ~erican Civil War
PublishedOctober zs, : 6:
FormonthstheleadingeeklyanddailypapersoftheLondon
press have been reierating the same litany on the American
Civi

l War.Whiletheyinsultthefreestates oftheNorth,they
a

ousl

defend themselves against the suspicion ofsympa-


thrzrng

rththesl

vestatesoftheSouth.lnfact,theycontinu-
ally wrrte two artrcles: one article, in which they attack the
North, and anotherarticle, in which theyexcuse their attacks
ontheNorth. Qui s'excuse s'accuse.
lnessencetheextenuatingargumentsread:Thewarbetween
theNorthandSouthisatariffwar. Thewaris,further notfor
anyprinciple, does not touch the question ofslavery.and in
act

tu

ns on Northern lust for sovereignty. Finally, even if


j ustrce rsonthe side ofthe North, does itnot remain a vain
endeavortowantto subiugateeightmillion Anglo-Saxons by
force! Wou|d not separation ofthe South release the North
fromallconnectionwithNegroslaveryandensureforit with
it

twenty million inhabitants and its vastterritory, a h.gher,


hrtherto scarcely dreamt-of, development? Accordingly, must
nott

eNorthwe|come secession asa happyevent, instead of


wantmgtooverruleitbyabloodyandfutilecivilwar?
PointbypointwewillprobethepleaoftheEnglishpress.
ThewarbetweenNorthandSouth~sorunsthe6rstexcuse
isameretariffwar, awarbetweenaprotectionistsystemand
afreetradesystem,andritainnaturallystandsonthesideof
THE NORTH AMERI CAN CI VI L WAR
freetrade. Sha|ltheslave-ownerenioythefruitsofs|ave |abor
intheirentiretyorsha|lhebecheatedofaportionoftheseby
theprotectionistsoftheNorth? That is the questionwhich is
at issue in this war. lt was reserved for The Times to make
this bri|liant discovery. The Economist, The Examiner, The
Saturday Review, and tutti quanti170 expounded the theme
further.ltis characteristic ofthis discovery that itwasmade,
notinCharleston,butinLondon.Naturally,inAmericaevery-
oneknewthatfrom: a6to : 6: afreetradesystemprevailed,
andthatRepresentativeMorril|carriedhisprotectionisttariff
throughCongressonlyin: 6:, aftertherebellionhada|ready
brokenout.Secession,therefore,didnottakeplacebecausethe
Morri|| tariff had gone through Congress, but, at most, the
Morrill tariff went through Congress because secession had
taken place. When South Carolina had its 6rst attack of
secessionin : , t ,theprotectionisttariffof: zservedit,to
besure,asapretext, butonlyasapretext,asisknownfroma
statement of General 1ackson. This time, however, the old
pretexthasinfactnotbeenrepeated.lntheSecessionCongress
atMontgomeryallreferencetothetariffquestionwasavoided,
becausethecultivationofsugarin Louisiana, one ofthemost
influentia|Southernstates,dependsentirelyonprotection.
ut,theLondonpressp|eadsfurther,thewaroftheUnited
Statesisnothingbutawarfortheforcib|emaintenanceofthe
Union. The Yankees cannot make up their minds to strike
6fteen starsfromtheir standard. Theywant to cut a co|ossa|
6gure onthewor|dstage.Yes,itwou|dbe differentifthewar
waswagedfortheabolitionofslavery!Thequestionofslavery,
however,asThe Saturday Review categoricallydeclaresamong
otherthings,hasabsolute|ynothingtodowiththiswar.
ltisabovealltoberememberedthatthewardidnotoriginate
withtheNorth, butwiththe South.TheNorth 6ndsitselfon
the defensive. For months it had quietly looked on whilethe
secessionists appropriated the Union`s forts, arsenals, ship-
yards,customshouses,payof6ces,ships,andsuppliesofarms,
insu|teditsfIag andtookprisoner bodiesofitstroops. Finally
thesecessionistsreso|vedtoforcetheUniongovernmentoutof
itspassiveattitude byab|atantactofwar,andsolely for this
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
reason proceeded to the bombardment of Fort Sumter near
Charleston. On April : : | t 6t their Ceneral eauregard''
hadlearntinameetingwithMaiorAnderson,thecommander
ofFortSumter,thatthefortwason|ysuppliedwithprovisions
forthreedaysmoreandaccording|ymustbepeacefu||ysurren-
deredafterthisperiodlnordertoforesta|lthispeacefulsurren-
der, the secessionists opened the bombardment early on the
ollowingmorning |April t z , which broughtaboutthefal|of
the fort in a few hours. News of this had hard|y been tele-
graphedtoMontgomery,theseatoftheSecessionCongress,'
whenWarMinisterWalker pub|ic|y dec|ared inthe name of
thenewConfederacy:'Nomancansaywherethe war opened
today willend.Atthe same timehe prophesied 'thatbefore
the6rstofMaythef|agoftheSouthernConfederacywil|wave
fromthedomeoftheoldCapito| inWashingtonand withina
short time perhaps a|so from the Faneui| Ha|l in oston.
Onlynowensuedtheproc|amationinwhichLincolncalledfor
;s,ooo men to defend the Union. The bombardment of Fort
Sumtercutofftheonlypossibleconstitutionalwayout,name|y
the convocation of a genera| convention of the American
people, asLincolnhad proposed inhis inaugura| address.For
Lincoln there now remained on|y the choice of fleeing from
Washington, evacuating Mary|and and Delaware and surren-
deringKentucky,Missouri,andVirginia, orofansweringwar
withwar.
The question ofthe princip|e ofthe American Civil War is
answered bythe battle s|oganwithwhichthe South brokethe
peace.Stephens,'`theVice-PresidentoftheSouthernConfeder-
acy, dec|ared in the Secession Congress that what essentially
distinguishedtheConstitutionnew|yhatchedatMontgomery
from the Constitution of the Washingtons and1effersons was
thatnowfor the 6rst time slaverywas recognized asan insti-
tutiongoodinitself,andasthefoundationofthewholestate
edi6ce, whereas the revolutionary fathers, men steeped inthe
preiudicesof the eighteenth century,had treated s|averyasan
evil importedfromEng|andandtobeeliminatedinthecourse
oftime.AnothermatadoroftheSouth,Mr. Spratt,cried out:
'Forusitisaquestionoffoundingagreats|averepublic.lf,
THE NORTH AMERI CAN CI VI L WAR
therefore, it wasindeedonlyin defenseofthe Unionthatthe
Northdrewthesword,hadnottheSoutha|readydeclaredthat
the continuanceofs|averywas no|onger compatib|ewiththe
continuanceoftheUnion?
1ust asthebombardmentoffortSumtergavethesigna|

for
the openingofthewar, the e|ectionvictory ofthe Republtcan
Party ofthe North, the election ofLincoln as President, gave
the signal for secession. On November 6, t6o, Lincoln was
e|ected. On November , t6o, a message te|egraphed from
South Caro|ina said. 'Secession is regarded here as a sett|ed
thing, on November tothe |egis|ature of Ceorgia oc

upied
itse|fwithsecessionplans,andonNovember t , a specra| ses-
sionofthelegis|atureofMississippiwasconvenedtoconsider
secession. ut Lincoln`s electionwas itselfon|ytheresultofa
sp|itinthe Democratic camp. Duringthe e|ectionstrugg|ethe
Democrats oftheNorth concentratedtheirvoteson Douglas,
theDemocratsoftheSouthconcentratedtheirvotesonBreckin
ridge, andtothissplittingoftheDemocraticvotestheRepubli-
canPartyoweditsvictory.Whencecame,ontheonehand,the
preponderanceoftheRepublican PartyintheN

orth?Whence,
ontheother,thedisunionwithin theDemocrattc Party,whose
members, North and South, had operated in coniunction for
more thanha|facentury?
Underthe presidencyofuchanantheswaythatthe South
hadgradua||yusurpedovertheUnionthroughitsa||iance

with
theNorthernDemocratsattaineditszenith.The lastContmen-
tal Congress of t ;;andthe6rst Constitutiona| Congressof
t ;o~oo had |ega||y exc|uded s|avery fr

llTer

itories of
the repub|ic northwestofthe Ohio. |Territorres, as

rsknown,
isthenamegiventotheco|onies|yingwithintheUn

rtedStat

s
itse|fwhichhavenotyetattainedthelevelofpopulatronconstr-
tutionallyprescribedfortheformationofautonomousstates.
Theso-ca||edMissouriCompromise| t zo,inconsequenceof
whichMissouribecameoneoftheStatesoftheUnionasas|ave
state exc|udedslaveryfromeveryremainingTerritorynorthof
, 6,' latitudeandwestoftheMissouri. ythiscompromise
theareaofslaverywas advancedseveraldegreesof|ongitude,
while, ontheother hand, a geographical boundary-lineto its
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
futurespreadseemedquitede6nitelydrawn.Thisgeographical
barrier,initsturn,wasthrowndownin t sa bytheso-called
Kansas-Nebraska ill,theinitiatorofwhichwasSt'ephen]A.
Douglas, then leader ofthe Northern Democrats. The ill,
whichpassedbothHousesofCongress,repealedtheMissouri
Compromise,placedslaveryandfreedomonthesamefooting,
commanded the Union government to treat them both with
equal indifference, and left to the sovereignty of the people,
that is,the mai ority of the settlers, to decidewhether or not
slaverywastobeintroducedin aTerritory.Thus,for the6rst

timeinthehistoryoftheUnitedStates,everygeographicaland
legal limitto the extension of slavery in the Territories was
removed.Underthisnewlegislationthe hithertofreeTerritory
ofNewMexico, aTerritory6vetimes as largeasthe Stateof
NewYork, was transformed into a slave Territory, and the
areaofslaverywasextended fromtheborderoftheMexican
Republicto , northlatitude.ln : so NewMexicoreceived
a slave code that vies with the statute-books of Texas and
Alabama in barbarity. Nevertheless, as the census of t 6o
proves, among some t oo,ooo inhabitants New Mexico does
notcountevenhalfahundred slaves. lthadtherefore suf6ced
fortheSouthtosendsomeadventurerswithafewslaversover
the border, and then with the help ofthe central government
in Washington and of its of6cials and contractors in New
Mexico to drum together a sham popular representation to
impose slavery andwith itthe rule ofthe slaveholders on the
Territory.
However, this convenient method did notprove applicable
inotherTerritories.TheSouthaccordinglywentastepfurther
andappealedfromCongresstotheSupremeCourtoftheUnited
States. This Court,whichnumbers nine iudges, 6veofwhom
belongtotheSouth,hadlongbeenthemostwillingtoolofthe
slaveholders. lt decided in : s;, in the notorious Dred Scott
case, that every American citizen possesses the right to take
with him into any Territory any property recognized by the
Constitution.TheConstitution,itmaintained,recognizesslaves
aspropertyand obliges theUniongovernmenttoprotectthis
property.Consequently,onthebasisoftheConstitution,slaves
THE NORTH AMERI CAN CI VI L WAR
couldbeforcedtolaborintheTerritoriesbytheirowners,and
soeveryindividualslaveholderwasentitledtointroducesl

ry
into hitherto freeerritories against the will of the majonty
ofthe settlers. The rightto exclude slaverywas taken from
the Territorial legislatures and the duty to protect pioneers
ofthe slave systemwas imposed on Congress and the Union
government.
lfthe Missouri Compromiseoft zohadextendedthegeo-
graphical boundary-line of slavery in the Territories, if

the
Kansas-Nebraska ill of : sa had erased every geographrcal
boundary-line andsetupapoliticalbarrierinstead,thewillof
the mai ority of the settlers, now the Supreme Court of te
United States, by its decision of t s;, tore down even thrs
political barrier and transformed all the Territories of

the
republic, present andfuture, fromnurseriesoffreestates rnto
nurseriesofslavery.
Atthesametime,underuchanan'sgovernmenttheseverer
lawonthesurrenderingoffugitiveslavesenactedin t sowas
ruthlessly carried out in the states ofthe North. To play the
part ofslave-catchers for the Southern slaveholders appeared
tobetheconstitutionalcallingoftheNorth.Ontheotherhand,
in order to hinder as far as possible the colonization of the
Territoriesbyfreesettlers,theslaveholders'partyfrustratedall
the so-called free-soilmeasures, i.e., measures which were to
secure for thesettlers a de6nite amount ofuncultivated state
landfreeofcharge.
lntheforeign,asinthedomestic,policyoftheUnitedStates,
the interests of the slaveholders served as the guiding star:
uchanan had infactobtained theof6ceofPresidentthrough
the issueofthe OstendManifesto,inwhichtheacquisitionof
Cuba,whetherbypurchaseorbyforceofarms,

asproclaimed
as the great task of national policy. Under hts go

ernment
northern Mexico was already divided among Amencan land
speculators, who impatiently awaited the si

nal o all on
Chihuahua, Coahuila,andSonora.Theunceasrngprratical

x-
peditionsofthe6libustersagainstthestatesofCentraiAmenca
weredirectednolessfromtheWhiteHouseatWashrngton.ln
theclosestconnectionwiththisforeignpolicy,whosemanifest
286 DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
purposewasconquestofnewterritoryforthespreadofs|avery
andoftheslaveho|ders' rule, stoodthereopening of the slave
trade, secretly supportedbythe Uniongovernment. St'ephen]
A.Doug|ashimse|fdeclaredintheAmericanSenateonAugust
zo, t so: During the |ast year more Negroes have been
importedfromAfricathaneverbeforeinanysingleyear,even
atthetimewhentheslavetradewasstill|ega|.Thenumberof
slavesimportedinthelastyeartotalled6fteenthousand.
Armedspreadingofslaveryabroad wastheavowed aimof
nationalpolicy;theUnionhadinfactbecometheslaveofthe
,oo,ooo slaveholderswho heldswayoverthe South. A series
ofcompromises,whichtheSouthowedtoitsalliancewiththe
NorthernDemocrats,had|edtothisresu|t.Onthisalliancea|l
theattempts,periodicallyrepeatedsincet t;,toresisttheever
increasingencroachmentsoftheslaveholdershadhithertocome
togrief.Atlengththerecameaturningpoint.
For hard|y had the Kansas-Nebraska ill gone through,
whichwipedoutthegeographicalboundary-lineofs|averyand
made its introduction into new Territories subiectto the wil|
ofthe maiority ofthe settlers, when armed emissaries ofthe
slaveholders,borderrabblefromMissouriandArkansas,with
bowie-knife in one hand and revo|ver in the other, fell upon
Kansasandsoughtbythemostunheard-ofatrocitiestodislodge
its sett|ers fromthe Territory colonized by them. These raids
were supported by the central government in Washington.
Henceatremendousreaction. ThroughouttheNorth,butpar-
ticular|yintheNorthwest,arelieforganizationwasformedto
supportKansaswith men,arms, and money.Outofthis relief
organizationarosetheRepublican Party, whichthereforeowes
itsorigintothestruggleforKansas.Aftertheattempttotrans-
formKansasintoaslave Territory byforceofarmshadfailed,
the South sought to achieve the same result by politica|
intrigues. uchanan's government, in particu|ar, exerted its
utmost efforts to have Kansas included in the States of the
Unionasaslave state withaslaveconstitutionimposedonit.
Hencerenewed struggle, this time mainly conducted in Con-
gress atWashington. Even St'ephen] A. Douglas,thechiefof
the Northern Democrats, now | t s;~s entered the lists
THE NORTH AMERI CAN CI VI L WAR
against the government and his allies ofthe South, because
impositionofaslaveconstitutioncouldhavebeencontraryto
theprinciple ofsovereignty ofthe settlers passed inthe Neb-
raskailloft sa. Douglas,Senatorforl|linois,aNorthwestern
state,wouldnaturallyhavelostallhisinfluenceifhehadwanted
to concedeto the Souththe rightto steal by force ofarms or
throughacts ofCongress Territories colonized by the North.
As the struggle for Kansas, therefore, called the Republican
Party into being, it atthe same time occasionedthe 6rstsplit
within the Democratic Party itself.
TheRepub|icanPartyput forward its6rstplatformforthe
presidential election in t s6. Although its cand|date, 1ohn
Fremont,wasnotvictorious,thehugenumberofvotescastfor
him at any rate provedtherapidgrowthofthe Party, particu-
larly in the Northwest. At their second National Convention
forthepresidentialelections|May t;, t6o,theRepub|icans
again put forward their platform of t s 6, only enriched by
someadditions.ltsprincipalcontentswerethefollowing:Not
a foot of fresh territory is further conceded to slavery. The
6|ibustering policy abroad must cease. The reopening of the
slave trade is stigmatized. Finally, free-soil laws are to be
enactedforthefurtheranceoffreecolonization.
Thevitally importantpoint in thisplatform wasthatnota
footoffresh terrainwas conceded to slavery;rather itwas to
remainonce andforall con6nedwithinthe boundariesofthe
states where it already legally existed. Slavery wasthusto be
formally interned; but continual expansion of territory and
continualspreadofslavery beyonditsoldlimitsisalawoflife
fortheslave statesoftheUnion.
The cultivation of the southern export articles, cotton,
tobacco, sugar, etc.,carriedonbyslaves,isonlyremunerative
aslongasit isconductedwithlargegangsofslaves,onamass
scale and on wide expanses of a naturally fertile soil, which
requiresonlysimplelabor.Intensivecu|tivation,whichdepends
lessonfertilityofthesoilthanoninvestmentofcapital,intelli-
gence,andenergyof|abor,iscontrarytothenatureofslavery.
Hence the rapid transformation of states like Maryland and
Virginia,whichformerlyemployedslavesintheproductionof
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
export articles, into states which raise slaves to export them
intothedeepSouth.EveninSouthCarolina,wheretheslaves
formour-seventhsothepopulation,thecultivationocotton
has been almost completely stationary for years due to the
exhaustionothesoil.lndeed,byforceocircumstancesSouth
Carolina has already been transormed in part into a slave-
raising state, since it already sells slaves to the sum of four
miNion dollars yearly to the states o the extreme South and
Southwest.As soon as this pointisreached,theacquisitiono
newTerritories becomes necessary, sothatone section othe
slaveholderswiththeirslavesuayoccupynewfertilelandsand
that a new market or slave-raising, thereore or the sale o
slaves, may be created for the remaining section. lt is, for
example,indubitablethatwithouttheacquisitionoLouisiana
Missouri,andArkansasbytheUnitedStates,slaveryinVirgini
and Maryland would have become extinct long ago. ln the
SecessionistCongressatMontgomery,SenatorToombs,oneof
thespokesmenotheSouth,strikinglyformulatedtheeconomic
lawthatcommands theconstantexpansionotheterritoryo
slavery.'ln6teenyears,saidhe,'withoutagreatincreasein
slaveterritory, eitherthe slavesmustbe permittedto flee from
the whites, or the whitesmustfleeromthe slaves.
Asi sknown, the representation ofthe individual states in
theCongressHouseo Representativesdependson thesizeof
their respective populations. As the populations o the free
statesgrowfarmorequicklythan those oftheslavestates,the
number o Northern Representatives was bound to outstrip
thatotheSouthernveryrapidly.Therealseat ofthepolitical
powerothe Southisaccordinglytransferredmoreand more
to the American Senate, where every state,whether its popu-
lationisgreatorsmall,isrepresentedbytwoSenators.lnordet
toassertitsinfluenceintheSenateand,throughtheSenate,its
hegemony overtheUnitedStates,the Souththereforerequired
acontinualormation of newslave states.This,however,was
onlypossiblethroughconquesto foreignlands, as in the case
of Texas, or through the transformation of the Territories
belonging to the United States 6rst into slave Territories and
laterintoslavestates,asinthecaseofMissouri,Arkansas,etc.
THE NORTH AMERI CAN CI VI L WAR
John Calhoun, whomtheslaveholdersadmireastheirstateman
par excellence, stated as early as February :o, : a;, in the
Senate,thattheSenatealoneplaced a balance opower inthe
hands othe South, that extension of the slave territory was
necessarytopreservethisequilibriumbetweenSouthandNorth
intheSenate, andthattheattemptsotheSouthatthecreation
ofnewslavestatesbyorcewereaccordinglyiusti6ed.
Finally, the number o actual slaveholders in the South o
the Union does not amounttomore than , oo,ooo, a narrow
oligarchy that is confronted with many millions o so-called
poor whites, whose numbers have been constantly growing
throughconcentrationolandedpropertyandwhosecondition
isonlytobecomparedwiththatoftheRomanplebeiansinthe
period of Rome's extreme decline. Only by acquisition and
the prospect of acquisition o new Territories, as well as by
6libusteringexpeditions,isitpossibletosquaretheinterestsof
these'poorwhiteswiththoseoftheslaveholders,togivetheir
restlessthirstforactiona harmless directionandtotamethem
withtheprospectofonedaybecomingslaveholdersthemselves.
Astrictcon6nementofslaverywithinitsoldterrain,therefore,
was bound according to economic law to lead to itsgradual
extinction, in thepolitical spheretoannihilate the hegemony
that the slave states exercised through the Senate, and 6nally
toexposethe slave holding oligarchy within its own statesto
threateningperilsromthe'poorwhites.lnaccordancewith
theprinciplethatanyFurtherextensionofslaveTerritorieswas
tobeprohibitedbylaw,theRepublicansthereforeattackedthe
rule ofthe slaveholders at its root. The Republican election
victorywasaccordinglyboundtoleadtoopenstrugglebetween
North and South. And this election victory, as already men-
tioned, was itself conditioned by the split in the Democratic
camp.
TheKansasstruggle hadalreadycauseda splitbetweenthe
slaveholders'party andtheDemocratsotheNorthalliedtoit.
With the presidential election of :6o, the same strife now
brokeoutagaininamoregeneralform.TheDemocratsofthe
North,withDouglasastheircandidate,madetheintroduction
ofslaveryintoTerritoriesdependentonthewillofthemai ority
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
ofthe settlers. The slaveholders' party, with reckinridge as
theircandidate,maintainedthattheConstitutionoftheUnited
States,asthe SupremeCourthadalsodeclared,broughtslavery
legallyinitstrain; inandofitselfslaverywasalreadylegalin
all Territories and required no special naturalization. While,
therefore, the Republicans prohibited any extension of slave
Territories,theSouthernpartylaid claim to allTerritoriesof
the republic as legally warranted domains. What they had
attempted bywayofexamplewith regardtoKansas,toforce
slaveryon aTerritorythroughthecentral governmentagainst
thewillofthe settlersthemselves,theynow setup aslawfor
all theTerritories ofthe Union. Sucha concession lay beyond
the power of the Democratic leaders and would only have
occasionedthedesertionoftheirarmytotheRepublicancamp.
Ontheotherhand,Douglas's'settlers'sovereigntycouldnot
satisfytheslaveholders'party.Whatitwantedtoeffecthadto
beeffectedwithinthenextfouryearsunderthenewPresident,
couldonlybeeffected by theresourcesofthecentralgovern-
ment, and brooked no further delay. lt did not escape the
slaveholders that a new power had arisen, the Northwest,
whose population, having almostdoubled between : so and
: 6o,wasalreadyprettywell equaltothewhitepopulationof
the slave states~apower thatwas not inclined either bytra-
dition, temperament, or mode of life to let itself be dragged
from compromise to compromise in the manner of the old
Northeastern states.TheUnionwasstillofvaluetotheSouth

onlysofarasithandedoverFederalpowertoitasameansof
carryingouttheslavepolicy.lfnot,thenitwasbettertomake
the break now than to look on at the development of the
RepublicanPartyandtheupsurgeoftheNorthwestforanother
fouryearsandbeginthestruggleundermoreunfavorablecon-
ditions.The slaveholders`partythereforeplayedva banque! 174
When the Democrats ofthe North declined to go on playing
thepartofthe 'poor whites oftheSouth, the Southsecured
Lincoln`svictorybysplittingthevote,andthentookthisvictory
asapretextfordrawingtheswordfromthescabbard.
Thewhole movementwasandis based,asonesees,onthe
slave question. Not in the sense ofwhether the slaveswithin
THE LONDON TIMES ON THE ORLEANS PRI NCES IN AMERI CA 29 I
theexistingslavestatesshouldbeemancipatedoutrightornot,
butwhetherthezomillionfreemenoftheNorthshouldsubmit
any longerto anoligarchy of ,oo,ooo slaveholders;whether
the vastTerritoriesoftherepublicshould benurseriesforfree
states or for slavery; 6nally, whether the national policy of
theUnionshouldtakearmedspreadingofslaveryin Mexico,
CentralandSouthAmericaasitsdevice '. . . ]
The London Times on the Orleans Princes in America
PublishedNovember;, : 6:
Onthe occasionofthe KingofPrussia`svisitat Compiegne, ' `
The London Times published someracy articles, giving great
offenseontheothersideoftheChannel. ThePays, Journal de
l'Empire, inits turn,characterizedThe Times writersaspeople
whoseheadswerepoisonedbygin,andwhosepensweredipped
into mud. Such occasional exchanges of invective are only
intendedtomisleadpublicopinionastotheintimaterelations
connectingPrinting-HouseSquaretotheTuileries.Thereexists
beyondtheFrench frontiers nogreatersycophantofthe Man
ofDecemberthanThe London Times, andits servicesare the
more invaluable, the more that paper now and then assumes
thetoneandthe air ofa Catocensortoward its Caesar. The
Times hadfor monthsheaped insultupon Prussia. lmproving
themiserableMacdonaldaffair,'ithadtoldPrussiathatEng-
landwouldfeelgladtoseeatransferoftheRhenishProvinces
fromthebarbarousswayoftheHohenzollerntotheenlightened
despotism of a onaparte. lt had not only exasperated the
Prussiandynasty, butthePrussianpeople.lthadwrittendown
theideaofanAnglo-PrussianallianceincaseofaPrussiancon-
flictwithFrance.lthadstrainedallitspowerstoconvincePrussia
thatshehadnothingtohopefromEngland,andthatthenext
bestthingshecoulddowouldbetocometosomeunderstanding
withFrance. Whenatlasttheweakandtrimmingmonarchof
PrussiaresolveduponthevisitatCompiegne, The Times could
proudly exclaim: "quorum magna pars Mi; 17 but now the
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
time had also arrived for obliterating from the memory of
theritishthe factthat The Times had been thepath6nderof
thePrussianmonarch.Hencetheroarofitstheatricalthunders.
HencethecounterroarsofthePays, Journal de l'Empire.
The Times had now recovered its position of the deadly
antagonistofonapartism,and,therefore,thepoweroflending
itsaidtotheManofDecember.Anoccasionsoonoffered.Louis
onaparte is,ofcourse,mosttouchywhenevertherenownof
rival pretenders to the french crown is concerned. He had
covered himself with ridicule in the affair of the Duke
d'Aumale'spamphlet'againstPlonPlon,and,byhisproceed-
ings,haddonemoreinfurtheranceoftheOrleanistcausethan
alltheOrleanistpartisanscombined.Again,intheselatterdays,
thefrenchpeoplewerecalledupontodrawaparallelbetween
Plon Plon and the Orleans princes. When Plon Plon set out
forAmerica,therewerecaricaturescirculatedinthefaubourg
St.Antoinerepresentinghimasafatmaninsearchofacrown,
butprofessingatthesametimetobeamostinoffensivetraveler,
withapeculiaraversiontothesmellofpowder.WhilePlonPlon
isreturningtofrancewithnomorelaurelsthanhegatheredin
theCrimeaandinltaly,thePrincesofOrleanscrosstheAtlantic
totakeserviceintheranksoftheNationalarmy.Henceagreat
stir in the onapartist camp. lt would not do to give vent
to onapartist anger through the venal press of Paris. The
Imperialist fears would thus only be betrayed, the pamphlet
scandal renewed,and odiouscomparisons provoked between
exiled Princes who 6ght under the republican banner against
theenslavers ofworkingmillions,withanotherexiledPrince,
who had himselfsworn in as an English special constable to
share in the glory ofputting down an English workingmen`s
movement.
Who should extricate the Man of December out of this
dilemma? Who but The London Times? lfthe same London
Times, which,onthe 6th, ;th, th,andothofOctober, t 6t,
had roused the furiesofthePays, Joural de l'Empire, byits
rathercynicalstricturesonthevisitatCompiegne~ifthatvery
same paper should come out onthe : zth of October, with a
merciless onslaught on the Orleans Princes, because of their
THE LONDON TIMES ON THE O RLEANS PRI NCES I N AMERI CA 293
enlistment in the ranks of the National Army of the United
States,wouldLouisonapartenothaveprovedhiscaseagainst
the Orleans Princes? Would The Times article not be done
intofrench,commented upon bytheParispapers, sentbythe
Prefet de Police to allthejournalsofall the departm

nts, a

d
circulated throughout the whole of france, as the rmpartral
sentence passed by The London Times, the personal foe of
Louis onaparte, upon the last proceedings of the Orle

ns
Princes?Consequently,The Times ofto-dayhascomeoutwrth
amostscurrilousonslaughtontheseprinces.
Louis onaparte is, ofcourse, toomuchofa businessman
tosharetheiudicialblindnessinregardtotheAmericanwarof
the ofncial public opinion-mongers. He knows that thetrue
peopleofEngland,offrance,ofCermany,ofEurope,consider
thecauseoftheUnitedStatesastheirowncause,asthecause
ofliberty,andthat,despiteallpaidsophistry,theyconsiethe
soiloftheUnitedStatesasthefreesoilofthelandlessmrlhons
ofEurope,astheirlandofpromise,nowtobedefend

dsword
inhand,fromthesordidgraspoftheslaveholder.LoursNapo-
leon knows,moreover,thatinfrancethe massesconnectte
6ghtforthe maintenance ofthe Union withthe 6ght oftherr
forefathersforthefoundationofAmericanindependence,and
that with them everyfrenchman drawing his sword for the
National Covernmentappears only to execute the bequestof
Lafayette.onaparte,therefore,knowsthatifanythingbeable
to win the Orleans Princes good opinions from the french

people, it will be their enlistmentinthe ranks ofthe

ational
armyoftheUnitedStates.Heshuddersatthisverynotron,and
consequently The London Times, his censorious syco

phant,
tells to-day the Orleans princes that 'they will den

e no
increaseofpopularitywiththefrench nation fromstoopmgto
serve on this ignoble feld of action. " LouisNapoleonknows
thatallthewarswagedinEuropebetweenhostilenationssince
hiscoup d'etat, havebeenmockwars,groundless,wanton,nd
carriedononfa|sepretenses.The Russianwar,andtheItahan
war, not to speak ofthe piratical expeditions against hina,
Cochin-China, and so forth, never enlistedthe sympathres of
the ftench people, instinctively aware that both wars were
294
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK 1J11LT1
carriedon onlywiththeviewtostrengtheningthechainsforged
by the coup d'etat. The 6rst grand war of contemporaneous
historyistheAmericanwar.
ThepeoplesofEurope knowthattheSouthernslaveocracy
commencedthatwarwiththedeclarationthatthecontinuance
ofslaveocracywasnolongercompatiblewiththecontinuance
oftheUnion. Consequently,thepeopleofEuropeknowthata
6ghtor the continuance of the Union is a 6ght against the
continuanceoftheslaveocracythatinthiscontestthehighest
form of popular self-government till now realized is giving
battle to the meanest and most shameless form of man's
enslaving,recordedintheannalsofhistory.
Louis onaparte feels, of course, extremely sorry that the
Orleans Princes should embark in iustsuch a war, so distin-
guished,bythevastnessofitsdimensionsandthegrandeurof
its ends, from the groundless, wanton and diminutive wars
Europe has passed through since : ao. Consequently, The
London Times mustneedsdeclare:'Tooverlookthedifference
betweenawarwagedbyhostilenations,andthismostground-
less and wanton civil conflict of which history gives us any
account,isaspeciesofoffenseagainstpublicmorals.
The Times is, ofcourse, boundto windupitsonslaughton
theOrleansPrincesbecauseoftheir'stoopingtoserveonsuch
anignoble6eldofaction.Witha deep bow beforethevictor
ofSevastopol andSolferino, 'itis unwise, says The London
Times, 'to challenge a comparison between such actions as
Spring6eldandManassas,'andtheexploitsofSevastopoland
Solferino.
The next mail will testify to thepremeditated use made of
The Times's articlebythelmperialistorgans.Afriendintimes
ofneed is proverbially worth a thousand friends in times of
prosperity,andthesecretallyofThe London Times isitistnow
very badlyoff.
Adearthofcotton,backedbyadearthofgrain;acommercial
crisis coupled with an agricultural distress, and both ofthem
combinedwithareductionofCustomrevenuesandamonetary
embarrassmentcompellingtheankofFrancetoscrewitsrate
of discount to six per cent, to enter into transactions with
THE NEWS AND I TS EFFECT I N LONDON
295
Rothschilds andaringfora loan oftwo millions sterling on
theLondonmarket,topawnabroadFrenchCovernmentstock,
andwithallthattoshowbuta reserveof: z,ooo,oooagainst
liabilitiesamountingtomorethanao,ooo,ooo. Suchastateof
economical affairs prepares iust the situation for rival pre-
tenderstostakedouble.Alreadytherehavebeenbread-riotsin
theFaubourgSt. Antoine, andthisofalltimesisthereforethe
mostinappropriatetimeforallowing Orleans Princestocatch
popularity. Hence the 6erce forward rush of The London
Times.
The News and Its Effect in London
PublishedDecember:o, : 6:
Sincethe declarationofwar against Russia l never witnessed
anexcitementthroughoutallthestrataofEnglishsocietyequal
tothatproducedbythenewsofthe Trent affair,conveyedto
Southampton by the La Plata on the z;th inst. At about z
o'clockp.m.,bymeansoftheelectrictelegraph,theannounce-
mentofthe 'untowardeventwaspostedinthenews-rooms
of all the ritish Exchanges. All commercial securities went
down,while thepriceofsaltpeterwentup. Consols'`declined
: per cent, while at Lloyds war risks ofnve guineas were
demandedon vesselsfromNew-York. Late in the eveningthe
wildest rumors circulated in London, to the effect that the
American Minister'`' had forthwith been sent his passports,
that orders had been issued for the immediate seizure of all
American ships in the ports of the United Kingdom, and so
forth. Thecotton friends ofSecession atLiverpool improved
theopportunityforholding,attenminutes'notice,inthecotton
salesroom of the Stock Exchange, an indignation meeting,
underthepresidencyofMr.Spence,theauthorofsomeobscure
pamphletintheinterestoftheSouthernConfederacy.Commo-
doreWilliams, theAdmiralty Agentonboardthe Trent, who
had arrived with the La Plata, was at once summoned to
London.
DI SPATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
On the fo|lowing day, the zth ofNovember, the London
press exhibited, onthewhole, a tone ofmoderation strange|y
contrastingwiththetremendouspolitica|andmercanti|eexcite-
ment ofthe previous evening. The Palmerston papers, Times,
Morning Post, Daily Telegraph, Moring Advertiser, andSun,
had received orders to calm down rather than to exasperate.
The Daily News, by its strictures on the conduct of the San
jacinto, evidentlyaimedlessathittingthefederalCovernment
than clearing itself of the suspicion of 'Yankee preiudices,
while The Morning Star, 1ohnright'sorgan,withoutpassing
anyiudgmentonthepo|icyandwisdomofthe'act,pleaded
its lawfu|ness. There wereonlytwoexceptionsto thegeneral
tenoroftheLondonpress.TheTory-scribblersofThe Morning
Herald and The Standard, forming in fact one paper under
different names, gave ful| vent to their savage satisfaction of
havingatlastcaughtthe'republicansinatrap,and6ndinga
casus belli, ready cut out. They were supported by but one
other iournal, The Morning Chronicle, which for years had
tried to prolong its checkered existence by a|ternately selling
itselftothepoisonerPa|merandtheTuileries.Theexcitement
ontheExchangegreatlysubsidedinconsequence ofthepaci6c
tone oftheleadingLondonpapers.OnthesamezthofNov.,
CommanderWilliamsattendedattheAdmiralty,andreported
thecircumstancesoftheoccurrenceintheoldahamaChannel.
Hisreport,togetherwiththewrittendepositionsoftheof6cers
onboardtheTrent, wereatonce submittedtothe|awof6cers
oftheCrown,whoseopinion,lateintheevening,wasof6cially
broughtunderthenoticeofLordPalmerston,EarlRusselland
othermembersoftheCovernment.
On the zoth ofNovember there was to be remarked some
slight change inthe tone ofthe ministerial press. lt became
known that the law of6cers of the Crown, on a technical
ground,haddeclaredtheproceedingsofthefrigateSan jacinto
illegal, and that later inthe day, the Cabinet,summonedto a
general counci|, had decided to send bynext steamer to Lord
Lyons instructions to conform to the opinion of the English
law of6cers. Hence the excitement in the principal places of
business, such asthe Stock Exchange, Lloyd's, the1erusa|em,
THE NEWS AND I TS EFFECT IN LONDON 2
97
the altic, etc., set inwith redoubled force, andwas further
stimulatedbythenewsthattheproiectedshipmentstoAmerica
ofsaltpeterhadbeenstoppedonthepreviousday,andthaton
the zoth a general order was received at the Custom-House
prohibitingtheexportationofthisartic|etoanycountryexcept
undercertain stringent conditions. TheEng|ish funds further
fell , and at one time a real panicprevailed in all the stock
markets,ithavingbecomeimpossibletotransactanybusiness
insomesecurities,whileinalldescriptionsaseveredepression
ofprices occurred. ln the afternoon a recovery in the stock
marketwasduetoseveralrumours,butprincipal|ytothereport
thatMr. Adams had expressed his opinion thatthe act ofthe
San jacinto wouldbedisavowedbytheWashingtonCabinet.
On the , oth ofNovember |to-day alltheLondonpapers,
withthesing|eexceptionofThe Morning Star, putthea|terna-
tiveofreparationbytheWashingtonCabinetor-war.
Havingsummedupthehistoryoftheeventsfromthearrival
of the La Plata to the present day; l shall now proceed to
recording opinions. There were, of course, two points to be
considered~on the one hand the |aw, on the other hand the
policy,oftheseizureoftheSouthernCommissionersonboard
anEnglishmailsteamer.
AstotheIegalaspectoftheaffair,the6rstdif6cultymooted
by the Tory press and The Morning Chronicle was that the
United Stateshaduever recognized the Southern Secessionists
asbelligerents, and,consequently,couldnotclaim belligerent
rightsinregardtothem.
ThisquibblewasatoncedisposedofbytheMinisterialpress
itse|f. 'We, said The Times, 'have already recognized these
ConfederateStates asa belligerentpower, and wesha|l,when
thetimecomes,recognizetheirCovernment.Thereforewehave
imposed on ourselves all the duties and inconveniences of a
powerneutral betweentwobelligerents.
Hence, whether or nottheUnitedStatesrecognizethe Con-
federates as belligerents, they have the right to insist upon
England submitting to all the duties and inconveniences of a
neutralinmaritimewarfare.
Consequently, with the exceptions mentioned, the whole
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
LondonpressacknowledgetherightoftheSan Jacinto toover-
haul,visit,andsearchtheTrent, inorderto ascertainwhether
shecarriedgoodsorpersonsbelongingtothecategoryof'con-
trabandofwar.The Times's insinuationthattheEnglishlaw
ofdecisions'wasgivenunder circumstances very different from
thosewhich nowoccur;that'steamers did notthenexist,
andmail vessels, 'carrying letters wherein all the nations of
the world haveimmediateinterest,wereunknown;that'we
|theEnglishwerefighting for existence, and didinthose days
what we should not allow others to do, was not seriously
thrown out. Palmerston's private Moniteur, The Moring
Post, declaredonthesamedaythatmail steamerswere simple
merchantmen,notsharingtheexemptionfromtherightofsearch
ofmen-of-warandtransports.Theright of search, onthepartof
theSan Jacinto, wasinpointoffact, conceded bytheLondon
pressaswellasthelawof6cersoftheCrown.Theobj ectionthat
the Trent, insteadofsailingfroma belligerenttoa belligerent
port,was,onthecontrary, boundfroma neutraltoa neutral
port,felltothegroundbyLordStowell'sdecisionthattheright
ofsearchisintendedtoascertainthedestinationofaship.
Inthesecondinstance,thequestionarosewhether by6ring
a round shot across the bows ofthe Trent, and subsequently
throwingashell, burstingclosetoher,theSan Jacinto hadnot
violatedtheusagesandcourtesiesappurtenanttotheexercise
oftherightofvisitationandsearch. ltwasgenerallyconceded
bytheLondonpressthat,sincethedetailsoftheeventhavetill
now been only ascertained by the depositions of one of the
partiesconcerned,no suchminorquestioncouldinuencethe
decisionto bearrivedatbytheritishCovernment.
Therightofsearch,exercised bytheSan Jacinto, thusbeing
conceded, whathad she to look for? forcontraband of war,
presumedtobeconveyed bytheTrent. Whatiscontrabandof
war? Are the dispatches of a belligerent Covernmentcontra-
bandofwar?Arethepersons carryingthosedispatchescontra-
band of war? And, both questions being answered in the
af6rmative, do thosedispatches and the bearers of them con-
tinue to becontraband of war, if found on a merchant ship
boundfromaneutralporttoaneutralport?TheLondonpress
THE NEWS AND ITS EFFECT I N LONDON 299
admitsthatthedecisionsofthehighestlegalauthoritiesonboth
sidesoftheAtlanticareso contradictory, andmaybeclaimed
withsuchappearanceofiusticeforboththeaf6rmativeandthe
negative,that,atallevents,aprima facie caseismadeoutfor
theSan Jacinto.
ConcurrentlywiththisprevalentopinionoftheEnglishpress,
theEnglishCrownlawyershavealtogetherdroppedthematerial
question, and only takenuptheformal question.Theyassert
thatthe law ofnations was notviolated in substance, butin
form only. They have arrived at the conclusion that the San
Jacinto failedinseizing,onherownresponsibility,theSouthern
Commissioners, instead oftakingthe Trent to a federal port
andsubmittingthequestiontoafederalPrize-Court,noarmed
cruiserhavingarighttomakehimselfa1udgeatsea.Aviolation
in the procedure ofthe San Jacinto is, therefore, all that is
imputed to her by the English Crown lawyers, who, in my
opinion, are right in their conclusion. lt might be easy to
unearth precedents, showing England to have similarly tres-
passedontheformalitiesofmaritimelaw;butviolationsoflaw
canneverbeallowedto supplantthelawitself.
The question may now be mooted,whetherthe reparation
demandedbytheEnglishCovernment~thatis,therestitution
of the Southern Commissioners~be warranted by an iniury
whichthe English themselves avow to be ofform rather than
ofsubstance? A lawyer ofthe Temple, in the to-day's Times,
remarks,inrespecttothispoint:
If the case is not so clearly in our favor as that a decision in the
American Court condemning the vessel would have been liable
to be questioned by us as manifestly contrary to the laws of
nations, then the irregularity of the American Captain in allowing
the Trent to proceed to Southampton, clearly redounded to the
advantage of the British owners and the British passengers. Could
we in such a case fnd a ground of international quarrel in an
error of procedure which in effect told in our own favor?
Still,iftheAmericanCovernmentmustconcede,asit seems
tome,that Capt. Wilkeshascommittedaviolationofmaritime
300 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
law,whetherformalormaterial,theirfairfameandtheirinter-
estought aliketopreventthem fromnibblingatthetermsof
the satisfactiontobegiventotheiniuredparty.Theyoughtto
remember that they do the work of the Secessionists in em-
broilingtheUnited States in a warwith England, thatsuch a
war would be a godsend to Louis onaparte in his present
dif6culties, and would, consequently, be supported by all the
ofncialweightoffrance;and,lastly,that,whatwiththeactual
forceunderthecommandoftheritishontheNorthAmerican
andWestlndianstations,whatwiththeforcesoftheMexican
Expedition,theEnglishCovernmentwouldhaveatitsdisposal
anoverwhelmingmaritimepower.
AstothepolicyoftheseizureintheahamaChannel,thevoice
notonlyoftheEnglishbutoftheEuropeanpressisunanimous
in expressions ofbewilderment atthe strangeconduct ofthe
American Covernment, provoking such tremendous inter-
national dangers, for gaining the bodies of Messrs. Mason,
Slidell&Co.,whileMessrs.YanceyandMannarestruttingin
London. The Times is certainly right in saying: 'Even Mr.
Seward himselfmustknowthatthevoices oftheseSouthern
Commissioners,soundingfromtheircaptivity,areathousand
timesmoreeloquentinLondon and inParisthantheywould
havebeeniftheyhadbeenheardatSt.1ames'sandtheTuileries.
ThepeopleoftheUnitedStateshavingmagnanimouslysub-
mitted to a curtailment oftheirownliberties inorderto save
theircountry,willcertainlybenolessreadytoturnthetideof
popularopinioninEnglandbyopenlyavowing, andcarefully
making up for, an international blunder the vindication of
whichmightrealizetheboldesthopesoftherebels.
Progress of Feeling in England
PublishedDecemberzs, t 6t
The friends ofthe United States onthis side ofthe Atlantic
anxiously hope that conciliatory steps will be taken by the
federalCovernment.Theydosonotfromaconcurrenceinthe
PROGRESS OF FEELI NG I N ENGLAND 301
franticcrowingoftheritishpressoverawarincident,which,
according to the English Crown lawyers themselves, resolves
itselfintoa mereerrorofprocedure,andmaybesummedup
inthewordsthattherehasbeenabreachofinternationallaw,
because Capt. Wilkes, instead oftakingthe Trent, hercargo,
herpassengers,andtheCommissioners,didonlytaketheCom-
missioners. Norspringsthe anxietyofthewell-wishersofthe
CreatRepublic from anapprehensionlest, in thelongrun, it
shouldnotprove abletocopewithEngland,althoughbacked
by the civilwar; and, least of all, do they expectthe United
States to abdicate, evenfora moment, andin a darkhour of
trial,theproudpositionheldbytheminthecouncilofnations.
Themotivesthatpromptthemareofquiteadifferentnature.
lnthenrstinstance,thebusinessnextinhandfortheUnited
States is to crushthe rebellion andto restore the Union. The
wish uppermost in the minds of the Slaveocracy and their
Northern tools was always to plunge the United States into a
warwithEngland.The6rststepofEnglandassoonashostilities
broke out would be to recognize the Southern Confederacy,
andthesecondtoterminatetheblockade.Secondly,nogenera|,
if not forced, will accept battle at the time and under the
conditions chosen by hisenemy. 'Awarwith America, says
The Economist, a paper deeply in Palmerston`s con6dence,
'must always be one ofthe most lamentable incidents inthe
historyofEngland;butifitistohappen,the present is certainly
the period at which it will do us the minimum of harm, and the
only moment inourjoint annals at which it would confer on
us an incidental and partial compensation. "
TheveryreasonsaccountingfortheeagernessofEnglandto
seizeuponany decentpretextforwar at this 'only moment
ought to withhold the United States from forwarding such a
pretextatthis'onlymoment. Yougonottowarwiththeaim
todoyourenemy"the minimum of harm," and,eventoconfer
uponhimbythewar,"an incidental and partial compensation."
The opportunityofthe momentwouldallbeononeside, on
the side of your foe. ls there any great strain of reasoning
wantedto prove that an internalwar raging in a State is the
leastopportunetimeforenteringuponaforeignwar?Atevery
302 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
other moment the mercantile classes of Creat ritain would
have looked upon a war against the United Stateswith the
utmost horror. Now, on the contrary, a large and inuential
partyofthemercantilecommunityhasformonthsbeenurging
onthe Covernmenttoviolently break the blockade, andthus
provide the main branch of ritish industry with its raw
material.Thefearofa curtailmentoftheEnglish exporttrade
totheUnitedStateshas lostitsstingbythecurtailmentofthat
tradehaving already actually occurred. 'They |theNorthern
States,saysThe Economist, 'arewretchedcustomers,instead
ofgood ones. The vastcreditusuallygiven by Englishcom-
mercetotheUnitedStates,principallybytheacceptanceofbills
drawn from China and lndia, has been already reduced to
scarcelyanfthofwhatitwasin: s;. Last,notleast,Decembr-
istfrance, bankrupt, paralyzed athome, besetwith difnculty
abroad, pounces upon anAnglo-American war asa real god-
send,and,inordertobuyEnglishsupportinEurope,willstrain
allherpowertosupport'PerndiousAlbion ontheotherside
oftheAtlantic.Readonlythefrenchnewspapers.Thepitchof
indignation towhich they have wrought themselves in their
tendercareforthe'honorofEngland,theirnercediatribesas
tothenecessityonthepartofEnglandtorevengetheoutrage
ontheUnion1ack,theirviledenunciationsofeverythingAmeri-
can,would betrulyappalling,iftheywerenotridiculousand
disgusting at the same time. Lastly, ifthe United States give
way in this instance, they will not derogate one iota oftheir
dignity. England has reducedhercomplainttoamereerror of
procedure, a technical blunder ofwhich she has made herself
systematicallyguiltyinallhermaritimewars,butagainstwhich
theUnitedStateshaveneverceasedtoprotest,andwhichPresi-
dentMadison,'inhismessageinauguratingthewarof: : z,
expatiateduponasoneofthemostshocking breachesofinter-
national law. lftheUnited States may be defended in paying
Englandwithherowncoin,will theybeaccusedformagnani-
mouslydisavowing, onthepartofa singleAmericancaptain,
actingonhisownresponsibility,whattheyalwaysdenounced
asa systematicusurpationonthe partofthe ritish Navy! ln
PROGRESS OF FEELI NG I N ENGLAND
point offact, the gain ofsuch a procedure would beall on
the American side. England, on the one hand, would have
acknowledged the right of the United States to capture and
bring to adiudication before an American prize court every
English shipemployedintheserviceofthe Confederation. On
theother hand, shewould, oncefor all, before theeyesofthe
whole world, have practicallyresigned a claim which she was
not brought to desistfrom either in the peace ofChent, ' ` in
: :a,or thetransactions carried onbetween LordAshburton
andSecretaryWebster'`in : az. The question then comesto
this: Doyouprefertoturnthe'untowardeventtoyourown
account, or, blindedbythepassionsofthemoment, turnitto
the accountofyour foes at home andabroad?
Sincethisdayweek'. . . ]ritishconsolshaveagainlowered,
the decline, compared with last friday, amounting to z per
cent, the present prices being o: to Y formoney andooto
ooxforthenewaccountontheothof1anuary.Thisquotation
correspondstothe quotationofthe ritishconsolsduringthe
nrst two years of the Anglo-Russian war. This decline is
altogetherduetothewarlikeinterpretationputupontheAmeri-
canpapersconveyedbythelastmail, totheexacerbatingtone
ofthe Londonpress, whose moderationoftwodays' standing
wasbutafeint,orderedbyPalmerston,tothedispatchoftroops
forCanada,totheproclamationforbiddingtheexportofarms
and materials forgunpowder andlastly, to the daily ostenta-
tious statements concerning the formidable preparations for
warinthe docks andmaritimearsenals.
Of one thing you may be sure, Palmerston wants a legal
pretext for a war with the United States, but meets in the
Cabinet councils with a most determinate opposition on the
part of Messrs. Cladstone and Milner Cibson, and, to a less
degree,ofSirCornwallLewis.'Thenobleviscountisbacked
by Russell, an abi ect tool in his hands, and the whole Whig
Coterie. lfthe Washington Cabinetshouldfurnishthedesired
pretext,the present Cabinet will besprung, to be supplanted
by a Tory Administration. The preliminary steps for such a
changeofsceneryhavebeenalreadysettledbetweenPalmerston
DI S PATCHES F OR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
andDisrae|i.Hencethefuriouswar-cryofThe Moring Herald
andThe Standard, thosehungrywo|veshow|ingattheprospect
ofthelong-missedcrumbsfromthepublica|moner.
Pa|merston'sdesignsmaybeshownupbyca||ingintomemory
a few facts. lt was he who insisted upon the proclamation,
acknow|edgingtheSecessionistsasbelligerents,onthemorning
ofthe

ath ofMay,afterhe had beeninformed byte|egraph


fromLiverpoolthatMr.AdamswouldarriveatLondononthe
night of the t ,th May. He, after a severe struggle with his
co||eagues, dispatched ,,ooomentoCanada,anarmyridicu-
|ous,ifintendedtocoverafrontierof :, soomiles,butac|ever
s|eight-of-handiftherebe||ionwastobecheered,andtheUnion
to beirritated. He, manyweeks ago, urgedonapartetopro-
pose a ioint armedintervention 'inthe internecine strugg|e,
supportedthatproiectintheCabinetcouncil,andfailedonly
incarryingitbytheresistanceofhiscolleagues. Heandona-
partethenresortedto theMexicanintervention asapis aller.
Thatoperationservedtwopurposes,byprovokingiustresent-
men o

n the part of the Americans, and by simultaneously


furmshmg a pretext for the dispatch ofa squadron,ready, as
The Morning Post hasit,'toperformwhateverdutythehosti|e
conductofthe CovernmentofWashingtonmayrequireusto
perform inthe waters ofthe Northern At|antic. Atthe time
wsenthatexpeditionwasstarted,The Morning Post, together
wtthThe Times andthesma||erfryofPa|merston'spresss|aves
aid that it was a very nne thing, and a philanthropic thin
mto the bargain, because it would expose the slaveho|ding
Confederation to two nresthe Anti-S|avery North and the
Anti-Slavery force of Eng|and and france. And what says
theverysameMorning Post, thiscuriouscompoundof1enkins
and Rhodomonte, of plush and swash, in its to-day`s issue,
on occasion of 1efferson Davis's address? Hearken to the
Pa|merstonoracle:
We must look to this intervention as one that may be in operation
during a considerable period of time; and while the Northern
Government is too distant to admit of its attitude entering materi
ally into this question, the Southern Confederation, on the other
ENGLI S H PUBLI C OPI NI ON
hand, stretches for a great distance along the frontier of Mexico,
so as to render its friendly disposition to the authors of the in
surrection of no slight consequence. The Northern Government
has invariably railed at our neutrality, but the Southern with
statesmanship and moderation has recognized in it all that we
could do for either party; and whether with a view to our trans
actions in Mexico, or to our relations with the Cabinet at Wash
ington, the friendly forbearance of the Southern Confederacy is
an important point in our favor.
l may remark that the Nord of December ,a Russian
paper, and consequent|y a paper initiated into Pa|merston's
designs~insinuatesthattheMexicanexpeditionwasfromthe
nrstseton foot, not for its ostensible purpose, butfor a war
againsttheUnitedStates.
Cen. Scott'sletterhadproducedsuch a benencentreaction
in pub|ic opinion, and even on the London Stock Exchange,
thattheconspiratorsofDowningstreetandtheTuileriesfound
itnecessary to |etloosethePatrie, stating with al| the airs of
know|edgederivedfromofncia| sourcesthattheseizureofthe
Southern Commissionersfrom the Trent was direct|y author-
izedbytheWashingtonCabinet.
English Public Opinion
Pub|ishedfebruary :, : 6z
ThenewsofthepacincsolutionoftheTrent conictwas,bythe
bulkoftheEng|ishpeople,salutedwithanexu|tationproving
unmistakablytheunpopularityoftheapprehendedwarandthe
dreadofitsconsequences.ltoughtnevertobeforgotteninthe
UnitedStatesthatat|easttheworking classes ofEng|and,from
the commencement to the termination ofthe difnculty, have
never forsaken them. To them it was due that, despite the
poisonousstimu|antsdai|yadministeredbyavena|andreckless
press, notonesing|epub|icwarmeeting cou|d be he|d in the
UnitedKingdomduring al|theperiodthatpeacetremb|edin
306 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
the balance.The only war meetingconvenedonthearrivalof
the La Plata, in the cotton salesroom ofthe Liverpool Stock
Exchange,was acornermeetingwherethecottoniobbershad
it all to themselves. Even at Manchester, the temper of the
working classes was so well understood that an insulated
attempt at the convocation of a war meeting was almost as
soonabandonedasthoughtof.
Whereverpublicmeetings took place in England, Scotland,
or lreland, they protested against the rabid war-cries of the
press,againstthe sinister designs ofthe Covernment, and de-
clared fora paci6c settlementofthependingquestion. ln this
regard, the two last meetings held, the one at Paddington,
London,theotheratNewcastle-upon-Tyne,arecharacteristic.
TheformermeetingapplaudedMr.WashingtonWilkes`sargu-
mentationthatEnglandwasnotwarrantedin6ndingfaultwith
theseizureoftheSouthernCommissioners;whiletheNewcastle
meeting almost unanimously carried the resolution~6rstly,
thattheAmericanshadonlymadethemselvesguiltyofalawful
exercise ofthe rightofsearch and seizure; secondly, thatthe
captainofthe Trent oughtto bepunished forhisviolationof
English neutrality, as proclaimed by the Queen. ln ordinary
circumstances, the conduct of the ritish workingmenmight
have beenanticipated from the naturalsympathythepopular
classes all over the world ought to feel forthe only popular
Covernmentintheworld.
Underthepresentcircumstances,however,whenagreatpor-
tionoftheritishworkingclassesdirectlyandseverelysuffers
under the consequences of the Southern blockade; when
another part is indirectly smitten by the curtailment of the
American commerce, owing, as they are told, to the sel6sh
'protectivepolicyoftheRepublicans; whentheonlyremain-
ing democratic weekly, Reynolds's paper, has sold itself to
Messrs. Yancey andMann, andweek afterweek exhausts its
horse-powersoffoullanguageinappealstotheworkingclasses
to urgethe Covernment, for theirown interests,towar with
theUnion~under such circumstances, simpleiustice requires
to pay a tribute to the sound attitude of the ritishworking
classes, the more so when contrasted with the hypocritical,
ENGLI SH PUBLI C OPI NI ON
bullying,cowardly,andstupidconductoftheof6cialandwell-
to-do1ohnull.
What a differenceinthis attitude ofthe people from what
it had assumed at the time of the Russian complication! ' `
ThenThe Times, The Post, andtheotherYellowplushesofthe
London press, whined for peace, to be rebuked by tremen-
douswarmeetingsalloverthecountry.Nowtheyhavehowled
for war, to be answered by peace meetings denouncing the
liberticide schemes and the Pro-Slavery sympathy of the
Covernment.Thegrimacescutbytheaugursofpublicopinion
atthenewsofthepaci6csolutionofthe Trent caseare really
amusmg.
lnthe6rstplace, they must needs congratulate themselves
uponthe dignity, common sense, good will, and moderation,
dailydisplayedbythemforthewholeintervalofamonth.They
were moderateforthe 6rsttwo daysafterthearrivaloftheLa
Plata, when Palmerstonfeltuneasywhether any legal pretext
for a quarrel was to be picked. ut hardly had the crown
lawyershituponalegalquibble,whentheyopenedacharivari
unheard of since the anti-1acobin war. '' The dispatches of
theEnglish Covernment left Queenstown in the beginning of
December.Noof6cialanswerfromWashingtoucouldpossibly
belookedfor beforethecommencement of1anuary.Thenew
incidents arisingintheinterval told allin favoroftheAmeri-
cans. The toneoftheTransatlanticPress,althoughtheNash-
villeaffair'mighthaverouseditspassions,wascalm.Allfacts
ascertainedconcurredto showthatCapt.Wilkeshadacted on
his own hook. The position of the Washington Covernment
wasdelicate.IfitresistedtheEnglishdemands,itwouldcompli-
cate the civil war by a foreign war. lfit gave way, it might
damageitspopularityathome,andappeartocedetopressure
fromabroad.AndtheCovernmentthusplaced,carried, atthe
sametime,awarwhich mustenlistthewarmestsympathiesof
everyman,notaconfessedruf6an,onitsside.
Commonprudence,conventionaldecency,ought,therefore,
to have dictated to the London press, at least for the time
separating the English demand from the American reply, to
anxiouslyabstainfrom every wordcalculatedtoheat passion,
DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
breed il|-wi||, complicate the dif6culty. ut no! That 'inex-
pressiblymean andgroveling press, asWilliamCobbett,and
hewasa connoisseur, callsit,rea|lyboastedofhaving, when
in fear of the compact power of the United States, humbly
submittedtotheaccumu|ateds|ightsandinsultsofPro-Slavery
Administrations for almost half a century, while now, with
thesavageexultationofcowards,theypantedfortakingtheir
revengeontheRepublicanAdministration,distractedbyacivi|
war.Therecordofmankindchronic|esnoself-avowedinfamy
likethis.
Oneoftheyel|ow-plushes,Palmerston'sprivateMoniteur
The Morning Postnndsitselfarraignedonamostug|ycharge
from the American papers. 1ohn ull has never been in-
formed~on informationcarefu||ywithhe|dfrom him by the
oligarchs that lord itover him~that Mr. Seward,'`` without
awaiting Russell's dispatch, had disavowed any participation
of the Washington Cabinet in the act of Capt. Wilkes. Mr.
Seward'sdispatcharrivedatLondononDecembert o. Onthe
zothDecember,therumorofthis'secret spreadontheStock
Exchange. Ontheztst,theyel|ow-plushofThe Morning Post
steppedforwardtograve|yheraldthat'thedispatchinquestion
doesnotinanywaywhateverrefertotheoutrageonourmail
packet.
ln The Daily News, The Morning Star, andother London
iournals,youwill6ndyellow-p|ushprettysharp|yhandled,but
you will not learn fromthem what peop|e out of doors say.
TheysaythatThe Morning Post andThe Times, |ikethePatrie
and thePays, dupedthe publicnot onlyto politicallymis|ead
them, but to eece them in the monetary line on the Stock
Exchange,intheinterestoftheirpatrons.
ThebrazenTimes, ful|yawarethatduringthewholecrisisit
hadcompromised nobody butitself, andgivenanother proof
of the hol|owness of its pretensions of inf|uencing the real
peopleofEngland,playsto-dayatrickwhichhere,atLondon,
onlyworksuponthelaughingmuscles,butontheothersideof
theAt|antic,mightbemisinterpreted.The'popularclassesof
London,the'mob,astheyel|ow-plushcall them,havegiven
unmistakable signs~have even hinted in newspapers~that
ENGLI S H PUBLI C OPI NI ON
theyshouldconsideri tanexceedinglyseasonableioketotreat
Mason | by the by, a distant relative of Palmerston, since the
origina| Mason had married a daughter of Sir W. Temple,
Slidell&Co.withthesamedemonstrationsHaynau'`received
onhisvisitatarclay'sbrewery.The Times standsaghastatthe
mere idea ofsucha shockingincident, and how doesittry to
parryit?ltadmonishesthepeop|eofEnglandnottooverwhelm
Mason, S|idel| & Co. with any sort of public ovation! The
Times knows that its to-day's article will form the laughing-
stockofallthetap-roomsofLondon. utnevermind! People
onthe other side ofthe Atlanticmay, perhaps,fancythatthe
magnanimityofThe Times hassavedthemfromthe affront of
publicovationstoMason,S|idell&Co.,while,inpointoffact,
The Times only intends saving those gentlemen from public
insult!
Solongasthe Trent affair wasundecided, The Times, The
Post, The Herald, The Economist, The Saturday Review, in
factthewholeofthefashionable,hirelingpressofLondon,had
tried its utmost to persuade 1ohn ull thatthe Washington
Covernment,evenifitwilled, wouldprove unableto keepthe
peace,becausetheYankeemobwouldnotallowit,andbecause
the Federal Covernmentwas a mobCovernment. Facts have
now given them the |ie direct. Do they now atone for their
malignant slanders against the American peop|e? Do they at
least confess the errors which yellow-plush, in presuming to
iudgeoftheactsofafreepeople,cou|dnotbutcommit?yno
means. They now unanimously discover that the American
Covernment, innotanticipating England's demands, and not
surrenderingthe Southerntraitorsassoonastheywerecaught,
missedagreatoccasion, anddepriveditspresentconcessionof
allmerit.lndeed,yellowplush! Mr.Sewarddisavowedtheact
ofWilkesbeorethearrivaloftheEng|ishdemands,andatonce
declaredhimselfwillingtoenteruponaconciliatorycourse;and
whatdidyoudoonsimilaroccasions?When,onthepretextof
impressingEnglishsailorsonboardAmericanships~apretext
not at all connected with maritime belligerent rights, but a
downright, monstrous usurpation against all international
law~theLeopard 6reditsbroadsideattheChesapeake, killed
3 10 DI S PATCHES FOR THE NEW YORK TRIB UNE
six, wounded twenty-one of her sailors, and seized the pre-
tended Englishmen on board the Chesapeake, what did the
English Covernment do? That outrage was perpetrated on
thezothof1une, :o;.Therealsatisfaction, thesurrenderof
thesailors, &c., wasonlyoffered onNovember , : :z, nve
years later. The ritish Covernment, it is true, disavowed at
oncethe actofAdmiralerkeley, as Mr. Sewarddidinregard
to Capt. Wilkes; but, to punish the Admiral, itremoved him
fromaninferiorto asuperior rank. Eng|and, inproc|aiming
herOrdersinCounci|,distinctlyconfessedthattheywereout-
rages on the rights ofneutrals in general, and ofthe United
Statesinparticular;thattheywereforceduponherasmeasures
ofretaliation against Napoleon, and that she would feel but
toogladtorevokethemwheneverNapoleonshouldrevokehis
encroachments onneutralrights.Napoleon didrevokethem,
as far as the United States were concerned, in the Spring of
: :o.Englandpersistedinheravowedoutrageonthemaritime
rightsofAmerica. Herresistancelasted from : o6to z,dof
1une, : : z~after,onthe: thof 1une,: : z,theUnitedStates
had declared war against England. England abstained, conse-
quently,inthiscaseforsixyears,notfromatoningforacon-
fessedoutrage,butfromdiscontinuingit.Andthispeopletalk
ofthe magnincentoccasion missed bytheAmerican Covern-
ment! Whetherinthewrongorintheright, itwasacowardly
actonthepartoftheritish Covernmentto backacomplaint
grounded onpretendedtechnicalblunder,andamereerrorof
procedure, byanultimatum,byademandforthe surrenderof
the prisoners. The American Covernmentmighthavereasons
toaccedetothatdemand;itcou|dhavenonetoanticipateit.
ythepresentsett|ementoftheTrent collision,thequestion
underlying the who|e dispute, and |ike|y to again occurthe
belligerent rights of a maritime power against neutra|shas
notbeensettled.lshall,withyourpermission,trytosurveythe
whole question in a subsequent letter. forthe present, allow
metoaddthat,inmyopinion,Messrs.MasonandSlidellhave
donegreatservice tothe federal Covernment. There wasan
influentialwarpartyinEngland,which,whatforcommercial,
what for political reasons, showed eager for a fray withthe
ENGLI S H PUBLI C OPI NI ON
3 1 1
UnitedStates.The Trent affairputthatpartytothetest.lthas
failed.Thewarpassionhasbeendiscountedonaminorissue,
thesteamhas beenletoff,thevociferousfury oftheo|igarchy
hasraisedthesuspicionsofEng|ishdemocracy,thelargeritish
interests connected withtheUnitedStateshavemadea stand,
the truecharacter of the civil warhas been broughthometo
the working classes, and last, not least, the dangerous period
whenPalmerstonru|essingle-headedwithoutbeingcheckedby
Par|iament, is rapid|y drawing to an end. That was the on|y
time in which an Englishwarforthe slaveocrats might have
beenhazarded.ltisnowoutofquestion.
1.
2.
3
4
5
6.
7

8.
9
10.
I I .
1 2.
1 3
14
1 5
1 6.
17
1 8 .
Notes
law . . . extremes: The reference is to Hegel. Most of Marx's
readers are unlikely to have grasped the allusion, as Hegel had
yet to be translated into English.
Chines
.
e revolution: The Taiping Rebellion ( 1 85 1-3) .
reductIOn . . . tea-duties: Gladstone's 1853 budget cut tea duties
by more than 50 per cent over three years.
mangel-wurzel: Also known as mangold, a type of beet.
Admiral Seymour: Sir Michael Seymour ( 1 802-1 887) was
commander-in-chief of the East Indies station of the British Royal
Navy at the outbreak of the second Opium War.
lorcha: A light vessel used on the coasts of China.
present ruling race in China: The Manchu dynasty.
late war: The Crimean War ( 1 853-6) .
English Consul: Harry S. Parkes ( 1 828-1 885) , a British diplomat

ho worked primarily in China and Japan. He was acting consul


In Canton at the outbreak of the second Opium War.
wrung from China . . . Plenipotentiaries: The Treaty of Tientsin
signed on June I, 1 8 58.
1
Taoutai: High ofcial.
Mr. Wilson: James Wilson ( 1805-1 860) , founder and editor of
The Economist.
Can

ing's recognition: George Canning ( 1770-1 827), British


foreign secretary and, briefly, prime minister.
Chinese revolution: See note 2.
late piratical war: The frst Opium War ( 1 839-43 ) .
Sycee silver: Silver currency i n ingot form.
taels: A unit of silver used as Chinese currency.
Gen. Straubenzee: Sir Charles Thomas van Straubenzee ( 18
'
1 2-
1 892) , a British army offcial who led a force to take Canton
during the second Opium War.
NOTES 3 1 3
19. the Sultan: The head of the Ottoman Empire, in this case
Abdulmecid ( 1 823-1861) .
20. Greek war of independence: War lasting from 1 821 to 1 83 2.
2I. Servia and Wallachia: Principalities in south-central Europe,
today parts of Macedonia and Romania.
22. the Porte: A shorthand reference to the seat of the Ottoman
Empire.
23. Ionian Isles: Islands in the Aegean Sea off the west coast of
Greece.
24. Giaour: A Turkish word denoting a non-Muslim. In 1 81 3 , Lord
Byron published a poem entitled "The Giaour".
25. Mr. Fallmerayer . . . Orientalische Briefe: Jakob Philipp
Fallmerayer ( 1 790-1 861 ) , an Austrian traveler and writer. The
work referred to is Fragmentem aus dem Orient ( 1 845 ) .
26. War has . . . declared: The Crimean War.
27. Mr. Layard: Austen Henry Layard ( 1 81 7-1 894), a British arche
ologist who held various government positions related to foreign
policy during this period.
28. Mr. Urquhart: David Urquhart ( 1 805-1 877), a Scottish writer
and Parliamentarian who became a ferce critic of Palmerston
and a sometime collaborator with Marx.
29. U/emas: Muslim scholars.
30. fetva: An offcial legal pronouncement in Islam, also called a
fatwa.
3 I . the Berber States: A reference to the pirates and privateers who
operated in the western Mediterranean from the time of the
Crusades through the nineteenth century.
32. kadis: Judges who rule according to Sharia law.
3 3 . frmans: Royal mandates issued by the Ottoman Empire.
34. Hegira: The frst year of the Muslim calendar, corresponding to
the migration of Muhammed and his followers to Medina in
AD 622.
3 5 . synallagmatic contract: Bilateral, reciprocal, contract.
3 6. Pashas: High-ranking offcials in the Ottoman Empire.
3 7. systeme de bascule: System of weights.
3 8. Union Club: An organization of liberal Spanish fgures that advo
cated freedom of assembly and the press and the abolition of the
death penalty.
39. Espartero: Baldomero Espartero ( 1793-1879) was a general
who, after the defeat of the Carlists (see note 42) in 1 839, became
an important fgure in the governance of Spain.
NOTES
40. Cortes: The ational legislature of Spain. The ability of the legis
lature to act mdependently of the monarchy was a critical issue
in nineteenth-century Spanish politics.
41 . the French invasions: France controlled much of Spain during
the Napoleonic Wars.
42 Carlists: The Carlists were conservative Catholic followers of
Carlos, a pretender to the throne of Spain, after the death of
Ferdinand VII in 1 83 3 . Several armed conflicts took place across
Spain between Carlists and supporters of Ferdinand's daughter
Isabella.
43 Viriathus: A leader ( 1 80-1 39 BC) of the Lusitanian tribe who
resisted Roman control of what is now Portugal and western
Spain.
44 bienes nacionales: State lands.
45 summum bonum: Supreme good.
46. Creit Mobilier: A state-affliated bank established by allies of
LOUIS Napoleon that issued bonds for infrastructure. See Marx's
three-part article on pp. 171 -88.
47 the war: The Crimean War.
48. Chambre introuvable: After the restoration of the Bourbons in
Frane, Louis XVIII surrounded himself with a group of ultra
loyalists whom he called the "chambre introuvable" -i.e. a
government body the likes of which could not be found.
49 Herrenhaus: The upper house of the Prussian parliament.
50. O'Donnell's coup: Leopoldo O'Donnell ( 1 89-1 8 67) was a
Spanish general and statesman. He forced the Espartero gover
ment from power by marching on Madrid in July 1 85 6.
5 I . the Queen: Isabella II.
5 2 pronunciamientos: Mutinies.
5 3 Isabella . . . Christina: Maria Christina and Isabella were the
acting regents.
54 Narva

z: Don Ramon Maria Narvaez y Campos ( 1800-1 868),


the actmg president under Isabella in 1 856.
5 5 her Majesty: Isabella II.
56. cholera morbus: Cholera epidemic.
5 7 the Archduke: Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph.
58. fuori i Tedeschi: Out with the Germans.
59 Count Cavour: Camillo Benso di Cavour ( 1 8 10-1 861 ), a signif
cant fgure in the unifcation of Italy and its frst prime minister
when it became an independent kingdom.
60. M. Hubner: Count Joseph Alexander Hubner ( 1 8 I I-1892) was
Austria's ambassador to Rome at this time.
NOTES
6 J - the Tieino: The Ticino was the border between Piedmont and
Lombardy, which at the time was occupied by Austrian troops.
62. Garibaldi: Giuseppe Garibaldi ( 1 87-1 882) was the principal
military fgure in establishing the independence of Italy.
63. the Czar: Alexander II.
64. giogo tedesco: German yoke.
65. "avenger of Waterloo": Napoleon III.
66. the murderer of Rome: After Louis Bonaparte took over the
French Republic, the French military destroyed the Roman
Republic and restored the political power of the Pope in 1849.
67. Italian National party: The Italian National Committee, estab
lished by Giuseppe Mazzini in London in October 1 850, advo
cated the unifcation and independence of Italy.
68. A chi tocca-tocca?: Who is to begin?
69. Marino Faliero of Venice: Faliero, the ffty-ffth doge of Venice,
attempted a coup in 1 3 5 5 to make himself prince. He failed and
was executed. Lord Byron wrote a drama about this in 1 820.
70. The young Emperor of Russia: Alexander II.
71 . Zouaves: A French infantry regiment frst organized in Algeria
in 1 83 1 ; their exploits in the Crimean War were widely praised.
72. the States of the Church: The Papal States, a section of central
Italy in which the Pope exercised civil authority until Italian
independence.
73. men of the Manchester School: Free-trade advocates.
74. laudatores temp oris acti: Those who laud the past.
75. Corn Laws: Import tariffs in force between 1 8 1 5 and 1 846,
designed to protect British farmers from cheap grain imports. They
became the focus of the free-trade debate and the major dividing
line between Britain's political parties from the 1 830S on.
76. Mr. Cooke: George Wingrove Cooke, The History of Party: From
the Rise of the Whig and Tory Factions in the Reign of Charles II,
to the Passing of the Reform Bill (London: J. Macrone, 1 83 6).
77. the "glorious revolution": The overthrow of James II, a Catholic.
78. the Reform Bill of 183 1+ The bill became the Reform Act of
1832, which extended voting rights in Britain and reapportioned
seats in Parliament.
79. the Thirty-Nine Articles: The articles of faith for clergy in the
Church of England, which were promulgated in 1 5 71 .
80. the Stockport Riots: Outbreaks of anti-Irish and -Catholic vio
lence in Stockport, England, in 1 8 5 2.
81 .
astonishing to contemplate: In Capital, Marx linked the preva
lence of starvation in Britain with the rejection of its provisions
NOTES
for the poor: "The terrible increase in deaths by starvation in
London during the last decade bears witness to the increasing
repugnance of working folk for the slavery of the workhouse,
the penitentiary for those who are unfortunate enough to b
poor" (vol. I, pt 3, "Capitalist Accumulation") .
82. Steuart: James Steuart, An Inquiry Into the Principles of Political
Economy (London: A. Millar, 1 767).
83. Loch: James Loch, An Account of the Improvements of the
'states of the Marquess of Stafford ( 1 820).
84. Mehemet Ali: An Ottoman statesman and diplomat ( 1 81 5-
1872) .
85 . Sismondi: Jean-Charles-Leonard de Sismondi, Etudes sur l'econ
omie politique ( 1 837) .
86. Thomas MoTUs: A reference to Thomas More's Utopia ( 1 5 1 6) .
87. Dalrymple: Si r John Dalrymple, An Essay Towards a General
History of Feudal Property in Great Britain (London: A. Millar,
1 757)
88. the Coalition Ministry: The ministry of George Hamilton
Gordon, the fourth Earl of Aberdeen, was principally a coalition
of Whigs and Peelites but also had the support of the short-lived
Independent Irish Party, founded by forty Irish Members of
Parliament.
89. the sleeping Epimenides: Epimenides was a sixth-century BC
Greek seer who supposedly fell asleep for ffty-seven years and
awoke with the ability to predict the future.
90. Mr. Newman: Francis William Newman, Lectures on Political
Economy (London: John Chapman, 1 8 5 1 ) .
9 I . his Foreign Minister: Palmerston.
92. nemine contradicente: Without opposition.
. 93. Osman rule: Under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire.
94 Cabinet of "all the Talents": Marx frequently used this term
ironically to describle the Whig-Peelite coalition government
that ruled Britain, under Lord Aberdeen, from 1 8 5 2 until early
1 8 5 5 . His use is confusing, as the "Ministry of All the Talents"
is more commonly used to refer to the multi-faction government
that ruled from 1 806 to 1 807.
95 Mr. Roebuck's . . . motion: John Arthur Roebuck ( 1 802-1 879),
a Liberal Member of Parliament whose mission to investigaste
misconduct in the Crimean War brought down the Aberdeen
government.
96. General Dumouriez: Marx satirizes Herbert's garbling of chron
ology. In 1 793, General Dumouriez was ordered to appear before
|t
317
the French Revolutionary Convention to be charged with
treason; he refused, then arrested his accusers and tU
,
rned the

over to the Austrians. The Directory was not establIshed until
1 795
dii minorum gentium: Second-rate gods.
,
,

the Pacifco question: This alludes to Palmerston s
,
assertlon of
the rights of British citizens in a conflict that arose m 1 8 50

er
the Athens house of a Portuguese merchant (who was a British
citizen) was set on fre.
,
uu. Chevalier Wykoff: Henry Wikoff-both spellings were com
mon-( 1 8 1 3-1 884) , an author and diplomat
,
who
,
trav

led
widely through Europe and the United States dUring thIS period,
at times employed by Palmerston.
,
100. Mr. Delane: John Thadeus Delane ( 1 81 7-1 879) was the edItor
of The Times and a close associate of Lord Aberdeen.
101. kidnapping of . . . York: These were
,
cases of atuse of the mental
health system notorious at the tlme. Rosla Bulwer-

t
t
0n
( 1 802-1 882) had been married to
,
the no

eh

t and pohtIclan
Edward Bulwer-Lytton, but, followmg theIr dIvorce, se cam
paigned against him and was committed in June 1 858. SImIlarly,
Mrs. Turner was found to have been wrongly committed and
mistreated.
102. the new Poor Law: The Poor Law Amendm

nt ct
,
o1 834,
which did little to address the numerous faws m Bntam s treat
ment of the poor, particularly its reliance on workhouses.
,
,
103. Irish Famine: Between 1 845 and 1 8 50, more than half a

Ilhon
Irish died of hunger, a famine which Marx and others attributed
in part to abusive English economi policy.
,
'
1 04. the "nuggets" of Australia: Australia expenenced a gold rusm
the 1 8 50S, attracting many would-be prospectors from Brltam .
105. the war: The Crimean War.
"
7
1 06. will perhaps remember: See "Revolution m Chma and Europe,
PP 3 -
10.
"
f {
"
I E
107. Mr. Ricardo: David Ricardo, On the Prmclples L Po Itlca con-
omy and Taxation ( 1 817).
108. Napoleon the Little: Napoleon III.
"
1 09. Society of the Dix Decembre: A secret Bonapartlst society; Marx
refers to it in The Eighteenth Brumatre of LOUIS Bonaparte.
1L. the Fronde: A civil war in France ( 1 648-53) .
I I I. juste milieu: Golden mean,
,
I I 2. Societes en commandite: The dIfference between th
,
ese and
Societes anonymes is roughly analogous, in Anglo-American cor-
3
I B
NOTES
porat law, to that between a corporation and a limited part
nershIp.
I 1 3 the English Sadleirs, Spaders and Palmers: References to contem_
porary banking scandals in Britain.
.
.
1 1 4 Corps
.
Lgislatif One of the bodies of the French legislature.
I I 5 the Mmlster of the Interior: Jean-Gilbert-Victor Fialin duc d
P
.
(
.
0
erslgny 1 808-1 872), French statesman.
I I 6 . Fourier: Charles Fourier, Theorie des quatre mouvements et des
d

stinees generales ( 1 808) . It seems possible that Marx meant


"Immortal," but "immoral" is what was published.
I I7 rentes: State securities.
I I 8. M

. Leonard Horner: Horner's reports were among Marx's fav


onte
.
sources; Horner is cited no fewer than thirteen times in
CapItal,

here Marx describes him as having "rendered invalu


able serVIces to the English working class".
I I9 to this country: The United States.
1 20. Peel's Bank act of 1844: This was the Bank Charter (or Bank of
England) Act of 1 844, which, among other provisions, gave
the Bank sole responsibility for issuing paper currency. Due to
numerous auses, it had o be suspended by the Cabinet in 1 857.
Marx also dIscusses Parhament's investigations into the Act i n A
Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy ( 1 859) .
121. Lombard street: Historically, the street i n the City of London
where private lenders kept offces.
1 22. Threadneedle street: The site of the Bank of England.
1 23 . Charles Wood: The frst Viscount of Halifax ( 1 800-1 88 5 ). He
was at the time of the article the president of the Board of
Control and thus responsible for overseeing the British East India
Company.
1 24. Aurangzeb: 1 61 8-1707; ruler of the Mughal Empire 1 65 8-
1 707 Also known as Alamgir 1.
1 2 5 old ofcial report: The House report in question was issued in
1 81 2. According to Henry M. Christman, Marx was quoting
here from a German version of it.
1 26. Sollte . . . aufgezehrt?: "Should this torture then torment us
Sinc

it brings us greater pleasure? Were not through the rule
of Tlmur / Souls devoured without measure?" From Goethe's
"An Suleika," WestOstlicher Diwan.
127. Mahrattas: Hindu state of India which existed from 1 674 to
1 81 8.
1 28. Mr. Campbell: George Campbell, Moder India: A Sketch of the
System of Civil Goverment (London: John Murray, 1 8 5 2) .
NOTES
3
19
1 29. Soltykov: The reference is to Alexei Dimitrivich Saltykov's
Lettres sur l'lnde (Paris, 1 848) . The phrase translates as "more
subtle and adroit than the Italians".
1 3 0. Jat: The Jatts are descendants of Indo-Aryan tribes who inhabit
northern India and modern-day Pakistan.
1 3 J . Divide et impera: Divide and conquer.
1 3 2. late incorporation of Oude: The annexation of Oude had taken
place in 1 85 6.
1 3 3 . Persian and Chinese wars: The Anglo-Persian War took place in
1 85 6-7, the second Opium War in 1856-60.
1 34. emeute: A seditious tumult.
1 3 5 . the late Mogul: Bahadur Shah II ( 1 775-1 862), the last Mughal
emperor of India, who had come to power in 1 83 8.
1 3 6. "The Dead House": The House of Commons.
1 3 7. Mr. Disraeli: Benjamin Disraeli ( 1 804-1 881 ) , a signifcant fgure
in the founding of the Conservative Party, would go on, as Marx
implies here, to serve as prime minister in the 1 860s and '70S.
1 3 8. "Taus les . . . ennuyeux": All genres are good except the boring
ones.
139. ipsissima verba: Very words.
140. British Governor General: James Ramsey, the frst Marquess of
Dalhousie ( 1 81 2-1 860); Dalhousie was governor general of
India "om 1 848 to 1 85 6.
1 41 . Vendeans: Citizens of the French region of Vendee, and Catholic
opponents of the French Revolution who mounted a violent
insurrection between 1793 and 1796.
142. Cavaignac's Garde Mobile: French general Eugene Cavaignac
led a citizens' militia against the Parisian workers' uprising of
1 848.
143. The {rst Chinese war: The frst Opium War ( 1 839-42) .
144. the Directors: Court of directors of the East India Company.
14 5 . ;amabundy: A settlement of the tax assessment for a region.
146. puttahs: Leases granted to farmers by government offcials.
147. kittee: A vise-like instrument of torture somewhat like the
thumbscrew.
148. Ranee: Queen.
1 49. Bhadur . . . servants: Two servants of the government.
1 50. terminated in 1834: Parliament removed the Company's trading
monopoly with China in 1 8 3 3 but kept its administrative func
tions, renewing its charter for another twenty years.
1 5 1 . Conspiracy bill: In February 1 85 8, Palmerston, in response to an
attempt on the life of Napoleon III, tried to pass legislation that
3 20
NOTES
would make a felony of any assassination attempt plotted on
Briish soil. The bill was defeated and led to Palmerston's resig
natIOn.
1 52. Civs Roman
.
us: A reference to Palmerston's speech during the
Pacifco Affair; see "Fall of the Aberdeen Ministry", pp. 1 45-
50.
1 5 3 Lord Canning: Charles John Canning, governor general of India
from 1 8 5 6 to 1 862.
- 1 54 in terrorem: As a threat.
1 5 5 Mrs. Beecher . . . Shaftesbury: In 1 85 3 , the American anti-slavery
a

thor Harriet Beecher Stowe toured London and made many


fnends among the ruling classes. She organized British women
to sign and submit anti-slavery petitions in the 1 8 50S and ' 60S.
1 5 6. the Crittenden . . . measures: In December 1 86o, Kentucky Sena
tor John ]. Crittenden, in one of many Congressional attempts
to avert secession, introduced a measure that would have allowed
for the continuance of slavery in Southern states. Although popu
lar among many Southern offcials, it was rejected by both houses
of Congress in 1 861 .
1 5 7 pia desideria: Pious desire.
1 5 8. the Mis

ouri Compromise: Passed in 1 820, this bill prohibited


slavery In any new state north of the border between Missouri
and the Arkansas territory.
1 5 9 the Kansas-ebraska bill: This bill, passed in 1 8 54, allowed
new t

rtones within the United States to decide by popular


sovereignty whether or not they would permit slavery within
their borders.
1 60. Dred Scott d

cision: This 1 857 Supreme Court decision gave


slave owners nghts even in territories where slavery had not been
established, and effectively dictated that even freed slaves could
never become citizens of the United States.
1 61 . The Kansas war: Beginning in 1 854, there were violent skirmishes
between abolitionists and pro-slavery forces in Kansas. This con
flict was of particular interest to the Tribune, which coined the
term "Bleeding Kansas" to describe the battles.
1 62. Mr. Fremon: John Charles Fremont ( 1 8 1 3 -1 890), a military
offcer who In 1 8 5 6 was the frst presidential candidate of the
Republican Party.
1 63 . de bonne grace: Of its own accord.
1 64. Mr. Buchanan's career: James Buchanan ( 1 79 1-1 868) was the
ffteenth president of the United States; during his presidency the
country steadily slipped into civil war.
NOTES 321
165. servum pecus: Servile herd.
166. Harper's Ferry expedition: The abolitionist John Brown led a
raid on a Federal armory in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in 1 8 59,
with the intention of freeing slaves; he was captured and hanged.
1 67. South Carolina Nullifers: In 1 832, the leaders of South Carolina
declared a Federal tariff to be null and void within their territory.
President Andrew Jackson sent a naval flotilla to enforce the law.
1 68. the blockade: In April 1 861, President Abraham Lincoln declared
a blockade of all Southern ports.
1 69. Irish catastrophe: See note 103.
1 70. tutti quanti: All such.
1 71 . General Beauregard: Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard
( 1 8 1 8-1 893) was a general in the Confederate Army.
1 72. Secession Congress: Initially, the Confederate capital was estab
lished in Montgomery, Alabama; it later moved to Richmond,
Virginia.
173. Stephens: Alexander Hamilton Stephens ( 1 8 1 2-1 883 ) was the
vice president of the Confederate states.
1 74. va banquet: Betting it all.
175. King . . . Compiegne: William I visited the French town of Com
piegne in 1 861 .
176. Macdonald affair: A diplomatic incident arising from the arrest
and imprisonment of a Scottish citizen in Bonn.
1 77. "quorum magna pars fui": Much of the credit for this is mine.
178. affair of the . . . pamphlet: Henri-Eugene-Philippe-Louis d'Orle
ans duc d'Aumale ( 1 822-1 897), published a Letter upon the
,
I ' History of France in 1 861 condemning Emperor Napo eon s
attacks on the House of Orleans.
1 79. Springeld and Manassas: Early battles in the American Civil
War.
1 8o. Consols: British government bonds.
1 8 1 . the American Minister: Charles Francis Adams ( 1 807-1 886) was
the American ambassador to England.
1 82. President Madison: James Madison ( 1 75 1 -1 83 6), fourth presi
dent of the United States.
1 83 . peace of Ghent: The Treaty of Ghent, signed in 1 8 14, ended the
War of 1 8 1 2 between the United States and Britain.
184. Secretary Webster: Daniel Webster ( 1 782-1 85 2) was the Ameri
can secretary of state from 1 841 to 1 842.
1 85 . the Russian complication: The Crimean War.
1 86. anti-Jacobin war: Britain's attacks on France following the
French Revolution.
3
22 NOTES
1 87. the Nashville affair: A diplomatic flap that occurred when a
Confederate cruiser being repaired in England was blockaded by
a Federal warship.
188. Mr. Seward: William H. Seward ( 1 801-1 872) was Lincoln's
secretary of state.
1 89. Haynau: Julius Jacob von Haynau ( 1 786-1 85 3 ), a conserva
tive Austrian general who was attacked while visiting a London
brewery in 1 8 50.