Taub',s

.

Principl,es of Communication " t Sys"erns
I --

-

-

.•

PrintObrAJ". PE
' •• )1r._,

t!;_.1'

"IF IIP',J,

~~._".)_l.!!IlI!r.i'!r.

r"'mm,"I''"' .....,,'....
j,

.. ;'I,iI!lI!!i.l'irLr

~J.l1L1-[-_I(iI!I!r~

!i::"'-"t:"',·V"'"

TIUJi!l;,

smi!lll~
,

5'l:eP'"~i~:

is 10 i'!!

~,!

-irl) or t75 '" ~~~ -

= L75 mV' '111li:: 1arl':,(,c5t srep bG1:w~n'~ .., ~ = U-

~,i2ii: OC;:;l.iIrs wbern /. is ,I);t I ]26 '
~!:!I:~

~!S: ~!IiC:~t!l::

l1ijl'

l~'i"

= amd!

,,~

~I.,

=U

10.( :II'+ Z~5 ~:2 ) . ~r, ;1'", == 1 I.n!CI+ 155;} ",'Titus,. :lillf~~t :5'bCfF!li~:I'5 1.0 X {x~- ;r.'~J."" !iliA]: 11/ N·YJe. JlJtiJ. ;mI,I)Ilwi ;iltrimp.tliiliiilf jy'!r" liIi':Iif.w"lIii ,q1ilU',lflJ'\t.D!rl:tlil1'

,and

~,=

nfi, i!m_{~.". 25;S.li'~). A'gam ~Llbs!!~I!I;li'I1il'i"==.. '"' . ,. ,. 127' I.!'i{ ~ + 255)

.

,'..

ml:! $tecp J"i"1;Yl ~f :I]Oltli7:c ~.{!tl'9V.

(lif ');1 ...

. , ~ ~~

,

0.9;5'7

Self~1;,e.t; 'QQe8,'UOIQ
1~}. Can 'iihcD1I;GJRCHO:ITI of :~'I;pc'Ht.r;[ d~j§t.an:e'C G~gital, CO:ll1Imlllni'c:Jt~oll keep 'i,1[['O]" arb~:liratl'i~y :1~w1 in 1 ~" Is it 'h:ue: that :f! :rrG~jlil(tlio:n 'in. ,a.mplJilud.c of llnput :s~gp.JII[by ;;Ii mc'iiOT 'of :2u,eGJllil;l~ S:ignldro Qw!·nic~atiii).1'iJ tru)ise ra:tit) by 6 diB,un, poiruw iiliOmip:l!ndiln'S1 . ] 2" Tb.e: disrorti(l;J;lj ,o!u!L5-edb)t Qo.~,e:;:;w ill removed, by ~pamt1~r in oQmp8n~a.lTI,8 sO"he.m'(!!.liS,t'ilM
(i(i~Cit?

9'" 1:5, h,!ru.e~ha1: :reuu'Cl'tm1 ~B step size reduces qUi3Wl1~ti'ou

erlo.r'!

ts.:.s II CERT'AlN

lSSEJiES IN DliCl:rTa TRA~NS,MI,B~UOI'I

H!I!\!'in:gbe~n a'b!e to code allia'~os: data inio di:g;Llail :~et us address some p.ertunel:l!t qu:estians: reliil,rlroo to d!i~il:~ii.'~ '~ril!ii~m~!)~!():I'iJ., We':11 r:etum.W d~~u~Si~on 'LlIn,atliher' ,cooun,g '~,ljI[tc.in!l,in Sec.. ,5,,6 wbh::.ih wiU use ba$iil;: P;CM coded dam in ill 'fflI'ieuy of'MlYs w.iib i1lIli aimt6 reduce hit :r,!li,e ;'lind in lurn:ll b!'lndiwidth :!".e~!i,i:~~ed. ~liW~!:Ol.it dj;scILlSiS!~unhere We, 'W:~lih tine ooding a'ndl~:te.n ,lui~N:iS, :l:5<8'1!1GS ]iike :&tf!a'm'bliog ro 'imfl)r·r.;:trVe, turn:i:l1i~ reCO'Iif-ery, fbll:~owed 'by d~JSCllls'S:lio:n of a tpr,ilcticall PCM Slycsteln. is. 5.:11 L:iiiiilll! 'CoCiiq:
We kf!loMi ~(fW '~)() :!\i:!:vres;ent ,~ ,arnaJio:g;daltilun ib:unQJrY; Le. :un i(:enm 'uf twu sYInilwiis: ()i ;i1nd I. I3il.1'!: h'U'W ''W'>(~' iiL'S~~$1Ji 'eJ(\ctrie~lt ',"Cilita~:; to dlOCID tha;t s[iJi~s. oOImlIlllnicadoll oY~r arrl!ea,ecot~k!!l H~ff ThiJ,;: is:me' isaddressed l:rn; ~~n~,coding: wlflidil ..Uoaks i;lfI&o filotO:rn Ijt»;;~ (i) ~r :illlil'd bailil;dwi~t:1Th'~lJIired fur

do

tpll'eSf:IIOr:. o:f :i!l):W tr,ei:l:!lien"y O't de OOJfifor ae CiQuploo iC~reoilt~f.(:i'li') i;l'UIcOT JIiI.oJ][iJ~o:dlng:i!ljb:i~'illy e~c,. We dliscusserl two dil[~:b;f~~U: :rf(';.ilei1!r~HOifiSi of dl£,il-ai cfuw; NRZ and 'b~:p.llv:;jsc Sec; 2.5.4 ,ilirid 2.:5,,7 :md! ~(jw(~d ji'i haw 'In ealeulate fKi'we:r speclml den~ity for tnenl!!ilrnd cffiect l'If baS!~cfulil!ers on them, Here, wemru:'e :iii C(llfnp~:rr~~iv(~ ,~s$essm.ei1i i.jifd~'IT~re:t'i!lline c~deSi typ1iCa'~ly uos.ed i.t'i! dig,il~1 s,y1il:em_Y'uu w~H :find 'litilill :im!J}wW'(lHI]]JCllt is W'II,8h~: y cawfuilly h cn1J~m~:lij(Jg'IIDI.elfansJIid:lt"ld, [pOW'OJ' sp~lm'rn. Not,!;'!,that, tn.C1 t ualltsmissiotl nlOO'c conside:~ecl, here is 11::ncrwn IllSiDaseoollid UatnS!J'Ilis sien .. l'ihe paiSollb~nd itr,IMri:s'triliiliS'ii)~, wih'~cih uses I!'wdl;ii~:;i!ti()qiIQf hiiS.b fi!:"eqi,i~ey ~m.cr h, jl'v!liCu~~d iJfi 'ChtL:p" ,6., We fi~l dJi&Ci!,l~:'i L1Jlpillr tant nn'€..a~"codes wh~ inpult dlata sttll!a'lll. is iCi;1il1i:inu:ou8~y rocessed to g.~nernle otl!ipUJ:cede .. Detl p we i(!JliliiliLii&!); :p(OCrli~Ji1Ubloc"';, ('lide 'i.l.Ib.erc 'in'pjj~ dWlI!. g:t~~, '(line '!i!!i i!!lvi~eti ~.t1!~Oib'~(i!tJ'ki:i, eat;'h of w:Hiicn ~5: ;:."iocle-d!~o a ;s,ymooll. or ,[ijllotni.:lif b~ock ,of d!ata .. ~F:i,I:l.. :5..30 g~\!',es, a Cl(mtl!~ilctPre~e~JUlf~on,of tli!c.;~ ci/lii.!es:., i Ua'f'i!$mis:l:iml;,

(~i) abiiiity 'in, e::\:lu'a;(;,t~imitl:g :linform;ub;m, (i'ui)

pmumt ''I\~.hk;h is!Il'mmil'llbl'fl

o

Ur~~i)()J{~'1' N1l2.. Thi~ ~odc i:s, ~mi[pQla:r i!!lj ll.Q,i!]ic(I ~~, I'~sll!liIli~d '~y 0'\1' anti .~DgBc: i by a IOO;!(i!ltant :s:l&\na~ ~evet s~y ",. V (:hi!rh~g~l:;cil!Iif.l: ib<u~ in'~lt\!'a]1 (To W'll$l"1l! b:i;~ mle is .~ ITo) and! ~e'llce ,[;idled. Ilion :lietuflili 1)1); .z:e:m ~NRZ). 1 IIIis us :;umil1~e:un the seme 'lfilialJ!: :h ~uh~ics t'~e b~na!t'Y;r,epres.cu~l/ii~i:ui'i ibu~:hiils: C0ID1~iIl Si.N".l:iJI!JJ,si pr"o:bl!eulis. F~g. 5J;O{er) de.scr.iD()S its tumi't'll@; {jJ~[l,grn;tn,PoSIT) mid alLoo tne 3dn, ba~ul.widlh"

Copy rig hted m ateri al

- ('j!I~'

I

'--'J,
I

--

- .•.•J

· ·

---r-~
'!i"

::::;., 0
-

~

i

~,

~:I~~'
III

6''''''
Iii

i~
Ird

!;

~

~i,

~

IN ICC:

,~

i E

~

~
i

!

:e:

[ .;: ]
N'

a::

:;'!;.

""

~

ri!

I!j.........

B.

~

r

+

g,

r

:ll; I

~

J

"S:
~,

~l
'"
,0

1 !'ii.
~. ~
!I

1ij1

)..

Copy rig hted m ateri al

~t can, b~ :~(m th::'lii thi>s 'c~ Ji~ :hi;gh,die aiS,wl;illl aiS :hili",YI'Wqi;im~y 'CQ]Jipomrn:ts. N¢iwud:: tl1:1(l I~m~~ I,ow l!'Wqij~ey p~iIIIg~~ :ItJfiGS tlIis ilinUiSililMIl: W~jj,IMOO ~:i! iIIi l,ong,~'Il,e: of :I. "s" Thi:s: liS "~18ille:d!

'~(I''I'ery "Hm,(:u~,t. caruse~ is,:fIlC'b_rooj:r:.atio1:1!p:!"I)b]eom. aniJ

I.:iihi.t 'I~'~itlg ib:ipQ~at,NRZ ,~, am e~:i!mJ;ilecase, N®1i¢i tbat 'lu!1I;g ~m,til~

or [r.~

:Md O"!_i!J1.oo a

m~'~.iticloCk

,u,~fpala'r ,R2:'lhis code is, ,~~m~nipokfr a~x'ml"!lij,anis,betw~~ 0'1: .anrll +V, :But lO~~:,lllL~i;s, ,ropr",sIi1AI~dby a p'lIils~w]nc.n ,reliUWlliii JDiUl.ooi~) al'l~ a bn ..r (!'Ii![i],OO, (iU3ilWi]ly ih.a[f bl1; pemoo)
wilthi~bili~lI~at,:'
,~ompoIlil!llit 5 i,pi:ITI,Ca'IIi;

_F~~,.~.~~~~ ~~~~s~its,
10

['So ,tOWeT iCompiiIiFro

e:[lst-gy

ilJ.!mrol8[ NRZ. AI]!iQ~ocl

t~~lilg:t~:,
~

~rnd,_~8[J. It c'~8Iib_G, ,s~n. 'that~,~s" de
,WoCQ¥Gry CiiI.!FIbG

b~1l!.r

iiliS It

,has

,at. ilr~"

,a,polder' N'R.Z: ~rb~(l~clc is, bUflo:U::l!r 3SGX)Cmcf~i!Dn:is'blrtwoon, +~ and, -!l~Bitl1;Pl!liIses d'!:m."t :roetum ~o zero arnd ;5.1ay:s jjt;~1il3t I~vel, f!Dr e:ni:ul'G but e,w<di.or:.. :Pi!!!:" 5,,30(c) describe5! :ilts tilm&ng ,di:a~1[I and PSD. The P8D i~,iSi,tnUai to U_ljfjijJ(IIil!~'NRZ 'but. :tl~ lIiigth-er p;O'W« ib"lIKlgGt bi :pf.G5¢j].o~Qf :nD~SlGtniiS perfD1:TI!~ beuer t'hElrii 1..!faj~@!hlf il~ 'vQ\!"_g,e 'e'''''C~~@R :i1i'IDQte- We q;_imti\il;llJ/' di_:5~Si 'the, effect ,1].]1 EO'w frequ.errl~'Y 'lUm'~l'ung lO.r' s~.c'h, s:~gllails when tkere is ill, :!ollg ,s-mn,@: (If ]'s present iQthe! eode (F'~El..:).3 loll). The low :lfrnq.~,C'n.cynetw-ork: can, be ,a.pp"0!ldmatcd, 'by' ·am R'C <,i['(:ui,fas Sh(JMl :in Fag.. 5,,,3]b :aJld.••ki,i;'iililJiput l;S;p~UI!tm~Ii :F'~B~5.3:1.C'.Th-G:va'litllity aftllis, ' can be seen ~y :k;~p-j)ng tn. mind '~hc' fullmv.in,g 'iv,ilo consi,derni±ons,; I(:a)w:h.e:n. ~i iinpu;t is comiant 'the ou~t decay.5i '~.' lle.ntiaUy (wj,U!J tim~ ~(:rtt;S1af;I)t: RC) to z.mJ vo]iS~(b) wnrn Ikcl: Oi.l;\iU~;,cllmges, ilbru.ptly by ,;unOWd 2.:V tb~ QiliipU~:'C:~lfJ;~S '~Y' ai[i '~mll amoui];t:SiitQ~ ali iinSlatimnrou$ 'c-hal'lgt iiCl! ttiG capacitor vol,tagti: lis not po~s:ib,l;e" We :&lliE!];1 find 'itlilit 'tlle l1I:I:osl: e:ff'e~ti'!!'e: way of d.1sMi[llguiiXbifi1j, atl: the receiver, :II, 'L fWm a, 0 'if,i, t~, Qle;lSUfe the area undetl" Ute received wa,vef0n:]l during 'Ilhe t~m.e of j, 'bit.. .A pos:itl'We area ,indicat:es a 1, 3i !l'lCg:a~~.¥-.e; areaa '@. In. :PiS;, :5.31 'WG shewa ,cas~ itil whic~ '~n~N :8 :~(mg :is UliI:Uliwmliprod. :~q.u.eIiCG 'mI,r ~.'IS. We obS:ea'V$ t'hil.1:8!1l,hc' ;sequence pe.r5iis.ts: and ev~tI!flJr 8, Um~ a&r lb.e s~li.Im~G ,~ds! 'iiliIr:;

~wt

i

~
I I

0

1

01

I

--,-IV

511" ,5.31

tb) A citc1il:i)t w:bosiI!: trnn:slniiSsiotiL ,wscnm[nates ag:a:ins:t :low frequency". 'tc,1The ClutpUlt w.hich. Iiesuits when the w'!:li'Vdi.l:rm~n '~~.I ;!);. tNnsmitJted through the 'ci;rtc'u~t :i'll (b)., ~

(0.) An :N.RZ O:IIliBllY wav.eform.

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

tint: a] ,nllll:> !IJtiOfo1ll.. ,.d's:mll~~~ ';~ "-'o1~I-!1I' J_jO_...~;j _ilL !I • 7'-:;:" .. ~., - ,,,,,,,,- .--'''"'i"",oil 1_;, "' ... _~, .. ~ 1I.I_~ "i)I;i-f;,I. o,-r""JII~'''''''"' .. ""'-',1,1'''''-... . _" """""_"'") diffic.ulli¥ l1l3ilJ:Usnom 'a t:on,g smns: ,o.f.'O·s. . ,BJpolar' R'Z~ WDis code :~9i bipo:~!lr D9! e:!li.I1Hwrs:ian is, MlWeen +'Ji' and ~:r: Both ~D,gic: 'I. !l1."IiI! '0' are re,pr6cni:ed ~y pulses ithat.l'eliUrm:s. l'i :~ w~:9l1tl! ib:U ~ ~'he jjj~.(!L Flig;,,S,JiIJ(d) &:&eriJbes: it~timimg d~m Md :PSIi:( 1tbe: PSO is :sijrnnru" ro~:mi,~U~ RZ bul hes bi~~lher ower '~t p th~ in PN~n.~ ,of nalse i.t perfurrm;: belt~r" N()t~ ih4ti' iJ.1: $ome /-i.femiure instead' (Jf 'bipolar'~ ,h,e; tcrm: '~1' . "1'' '1.·' __ . _,£ -.-~ I. __ ~ai!'" .",!S' WW ,~ng: iu-..J., dOrJ'C'us:l'-r:i\!: next", ~"'~.Ie,--~ as u1pQar eoae: AMl:niiSi~, ;lli1J;'[i,~'idiUioi'i, f A~tmilRte M~a_if~:bi,vm,i:O:i'i. f'ig,S,,3Oe :SihQj~'{slh,t :i!ibf.id.8~ ~i!Dif1l!g o dli!;l~ ,and Pf)I), We e;l;;pl~i!ii,it in .~ de~i~:s,~O'w; In f.ig" 5;3i~ we shew again ,lID NRZ: W8¥e.furm. which 'We !b:sve just judJ,ged,~n~i!ite and :in. (b) we have sh.ewn an, alte.matl.Ye m.ere writiiible w3!ve{nm~!; AI~c;-Q i;s.~se!lred b:y ~~ vo]~ Q!{·er'!!he whole: bit irn-re:rviJ.t AIQ;gi\¢,..l i~ ~p~!.'ed by' 'f':r (ij"=:r whi'ck petSi:sts,€o.£ a,~iQ:n ·()If '~bit: :inte.__rvail.,Th,eiEaoti.Qm iiS ~~ed '00 as lhe dilly CJ'C~.e and ii 0:1:'100of th.o order ,of 50pw-cent . .MQ9Iti~U;y" observe' ·iIWrt these ,SOpG'W~ljJ,t., dllrty cy-ci,1!O! pU!i!liJi;!J: jOjJJ:tema,~'C'~Two su.c:t;e5si,\'e :I ";s wh.dli.er iIIi~ oa:tif i:n ]}¢!_b<irliilg ihit :i~tef.!,\'ah.'l)I[ aJte! ~~1i~b:li' O':s are ~pre:sen1J:ed!b:y ,p~~s: ,of of1P!J'£it.e polarity. :8~b 11 'wa,~efMm, j)~ ¢~!!.e4,~ (Ittem't;l~ m~ ~wr~~'!m: (A.~M1) :s!~!,' 'if1'!1l word "I[J,\g[k:"bGciing ;I!i, t-Gil~graph¢_r's ~mll fur :iii ,I.ogi'c)o,]" Itis illipp.:na1i; ~hia!t neither 8 pe:B~ste-nt seque.n.ce O'E 1 "s D0r o:ro;'s wi]! :gemeI3le iihe: 8CCWIlU.-' ~ _
_ _ a,ii,i,-iJla:'"L~'" ,--~~--_._ ElJL_liiU:: IN' i!IS!_ ~
,<I """'~.'.,_

9,~in,S:

_,j'.

-

~'

_,j'

."

it,.,.

_.lI'

pul:ie:s Qflli.e 5"-mne.po,]arity ~.tWO'Uild DG£OOogniz~,

IIIII1iloIl! of a "de Icotlifponmt ...... bsE:n!'ealiso 'ibM\ i'fihe~eiiver o
ilj,

shli,!u~d! efi~~~.(;i
WilivttbOO
-

$...~~$!v"t

a wiolatian oflh,G

ilt:li'idMds... +V

_"F-"F-_
1

===
1

I

I_v

"!ill'" l~".' liJI!!lig.
'l1li ...

,-~.~~-, -\I

to .,llte: w,a.vefO:f"i'ii

(ifill' An NRZ ibiiom:v wa¥e:roirm"
~ti, 1:&,1"

{b,~,An al~e:ma,te MEU"kl:ll.'y,etBlQn eqtAiV1lilen,t

Copy rig hted m ateri al

I_I

~2'""
"'5?!B
I I

1'{.Ii'"- [)

I ~~)

:~
0 ,0
,0 I
(Ii

bt~~lJ
,d(")

:2, 1. I 0
1

s
:~
0
U 0 I.

~
0

,5
0
{II

6
0
I)

'7
1.

0 1.
0

0,

d
j)

11(l- 3} bf,i;'=4)1

(I

!Ill I

:~
I

'! 1 1

0

0
l l
ffiGSsaS,Gl

0
0

'I o
1:

1 1

8

9
0

:~o
0 0
'~

IJ 01

:~
0 0

~

0

II

:~
(I

01 I,

1 1

12 10 10 ,0 ,0 :~
jJ

1J
1. 0< 0,
{I (I

l4
:1:

,0 0 -0
jJ

I.

t

1 ,d(i).

I.

1

1

And. we s,cc:d (k) 'is :iMI'MC 8S ttaIi:smittro
5\.,15.3 'The, Tl, D,;i!,EiIbll, SY"te'Di!,

figure S.33 :s:~~, the 'basic tIme dl.vJsion mu~till~l!Xjm.i!: schem,e,oaUed,lhe n d'!G~tp[.sy~~l}m, whlc'b is, la~d,~[)I oonvey miJl.!iltip~,el:gnE.jt~,{r\\\rztlcilepbr:. Um,c-i!iusing widebllmi ooa;~;il:d~k:, It IOcoommo S ,ibl'l$ 2:4, ;iU1:ailo:gsign:aLs whhlb ~t; sbaiU, r.e~t to as .¥'~ 'lfIl:!»U'ghil'~" Eac:h is!i,~na] :iSl bandl'Umi1ioo ~o
o

Sia!1r! pie ~
~f~l;I~

i!l!1

t,

CoimJp,a r:tdO r ,&IPCM
AU
OO!'"f~~~

llAM piliB.:!l
fj1J;1IlS

1~'J7
~'I

1

I

I

I

-

/~'I'o'D-~
!,=====(I'o' •• ~
1 __ ._"

"~_ l-~~ . _ "

'-------'---~

1

Low' JilBS6i ifllters

Copy rig hted m ateri al

,.,

iIlPPro~~macteh" 3.J kHl: an_d ~,S smpl:ed act 'Ittt we 8 :W'z> whi:eh, ~rttd:5, 'by ;;1! ol)mf6r.t.ab1e '~, the NY<I!l)Jisl m-e~o:f2 ]I( 3,:3,- 6",6kHl, .Ea¢h o:f the ~imtdi'ri!ii~ muli!1kl\'II~e:d'1G',M'is, (sdU anailog) :is S ne:xt J,A/D ,e6X1'!11eJ:ii.en aruiI! {iom,panded asdes.c:rihed lin, SOO. 5,..4A$. '[',I'II'l~ irei1!llJiing di:gi.tal, wa,vll1f(nm is ~liIlitlr!d aVo!!t' i, iroIIX.W ¢iII;RII.G~ '~c8bae ,s.erv~ng to :m!iinm.i2l~ siparn distmfi:on, and, srrn.rifig. ~~, SUPI)l'eSS stlignal cormpli,'o.n, due eo :n.o~s :6'ilm GX1Grtia:15lOi!iJ)C¢5:" PGriooiCiin~t" a~ ,~'ldma~ly
an.d, (krn, Se:Ii'I'tt tu~,~ itti, The ,repeatel"e~imirurles from ea.cllb1t the-effect '(1i,f the dis.ototti@r:i,:intoodlWed by the 'MarmeL ,Abo, the l\epei!ter I:emt.)Ves fi';o:m ,~~I!!. bit';myS'l!lper,il'!ll:posednols.e and 'tn1!l5:, ,ewn liJaving ft-C~iwd,8, diistortm -nais,!i"MjgJ'lal, :Ii :retmrl5:lEl1S a: d!lsi:ori:i.oIliIe:~,,[lrnd I1I.OIS~,fiU¢:~ ,dupli.cl!tt .......,',~i:._:""'IBifi9!1 ....ri<)-~na;~io: """"II ,'1i'l,'il,\Ch -"iI.- Q" Q,,~r;::., UIC ,-,-,0 -, "Qr ~,., I!J',I.." ,-:- :':':'i th""'" ""'~, ........ ....-""-' ilI'_W j",c-rcl';---,-: 4ll<: I;:~ 'f",' '-1'1 "",'i,,, i;-1!;,QI;[l'_, _~'i.,...... hi'if ""'1 ,I,.:..;t Ji..i"' '1M ~ .... ~I!!''' --_ "'- -'E1'--- ,. --y ,,""'''''_. ,,_.'w:h~h,Mriv·'@ SOwm.-pled, b;y nQ:\.:s¢~M 'l!hebit :i~ ~~ At tb.e &~t~ti~D '~ .s:igni!!!1 ls oom,~, decoded, Ilind d.emuhir:IC\lt~d~, m[lidng: ,a¥ai'talb:le\t.:~n.div.i.dUII~:~Y',. 24 (t!.i,gl'naJi ~~grmils. the

ooOOft mreN,'" the ~nal! is,'reg-cnemted, 'b~' Illllp~i:l1crs~Ued :~~e:rs
e\!\et!Ltuu defltmation.

.m

aoo

e e-

~ I,M 'commu~t®j]J!5W~p eenlili.lWliiS~y' fi"-OIiflS'i to S;;M arild!baek: to ~:i,'de-,,~t thtrai(t O'f' 8(1(10 'i:'e!,i'{!I3Ioo.MS .pe:u' S~@I1I.d '1he.[~:bypt((v,idirti.g8®®IIi.~i'D.Pl(!;5;peF' s~Ofi.d ,(!if ¢'at'b,!lilgm~l '!8:Ilc:h samplle is enooded 1niQ 'ei,~'ht bulS, ('L1oms,~n.ding to 2.~ ... 256 ql..!!U'u~'~liOOl evels) .. ne~ dlgit.1il r , si.gna'~ gen.erated oduriln,El: wurse ,o,f ,one coDinplete sw,eep of iIh.e oom.mubtm ~s:theref(ire :24 )I( 8 = ilie
1921:iits.. "-

J!':ram. Sgn,chn:lnt.af1cm, ,h Js rooceSlW)! to nW:ie av.aHaible at: the ,receive]" rurIi only 'the '!:lilts into wh.i:oo. th~ s[gna'~s !ruav-eihee-m cn.cmleil! 001; also iQ:1Re ::tynem-o:nizing :~nf(J1'ma.ii.on. 'W'i~h.on~; suc:'Il 9'YJilcrul)tr~itBU:O:1i (:L~.,ti:miinS} iin:forrnlUiOflj. 'me :wcci,ver carnnm; know which hits, cotrt!ijJelil.d UI 'W:lll'!~'lJ ():f tne oo'Bjna~, sigml'ltSi. To p.ruv~de sl1c<n !:I1'n.Ghrufi!~mj;i:on. ,Llll o:~tras:ung[.ijljlbi.t: is made iiliV'l!Iila<'bk iimmed~ilte:ly JXCCedillg '1M,192Mts t'llat can:)' ~OO,Ied, s_~gna]s"DI!) 1'92 bit :!!ili!lw ,!!.5!l~b-'1led!Q 'i.h}i~ enl:iOde-d sig,ool,to.get:her w.ith the@liIe exlirn, l~m~n-s ibit..t~ ilIi ~O'td,@f ~~3 'bJih!;; :u!O CirlII.ed,a,frame.'. The ~ime; ~~eb fo:r nle :24, signd!! together' wilth. ili.e ,~()lt.ra frame.sync'hmnizing 'bit; F i,s; :inown :~n. Fig" ,5;,]4.

m.e

.t

'Twe~'\i'~ s!,1(:~s!iilive ,f!' :jih~~ are used to' '~,!Mi!!S"m;itill! 12~bit 'C'(IIde, 'Ihe code ,happe!l!l~o, be I Hit] lOOI,Ii)QOi. This 'cOOle is,mmsmitted repetiti,vely ODCie ewery 1:2 :Il:am.~, ;ma,i!!: cui~ al. {n~ il'¢ctl.ver. to e:\lttlbl,~s]}:s.yncfiuo:nizatirm" Ra., Bodb signa] :is 831111p]M1! 8000 times, .Pel" soooorl so' that a camp:letc founD OCClilpI.G5: 8,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

l'hhl,i±~

r~

ilitlco.mmOOla'ws

1,93 bUls
.It> ~"-

:Sit)

('oot t'm,e' bh 19.3 rn
uk/, ~;"!'!:i;S

:~,;],t.eena

:7'1, chaMcl is

~('J"I)"

,I

'=

= 'I ",,.,.,,,.;1.,] _",,;o"t"i!" ,Lir,!i!i{.S

BH~ iii'!! Uiemwt'¢' i!,y"~hrjf(IDi;r;i!il!!: ~, @c~~'r Olil~' J'~fi,~m'ii', (l-f eii,ilety 125 IlLS. Hence 'lhe :lhr..me :S,ynCwnizaiioll oodel :ropeits: ev~r:y 15 ms and, llhe fi'i]ml1l ,fa!t~ i.s 667 fi;;sl'IliI'Cs/S.

I,

I

,Sig,n.alj'nS' A 'le]~hQ:~ is,yailt:m :mi.lilil be' able ro Il!"an!im~t: o~:QtI;~y~He1i~~b: ICi;)m~ul!d.c::!tiQ:r!J 'b~lt o ~;SI) cermi,n ,u~iher.!S1,grwding: a1'ld sli.J)e:rvisury i;llIf'O:r.mj!f~io:t:'I!.ibilil!!!i illji)omn!)t~~n Jtleeds to 'b~ 1t'l!l;lflve,Y'~ fhat 3i !1:i.IJH beirng iuutiiated, a~ il!ern'l1iinate~, s~ed:ryin,B the: ~ss Is o,f~h.e caned. piU!tY.~et~., Wnen :aI[I!llbog,'inlnmli:ssionvs e:mp:~i)yed~ the: sigoolin,S i!l'if.onnaJtioll ls oflielil, .oo:ny.{iyoo Q'v1ll;[ it C:hilliiiii1ll;~, iSej)Qmte ftmW'l tllvat w:hic.Ri ewes '!be YQa,e¢;. Un,ItJ.c n digi'~~] ;5,~te~" ,~pro~ehl!' IlJIf b~I:-1)(lq~ ~~ri[IJg is; used 'Ie: oiill.crw the s~tn.ile . c'h:mrtti::1 itllUOf<'itilt. '"(]~hfii~~' ;;!!.!l ~ l.1;~e-al"n.-I:!!" In t'hiso ~ ---.- ~-'C!1 iOCih""'I' e the " . .B .. . ..--. .- ."..--~----- ~~""" ¥ - _li;;iI;: etid ~ "gIL UI __ ,-~ ----~ ~lli!lr:iI't'" • - --"""". G.i~;tn (I,east~jignilicmt) b~1of ~ilI.c:h, enoodoo, :3:a1rnJp]IIl!' is, used for ib9thvrtJ~,Q~ ii::nt!l1l~m;fls.:sj,Q:~;;il(;J,('1~II~Q : f~ !\4ign~:jf!g;, lDu!i~ fi¥~ ~y~,c~si",'t ~i!i[iili!:il!!l~ I(md hence QiYIIjJj,K frV"e 1ii~o~-Sfi:ir'lie'frn:ro~], t'aCih sampl.eus e:I'Klod.ed milia, eii;g'1l1:!bits. But dun:1'I,g d'II;:, ~s;uxiihframei!he ' sarnple.sj]['c e:IlCOciioo in~:o' only !!1···eillldt:ii '~hC~I ... ·I;.,tn ,~,,_. <;!.,;.~g I.·~.:lj~' ,I,m ..iS1J!!;n.ilI_,lnli!!f' 'il'... Pillt1ilM.il]] 1$ ~1;;~JIjN, :, ... :1'· .. 1,,1011._. .... . C', ~,'.',',~ ·t" .',"~ .. ..... .if: . ,':~ ''FI'I;. "., ~(f"'f ' ~"_"' ~ iI;;-W'-,,_- "'"it il;._...lmi'· W!jlii?"IJ! C. 1;1)' ' is!}!;. ,[lJI..m~. 1,1u'!iliS :un. ;iix, fra:me:si!he :lIl!Itube:r' ef 'Diit~ used! :f~r ~'U!i1li1tuZOlitl,Q:n en.cOOing, is :5 X ;8; + :1 X "1 4:"7 :mtbt
-'11, ---'" 0:;:

slI!lnJd,i<ls

31I\fl:

i5,iignail;ing: is

6~b, ,ef~l1~
'~

Ienoode:d, an the 'i~:vemge :U~I:¢II 4'116 •., 'fram~ 'bi~ :liilii.C, or
.. .

'7%
'J'

bUts. The freqll1'f:M.cy

o!i' lil.e M~s used :rm

Th~s, type ,y:f ~!~ii:!Ung .~!S .e~~!oo l~h'i;lfl!ld"rJ'~fir:i'(lted 'li~;;!Il!!"!g . • ',:1'" ,Il;." "l~ Jih,.~ ........ 'r'h" ~'''', 00· do USI::U f - ,! 1 ,~,s..l;lm iLlSGlS, ,~l!,I" ""~'iJ:p .... : 4':"_ .... e, A,·'u'I' W~, _'li!l'O:I1I1 ss,..,1lU!! _IRg ,J wr ";, ""'i~:a""\IlrI. ne une ,~'O;r T-1 a cussed tn :Sec.;. :5,,'s.1 b!JIJ with a dtifTe;rence. 'We :h!f\'~ Doted '~~ F'CM ;rlei$e~,""er '~i!J!'~~ a ibit :$ynt:itronl2er,., ThB!ti~; at receiver' end 'W..e 'mtt5t :re~tabH!ih the ,doii;,'jj:: wac~ell)trrI!wru:C'h :pmviide~th.e ~imimg for th~ 'tra'ffii!:illlitllN., Th~s 'CHn be gmt!!Ti&ed from ,AMI waveror.m (The loIloo'k OOOo"!''Cry' is: di5C~Jed len 'Chap,tet J 0) :itstilfbut we :1[Ji~ed l(l, ,pre'l,!\e.flIJi H~,p'pi;l]Jg QIII~:i[I£ syn.cihrQ:l!tizaliom fo:rex,~ d t~d tperioo (if :re~O$., ere; ~feight OT 'nlote QO!"!fieooti,ve ~ero~ {JiCom~ H thoe'~i;lasti~'ificant s 'bh of a ~-: ~ .• ..!Ii ·n 'ill ~ !l<mJil' ~'L., ',' ., WOIcu J~~C: ~_ ~g ", .,':Il._ ,~.,A +,', " '•. ' urea, .'~k',,1J:tO.: ,~[l 'n' , ,er:r:Ji" 1.5 Clll;I:II!]iIY"'" .1;) I' n0 i. .'
I~"'~ ',', ..._.!I ""'"-1'11"" I

,6~,5.4 M'uli,tlple~..i"q To take fu.rib.el" advilrnm:ge'of

1"1. :L"lu.cr T,Ii,e T;2. T',3, ll:iil:d! T'4 Line. ...

aniiJ, digiUlI itt,!U]sm~So'!.!io"]I.'Uae ;(1)m.mon ',cOlLmeIs es shown :L'nH:g. ;S,,3,~. [F,our :n, lii.]U,'!:!;ili~'i: :mu~JtlpileJol;m b:JJ ,~, Ml:1 m~!lltif;lle-~,~ ~Qg~ra~~ i!!! 12 ttaDS~,j,M :S)'il,t!¢fI"iJ, ~V.(}~. T2 Hn~-$ '-'Q.1'i!'lf-eft tIt,; ,~ TJ H1!i.~: ~i'ii :;m An3 multip1~xGT.and six T3 :Iin~s oom"ljir:t tQ iii; 1'4 lin~ in ,an AfJ4 :IT!IMlti~~~,~r. Al~h, :stag!il ,add~oo~ ~~ :fI.~bwti:iii7.lt'l,g 'b11!1lm,'~t be ad\d.\¢d, :tl!s wi~b tM' first Qide:r. ;alu[tip]e~~ 00 ~ilt ,M, I~h :rn:ui~jjj'plex't.'lro:u~; it wouiM, 'ibe:p(t8sibieID diS!iinguus'h 'WIhi'-I.Jll,bi1s be~.ong to wh&cill. iIl!p1!L~~ 'Fhrn.~s3,pJ~ndmll tha)i ~s~ ]~, cQrm~'OD,wi~,m~ h~8h~,~rd~"I5~fmullt~pl&~lm;g~lta~: dQGs~,~t ,oc~:ry.r ,M '!he :fir~~:m:de:I". ["me 'fiN~ order IT:I,u:l:~liP,iex],1n~: '~,l1tel'I"i5,fOOt. ;Q, ~m:g~e' c41;i1~$; QI!:mremJ WII:]'!; ~'O .ml; is, the clooll::.1!hatdrives d\e: Icommuto'[Ql':. He,wever', th.e four inpuL Hfn~,in the ,~12 nIUHip:~IlM:r ,oorne :rrom,pJ]~]:Oa'llYMde;liY sc,parmtc:d, JiOCMi0i1l5 ilnd t;mpLoy '~bur :8'~f.Jfl"~ie'i!;!iM,:mell1,on~ed, dOI;;k.B. cTh.eS1l: docks: :arevery Slable ,~tII~ l(i o:tWtI',Oed, asciHlltor:s: w'hich are, oJ course't ,5iet~:o,O'pem'1l:e,at tlm n

,emplo·y a :niGtarctu), (If: fill1h~r mu~~ipr~ill,g

the 'IDCriffi

of TDM

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'r1/~
Ttl 2'M1:2

t.544 ,!Wb(.s'

1-1

a~

'11"; 'r1

4 .............. '

:1;

ra
jI;-

8-----t>-

n:.....__..

:r:II~ I.SS,

TDM hri.exa:rchy"
j

:sam.1ll rnmIn~ m.qU!illC)1 as nGmly as :poS9i~ble. SiUnL"e howe'i'er,~ tlleJY dO' nQt ha:we i3i meaniji ef communJica~imLg w.ilill ,oncM.oth,N,~ 'Ih,CY'iW¢; nm :!I:ymclmln~2r;d!amdMI~ b~cG~rii!.n.cc :e: :wlatlVG fNq,~y drift" :I)e~ign. spe>oi('iCia:!ions :it'lllow II,,dci:ft from the Domillals:et :['i'etrUe:!'lCO'!l" of ~l 30 [pMtSf mi_~Ii.o:n. As lII.8,y 'DG"i'erii-ed. if then. 'two -d~ocks :hav-e: '~uen:cie'S whicll differ iby :2 ;(U'®, :::; 2'60 !p.artsl:'m~li:io'n; '~ 'fasl.m" 0100k, gv'e gmem~ one' time,s:'lot ilbm '!he :s;lowerc-iltocik: in th~ 'COWlK m'jil;l::9it: 20 frama. :Por prDpGf inie.fleav,ing of hits at 'mil .MIl I,e""ei~ rn.ecessllif:Y'iilIat aU il:is :un,rut ibit :5~!!i b!lv-e ;j)f' be made, t-g ~(U:' ~o h(!.vemc ~e :!1It-e. Tn ,p!!lit. 'ihe mfl]trer :~t :sdm,pl'iS'I:l!ca.lly" the ,process [of ,EUfjrUS'ling ib:it rn_ to m.cm,l!'Q,lli1l, m'\!1ol,ws: addlq bIts to lhe: 81uwe.r bit ,stream 'OPe.I'3ti'o:n.referred. tQ as: ''''pUI8'e: stuffing,,"" F'u!rii:'her 'I)iits: must then. be: added to aUb1t: :iitre!Un~tQ ai1'l0w '!!he 'moe;rwcr of 'Iili\¢, oom,pmI~lt; :s..~gna'~ dist]ngu~tSl1I, Vim;; i91iOiS,wtl;iiob. emy 'to :inro mJati 01][ from, :sifoi:.'1! w.nidi em)' tb.e·'~tIiIW~· bib.

wm

more

mm

lo_

Mt.Ra.fe Th.e Aill mlll,ti,pllex.e:r' add.8: 'nOlUina'liy '17 bits, 'oor frame $Y~.Iil'hf<W!iWii:in, ;!mdp"'uls.e tSWffirn,g.. H~c the Rumbe:r' of ib:il:S,pm':~ :is i'9.3 x ,4 +- [7. == 789 1lit!l/hme, Ih~ T2 :llM,biltmie ~s,iihm-efore ftlT2)J = '7;89 bii:s!1iIlRle ~;J( 8000 frmne~:;; = 6J.'t2 :Mhf51

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'J'E;

numh¢l" of hilts ~r :!tame: for iii

,M:23

muU~lG.'Ii~'

adds

])O:IDi~nany 6'9 MIs

:n 1ifilt: is

fo:~'s!,nc'hroIl!izat~O'Ii,

limd,

p'iJils~!i!fumng;ht.itte

the

7:S9 x ..,+ ,69' :::: 5,592 biJt~:ftaJrte ,and, fl,(T3} = ;5,5i9.2, ,8000 = 44.,736 Mh/fi x The: M34 :m1i!ltipl!e~eradds, nominally 72'0 bits ftl-t Sy~(ihrofiii:r.a:tio!l ,~d! ,pul~e:;rndf!f.!g ~d, theretbre thoe~ :r~,sy,Site:rn,h~ iii bit raie
liiT4) ""274,J,16 Mb/lS
,A,

d~.t~

,Miillysis

Qf'lh,elJ a:tt.hilt-Gctu~ M.d, OpGrnti,OtL ,of t'h~G dig:ii!a~:S~$!Glti5i ii, te ibG :Ibto:t ~m'Ret. 3.
~
,~~ MiE bit

Example 5.7
:~IIil,

AM.[ ,IiDe ,ooaegi,\!C :Ill

~gl~, :i[]~

(,~J (;'o:miiid1:r'P~I!l;' :~L3ISao ['f ilihat :a:,pr,~, cod;:: stlli\~, m Fig, 5_36,b, wfri¢h :~I~, iihe l~!lItilEililies .;If iIic:: 5eqiiiciflO~ ,lIS f.otF~i!:. 5~36Q., ,~'h 'bJl i~!"i'jal, ,@;.) ~gn~~fy !!OO liM'
I

IBit- i'ntel'NEiJ I 1---Ii I 0,
ccj __ -I

I

I II I II II Ii

I

=V :i
Ii I

il

i' I I

:nco ,5..36
Jo.i1tti~ll'
[(a)

Ib}
Ull~: ,Ooo~ wa¥~f.o'tm, f.o:f.

~m:pi~

S,1,

:~!.I'~ :!aJI.owr:.d, byiJe,gatilir: ,rmLi, ogjc [(0) liS: re·, ~ Puegi:Joe ,o:r Ill~: MId! ,infil':l!t ~,WiZi' illti~~~j,i'jii:ilii:. ~rtmf:t:'", ft'(ml ,di!:firri-ti'i1l1i! '!'~is'ret'ire!iel1lS 'l'!I!!~, &!~l ,oo._~iQl l.o;aiic vaJ~ I, :1. A~ S.P\]j,11-.pIl.ue~ o.r :~:I'tmc:he$tet ~od~t!(g., i~C!DIi:C: ,l3.f Ma-~i: i~ ~hl;; il:!iI;?;l i~~fl'lI~, mli:llllli~ fiM''I1i!~e' QU~P'lt ,i;tfui-'~bleJ' de· ~e' iiJf':lo,gie O•. :~e-edll!Jg ihi:s: WII)"~ cfm lfus-m:Plt iin#lln Sc[:, :~L5,2iHQput ~~I i~i5~!'eBm.of:aJl1:rntl.te ~. ~!ifj!, Lnp!.n b:~9lmm as U. I., 0" :~, [0', Q" U}. mdU"i>. (liI)iiilioc t~~,~Ii.d WBi\!,~I'_onfriI, RlJ;l~nti; :58JfJfIt sci, S(!:&!i~ We .~rm:: ;tj :siitiliililff'I~ble IS iII. Sec. ~.:5.2 (!f;'~ bkl WI! abo",--e'wct"lt'tdi Ilo~w :1,hils,pt)siti~r: \!l!1~oo b{.t) !5 i!!OO Q'~t

ss

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

2&t
,If [d(k)

Priniil1l~ aj tllmml'lllT,rca!JUIl' S-",Jitecms

btl(

btk-

4) - 3,)

l
Q I) (l I}

:2 0
(I

[a[

3 1
I

;iji

5
rn

6
0 0

';
1 0, 0,
Q

8
0 0

'f)

I)
(I ]

[0
[0

ill 0, 0. '

w,

hf);-

b(_k ~ i)

0
(I

0
0

c

,0

1

Hl
0 0 0
I}

!~
l 1

1;2.
(I;

0
0
]

«~
,0
I)

,0

iJ 1
[0
(I
[(I

0
0 0 0

'!4 0 0
I).

0
0
(I;

l!(~)

n

:1

1.

<0

0

0,

ill

(j

0

Ntl!tc ~~ilI~: to(}} h<Ls 11:'55 dodtlil:la.ted ~lI!f[]m1IBitilim (11Jn.:,gN siring p:!irmazy jQh off' ~;.l_iltbl!l.t is h) iblfe.i1ik ,p.!I~Ie_rn..

"

0

1

0

0

[0

0
j,

0
]

0
il!bc

IiIi'" Zl::ros) C!UlIm, ongullBil :;.isrucl. Thlo5! s~~fu:Jt
.

:DlFFERENTIAL ptJ,t'SE
'MODULATIO:N
la ~ '[ !il! ::.-,",-'b----,_y!i:J\"m
~:Ifiv.ihic'h L 1'-,,-,[,,-1,.- L.:I-~'-L[-' IIJL !IL --I ~11'I!~Ua_rm;1I iSi!plld.

[CO,DE, :MODULAT'I[O:N

AND, DEL',TA.,

itd:" '",",-,"o'-,"-·t· ...<1,"""·",-;"-'I'"j',IJlI,~, fL:-,-,",,!,.lIS a _IlII au C a ,~"-~-- -j-, "[v,"·:I";I;.I:" ~~11,C.1J!I~ __~~tJ1:.9 1i[~S.lrnu_wli.! '....y SIlI!np ; u~.c:p;! {if tra.J!'!g~-tl!u$S!im~whi~h J:s, at'!! :;!lrem~~i:'\!:e tr~:msm~u:il!i{l; :5@~vle 'V,~l!)J~, {~qij~i:l1~~~ Qr to ~ ~t ~~4'i eS3mp1irlg tim!>_ w~ carl. ins.1:ead, at eaCh sampHnl1l time, say the ktlI sampl~:1l£ tUIne,tr,ansmUI tbe dif!:ero!l(;'lfib~~~ ib;l;'i'sarlI!lp:i:(;;val!J)l;' m(k)- at s[lJmplin,1il tirnlO> k and, th.~ ~mp]eva'lue m(k - 1) :ari;~:ulJ!le 1: - l, If seeh '~.:if!'!Q~' ~if,e 1.t<.tIfl.!Slitdr!t.e.itl,Hl'eiti. iS~.mply by 8ddJilIl\~ lifp (,acei.lJj"l'ilIkl:tl~~lmr&) '!hcS¢ ,ciOliirn;g:C5 we :sib.dl gef!~ai~ ii)!i: th~' ~[eii."o-ei::'I,!Ier w,i,I,ve~!1J];!j ideflJtiQ~[ lUI fl)J1m to ro(i'). Utere ~f!,6~ ::l d]ff~I!iQ~ in ~i() i;l. iQom:ptlM:f:rllts ibetvroelll itr·f1!lli5-11litli-ed;a!~d :t'ecel'l'ed, s~;g!il~!L:sb!.]~, ",'irt'l:O&t. it!!Iil,!!fii~'h~y, Sl!i:,b. de l'[)!mptl!'!~a .are (l'fno irnlteres-t_ Sudh a differenhLlI eS(ihe11lf:1 als; '~[p'C-dj]l~e:r.it when, 1he~el d:iff~nce·:i! ;iue to, bel)r"rlsmu~Hld b by pulse wdc :m.odu,U[lltioi[l!" or we: Ul81Y \¥Gil :;nitu~~pat0 lool the d~:ff~re:nclli5: ,m{k) - .I1Jl~~ - ] )wi'll, be F im~]kw '~~?i!~ '~t!c;~~mp~!le v~:ji!~e~ '!l~e:rnt;tJl"!,!':es. :&ffi~nil)efewer ~ev~J!!iw~U '~e; ooqYb'.ed ~o ,qu~~ti:Z'e 'ehi;; diflernll'ce fhiJH aJrcerequired, to qflllarrJlti2!f:.m(,k) and oon::e.~m.di~o1!~y, 1 fewer' '01:t::;:wUll b~, needled. to ' 'GIiJoodG ttit(;; ~,~Y~:ls" Fur [fi];.>;;arrnl_p:l'L'l'slIp'prniie tliJi31~ , m(t.) extends ol!i'er' a r3m)~e ,rj,land,usi~g reM, m(k)iJs ill\IJ;Qodm usi!O!,g 2;1;=,2:5;6 I,Gvds. 1,he[l, the sJtGp :sjjz;e ~;!i,S =: (VH - V.dl:ttl." 'lh:iL~:is FJiIl- V[,_ :=' .2568:, :~f"bfYI1ilc::v-t::r, ~'h~ ditt-~D"''C .siQ!li!!i! ,m,~;!:) m(k - ~) [e-'XJtenilll, only ,(f\l-e:!i' '~!1el'iOl!i.g.e~2S t'herli~he q,uatl!tl2!ed. Ie:ve.ts needed! aJr[e;aJt :.-i,[LSS' ari.d! at ~,I,.'o5::S_ Tb.e:t\f:I;are it'i(i!W [~n~yfDUI" 1~...els andtwo bits; ,per' S'ilil[lp:~~ciiff:~oo:nCG[lifG a&quaiJiG"

~Qn

rD'

II

:;I.lJ! am'llio,S sysl:cltl, whet(: w~ ara 8b~c) ,at ]]eillst. irn.priJ];(:ipk, ~'Ci trn.t1:.s:rnit tITle d~:ff:ereiIlcc-Se',.'(_I:Ic:tly~ !he -di:ff~re;t'i~th:di>Y'.,il:tle-m de!!~bed, ~bolfe ,"i'l}uld, Ope[fi.ile ~i!:1: ,1;!IIi:ilC®~!:iC¢ with "'l~ de~s,'-Xi,flti'ilJiL,[n <:i d~:g~liililqJlJ!illltized} ~y'Sltel!t1J'W-e e:n(i~'i;!lri!ter 'llhe oo.~[1,p:~i~il.th:m.~hi!l!l:the di:r:-';~re:l'li:ies ;are rI.(j.t g:enernll.y (

In

'imnsmiitlioo

exm::dy 'beCimse O'F1be qUi3iniicz3i~~iiIn_ FutritheT~ we hLI,',o"cthe' !ll~-ob!;em lt~8i~th.e. d~J:l7~re:nce mill]" be 1ii'~~Q;t~h:ilin t~em:tLr",iltnI!A!I thiL1i ci!lif'lbr:. ,a~co1mlioo!at~d¢C8!J1S~ Qf tlill;> :r~l:ric,tc-<l!ri,tlJrnI~l;i.[ Qf b ,~(or:dijj.c~ hi~c_ w"(~hfiVc _ p"" -'I!"~, "'IJC{I1~C ~_ .Iil]Ll~)1_ w~'lllf:c, '~llIcl~: ~Q;I]L time, ~i1i:-re ~,5"'- '-' _ a iu-;ce ~"""\I'i~i""i ~";jj ",c, II '-';11.<1[-1: ",_ ~(;:; __ !i!!_ 'ilL _c'~:cc -",e __HL ----" - mi ...hrhe """"_ ",--iI1J:l; - __It.c ---_. -- f8.''Ii." .. _Ioi
....

di.8c:~epl3![tc)" bet!N:-een t'hel Or::~giillill, sigl'lLll m(t)iJoo th.e si;gnjj~ ,il:(.t),g,en~ratoo at itbe ,rsc~iver by "'"..... 'm· lll"'''l'I'''n l1'""'p"''''''''''' t- I.."'t-' o~"'r "w '''u'i'''!I,..-r .... f mn!'I"'i' ,,"" '!',ill._ "1'1,, ,..(.). -1-'" ,'lin C,T" ,,,,]" , flJ. .. , t- .... ]]- '"m-'-"lt~I_.l .. " .... ~¥ ,_,_,.Ull!..,1 diffcren'Ce~~'w~r,(: tGlO smell 00 l1:u;il .6i:(k} h;.d f,;l~'~~,'jiUbSitafiJ1!ij:p~:~!I!':\ihnn o;f[;.')f:e:pil!i@; '1J1.1t' wit'i'l 1!R(i'), :SuiPpo::«,:~£l!Irtbe:r.;~hat in ~'he ~Jtlite:t'v,all :sarm,pliu:g times kan.d! 1r + 1.; m(t) siho:u~,ddeG'f.f:a'se s:li:gbr~ly, Clear~.y 'if Wle tnll'l:S[l~utt.ed fhe rlegLlt~ve cha'I'1I,~f:1if m(t) w-ewali.iild be giv:ing dle w,~orlg signal. o ]]], ,;i (~~gj'!fj;! (Uiff'C,~OII,thd.!i,YS.;CIfIj,we cif.tN'm,v~! '~h~ cla,f'ficllil!ty W$ :na:w'C j'iliS,t &:iscti:~eU ~y tni!;;l_~iing: ;Jl,'\!wibible "M tine U'ltliS-Jni~ter a, dUflUc~ie [of i.ib}e'rece~'!(~ a:cii.Illnm,~l~Jto:~ so 'Ihatl: a:tb~!lS,_mill'er' we :have avai:UiJ!bU~ihe :Saim~ si£-!'lall;l!(t), 'Then we ,iJ[,l"arl~ t'&utiihel ~ra;rus;:miJt1icdigmll s'ho:uM !11m; ![;OIiJ~ s
I....... , .. ....._~~

v.j.

~!LI,

1""1i.:.I~"

'U"Ii+.'

'."!!~

<I, U!

....

__ .lIX~.

v.

'C'," 'I3IU __

~Ih~~"'==

l'il'r.~~!;

l!!1

. __

.;JJ~~~'_.~~_'

l"_U!l,,:ll.~,-"';.~._!l~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

I....

't]},eIIDO.st FeCenJt~h.onge :io, m(i) lind CORVey,iii irnswarl t'nG ..:liffW'lMlC~ 'bet,!;,i'~I'I, m(i) and m:(t~I' In an . amllo,g: :syS'liGm" 'Illli~sd~ff~1Zi .m(t:)- m:(t) Is P'1'GCilSely 'Iih~ '1~5t c'hllllll,g;eJ ion met). In. 3, qUiii:ntitmd, syste._~~ !!IS wei have !:1;Q'ted, ~~ch :Uf! r!Gll the CMe, hi ~ih,Qrt'; i!1J :;., quarnf~, ~y~re:m we_ ""dAID00" ~iU!buac. from. 6t(i) a valu:o' 'Wlai~h.is approprlMGi 'ID 'liuing m(l} elmer to m{t). TIll!; W8,vdOm1J m(t1li~ ,8,t1l~rn[Uy

:re-fened ~o',ffiSi the (1PPM;tirtfdtifjPl to ,m{lJ, Alt{J,~:elli.c:r! UU~Ili!UreIqwn:ti~e{Ij d~ff6feniia'i ~~~:s.s:Lo:n. :scheme Is as s'ho'l'kllil'l,F:~ll~ j:.37., (We ~gnareilliitiailly 'b; ~'prtdi.ctom,"lfual' -a; illi~h-e:fi~[-G.) The :flXGih'~r conSists of 1IiIl, iKlilmulato:r v;:h~:e'h, d~ii "~,~Itt jJ-e~iv~d qUiaittized, _'frlft.n~ a ,i1~k) ,ind,a f~I!1i~ ~Mi)~ i!,m-oo_~ o_u~:'!fiG lqij~~fi" ~,iU!O~~OO!iie:!The OU'!(j,\!ll 'libe: ,~c~YL~l'O!, is '!!he !li!~~ ajlJpm:um!M:!Qri m:(~j,wlu,c11 booomeE;, m:(!) 1;\1: '!he :lY11~et oo~~t Alt ~'be'~smin'e;!" Yi/'e need! w kJ'!0W whether m'Ojis I~i~r '1!1J!:' &m~Uet~ m(O; aoo by :h.o,w:mludll., w,iZ: ny tmrn, d.etemi'~n.e Witeilltr '(he, :n.c:li:!: dj:ff~iit"e¥k) neGds to, 'be posiJtiVG or m~ti'li't M,d! (!if wha~ aLt'np]irnde jm o:rdet ~~,.bri~~ ,m{r) M elese .Q.$. :~ab'le to ffl'(~-',,_ :PQ,r'lhiill :rt.MiUfi we' laBiCv,r; d,tIJphcatt accuIDI!II.M:fit' at 'l1u,clirnlll15mi,tlC]". At !l!:ach. sattilp,]irn;g 'lime, 'Iill'!:' I:nln!SmiJt~f. :II ,d:i)ffm!'tce~ it_rnpUfi~' .comPM'-es.m(.r) ,!Mld! mWiMld '!he: !!;~Vill~ ~nd hQ'!cl-(:froy£~tY b()ldJ$ '!he~ijJlt (if "(nM Onmpan50:D 8(t) for lhe dilllratioJil gf t'he iAlulVal. 'b~e-en :s:alltpl'ung tumciii ,. Tile q;mm!ti~et', g-ener--..

.or

a~ '(he &lgi11al_It) = ,AQCk) OOI!bI fm ti',atJ:5:tlliis:!IlO:il tu,IiI.c' F'IZC(!:ili\oict a'i1id, '10' :pmvi~e ~n.l)ij!t.t®me s receiver ,im()11.!!m)J.]~~'Olil'iJ die ~itl'er" '~.~;a iJ);!',~~ticiJ!1 s)!srem ~be q;UMJtil--ed d~ffia'~RQ~. Wl)!.!.~d fi1t$1 'be e!Kooedi mto, a biruuy bi,t f;~aJm be:OO:r,e '~$m'i$!liiotlJ aLI'l-d e(lOO~ ,M:the reeei'!01'e!'"F~ sim_p.]i.i);i~ d : thel emlOOeT and. de(iOOer are nol: iillCllildooilii Fig, 5.37"
l

T,'~l ~
Slmpijng

elgmaJi

:5iarn~

;iI_IIlt;! ~.oIkI

."~ PrndiQo--;I~
I

=,

~=.=-==I-""i i=====~-=01

1:..'

~=-_~-~'

_...:.!

,!!k,W

~'.. ,

I"_~~~ 'I __ .
II--'--"--,:t-i.

I

Al;(:li~

--I
I

~(l;')

I~~~~...!l

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

~ .~
_ ]t

I

needs t[l·~e ttn.pbilliS~lOO thalttl'l.G iOO~icliwil8'lioil gf thG scheme
~ ~.~!j~ed! and! ~

wt ha,~e JIUS!;

1b(i,';~~fi.W!i!:i:¢d d!:ffi;~~·

Qf lint'u!:ed m;;u;;:l~um

d~cribcd ]51 that vail!!!.e,. TIle qlIW!ti:m1ion

:me.4li~~ .~~!: ;<lh,'Il '~.OSl:~eve..f· W:~'U '[h.. ~ru:t.rernen.. It. tiJ.;t). add.·- e.d.,.ID m.'.(~:) m.'Iik m(,r) :p~rec.iSei!Y·.~.q.u~·! '~Q. m. ((i" .. e.. . ... , .. 'e. 'Fhe~~nntUI3!lml:lJ ilMJIIli.e :maxUTIliIJim value ofArtl) m~8Il8 iihHlt wn-eH mel) chatngi:Sm.onQ1j~flli;)~Uy at fI! :f.Rpid rate,. .rti:W illi!.)' s!m~!y 1flQ1: be ·(!JbUe tQ iIre~ up,

.~jOr ill, Predfc1o,r' TIw tl.iPCM: scb.e:mG W~ :ruaVG d~c;rib~ ~,t1],b~!:i sl:C'!im'~ Ql!!!;" as &. ma,Ue:u' :0:1" ptalj)ti!!c ~l(l't tobe ,eft'eoti .... , Ml~n dl.1ii e ;S3mp:~ing J;atii! l:5!;5,t:j; at HueN~qui8t :rate:It g:~~ili liIA:3ccGptab:~y GlXc~8si.v'G ClJ.uacni'i'zatloJ;J] noi.9~ m [compari5:M ·toPC~:t 'The ~~H:ZMi.Qn :n~]:\Ie[~. be :med,tilled. by :s:ugninciIlIlll;ly increa5!ung; ii'1l!;}1ampling s rnte. 'Wirth :in.ON:asedratiil~ the~ dlilile.uen.ce5l am :S'amp(U~ (II SfIlmpk: aTl\]! s,I1ll:jl!llcr and! n~~ ~~te· ,(,I.:f :pood\:!:Cjnglarge·q~UaEiM::tatili)ln. e!'l"~!li I!! red!i!,iQ~. SUpPIJ5ie, ~'ne[l,tllllt in DPCM. we iillcreaseth.~ samplilA,g. 1]1,16,1 i~veth~ Nyquist nltlie, to 1'h~ poim:: wn~re we gst :lI''lua~iity of sound tlJl.Il!5missi:cllll ·"""MC:h.Is comp:mlibl.6 to ·~R1:availa.ble 'from PCM [!Jp~'!lhIJg ,i!!l 'i!heN~lf'l.uillitmte.;. IbM ,~in 'it tums OUt!: !!but UPCM:is ,at.a di:sad¥anJlil~ because: :it :bas 'bee:!i'iid~m.J)!:~,swre.d! tlr!i::u the· ibJt 'm'De:of n[PCMi (ibibJ, pet :SiI1Wi,ple'X 5arnpl~ !:1li!~) !liM ~~.
j

The sitlJja~i(!fi jn DPCM can be· Improved by H1COgnizil'lg t'hiilit:t:he.re is iii ,co1'l'1l'latiun betw~n :S!'i.l.Qcil:'&i~ve sElm~~es ·~f the :s;ijS-':l'!a'l m(t) ~ [I)f ~W[ :if lbe s$gneJ is, sai'npl~d at ;Ii raie c:u::eedhriglllei ~Myqll;l!isl rate. Hert~eil kncrwl~g:e~ of 'past sample ",,:aiuet;, {I]" differences, allows us 'to .;medict. 'WiJth ~I;':' j)ft)b;lbi~iJ~:f(.jfbeung, eo:r~[ecl~ ftrat'l!.ge 'Of 11iLen.exl :reqliliited :in~m.aU. 10 'Id¢; adv,lGfI:tage pi: '!I!d~.e;;Jrrei~!~Q.tiJ; alJr'~di'C~i" :~Si !indu.ded. m I!he ])!P,(;M .sY,Sitem 8.how.Cl mf'ig~S; ..j:7 .. TIleI p'1edi<ctm'w.i~l. , ,~e-iTI.er,tillybe ,;1, iiIi;olle:m!~I'y is®plii,ii~iciik:d, s.ystG]n~ :it wUl miN te, lD;m:poxaklIhEl faeiHIy for !!Iktrins; PllSI; d:liaeft1(l!I;cG',s,:.JJ.id 'to-I ca"fc~iin.g QUIt: ,5O:iD~ lii(s,Odahm ~Ii;i.p~~ct. '!be next tequitttl s ·if:l~iflre:rit., AI~o,g~ili~r,.k q!l!1!.lily (if '!j'ruce or' ~£dCQU'i:m!limi~~ u..~irns:DPCM ·can ibc:made: ·,;:ompM'iilblt: to' tha!!. (jlf PC:M'by :~n~te!!.iiin:gIil"i,e iJlU1i.pliiilM: mle (Whl,.(ih reduces the· dl~«rmn.ct':Si ;Mid! iiiit.~ tlR:i QOrre'h'l.tiii:lfi. betweet'i. ~mp]~.), and. by u:\limg a p1'edli:cmr:.. :MOSiI: :um~antlY'l' by :these [eJ(.pe(iie:oJs,. D[PCMi.l~~ [uJ~~l'e ,Itt ;ilJ).pwJ:imiiU't:·I:y' o:m.e":haJt «if 'the ·bilt. :mu!:, of POM wit]) ,a, OOD5iG!tjuom'l: sa.v:iio!!!i;,of.
:ilp;eeti't1!1i'n iiip£IDe:..

f.ar' .il?CM~

~e.etls

w~:~(:!li.~!li[(;!.plii~~·! i.m: Me~ Square: Error (MSl1) ;~nse~ We 8hal~ modify Fig ..5.30 Hiltlo to W.(lrk: .$Qlely on dJi~rete daI1)aby~iftrngt!he: salillpll:e"Iu~[])d and acoumulawx 9llitsidl1i th:GJ:prtdi.cto:r 1.00p. l.hs iSi.grnd. procr;s5iil1lg ~il'I dii~rclG domarin 'I1&e~ itr.~s,t'el"fillnCctions ~ike H(z;)[ that 1'S: &efi~d lin. z( ....~~,i~,J [d@!Mi!ff! a...~ .

S.6.:ll Liiieu 'Ptlldicl<o:.i' 'De_II a Here" ewe JiHil;;4;j!$i:i :~!1bt:h;:~r a !!i~hemeto de;!!i~ ~. N~~f poo(l!~Wf

H(z,) ~

.. L.1i (jj)Z~iI

"'''"i1l

Ihe ~:@i~lhy h(i!';i) re.f)f¢s,c;;~~ lrmpybie Iie:S.p®n!le; of tllK' SY;5;t~ liirid iiIJ pQplJ.d:iIi:U Hnilt~ ~mpIiIlse R~:-· 8po'ruse (FIR) ~y,s'tern (wh!~C!bfQ:~ obvi.QW9: was 0 11.~'s :Ilil.w.ays st~il:de) of N.~b;order, e~I"nd~m II( l ], •.... MlI/ji,. In ~.inear' itTMdi.ctor d~i'roMII we- ~n ~",,~d--it -- !Mi ill! f'[JR- i5Yi'L.rn arid. (...n:I~m-IIII'" !n MSE ..~,-tcJ: -.----'1t",~;;~.L.7 , ~I·· .. lr.-'''- - -. -. - ---'Ci'" .. -~-.-- . - ---~ ~ -.--~ i!!~ ID.4:l!Si)()1 ~M ~("d, ~ , ==!. m.]it t]j~t mi!:i![m~7!~ :5Q:i]j" GIro[ criltffiuri. 'Th.e OO:n""(liu~JiOIltreil.:atron Qf'twi.')l sligoo[s .x(i!'J) and. h,{tl) in di$.C'r[ete:-~iti! .~~ gen~~.y(r.i)!~ ~'hGw!'i iim; iEq,. c(:5Ji8!l!!)- 1i'h1:!i· rela'i!@ I~·equl.v.il~.;:nill)lm~1M:P'~!~!'i(lfl~n .lli'"@mMiti! {!EQ.. 5.38b)1~SWIZ~,ve 'SiGeD! iill [raw o,r:c(Jnvolu·· tion '~lf:[i:ontitrl:uUI!.I5! sijgml1 and th.e:ir' FOUl'.iel' U:aJriS£nrms: ..· JiI!iJ fact" tlie){ f(!!~,rlJ'w ]inearil,Y (Eq. 5.,:39J and
,-C -

Copy rig hted m ateri al

"."

y(~) = Lx{k).h(i:! -k) t~z) .,:;.X(z}l't\z) a:r(n) fS.Ji3b}
l

+ b_y(,M) ( "
~-[J

aK{2:)

+ h]i'{~),

OL39)

mn.des:~Elning pEedi,~iDr for DiPCM (Flg,5;,,3S)·! ,our ,o~J£cti'!i'O :listo min~DiLl'i~.Gi erro:r e(n:) th::lt :lis: ~n~; tied. an "_!il'IUL_,, 'tE:ai The,I-~ 11"1,- "-10 -tl(:c ,0 -,n3imd. to orlOlil'liilil~IOnl!] m' i!i~,.iibf: be'tlC'f wUil ,-_dttam~ ;'t_Ij . ~_a___ ~ _1I,)ffi1'_~ __ -~ -~.c~~~ - ~.D't.FWUl .... .,_ _~:S~!:ii . '~~" .... .. -.. be. tnlil! perfurmmoil! af.l:[P'C'M system. wltui.1h. CillllllSle mol'e! number 'On~'We:~5:~:O' ;COd.ili a :srn:liiUil'l' :~:mge
.--y ..
c

of dElta. and tilll.nciil: m-mIU~ srep

:S<~z;c" '~~"')

~G::---.~,-----~.~,
PLNl!di:(;!Q~ IfllilliiiIiCtgr

_

]i'(n),

Ii

~,
I

h

Foot , we =:,-"!:t the """"-waf ons '~h ;(II} -'liies. :fibQiVe ~:'!1rem· I!b.e fjl!iill!lititc~ used..Me diefliiied.irn llhe-t . , __. wn , "":I!'. J ... a.· .~C[JL _....... ~)~.---"O' .~__ "I..._ .._.. __ . ___, ---~ .. :f:is, :SJ::8, ~~e'-lf'~y :5!1Ltn ,!W!g. ~£f~~~¢ ~~tiJ!1!i"Pted~(;~Qt oiJ:@W'ltft (8q, $,.40e) is oon'l,i\Q~i'!,:!!1iot!: (if :~~
II

c~"

inpillt iiii(~) and. impu~se RSp9nSIil! .h{1iI) 1~,tizatiQ:o !mW:, q(n):a e:t!'l) ~ i~~')' Jj'];I!di:ction. CITOT,e{n)
:=:

(:5..40 a)
(5.. 00) 4 (;5,,4&) (SAOd)

m: (rI)'_ m.(n)

.~n~t 1'0' Fredic,tor!
<QolpUt: ~l!.I.!UEon,

.m(n) :=. c:qtiPI:)

+ m:{n)
@ it(,~)

)(n) ~ ~t.n:)-1' JV(n)
(Eq. 5.38) aoolll:lcm.ty

Un ear' :pred)h"tion,. m(n);:::! .fii:(i!'l)

(5 "4Qe)
(Eq,.5;.3'~)' (S.4[,a~.· ,

C'Q1'!,vertUns .abQ''I'e·eqtLl)ii~n$in. z-4o;l1\I3!in. EUl'il clll:<!i:un.s "otIiroh.ltiun. .~rty WGi can w.nw :~&.r 5iim.p:l~a:li!!l~br-ai,(: ma.l]i~pul1I~iiO:liI!~
E .,fz,)· = qlF

== ~. -IF ~ M/z)"
Eq {z)

W")IM'~l:i<:;' "ii' ,;flI. z)" "\~ 'I;_~1 ~\r
I ••

Mlz):::; .M(~)"f. E#);;:: H(:»M"(Zl .".

+ [M{z)
..', .'

- .H(zljW"(l~) + Q(z)]

=

M{z) ~ Q(z)

(5.41~j
(S,41c),

~l-'1i)""

[ -ll{.:;r)
=:

. '. ..' "",,

M(~)= H(z)(M{i!l) ~ gf)]
1~.HfJ,)

+g:~
.

= .kIt")1 T Q(z)
m(l'j:)

:.

.

1U',h05i~'W(: hlt'\i'~, ~)

M",(,g). ii;il:. ~;,;dOO

oo~d'\l¢;t

Q:@t:fy~ .J.-,\1.!') ~~ i!l~e:~.

encodt.r side.

i:i.v~iUi:!bae :~t th:e·

Copy rig hted m ateri al

.10000kfu~~d tI:min~rnMica~ COOmdenhl, wlilj'cirl are op~:lmal ~;mi MSE 'wril1et:! ;QS,
liI!5now

LGit

:1:GjpI'~a~Rljjlillll.
Se'IliSle.

and c:alclIiiato p:rodJict@[ '[',Il~ :~iIUi.UU' p1'e~~cto:[ ouitput of fig.,5.3:8, coo 'lIla;
;i}f:stieIll
F"

illf [lPCM:

m{n)' ;;;;Ji(i.) m{r! - 1} 0; h(L),;;j(n ~2) -+ , .....• .A(_N)cri(n - N} (!L42) We ass,1Jlme~npulimf'&Sag:e~r m(i'1)} is: 3.:Ire[O .mearn eSitaiiarual)' rond.otn :prooe!i$ wita a.ru1!DCQrre]atian .R.Jk) = E]m(.") m (11' ~ k)1 ;::; R...(...k), ($ .. .3), 4 where, It i:s. the~ mU&ore:te lime(esample) emift ;;md! E iSh ,e~Q'l1l!liM Q'perJJI:(J'~'de\llned. ;(!S. "E[x(n)]
All·S~a:~ed!

= N--f<o' .:"'; .,""'~vd 11lR11 . N &..
" ." li~

• " ·IC--·

. 11'''':1:

befiJre, our (!bjec:ti~"C ~s to m~itliimiz¢·v.M'iattce uf,e(n), 1,,1l:. E{ti2{itI)}" Sino~ ~.1: s to' OS clime I

w..r.:~:h(j)

=

hj'

we diifr~!Ui::J!t~

:EI!ldi 'C"qUlEltt'

each ~I!'nn,tu iWm ,as ~Elr(n}~
--j meSSll&\f:

= o. 1'.Il~Ii,l't~[

manipu~Minl'l mSJ:!l:g: I'lbove
gi\ie~ ,RllIU)

[li3~l'rtii,UIS

and, ,co:n:i~dering

and,qllmlt~mii:o:n noise M"e~ 'iJrfhO,gJHUII.C~

;;;;I,hj B~ (j
t .. l

'"

=

n ... Asa

:systenJ! Qf :1~'fI!;e;;l!~' 'e'!l'UJJtio~ we

wldte1

lllrnHill~rii:li:~orm~nile aoove: can 'be wr:iiiii!L'l~ Ili~Rrn = FIJI'

(SASb),
(SA6')i

Thar~: &t!f.~ Qut'. QP'h~ail :POOdl(:rot (:~;Ii:;::md(:f!t'!, ~ = RiJl 1I~ W~'thi~ ~. ~blf¥e. rnjM1imr~merror ~~ij)J~Ct "~:f.'iili!li (f~t 00; be,

Y Q"U :in. .rc:-M sysleln. The varlanee of ,e{!'iI) is 1.eS'Si '~he'teJ!.lnapp~>'II~~ng by alfre[' thaiJi. If m(nl and. ,e(n) hal\!'te~
;ldi!l1l:ilar~ di81ribu~~,O:!l SNit. improvcmentilil.

(5.47) = .Rm(O) ~ It:;" .R~liR!JI~ iCarn ~s;ee;thatllhe fircSit:leml R:m(O) of Eq.(S.4'1) is the m~yt ~ignill"'<Iiri:mce w.hiilh. ~'s:qJIllCIDii~et1l
:[nllU

q;'I:IIlin. = E {,if(,MHi

,

C::lS@ or

IlJ:PCM
to

elVe[

PCM is 'b:ylIJi

0'2 :~og:iQ

.

-(;I';'

.11'11"

For il!wiQ",

:O:PCM

ell(looing salVtes. n.e,:lllly 25% 'MrSL1'amparoo

reM r~ smn.e

311.dhl ''lu31~ny"

-

(i~enu; (NQte fhaJtwe mf, 'L1Q:l'ltinu~ng",o:~1!h the~~o:ta~~ons defirjL~~ ..:in.p~ious sec:Hon.) ]I ,~'I[I1'i or bo"lil:iJ ot 'lhese iilrenQI tme we ean el11iP1oy ada:lfIl~'I1e .hlll<eatl', :pre<hcl1\Q.n. Hge~. Vl!estart :&.01[1 S\O:m.e :irn;hi]31 ¥311u'esimf.hjand ttlsn itGml~.¥~]li' UpCIIW 'it lhY'a lS,imp]1t; :ailgmitllim" t'h~ mU!5t poplilllii[ iJ.eiID;g :LC'ast:Mean SqUM"C' m' ,[JdE iii'lgro,riihm. Ati 'fOO:f'e Wild :nl;o.re &1m. en~rs 'ifrLe: s,'llrem, updlate~. !;~ri~s te :5:Cllil Uli:l :munimum ptl~it.roili.In mD:£ ;~ae~ (m1iYf:lo.1. g~t G:li:a.cl'ly) in. ':\ ~~QDg mililIt¢.i", Ute rl,.'l{~da,l~ :

·5.6.2 Adaptive Unear' P.l'edict!loa::: Leal,it ,lIea'D Square Al80dthm Ih,¢ m,eN~OY~ d~:i:!"Y~!!ii0t1a.~iurne:£ t:lJ~~ tbe (:h~j",~'efl~~i~~ i~p~t:s:i~~:;!! ibe ,@ooled ~':!in<il:'Ii'a:ryi~ Qlf' lQ ~d we ~:(ive ((~i!'Ie~e~$~ ~l;!!~oo(ii'f¢la!tiQ!i'I "~~ii;!.e$R:rnlJ)aJv,~iilaible : wbel'l we'Liillilclllbte inter ,(l0ie~'·

'!t-

'\!'alu~ of: t'llGwrzU:Shi iin. i~mti)aii. fn:

+ 1) fif' VMS ii~!Qr.l~hm:iti give.n,as,

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

.c~-

_I
I~w~

~'5f

I

h,,!!

+

I) = hJ(!lr) - J1g~(!,I}

'W.hm, Pl!) [!I!te~lztitlr.l,eimil11Itg iP«,am.Gte[!H!iiLdi &t(N,

..

=

a;

(5,,4:8,) E{e'2(nH. Th!;\! sooc..:nd'ImIll M ji~flilii!lfld

. ..J

side ·e,fEq.• (,5;..48) e:1l9i1JlLeS '!lhal oo~~(frd,efl~. m~ve in.... d~r,ecl~m:iJ o.f1.posil'e it{jogtad!b~~ti)!f el'n)T :sru:rfi1ice · i!he.~by :ooiLucing thG 6I]!I)f" The q,iUlI~~tyf.i, iff :m]~I~, bikes :nl!DW numioor of iw.I1iJtI is arid :uri tum. riJlfI .tii!ne ~o :~m~e >C~e're'~ieO'U!i ,~d ~f~~: 1:5il~t!8(;; ~tm(:!y i:lkJ.pthe: rnr!!'iimi!ll.~icLilf~fi!!; 1()I.S(:il:~~rozy be·hav.~Uijf. i[J5\ung, .imstarllla:ll~ollsv~iU'es far esctimaliio:n of :ilIui:ooorf·eJatb:ms: 3WId fO.'!!owing some a~gebrnic mIca.:"jtp1;!!lar~iQmi: 'We, get ,~PtMi.i}1'1. ~·I~!i;.!i~hID ~d~~!~r ~'t;'iieftlci.;t'i!t!il DS fw ... hJ' -' +- '~)I= ii' (Il'" +Ij m(Ii -f6.(. rI ~ ,(:ri' .• '-J_.J .. ~. ,1'""", ,j~'
~,

~(n} ~ n.~(.").

~Lhj
10:(1.

1\~

(n)m(n ~ i)

{;: 4'D~,~ 't_-.J'i' 7,"1)1

Like ibG;f:OfG~ '~he symiooE A statnds fer estimate, ]J error e(llih remains z.e~l.1! the ooemEici,enls 31l\e :am ·upd.!lJt.OOas tlt(1l :1$ ~(it nl;}~~$~" A~:5i) :b'!::O'I~lhart!i(j~~l;:r of addl~i.i(i:A$ :(md. mur,e~cn~i1i!i(jitly ml,'.i~~ipU~ 'CDJIl:Il :ill1.C!..e:ase'Il, JJ:flool'ly w~.th ..mnlttDe[' e'F fl. IreI" '(ioeffidelliis w~:Lch. is oo:n,S\[d~rOO as a oomputaliolla'll.)I t:me,i~i],t :s¢:~me. r:" Adiipti\i'~ D~:II~f.tl;ijlti:ll!1iP~~I!l;e ode :Moo'ijIMio!1 (AilJPC.,.M) t11t :JL~eoc'lt Q0e!.UC ·c:reIlJIlI upda1ie:d. 'Usillig,m.~di31,~at.oo. £lc;I~.e:me'nri.cl. lMS iIl!IS.'iiri'~im1 (!8,q,." ~A,9} ,r.:;aJ~ be ¢tn~I(l¥ed. fw tlite

same.

F'ux ~~i~ "W!!Jg., A.DPCM i[\;po:rjijl~

![Ig,:PCM

;rm;Q!

:Q;ii'f¢s~e~ly 51]%~v~s,

0IfMts:.

1,.6,.,S DeUa ModQ.l.a,UOID
.f:k.1Jll mor!i~ljJ:aJ,''On [ID'M) is a. npCM sdl.em~ i!l. wh~dlthe di:ff-ere:I1i:le eS\~glli]l .!l{l}is ~n{;od.oo i!ll~l.1! jillsti .S; slrrgk b~~·. he :s.:inQl1c'I)ilt~prQ"f'.cliin,g 'fo:r jUiSi; mo ~:S~Jb~li~ic!l:, s ru.:sed! tQ im.i1:~lea!leor deote(!:se tID,'I!:' T i ., " .,f) ~ . estunate m:~l. !!.':me w.ay 1[iIwlIuJchl a delta mooJuitlaJio:r can 00 ~e.TrIMediia s:.ooWii], lilil Fig •. 5.]9" Thl~S se-!fHl~:Iii1~ is, caned H10earj" d!dta 'mooiwlMioIL i.!tfc ·bastlNiod. :~gDa~m(t) i!li!"!d.~t5q;l,IiI!!m!~~:OLlld. a.pp.!'",..-i[JJ@"i'O'JI .n~{t)I!.'rce nppli,etJ i!ii~ to .~.eQ~tQ'r. A Q0mp:g~tQt. as 'iti!, ~am;(i ~~gge~ti!;, ~!g;i_P~ym!!!kt"~,.!! ;(;l(un.p'4lLrisorn b~~:Wc(:]ii ·io[l"U'tili,. :s, indiCfitcd !ai tb¢: p'ltllt :sihowll. in t'ig~5..39., '~h~ 'C®mp:!Ll1! to:rh~, (tJ1e fut'td i;)UIipUl~ A H;H) Wihen.met} ;i;, .m{r) <lind a dlifferellit 1001tIlfil,lil V(L) when .m,(~1 <:m(r). ldeLl~Jyfile trcmsition lboetvll'eelli

'~~!!i

l

V(_H) ,aruI! f(L) i,s, i:ubina'L'.i~.y .abrupt

8/&

U~(,I)- m(,r} p.aS5iGS'~m"ol~e:'n m:ro. 1.1l~ compar.:::Itmmp:~:::Ioes
.I· ..... ~.

t:itre

GlilFe:re:~e ampHt'ier 0!i:iu. qfL1anltW Q'f :Fi;g.. 5.37, :S:~ilit:e 'In libt:p~Ie,SiBt'iJt :!j[)ec:i:(j~. ~i:.~~ w.e 'n~d to k~j).w O1:J'~v _~_._~_~~"~t<: b~,i~'G'r,ct!r'S'!;'!'Ii;!iiiletr, diHF~ m;(;{L ;],i,df1j;iJc' I~~ ttm!ij'jih.c:fe . of. the..... diff~ffiij'j"'e.. ~-,~ 'l\-bc9lev·'~~fL .. ., "_"~ __ ~_ _.~_,' __ ~, .; ,Ill; \!1I.1i1!J . ·r .. :c ...... - c.c....JI-_.. . ..•. ..... ..... ····"·t ."".: ..• :-r-~:t -riih -'I-·~ me 'Ulru~Wii'lI COim!)!.':[ m,cn;;[llI:IiIJtli, " or. \1,cCirCrnCIl));,lfi· i.::Q!.lim:I. IJ'Y ~ alt Lll'l:!:~_! _, --r:1iI !JiI,;l'''IL;; I,,'{·,ge ,[][ me 't:",QC_~ W·~v~fcc;!1f.!;(Th.~ !lGJtiveeci:g¢ ii:l· either the ri8~F!g i,H' f~iN~s: ed.fl~ {if~he():.t{ick, depe1~d'i'i'1Jg.~l! tne: hill1~dwa[Gi de:i~gn o,f tb;~ cQtllrrI'ler. The 88lml11:ung, tiimois HUG t~me: (lif: OCClIf:iIGRCGi of'll1Iis, ,iL(tUIi\r;; Gd(g,r;;.) fi~,(]'j}lm1: directron, i.e., ilnc.t\elrtenl'~ns or dec.r.effietllrn.g, IS deten!j].'~ne~.b~ the ·'i)\r]~itag,e~e.""ei$ill -the !~GUljtt ditttth:m. c'QIDm:and~' inputte· ~Iti:GOOBIGI:"· .. WI1I.G:iII11f1is,hiri:iiiry 'i11(Jil t, Wblidh 'is ,also th~ tra]j'SC"' mined oot'pL!l1S'Dl(iJ.~ :is:Jt the! level v(ffl, ·Iib.e,j}oUl!iite~l.16till1!ts..'ItIP and wile;n i~: at 'Ihe~eve~ V(L) the is OO'llntler' 00_1.$ dowfL In ~be:p~e~enJt Cilli~ tIle COi,iiil!i:t !li[."fVe~ as '!he .1!C~uiiJjJl:iil:MJur ~hii;lw~ fill fig:, S.3 '7 ! sliMe; 'it adds er subrnacts ifllcrl:l:fiI];e:nts. as directed [l!lldS'tdl'OO trn:1l: acc<umu~.81I00result. The cli.git.aIJ ourtput (if 'IDe eeunter 'is titlm.'IIGtioo t.o t'nr;;; ii!!D.iIlil©g quanil:i2lI.:~. ,ilIpp:rmirnl'a:tlio,TIt ~(O !by toe of Ai, coavt.rttI.The w,~¥¢.£Q:I"Ji]!$ (;I,f F~g..5:.40 aTC tb.(!'\!,i\~v$fQJim$ fOf fuilJ :Sy~~$JD fig,S.3:9, ~!siI!!!I]:f:nQ. f.11;;M Qf t'he! actii'l!1e!dm,jk: edge is, the falling edge"
'10,-' '~
J

n

Copy rig hted m ateri al

·~~(~Samp(e
ratci(>.~~

. iIiIIiiId

n

, ,(I i IlfI¢ii Qfii,
L. - -

COiiIrnt

QQ!"OOiH!!m:!

mer) -< ,"(1') " ~ ~dCt) becomes !lJ..il«f} -e VCL), the OOl1l'itl.el' deru,l1:menllS" and. ~bl1:re is a CQtrisf:iijI:ue:n[ aoVimw.aro jmnp' im ~I((J amJDUl"lt Sand, so 00 .. by W"r;rI(,\teih<iii: ~!::!Ii:w't~,~,th.e.l',e iin<I.y bea bl'.ie:f:in.re:rv8:l! when. m!(J:') .maI:Y 'be a, ~! a.p'pro:;t'i~~ 'lQ ~: ·ba:se'ban.d si:gna~ .. m:(,t)i. Thisfeatme :lis: :ilhiliSitrat-ed.i!I!IJ ],'i,g.. 5".41 .. FI.e:lh1e we no1ie alninitiail lar\g,~1 d~screJ;Nln,,"y 'between m(,!~and. m(.i'~ and the :iliepw1se i3ipplIDimn IllI m(,~IIQ 11,1(11. 'Yle :IlCllte ~heI'lhai: e"V'liiI"l. w:n~!J"l {i') ihla.s: c.ao.aht lip 10 m~t)~, mod GV'GIl. ·~lTI.ou;g'hi\P,*) :roma'uns: lIflvr.irying~ m(t} hunt:s~ " ." " - ". .. (.~ ~wmg:l!Il!!:. '1I!_fI.-.OJ" d-i.!l:ifI :tI!u0)',!I'C Hn _. 'Il. -·1""'" m'j" _Iil' .. ~_. -il;---: c - '-d ""~"WV"" Wehi:!.'?1:e!\<~too Ji.~,e'Yi:.o-ysb' !he. ~:~~h~bi1ilJ (Jf :OPCM ,~, ~~Qmm~'~Mi' ~ 1~~~"~f.e.m¢H~ !!ij ~ ,\ c~0[ ~'" .1,.." ·1" .. ",'.- ..' -.: '1 1,." rn~.ri.· '",". 'I)'M " 'iI!~,.t;Ilnlll,llat!JlJili .,- "11" ----'"~I "', jC"- .",')1'" •. 'H'-"- we ~:uf\i\I~ :s.~gna. '). W1I1-C h,'~.,i)'Ii\'e;I'.!mJ l'.!!,·1Y!iiD~~ " m,~Ii!!~ ..!'.,.... -' :c.r'~, .--- i'-~:'" ,a, . ". e:<tem-ded [um.e, eJ{'hilbulSil s'lope wiDiJL:ih.is so lalg,e that m!(i) CiIlU.I()'t. keep- up, witEi! .~!:, As ~. censecll;l.Ie.nc~ t"ilOmOl" m(t)- ,,n(t) bacomcs: :p'ro~:i'Si~eiy llarg;e:r.'; hy :fu!o' !tK(leedtI'iiS. Tit'f:: ,~.J[Qc$$i..,--e di5<~!i,tr· betL!l"~¢t!! m(t) ·;~:!1:tQ! ~V) :!!!i ~:!ii:;t.Ii~ro ~ :~fj'IQpe;"Qv-'€r,tfJ~-d e.rf'O'r' ilJlid OC\I;urS w:n,",mWlG.r m(t) has: 3i s1ope! brg,e1' thLUll.the!"$~~" SfT~. ihtrCiib. c~n b~ ~1)J.~t~vmffi. by the wa.ve-fQm1 m(t),. w

for a li~e, p:reood~!t'iIg .t!'WIe: 'find mel) :> m:(t) s@ ~'hM Si/J('l:) V(_..H) .. A'!: 1"1, when t'he ~cti.v:t:i);~t:i~k oog-e: ap.pear8; the: ,e61m1ier is .incre:me:nloo Mlrl imm.ediaielJy- (~@:nC1l.mgpropa.gatioTi -deIT;],ys. :in th.e OO-I!I~~ and of A '((I11!vener) !he. $I.s~nai ~.(f) jrl!!m(i'S''~.Pb~ a.!!!!! ~1!: ·~;u~~ iliC; '~e :5!1ie:plSi:tl!e, So At,!! we still. t"'md. mW >'~m, 80 S.[i'(t) [lIj!.m.aill:S:at r(ffl·~ t'n~[G is: iiIJ1q1hGr iJjIpwm,d jump iII! m:(t). Alt: tj~
:I:i!

m

mv.~

sn.

Copyrighted material

I

II
€"
.~

'd
I I
,~..,..;r (1.1

~

' '1:1
,iQ

;
!U'
il'l

,~

I1i
;:)
'~

,8
2l
,tI,
a, .:::!'

~

qJ: '1:1
!<=;

il,
CII,
.g.

S

~:
~, CJo

Q:;

'":f~--··..~.
h

, .. I

e
il'l'

"',

'l.l' ,i;ll

'E

I I

F;

J_,-,....."...,.,.d--,A!l-_~......_!L-+-r==""*"'-_

- ~'----------~~--,-~~~!
I

s

Copy rig hted m ateri al

. ':rnif~

I

IUu:;:if;:ra.tir.lg the "9t:arl~'UiP'" reS;pi;llf.l;liB in delt9! :m(l!d1i;da;tit):!'! ai!1.d. t!l:'!.e"b, l,;n:atiifi!8:" of ro[

:F:ll~ ·15 2: .• 4

ahoutm(iQ.

t.,

SlopeH'I,f~doo~d :in the· lineruD!ML

The !!;l.IiUl!!!li:;',:;uiof!!noi:!:;e ii;;iM1be C~~¢~~:!1red. r~"Qm Eoq, (S.Z8) '!'iodng 'th:!!!l eeeer ~o~[d 00 ±S ,§fie!! i'Xliaaily UJr,ely,. thi;s; makes Iqua1]~aliamJ ~11i~i;se fQI'DM . W.g 5,'l/3 . (5-51) 'n'ie' ~'u!learorm of ~W in :rig. 5,42 (lC!$i.Yurat's fvr 'Ihe :!'Ii!!me li"~~1' ddlt:l i!?r.od:uliatJiI?I~ being f associated wuilh Ut!;":· M SJSfi~]iliIWC have ciLes!::r:i.iboo.. D lilTI.e.~!r de:~i:a rnoclllil!!l!tlclJl hasthe dl~ligDJtful ¢!~~afLce(If primitive .simplicity yc~ it s,lIItf[etsf[oliE. siW~reli.rn~.t::tti.o:litlj; on 8C~Olllittof w:hi,ch it ilium
Jill

ilI!hIl!i4'~I: no

speech transndsslen .. [n de:sJgning an .a[l'J.I~opri!!!tjfl: Systel1H we weuld iniHaUy selecta step size S which is. ~llil;:dl."'iI1OlJI~h.o aSSUlr'B '~c{;"'ptaibI6 qU:~lTIliizatiQ:n :nOi5.11;. As no~d! S:= (Vif1~' paJ25, is. a t IGai!(Ioobk, selectien, ~f:mj'\¥, bc:cl:u.l~e(;I·f'll1Le iSmEi[lllim @!f S, s]oP!l: olvcr.lQi!~ 5houn,dld¢'!,!\t:iUi;lIP', 'M.: CaIIi hope ~oo'\!e~COOle the (lfli'e.doOOI\:l:t itl.'crell.s~l'I!giil1e ~aII:rI'rl~6g role ;IlJbil)'i'\etlte ~i:e 'inl!Ullil:l!r" $e~e~i:ed.iQ SalD]S;1j the Nyql1lis~ criteriea, Since W!1l n.ee.cl. only one 'bili :per 8a1rn~:~e mi"b,erlihan e:igJJl!i!i:ls in PCM~ W~ can inc.rc~ UtC :5tt'ItI]Jo~itl(g raW 'li:i.~ihtf!bl.d ooflW"twtrt1lch ~iic mIt: rcq1lriiflt.:l! En :reM. NO'w :~~has ibeen !1eit:ITrt!:unoo e:l;;p~rru::nmil.·I:r!tJtl!i DM wm. iriJIfl~n):~t peecih winLI(t!u~ $ig;rui:i1-canr!: cs;iQpe QverlooW! s ptavided. t'I'IiM!he DM: ~sy:Siteu1 is able 1:0' ~LllllStnit .0], Si:tlilllOOid offreque.nc:y I = 800 Hz; whose i3implitlllcle is: rilie'sameas tbe almp~i.rude (if the' Sipeedl WiJ.VefoXlN. A SiJ1t1mid. of amplitulAle .A. 1'1!Fiil; :fr~que:aJic.y f JI8.8, !'Ii l'In~:.~imfmn :dope:: of 2:1f!A as 'it paSS!:lS 'i11iINJUgh zero" If slope {li!,'e:~lmd is ~i;lI 'be :;Jlvoidcn U'len we :i1l:<LuireUllI!1~(he, Si!!tIII]l~]!1g ro~;(lfJ = VTs) mi!!S~ SIMii!lfy the, ("O:liIditiOIli Sk :2: l1rfA~ ($.5.2)1

a.pplication!;. in ~rleill!l :s~t~ll!1.L As ao e:K~ple {If t'he diffiCl!!IJ!y, (ll!)nsWe!!' '~~euse ~;f DM

f'Ot'

o

hi1!,'IU 5iiili; f =: 800 :HZ. 1.ili.£,frf,':Clll.¢IiCY, 'l'ihich i5: :a~!iQ th$!i\lilt. tatllt" :151o "tie,compw;.d. t win'! 1iu~b~t rate in PCM. A$~r.:J[[ii¢'ItJ:l!Jt tJlii~ ~]Q·h.e5'!. ffOqilirncy oo~e.~t. ,of the Sll'etct !S:~nal ls 3 klJ:l:, Then lhe Ny~!,l:i~!.f?i!~¢ '1$ ,6 ·ij:[4:z. TD a:i~bWa. I~argin 'OFsafif:ly; let us use a si3Imp]ing l'aJbe:of:8, kHz:.. Th.ell wiUl 8 bi:~s per s:ample 1hebit Jaie' :is g :kH.z X :s = 64kHz. H~c!il: DM is oot a p:rw;t:i~:i!i! a~.tC'IIlJativc '!(J' reM.

w'l')I,n~we

·1.6.4 Adaptive Delta Modu:Ia;Uon
We
U(!!-:W

consider a.mOOi[i!Ciat~,O:tl! of: DM called. adaptiW1 DM in whkh. the s:!:ep si:iWli:s not bpt

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

f~ed, ~"h.e:r, when, :s.tQ~e'i)I,'\!~I¢I~ ~~uf$ ni~ ~!.ep :!;l~:zeb~~m¢5ir~~~ir"~f!;ty'~~~r, '~~Jeb:y allow,ilng: riH.t) te catcih up w~.th, m,(!,)1 m{)lr-e :~apidly" We describe now 31Il! ,A1)M 8,ystem, d.eSiuCnedi ,l!indceustruered at; 'Ilh~Commlm::k:atians Siy~tem [,:tIOOllflory ,at:CCNY:. It: ~;s re:pms'!mted hy the 'bl.ook. (I:ii~gmm of fi.g,5;,,43. W,~ ~lTI8iI[Ii.ot~ni'uria nl.l~ ,

de~ils, ()f

acilii.:lm.uhiOOcit arnd. at 'li:iI!.'Cb,actiw ed.gtili ,of the: <:1,001::. W'3'\!'il:rITIfrn~ ,8'e~.e:I\[!jtes iii; step S which a~gme:nt8,or mminis'he:s m.e ,aoL:ltll:UUIamr,. The si:e:1' :U5:not ,of 'fiKOO size ittm il; :is! ,ii~ways a muitiple o:fi'.l, b1lSi,c Sa- ne, i:iI:gorithm by whlclJ S 'I!;~e~l}tMed Iii ;lJiiS['g1Iow:s; b!rc~~~ rothe' kth active' clock ~Ee ".ep~$~j'; ~~ ~OOLrt with, ~1}1ite1,(!tes 11 ,s,te.p 'eq~lLil~,in m~iiiLlde, to 'k step generated, :Un. rt:.~po:ni>C' 00 nile {,k'-I)S1!: c'kic(k: cr:!g.e" Tib:us ~tc.~ :~(> ,!!IJdcdl(J. ';tr '5.11!blr,a'Cwd, from 'lite ,accUinIul.ato:r,! as

me: hard:w,~

ow thi:':

pm(}(:]$!j()t'

'b!.!llt

li)nl:y d.e5Crj,~

'Y.1''tI~t

it. does, TheprooeS$()If hos

a1n

fire,

.s

requfured"'@' rn(!l'\i'~ t m{r) ~~J'd!l' .m((h fil:lt1I!!~rhQw~!'iJ~r', :ifthe dire-ct~Gln Q\flhc step iil.I1i: clock edg:e lis tJli:¢1!L tfl,¢ preeessor in(;J't~[eiiliti,e m~i.tl.l,~e of lTIe·(!!~ iby ~ID®~!: S@.lf the diceet£on:!i s.1'C'apposite 't'hGIlI, the p:roC(l~(I:r decnUJSllS t'A!;l; mag!Dillillm of fhe ,Slt~ :S;lze by SlJ, As th~;pl:g.Qri~m 'i~,w~O'ytltere c are dock edge~ when ~'n~,~ta~ S'" ,0,. t!l this'c~e,; at: the :ne:d; fltep

tn.t jOl71e as at: ,~d~ .k: ,- I
c'li'j¢lit Gdgc: t'bt iSti3,P'liS,

Sm :lin !lita

directioli.

,i!lp<itl ItO m©:vtm{t)
~A'!~

'lD'W1lrrds m{t).

~

i3.OO

~A.
OOIW9rte:r

~!li pr~~!iIQf

~ll, :Fig, :5..4,3 ~h~ Q'U!~P\!!t BrAt), ~~ called ~(,k).. Tile :Sy:!iT!bole(~)~e!)e:n~SiUle '~'. i,e." i!1le nise!"ep:m.c,)" between and m(t) ,a!Jlll!~ tnd~,(H11!t~d:illl F~g. ,5 39 ~s,¢~th,e.r iV{H)tlif. V(L). To CXPtttili ,as th.e algorilllRn 'bY' whi.ch the step size is derenlll'inoo :ul; 18, ootliVoefii,f:lIit ito ,i]rrnng,e tlli].t~

",.*)

e(}~) =: +],

i.f m{l) >- m:(/) :immooia!M,y iOOiboothe

(~(k) = -1, if

mW
Sf/.:)

-<-;

m:v) imm.ediate;~1i'be:r'[ii!e t~oo kt'h edge
,5lk) is
t~,

;ii1t1,

sd.g,e:

We ean,na,1,I,1 :spe(;~fy'th~I:llt ~Iliiptifig
,[.he~ ~mponoo:tfi.1arrures:
)&

time kilhe is!tep size
=:

be guve:n iby~
(:5.54)

1,S(k - ~,)I~(.k) -t- SQ~(k - :1)

of this ad!apti .... sc:'h~I'Ileare ism.O'W1'I! :un. .f.i!} 5A4,. (}b8erl!le~ that ='Is:ilo)lIig M e m(flp~j$t:lii 1lhej'l,!.I!l~ ~I:l! .m(.l)b~ij)i)rn.e p:~;(i,Sre!;iS~.'I'ei.y ~lIrge~ ..The e~lii!D~te:, iliJii(t) c:atcines IlIp wulln ,m,()1 sooner tlliillIi, wOILlI.d 'be the ease with lin1l:aJr cl.e'lta. mocll~.'~il:tkll1i,as ishOiNll! by , ~he ~\!'efb'Fm mi(~)~ OIIi tbe oth.EN' hand, wllil,en, iIl!U'e5pitlrniS~ to a .Iargil:'slnpe ~;lJ! met), m{/) d~il:U.QPS Iarge jumps, :~I;may require ill: la1['g~ number of dock. ,eyde:s far '~IiI.eSll1:]ilmlps'ID d~e8iy lill ampli,ru.cil~

~e ~ondhiM m(l)

1

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'.,iI.' ,~g :..
~,~

-

when they are :l'IoUI41Ii!~:erneed~d, S\lLi'ha $itlil~tkm is '[Q be .~;:m i,n FiJg, 5,44 i,n d'!~tu;:igbbo:rh~.oo whero .mOl fiil":it catches 'up with ,mtt), AUQ,g¢lhGl":, t'n~~w:hHe: th~s .ADM iSiY£itremredUC1e5 slQpe i!!wt. :ut doe:s iro at: '~he e;-:\petise ~[ i,i:Krca1!'i~i!: ,qi,g:fllntUg!lQIi ,ett<n". Th'¢i d8snro wtrvsfotmmJ«r) eQrn\Sjpo:ndi.~g 'ED:~ineill" DM' UaSmlilill GJIlWliiZ3!tion e.rror iInri: extremely I.a:rge slope error,

••~ •.!
i

~-,--,.:

.
I

.
I

!
I

i

l"'l'~'~'~.~

• ~'=wJ ~riP~~}
i

,,_•• J
J

.

I

" •• ~.J

1 !

~

.
i

~. !.

: . / 'l;

~

:

:VIc., ·5,.44

W,B,velb-rnru;,oo:r.mrpa:r,ing tbe,r,e$pol'rl$:e

(If the ADM and l,DM.

Note, :ail;sQ, ~~idrn,ta'~ly '~bl,j:jJ. wllrnl mW :f.t;:nt~Ii!lii!,.ouiilii!tiUU {wl,1biiliia-n inlefV,aJ S~l [(ise;iU~~es, iOboui: mel) but:iilmt the: O.li'Ci.U3i~iQ:n frGgUG1TiL"CY lis: oo~~lf :tihc el,ook: ft¢que:tlcij'" l,tiiUms: ,out '!.hat in, the: m.M.ttf of. tipcec:h 'InIn~nit]ss:h:m,tb.e :i[NMred !dope ~f iJ:'ITlfvides <Ii, net :!)dv~n:tns,ein spu!.'e (if ~he i:n~:reCl.$~. ql)li:t![IJIi~Z<l!ti(i'.n em;tl' ~. tha1i 1hl~ ~1)9t~,v~:d~~~ m~dtulat~r can eperate at: bUt rates ('j,£ 3:2 kibls wit'h peli'OmI!Mloce ,emnpruab:le to :thil.~:o:biaiin.eiI when uSlDi8I?',CM art [64 'l(hh. :nlllhennur.c~ t'he. ADM CllfiI,O,pemtc M,I.[(i !k;b!s with only a :!".I~:gM degm&U.i[)11 -(If~erf{!r"
m~~¢,

m«(1

Iti has 000]'1 ;~ni,}wn'that more IDali) 90 pSTc~1; of fhe ;ste:p :siz;ts attl~, thaillli {[r.~] to :2S~:lind, 'mat '~IrI,eprobab.ibiy ,of a, &tep [exceeIlUmg: l.s:;s;!)is :!Ibil1.1:11 percent, IDnaddiltiQ[!.~e s,(WIriI)W), fr:eq,Illett'l'C,y [cQrnj;lO:;!1,ent5,iru;oouced ~:r!i~[ ~he,rea;;:Qt1~t~ct:ed, ;~i~l, by ~~Q1,pe~i.i've:!":loli'd, [em;J[' ;are princi,paU.yilli. t]u~: I(l<w f&f'qu-en.cy ronge, whHe quant.uza'i:tcm. elmr l!I'I!irOOlliJes: :p:nnd,paU.y hipfreq[L1emcy' eQm~ml'l.e:nt:s" Thepil)wt~l' iin sp ee ell. is, [~'Oncentmted 1.:IIr1:,ol)' the Jow ...fir"Cque:ncy cOA1pon;e:!J]I\s'J; 8in.dltnes~ in

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

[CQfii,jJO-fie!1t5i ~ ;;lJ!;$(lI' Qnt;';!!, mc:bmii;~1, :ptii'i.J\i,i,p:!l!!l.yb¢~~\W~ tll,i;; W wLth(},u1: e,[t(ItiiJ! ~der ro pre~!:'V:ein:~!1igibililty',Hence i('w,e :Fas:sl:.herecornstrl)l~1tedcS'igmd th.ro~h ;[I. :~~'W"~:lI fnt,~. we shal] be' aM~ to. discriminate agaEost the higih.:fi,e([u-en,cy qu:mtizatioo errer w.iilhoui :matmial!ly

](iw·,f~(lmmcy

mgradllJgihe 'I1:oke s:.U:gnllil.A.'i'a.rliil.~iml ofi!his al.8o:lithmis ,
O"L..~~-

~dtJ.liO'ghJl

--'"

C'

',:I'

c '1'1" - .... '~Lc~'_ ",;a,.._!;cI;

go~

i~ :~w,~ in fig" 5.4$", Tbe, mnpUfie:r' hii!:S,1:\ 'v,i:!rl~ble ,sa'in. That'i:!;.ilS is, a :furKitiQR ohh,e YO:~E"lligeIll,p'p'lied at: its, gaJrO,-cootro:l 'tenniruJil.We assume that tlte: ,elw:acteriSotics of 'the :~mFiiM~r are su.ch, t'hat: whGO ~h$ gain -c ollihrltli ,voiU~8,i5ils zmo, :ih.ga'iois ]OW', 8JU~,that too
st'Cp

s;uze' t'Q ~y gi'.re,j'lvalue
inc«a.5G5

C!'._

used on ~h.e SpaCG ShuttL~.
A ,Vh_~ -c:-t--' W.!RCI'~ ~IU$"""'I~ ~ ~ lj'IM' I:i,~,~rn --"'b"''''i. ,.. .,j"C-: ...
' .... '

I'i~:r _~,

__

";",,:r ... &.., 'fI"!I!I7!C:!!nl g.Ri!;~r [I""''' ~

gain,

serses as an iflJ~egrnwr'~ vQI~e~ro$s thee C bei~6i:proportiO!~~l to ~be jnre~l (i'f 'lh,e. :~I$~ $i.£m~1 pJ(il. 'Th~I QI!:a3~aeress C its ~~d ~'\"JI OO!ltit'Q1 ~he: ~in [(l1f d'!ec ~mpUfie.l",ene' :s~~Ii!lw devi~ V e!]sure~ QI(lJt wm.le'li'e!" ihe '(i(}Jarily Q.fl:h~: '!i"Q~lag-e ,~r[~$S C, i!l!p;i:s;id".-e !O!'Qiln,g.eWtU 'be a,PP]led to. '!he
gm-wnrlImil te.milliioa;~ofi:lte:a:rnpHffier. -

gam

w,it'll ~;litCreas~fLl.Q:PO;S~ljj::'II\e ,ga:un,.oo:ntrol 'l'cIJtagc. The :rcs:uS'tO:f,~ap.ac,itor

ooml:!Jl1Iai±o.riI.

-----,;-____i>_

DM
[outpl:!t

~ooritiOl

illptlM:

Al9ili.iifi¢; ii:'L'QW 'Ih~t m(!:) ~;S; :inili~inJ,Q; [(jolly s.m.:iliIJIeJ:,cU'nliUi'iiii ..... ~, ",.•• t:>'r""t - ~r;\ "'' iI;'i,..,'',O,,"'' -:1."'1'1 floC"'~'''''''''II'':tVI;-I"'!fOitv-p,, "]-, • ..,,,, ,UlKi "'''~¥'',PJ~i-J "...,"'_"'._""~ J""", "'_ ...n ....,' .••._'" ~_ ....!J ..;' """,",,,. Y ', ,
] 'to, '"

tb~ rnJOi!iu:'!ilito.r do~, iiotfQllUw • t'Ij;il!""" w'l:-~ ,'~.,~~",,~, 'y:"c'I'" ....... ¥~_"",,,,_,_IU""" 1.,u~i&'-'1;;~ _"I aver;age ou~t: i1),f alm.ost 2le1"O., The gBiirn.-collliIFo[:inpu~ i~,nence> al'lnost 7.e]lO, tn.e :gam is :~oW', and ~I, _ol ".:II" C Cl " c~wml y bi~ ~tit;p :!J(lm ~$ ,i-[~U:C:w ...'N .It".x1: o(!llfliSilu!!![ 11~.GCi85~(I~' s'I,ope; QV,~ 'I _.:Ii .. l'f m..(t) lli~s eiii.Y Ii:
150 tbat
'1"11. ..._"'., , ,1,il,I"",,,..
IIlI, "",

ptJ!liJti.vGiy iD!ll!g.a1ilv$'ly a~:~oe,ifapid a mte\j, m(t)caonnt ,o:r

fnUo-w" The output poj(t) Js tlum a ttai.n [of all po~iti.ve m llil[ :1lI.egaii.ve p1iliIS~-'!h,'Th~ :illlt-e,grator af\!ief:3.Ces.andiprovidef' 3 llilrge: Vtollt;ige. iI!:G' :ioer[e-afifil,~ gaiili o(IliG' 'DPI.~!Il.¢[. :BG¢au5:G'o'EID¢ :5qlllaring c:ircllliJi, tl1" 8GJ.iPllfia :gain w,iU :iKfCllife:; no matte1:' , what 'wpcllarity ~If"!he ~t'I!le,g~t<tr !!~Ib!ge. 'The end :re$uil:~: ,M'lJ '1I1tcrease: :in. !Ste.ps.i~ ij!ntjil!i:'tdijc~i,O:ifi. b; :in.:slope QV'erload. It is (If C~; :ne~s~ tn;n, there, ~e ,an a~tiv-e' adjlllJ~Ini~t: of the !ire,p' :s:iY!:; :Elt lli.e :r-eceir'l"6l't ;.'I!;: well. Th~ ilh.6 recci,ver 'oom:i:ru; 'L]Flihoelvow.iable-,gaio, ·an!,P filer" ~~~:Iaw ii dev~<:er R'C fiil,t« liilid iii1'1i¢pt<l:[ S:h~wn i!J1li 1ih:G f-GGdbac:k: ,p~tb of Fig .. 5.45 ..

Copy rig hIed m ateri al

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful