# Why subnet? Why subnet? Why subnet? Why subnet?

Reduced network traffic Optimized network performance Simplified management Facilitated spanning of large geographical distances

IP Subnet-Zero allows you to use the first and last subnet in your network design; turned this command on by default Classful Routing all nodes in the network use the same subnet mask Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) each network segment can use a different subnet mask Subnet Mask 32-bit value that allows the recipient of IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID portion of the IP address Class C Subnet Masks /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 10000000 = 128 11000000 = 192 11100000 = 224 11110000 = 240 11111000 = 248 11111100 = 252 2^x where x is the number of masked bits (or 1's) 2y - 2 where y is the number of unmasked bits (or 0&#039;s) /25 (with ip subnet-zero), /26, /27, /28, /29, /30

How many subnets?

How many valid hosts per subnet? What are the valid subnets? the mask value is reached

What's the broadcast address of each subnet? The number just before the next subnet; the broadcast of the last subnet is always 255 What are the valid hosts in each subnet? omitting the all 0s and all 1s The numbers between the subnets and the broadcasts

Given 192.168.10.0/28, what is the subnet mask? Given 192.168.10.0/28, How many subnets? 2

255.255.255.128

Given 192.168.10.0/28, How many hosts per subnet? Given 192.168.10.0/28, What are the valid subnets?

126 0 & 128

Given 192.168.10.0/28, What's the broadcast address for each subnet? 127 & 255 Given 192.168.10.0/28, What are the valid hosts? Given 172.16.0.0/18, How many subnets? 4 16,382 0.0, 64.0, 128.0, and 192.0 63.255, 127.255, 191.255, .1 - .126 & .129 - .254

Given 172.16.0.0/18, How many hosts per subnet? Given 172.16.0.0/18, What are the valid subnets?

A router receives a packet on an interface with a destination address of 172.16.46.191/26. What will the router do with this packet? Discard it; by default will discard any broadcast packets Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) Create many networks using subnet masks of different lengths from one network Classful Routing all interfaces within the classful address space have the same subnet mask Classful Routing Protocols RIPv1 and IGRP

Classless Routing Protocols

RIPv2, EIGRP, or OSPF

Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) Use different size masks on each router interface 4 Troubleshooting Steps Ping 127.0.0.1 (loopback), Ping the local host, Ping Default Gateway (router), Ping remote destination Additional Windows Troubleshooting Additional Cisco Troubleshooting Unable to Ping Loopback Unable to Ping Local Host Traceroute, Arp -a, Ipconfig /all Tracert, Show ip arp

IP stack failure; Reinstall TCP/IP Problem with the NIC; Replace the NIC

Unable to Ping Default Gateway Local physical network problem between NIC and router Unable to Ping Remote Destination Remote physical network problem between NIC and destination; Additional troubleshooting required at destination Able to ping but still unable to communicate Possible DNS problem