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Affective Domain

Preparing objectives in this domain is more difficult than in the cognitive domain:

Vagueness of terminology used Covert intended outcomes Different description of outcomes Internalized and integrated with other behaviors Higher levels overt responses are less dependable as evidence of internal states

Description of the Major Categories In the Affective Domain


1. Receiving: Receiving refers to the students willingness to attend to particular phenomena or stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, et,.) From a teaching standpoint, it is concerned with getting, holding, and directing the students attention. a. Awareness: The learner is aware of a certain situation, phenomenon, or problem. It is the first step towards learning in this domain. b. Willingness to receive: It describes the behavior he wants to acquire. The learner is paying a real attention to the situation. (listens attentively to ... ) c. Controlled or Selected Attention: The learner would positively control his attention. While having different motives, he would choose the best one to him and attend to.

2. Responding: Responding refers to active participation on the part of the student. At this level he or she NOT only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way. The higher levels of this category are classified under interest stressing the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activity.

a. Acquiescence to respond: The learner reacts to a certain situation / stimulus although he is completely adhered to it. (Read an assigned material, Follow health maintaining rules) b. Willingness to Respond: The behavior required is optional and voluntarily as the learner is willing to show his reaction with no fear of punishment. (Read additional material, Participate in classroom discussion.) c. Satisfaction in Response: The learner goes beyond the previous levels to be satisfied, pleased, and fulfilled to undergo a certain behavior. EXAMPLE Participate in classroom activities (Receiving and responding):

Listens attentively. Asks relevant questions. Participates in classroom discussion. Volunteers for special tasks. Contributes material for the bulletin board. Helps others when requested.

3. Valuing: Valuing is concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. The essential element characterizing the learner's behavior here is that he is not forced to respond rather it is a result of his adherence to a particular value. Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable. Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under attitudes and appreciation would fall into this category. It reflects upon the learners' attitudes and adopted concepts. Valuing also deals with the progression of attitudes and appreciation and the values attached to oneself, others and the society. It also has to do with one's self consciousness. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, but clues to these values are expressed in the students overt behavior. a. Acceptance of a Value: The learner attaches a value to a certain phenomenon or object. The situation of accepting the valuing initially is somehow temporary. ( Appreciates cooperation with his classmates in class discussions)

b. Preference for a Value: The learner is more adhered to the related aspects of his value or attitude adopted. (Proposing some situation demonstrating the idea of cooperation among classmates in classroom discussion.) c. Commitment for a value: The learner is committed and loyal to the value, goal or principle he has. (Bear responsibility of effective learning in groups, Appreciates the teacher's role in school daily life.)

EXAMPLE Shows concern for the welfare of others (valuing)


Asks others if they need help. Helps others with their problems. Shares materials with others. Encourages others to do well. Meets obligations in doing group work. Assists those reluctant to participate in group work. Obtain permission before using others materials. Thanks and commends others, when appropriate.

4. Organization: Organization is concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. Thus the emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Learning outcomes may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his or her need for both economic security and social service). Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life would fall into this category.

EXAMPLE: Formulates a rationale concerning the role of society in conserving natural resources (organization)

Relates the needs of society to the conservation of resources. Describes the probable effects on society if resources are wantonly used Describe the probable effects on society if the use of resources is overly restricted. States personal position reflecting a reasonable balance between the needs of society and the needs to conserve resources.

5. Characterization by a Value or Value Complex: At this level the individual has a value system that has controlled his or her behavior for a sufficiently long time for him or her to have developed a characteristic life-style. Thus the behavior is pervasive, consistent, and predictable. Learning outcomes at this level cover a broad range of activities, but the major emphasis is on the fact that the behavior is typical or characteristic of the students. Instructional objectives that are concerned with the students generalpatterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional) would be appropriate here. There are two subcategories under this Level:
A. Generalized Set of Values: It refers to the generalization of self-behavior

control which can describe the learner through these behaviors. This set of generalized values can be subconscious. (Revises his judgment about a certain phenomenon according to some given evidences.) B. Characterization: the unity of beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and values in a harmonious life philosophy. It is very inclusive of different affective aspects of behavior which ultimately make the learner as a unique individual. (Maintain healthy practices, Practice cooperation in cooperative working atmospheres)

EXAMPLE Respects the scientific process (Characterization).


Favors evidence that results from scientific studies. Seeks objectivity in the interpretation of evidence Changes opinions when evidence is contrary to beliefs Suspends judgment when evidence is inadequate. Shows skepticism when statements are unsupported

Questions evidence derived from inadequate studies. Bases ideas and opinions on the best scientific evidence available.

Basing Statements on Traditional Categories


Affective domain is described under the categories of attitudes, interests, appreciations, and adjustments. Apart from the cognitive outcomes, attitudes are the probably the most common affective outcome stressed by teachers

EXAMPLE Display scientific attitude


Demonstrates curiosity in identifying problems Seeks natural causes of events Demonstrates openmindness when seeking answers Suspends judgments until all evidence is available Respects evidence fro credible sources. Shows objectivity in analyzing evidence and drawing conclusions. Shows willingness to revise conclusions as new evidence becomes available.

EXAMPLE Demonstrates interest in English.


Asks questions that indicate curiosity about English. Asks for extra language homework to do. Complete assignments on time. Brings examples, sentences, and paragraphs to class. Helps other with language tasks. Seeks ways to improve language learning. Uses the language in out of school activities. Asks about careers in English.